MY GRANDMOTHER'S KNEE

compiled by Dee Finney

7-9-10 - DREAM -  I was in a small  house, talking on the telephone, trying to find my cousin who knew about my Grandmother's knee scar.  I kept repeating it over and over about the scar on her knee.

As soon as I woke up, I knew that my grandmother's knee was a scarred planet or moon.

Here it is:

Miranda
 
http://www.solarviews.com/eng/miranda.htm

It took me three hours to find this picture, because I didn't really know what I was looking for, even though I knew I had seen it before somewhere on the internet.

Joe suggested that I start by looking up planetary mythology - which is where I found the Grandmother:  NAMMU.

I tried to find out what NAMMU correlated to in English terms, and didn't find anything.

Since Miranda is a moon of Uranus  -could NAMMU be from Uranus?

Uranus has a ring system, a magnetosphere, and numerous moons. The Uranian system has a unique configuration among the planets because its axis of rotation is tilted sideways, nearly into the plane of its revolution about the Sun. As such, its north and south poles lie where most other planets have their equators. Seen from Earth, Uranus's rings can sometimes appear to circle the planet like an archery target and its moons revolve around it like the hands of a clock, though in 2007 and 2008 the rings appeared edge-on. In 1986, images from Voyager 2 showed Uranus as a virtually featureless planet in visible light without the cloud bands or storms associated with the other giants.[17] However, terrestrial observers have seen signs of seasonal change and increased weather activity in recent years as Uranus approached its equinox. The wind speeds on Uranus can reach 250 meters per second (900 km/h, 560 mph).

It is apparent that Miranda crashed into Uranus.  Uranus then probably captured Miranda through gravity.  According to a source, Miranda was originally a moon of Saturn, moved towards Uranus by the Annunaki and because of gravity, they crashed together and Uranus flipped over.  The Annunaki then chose another moon of Saturn and moved it towards Earth.

In reality, the Annunaki towing this barren ice-covered moon, they named it Nibiru. "Giver of Life".

Thought the Annunaki tried really hard to move Nibiru carefully, it crashed furiously into Earth, and left it's ice behind, creating the water that is now on Earth.

However, the crash had an even more devastating effect on Nibiru, and it was flung into a huge orbital pattern, not only physically, but inter-dimensionally, which it has not recovered from.

The Anunakis, having such long life spans and the fact that they are also inter-dimensional beings, jump off of Nibiru and visit Earth when they come close together.  Nibiru cannot always be seen because of its inter-dimentional composition as well.  The only way to tell that Nibiru is close by Earth is that when the Annunakis visit, the technology of Earth increases tremendously.

The orbit is about 3669 years, but because in other dimensions it can move quicker or slower, this is
extremely subject to change.  In general it is within 200 years of this time.  Nevertheless, because it
can make this orbit totally unseen by the earth due to its location in dimension or realm at the time
of its passing, it will often only be known by those who can see into these other dimensions. 

This pass will not be in this dimension.  Even though Nibiru may show up in close dimensions as it
approaches, so that sometimes it can be seen on photographs, it has been concluded that it will not
be in a position to show (be seen) or even to cause problems with the earth until it passes again in
about 7400 years from now.


See:  http://www.greatdreams.com/nibiru.htm  for more details and opinions.


NAMMU is considered the grandmother of a great many offspring descendants.  (They are all listed below) She was considered the goddess of the Sea.  Her husband was ANU. (AN) She was Saltwater, and he was Freshwater.

After the sumerian mythology, around year 4000 BC, a sumerian couple lived in Dilmun (identified today as the isle of Bahrain) : Nammu and her husband An.

After her death, Nammu became the Goddess of the sea (abzu) and ANU (An) became the God of the Sky. Nammu was the mother and ancestor of all the sumerian gods. Nammu will be later called : Ningal and An : Nanna (their Akkadian names).

NAMMU GENEALOGY

hanging gardens of babylon

Eridu

sumerian god geneaology

Kings of Assyria
Assyria or Athura (Aramaic for Assyria) was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the late 25th or early–24th century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq), that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur.
The Early Period

  • Tudiya
  • Adamu
  • Yangi
  • Kitlamu
  • Harharu
  • Mandaru
  • Imsu
  • Harsu
  • Didanu
  • Hanu
  • Zuabu
  • Nuabu
  • Abazu
  • Belu
  • Azarah
  • Zariqum
  • Puzur-Ashur I
  • Shalim-Ahu
  • Ilu-Shuma
  • Erishum I
The Akkadian period 

  • Sargon I 2334 BC 2279 BC
  • Rimush 2278 BC 2270 BC
  • Manishtushu 2269 BC 2255 BC
  • Naram-Sin 2254 BC 2214 BC
  • Shar-Kali-Shari 2217 BC 2193 BC
  • Igigi 2192 BC ?
  • Nanium ? ?
  • Imi ? ?
  • Elul-dan 2190 BC ?
  • Dudu 2189 BC 2169 BC
  • Shu-Turul 2168 BC 2154 BC
Ur-III Period 

  • Ur-Nammu 2112 BC 2095 BC
  • Shulgi 2094 BC 2047 BC
  • Amar-Sin 2046 BC 2038 BC
  • Shu-Sin 2037 BC 2027 BC
  • Ibbi-Sin 2028 BC 2004 BC
Amorite Domination

  • Hale ? ?
  • Samanu ? ?
  • Hayani ? ?
  • Ilu-Mer ? ?
  • Yakmesi ? ?
  • Yakmeni ? ?
  • Yazkur-ilu ? ?
  • Ilu-Kabkabi ? ?
  • Aminu ? ?
Old Assyrian Period 

Middle Assyrian period 


Late Assyrian Period

mt ararat
NOAH WAS THE FIRST 'PERFECTED' MAN, CREATED BY THOTH, AND SAVED TO PERPETUATE MANKIND

GOD SPACEPORTS

GODS-KINGS



ENKI - ENLIL






nammu-name
FROM:  http://www.jstor.org/pss/3297042


nammu-goddess

Ur-Nammu (seated) bestows governorship on Ḫašḫamer, patesi (high priest) of Iškun-Sin
(cylinder seal impression, ca. 2100 BC). Ur-Nammu was the husband of Inanna.

Code of Ur-Nammu

The Code of Ur-Nammu
is the oldest known tablet containing a law code surviving today. It was written in the Sumerian language circa 2100 BC-2050 BC . Although the preface directly credits the laws to king Ur-Nammu of Ur (2112-2095 BC), some historians think they should rather be ascribed to his son Shulgi.

The first copy of the code, in two fragments found at Nippur, was translated by Samuel Kramer in 1952; owing to its partial preservation, only the prologue and 5 of the laws were discernible[1]. Further tablets were found in Ur and translated in 1965, allowing some 40 of the 57 laws to be reconstructed.[2] Another copy found in Sippar contains slight variants.

Although it is known that earlier law-codes existed, such as the Code of Urukagina, this represents the earliest legal text that is extant. It predated the Code of Hammurabi by some three centuries.

The laws are arranged in casuistic form of if-(crime), then-(punishment) — a pattern to be followed in nearly all subsequent codes. For the oldest extant law-code known to history, it is considered remarkably advanced, because it institutes fines of monetary compensation for bodily damage, as opposed to the later lex talionis (‘eye for an eye’) principle of Babylonian law; however, murder, robbery, adultery and rape were capital offenses.

The code reveals a glimpse at societal structure during the "Sumerian Renaissance". Beneath the lu-gal ("great man" or king), all members of society belonged to one of two basic strata: The "lu" or free person, and the slave (male, arad; female geme). The son of a lu was called a dumu-nita until he married, becoming a "young man" (gurus). A woman (munus) went from being a daughter (dumu-mi), to a wife (dam), then if she outlived her husband, a widow (nu-ma-su) who could remarry.

[edit]

The prologue, typical of Mesopotamian law codes, invokes the deities for Ur-Nammu's kingship and decrees "equity in the land".

"…After An and Enlil had turned over the Kingship of Ur to Nanna, at that time did Ur-Nammu, son born of Ninsun, for his beloved mother who bore him, in accordance with his principles of equity and truth... Then did Ur-Nammu the mighty warrior, king of Ur, king of Sumer and Akkad, by the might of Nanna, lord of the city, and in accordance with the true word of Utu, establish equity in the land; he banished malediction, violence and strife, and set the monthly Temple expenses at 90 gur of barley, 30 sheep, and 30 sila of butter. He fashioned the bronze sila-measure, standardized the one-mina weight, and standardized the stone weight of a shekel of silver in relation to one mina... The orphan was not delivered up to the rich man; the widow was not delivered up to the mighty man; the man of one shekel was not delivered up to the man of one mina."

One mina ( 1/60 of a talent ) was made equal to 60 shekels ( 1 shekel = 11 grams ) . Among the surviving laws are the following:

  • 1. If a man commits a murder, that man must be killed.
  • 2. If a man commits a robbery, he will be killed.
  • 3. If a man commits a kidnapping, he is to be imprisoned and pay 15 shekels of silver.
  • 4. If a slave marries a slave, and that slave is set free, he does not leave the household.
  • 5. If a slave marries a native (i.e. free) person, he/she is to hand the firstborn son over to his owner.
  • 6. If a man violates the right of another and deflowers the virgin wife of a young man, they shall kill that male.
  • 7. If the wife of a man followed after another man and he slept with her, they shall slay that woman, but that male shall be set free. (§4 in some translations)
  • 8. If a man proceeded by force, and deflowered the virgin slavewoman of another man, that man must pay five shekels of silver. (5)
  • 9. If a man divorces his first-time wife, he shall pay her one mina of silver. (6)
  • 10. If it is a (former) widow whom he divorces, he shall pay her half a mina of silver. (7)
  • 11. If the man had slept with the widow without there having been any marriage contract, he need not pay any silver. (8)
  • 13. If a man is accused of sorcery he must undergo ordeal by water; if he is proven innocent, his accuser must pay 3 shekels. (10)
  • 14. If a man accused the wife of a man of adultery, and the river ordeal proved her innocent, then the man who had accused her must pay one-third of a mina of silver. (11)
  • 15. If a prospective son-in-law enters the house of his prospective father-in-law, but his father-in-law later gives his daughter to another man, the father-in-law shall return to the rejected son-in-law twofold the amount of bridal presents he had brought. (12)
  • 17. If a slave escapes from the city limits, and someone returns him, the owner shall pay two shekels to the one who returned him. (14)
  • 18. If a man knocks out the eye of another man, he shall weigh out ½ a mina of silver. (15)
  • 19. If a man has cut off another man’s foot, he is to pay ten shekels. (16)
  • 20. If a man, in the course of a scuffle, smashed the limb of another man with a club, he shall pay one mina of silver. (17)
  • 21. If someone severed the nose of another man with a copper knife, he must pay two-thirds of a mina of silver. (18)
  • 22. If a man knocks out a tooth of another man, he shall pay two shekels of silver. (19)
  • 24. [...] If he does not have a slave, he is to pay 10 shekels of silver. If he does not have silver, he is to give another thing that belongs to him. (21)
  • 25. If a man’s slave-woman, comparing herself to her mistress, speaks insolently to her, her mouth shall be scoured with 1 quart of salt. (22)
  • 28. If a man appeared as a witness, and was shown to be a perjurer, he must pay fifteen shekels of silver. (25)
  • 29. If a man appears as a witness, but withdraws his oath, he must make payment, to the extent of the value in litigation of the case. (26)
  • 30. If a man stealthily cultivates the field of another man and he raises a complaint, this is however to be rejected, and this man will lose his expenses. (27)
  • 31. If a man flooded the field of a man with water, he shall measure out three kur of barley per iku of field. (28)
  • 32. If a man had let an arable field to a(nother) man for cultivation, but he did not cultivate it, turning it into wasteland, he shall measure out three kur of barley per iku of field. (29)

[] See also

[] References

  1. ^ Kramer, History begins at Sumer, pp. 52-55.
  2. ^ Gurney and Kramer, "Two Fragments of Sumerian Laws," 16 Assyriological Studies, pp. 13-19

[] Further reading

  • Claus Wilcke. "Der Kodex Urnamma (CU): Versuch einer Rekonstruktion." Riches hidden in secret places: ancient Near Eastern studies in memory of Thorkild Jacobson, edited by Zvi Abusch, 2002, ISBN 1575060612
  • Martha T. Roth. "Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor." Writings from the Ancient World, vol. 6. Society of Biblical Literature, 1995, ISBN 0788501046

The death of Ur-Nammu

Feb 22, 2010 ... To Dumuzid, the beloved husband of Inana, in his palace, ..... Lugulbanda in the Cave The death of Ur-Nammu Praise poem of Ur-Nammu · A tigi ...
www.earth-history.com/Sumer/ur-nammu-death.htm

 

ANNALS OF EARTH

© 1995, 2003 Dan Sewell Ward

Episode XII -- A Brief Chronology

It is perhaps time to bring these glorious annals to closure -- or semi-closure inasmuch as there remains the ever-so-slight expectation that the Earth and humanity's place in it may in fact continue for at least the foreseeable future. Say, until next Friday. (As one wag is reputed to have said, “The earth can't end today because it's already tomorrow in Tahiti .”)

In bringing these annals, these glorious chronicles, to closure, perhaps it is best if we RECAP, i.e.:

A BRIEF CHRONOLOGY

All dates “circa” (or “somewhere thereabouts, in the rough temporal vicinity”)

15 Billion B.C.E.—Creation of “Local Universe”.

4.6 Billion B.C.E.—Creation of Sun, Moon and Solar System planets (other than Earth).

4.1 Billion B.C.E.—Arrival of planet Nibiru (Marduk) into Solar System. Creation of Earth.

3.8 Billion B.C.E.—First evidence of Life on Earth.

544 Million B.C.E.—Beginning of Cambrian Period (the “Cambrian Explosion” of species).

155 Million B.C.E.—Beginning of Jurassic Period (Dinosaurs and the like).

68 Million B.C.E.—Cretaceous Period mass extinction and beginning of Cenozoic Era.

32 Million B.C.E.—First appearance of Aegyptopithecus , first possible ancestor of Man.

5 Million B.C.E.—First appearance of Australopithecus , Man's immediate predecessor.

2 Million B.C.E.—First appearance of Homo erectus , first truly man-like creature.

900,000 B.C.E. -- Alleged appearance of Lemuria civilization (according to Edgar Cayce ).

500,000 B.C.E.—Lemuria civilization apparently destroyed (Edgar Cayce, again).

485,000 B.C.E.—Alalu of Nibiru descends “to the dark-hued Earth”.

444,000 B.C.E.— ENKI and the Anunnaki (“Those Who from Heaven to Earth Came”) arrive.

414,000 B.C.E.—ENLIL arrives to take command. ANU directs Enki to mine in South Africa .

400,000 B.C.E.—First appearance of Archaics , semi ape-men – i.e., almost Homo sapiens .

350,000 B.C.E.—Lemuria Civilization supposedly restored (according to Edgar Cayce).

385,000 B.C.E.— The War of the Olden Gods (also known as “The Battle of the Titans”).

270,000 B.C.E.—The Anunnaki mutiny! ENKI and NINTI use genetic engineering to create Adapa, the “mixed worker”. This is, essentially, the first creation of man and woman using “Birth Goddesses”. [The mutiny occurred before the use of Birth Goddesses!]

250,000 B.C.E.— Homo sapiens “abrupt” appearance in Southern Africa . Time frame of modern Man's one common grandmother is based on mitochondrial DNA population mapping. -- This is also the time of the final disappearance of the alleged Lemuria (according to Cayce).

210,320 B.C.E.—Theoretical time for first appearance of Adam and Eve .

200,000 B.C.E.—First appearance of Homo sapiens neanderthalis .—According to Edgar Cayce, the Civilization of Atlantis began in this time period.

135,680 B.C.E.—Theoretical time for birth of Enoch (Who did not die, “for God took him”).

125,000 B.C.E.— Neanderthals begin migrating “Out of Africa”, sign movie rights, reach Europe , and began “replacing” remnants of Homo Erectus , without intermixing and without apparent bloodshed.

110,000 B.C.E.—First evidence of split between Negroid and Caucasian/Mongoloid races.

92,000 B.C.E.—First appearance of Homo sapiens sapiens , Cro-Magnon Man.

87,000 B.C.E.—First major disturbance in Atlantis (according to Edgar Cayce). [Probably the advent of “Water World” (with Kevin Costner).]

83,600 B.C.E.—Theoretical time for birth of Noah (“Respite”—aka Ziusudra, Utnapishtim).

40,000 B.C.E.—Demise of Neanderthals. Split of Caucasian—Mongoloid races.

35,000 B.C.E.—Time frame for “sons of God” and “daughters of Man” biblical reference [ Genesis 6: 1-2]. Also corresponds to the final extinction of Neanderthals (which essentially died out over a roughly 5,000 year time period).

20,450 B.C.E.—Ptah (aka the Sumerian Enki) begins kingship rule in Egypt .

15,608 B.C.E.—Beginning of the Age of the First Sun (The Aztec “Age of the White Haired Giants” and the Incan “Age of the White and Bearded Gods”) in MesoAmerica

15,000 B.C.E.—Earliest possible date for construction of Kalasasaya in Tiahuanaca ( Bolivia ).

11,600 B.C.E.—Biblical and Sumerian Great Flood, followed by the Deluge . Also, the beginning of the Age of the Second Sun (the Aztec “Golden Age”, the Incan “Age of Giants”).

11,500 B.C.E.—End of Paleolithic, beginning of Mesolithic in the Near East .

11,420 B.C.E.—Ra, son of Ptah, becomes King of Egypt.

11,000 B.C.E.—Building of the Sphinx in Egypt . Also, possibly the Cheops Pyramid.

10,420 B.C.E.—Shu and Tefnut rule Egypt .

9,720 B.C.E.—Geb and Nut rule Egypt .

9,220 B.C.E.—Osiris rules Egypt . Ra later divides Egypt between Osiris and Seth.

8,770 B.C.E.—Seth murders Osiris and begins rule of all of Egypt .

8,420 B.C.E.—Horus avenges death of his father, Osiris, and begins rule in Egypt . Sumerian texts refer to the period as the First Pyramid War (which had begun about 8,450 B.C.E.).

8,120 B.C.E.—End of the Second Pyramid War (according to Sumerian texts). Rule over Egypt given to Thoth (Sumerian Ningishzida , son of Enki), followed by Maat and ten other divine rulers.

8,000 B.C.E.—Begining of Neolithic in the Near East (reaching England by 3,000 B.C.E.). First fortified city (Jerico) established. Prolification of agriculture occurs with human settlements in Mesopotamia . Mankind advances.

7,590 B.C.E.—Beginning of the Age of the Third Sun (the Aztec “Age of the Red Haired People, the Incan “Age of Primitive Man”).

6,550 B.C.E.—Upper and Lower Egypt ruled over by a succession of thirty demigods.

4,000 B.C.E.—Beginning of the Sumerian Civilization, giving rise to multiple “firsts” of human civilized life. In MesoAmerica , the megalithic walls of Cuzco and Sacsahuaman ( Peru ) built between 4,000 and 2,000.

3,760 B.C.E.—Mankind granted Kingship. Calendar begun at Nippur ; Jewish Count of years begun (making 2004 the Jewish year of 5,763 – there's no year “0”).

3,509 B.C.E.—Beginning of the Age of the Fourth Sun (the Aztec “Age of the Black Headed People, the Incan “Age of Heroes”).

3,450 B.C.E.— Tower of Babel . Marduk defeated and sent into exile.

August 13, 3113 -- Day One of the Mayan calendar's “Long Count” (ending in 2,012 A.D .).

3,100 B.C.E.—“Point Zero” in the Incan Calendar. Manco Capac given kingship at Lake Titicaca .

2,900 B.C.E.—Upper and Lower Egypt ruled by ten human rulers. The goddess Inanna given dominion over the “Third Region”—the Indus Valley civilization begins. Early Stonehenge construction in Southwestern England .

2,550 B.C.E.—Upper and Lower Egypt united by a human, MŽn (Menes); Capital at Memphis .

2,400 B.C.E.—MesoAmerican kingship begins in New Lands (beginning in Peru and Bolivia )

2,123 B.C.E.—Abram born in Nippur (Sumeria), the son of a Nippurian priest, Terah.

BAMMU-UR

2,113 B.C.E.—Ur-Nammu enthroned in Ur . Terah moves to Ur to liaison with royal court.

2,096 B.C.E.—Ur-Nammu dies in battle. Terah departs with family for Harran .

2,048 B.C.E.—Abraham departs Harran for South Canaan , as leader of an elite corp of cavalrymen.

2,041 B.C.E.—Beginning of the War of the Kings, pitting the Kings of the East under Amar-Sin and the Elamite Khedorla'omer, against Abraham and the Kings of the West, the latter under Enlil and Ninurta.

2,024 B.C.E.—Marduk takes Babylon , fighting spreads to central Mesopotamia , and Nippur defiled, while Ninurta destroy Sodom and Gomorrah with nuclear weapons.

2,023 B.C.E.—Winds carry radioactive clouds to Sumer . Sumerian Civilization destroyed.

2,000 B.C.E.—Pharoah Khufu, Khafre and Menkarue rule Egypt during the Fourth Dynasty, waging wars against Kings of the East. Temple to Amon-Ra constructed at Karnak . Olmec Civilization begins along the Mexican Gulf Coast , coming to full bloom by 1,500 to 1,200 B.C.E.

March 5, 1953 B.C.E.—Beginning of the Chinese Calendar, based on astronomical alignment.

1,601 B.C.E.—End of the Old Kingdom of Egypt and beginning of Intermediate Period of 50 years.

1,551 B.C.E.—Beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt .

1,433 B.C.E.—Exodus of Jewish People, and end of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. After 40 years of wandering in the Sinai, Moses receives the Ten Commandments and builds the Ark of the Covenant .

1,392 B.C.E.— Sun stands Still , as the Israelites conquer Canaan . “The Day of Darkness” occurs in MesoAmerica (or a very long night with the sun rising, setting and then again rising in the East).

1,374 B.C.E.—The Olmecs of MesoAmerica construct Teotihuacan , a complex including the Pyramid of the Sun, Moon, etcetera. A strong similarity between these pyramids and Egyptian Great Pyramids exists to this day.

1,030 B.C.E.—Saul conquers the Amalekites.

987 B.C.E.—Beginning of the New Kingdom of Egypt .

980 B.C.E.—King Solomon receives the Queen of Sheba. Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt visits Punt.

950 B.C.E.—Menelik, son of Solomon and Hatshepsut, takes Ark of the Covenant to Elephantine .

920 B.C.E.— Palestine invaded by Shishak (biblical sources); Thutmose II invades Palestine ( Egypt ) [Perhaps there is a connection!]

830 B.C.E.—Akhaton rules Egypt and advocates a single God of the Sun.

722 B.C.E.—Ten lost tribes of Egypt are exiled by the Assyrians and then vanish without a trace.

700 B.C.E.—Ramses II rules Egypt .

650 to 550 B.C.E.—Birth of Lao Tze, Budda, Confucious, and Zoroaster, i.e. 600 B.C.E .

505 B.C.E.—The Persian Cyrus the Great conquers and rules Egypt .

404 B.C.E.—Persians expelled from Egypt with Greek aid. Egyptian kings enthroned.

341 B.C.E.—Reconquest of Egypt by Persians.

332 B.C.E.—Conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great. Founding of the City of Alexandria , and ultimately the Library of Alexandria ( Egypt ).

323 B.C.E.—Death of Alexander the Great (following his conquest of Persia , Egypt and most of the known world). Ptolemy (a general of Alexander) founds Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt . The Library of Alexandria is expanded and becomes an ecumenical center of wisdom and world religions – from Judaism to (after the time of Christ) Gnosticism .

200 B.C.E.— Teotihuacan abandoned—eventually becomes a Toltec City .

47 B.C.E.—Julius Caesar stupidly damages the Library of Alexandria.

4 B.C.E.—Birth of Jesus Christ.

The city again recovered a portion of its former splendor, only to have the main library destroyed in the civil war that occurred under Aurelian in the late third century. Meanwhile the "daughter" library, located within the temple to Sarapis, was destroyed by fanatical Christians in A.D. 391.

C.E. 200 -- Beginning of the “Classic” Mayan period (and lasting until C.E. 900)

C.E. 215—The Roman emperor Caracalla concocts a general massacre of the inhabitants of the City of Alexandria , again damaging the Library of Halexandria.

C.E. 350—Main Library of Library of Alexandria destroyed during civil war with the Roman Emperor Aurelian.

C.E. 391—Final destruction of the Library of Alexandria by fanatical Christians destroying the “daughter library”, located within the temple to Sarapis (a Greek-Egyptian form of Zeus-Osiris).

C.E.. 533 -- Beginning of the Age of the Fifth Sun (“The Age of Kings”).

C.E. 1000 – Miscellaneous events occurring in Europe , including subsequent crusades to “liberate” the Holy Land from the scholars and wise men of the Middle East .

C.E. 1,020 -- The Cuzco dynasty of the Incas established in Peru .

C.E. 1,325 -- The Aztecs (Mexica or Tenochas) establish Tenochtitlan as their capital.

C.E. 1519 -- Conquest of Aztecs by Cortez. Beginning of the destruction of the Aztec civilization and literature by the Catholic Church.

C.E. 1533 -- Conquest of Incas by Pizzaro. Subsequent shipment of tons of gold and silver from the Americas to Spain and Europe .

C.E. 1940—Burning of Books by Nazis – in the tradition of Catholics and other religions.

C.E. 2003— The Library of Halexandria – along with “ The Earth Chronicles ” and “ Annals of Earth

 

Sumerian Deities

Deity: Displays the name of the deity along with a notation of any other pantheons they belong to.
Patron City: Center of worship of the deity.
Description: A brief description of the deity's duties.
Symbol: Symbol commonly used to denote the deity.
Relationships: Relationships with other deities.
Comments: Interesting side notes concerning the deity.
Also Known As...: Other names the deity is known by along with a notation of the pantheon(s) they belong to.

Legend
A=Akkadian Ab=Arabic Am=Ammonite Ar=Aramaean As=Assyrian
B=Babylonian C=Canaanite Ca=Carthage Ch=Chaldea D=Dilmun
E=Elamite Eg=Egyptian Et=Etruscan G=Greek H=Hittites
He=Hebrew Hu=Hurrian I=India K=Kassite M=Moabite
P=Phoenician Pe=Persian R=Roman S=Sumerian Se=Semite
Si=Sidon Sy=Syrian T=Tibet U=Ugarit

The Four Primary Deities

Deity
Patron City
Description
Symbol
Relationships
Comments
Also Known As...
An Erech Great Father of the Gods, the king of the Gods, the God of the Sun star Husband of Antu. Father of Ninhursag, Enlil, and Martu. Son of Ki and Nammu. An was at one time the head of the Sumerian pantheon. His worship waned over time and his powers were transferred to Enlil. Anat(As,C,Ch,S,Eg), Anatu(As), Anath, Anu(A,As,B,H,Hu,S,Sy), Anum
Enki Eridu Lord of water, wisdom, creation, and fertility. Invented writing. Keeper of the divine laws. Created the first humans. Two serpents entwined on a staff. Warned Ziusudra of the impending flood. Son of Nammu. Father of Dumuzi, Ninsar, Uttu, Ninmu, Nindurra, and Asarlubi. Husband of Nintu. - Lumha(S), Nudimmud(B), Ea(S,A,B), Amanki(B)
Enlil Nippur Lord of rain, wind, and air. Invents tools of agriculture. Created the deluge or "amaru" to destroy mankind. Seven small circles. Raped Ninlil. Either the brother or husband of Ninhursag (sources differ). Father of Ashnan, Nergal, Ninazu, Ninurta, and Nanna. Son of Ki and An.
Ki is also known as Nammu.
Seceded An as the head of the Sumerian pantheon. Adad(As,B,C,S), Bel(B,S), Illillos(S), Ishkur(A,H,S), Lil(S)
Ninhursag - Great Mother Goddess. Goddess of childbirth. Queen of the mountains. - Daughter of An and Nammu. Mother of Ninurta, Martu, and Ninkasi. Often stated as Enlil's sister, but also as his wife. - Ninlil(S), Ningal(S), Aruru(As,B,Ch,S), Bau(A,B,P,S), Belit(B,S), Belit-Illi, Belitis, Ga-Tum-Dug(S), Gula(A,B,S), Innini(S), Ki(S), Nammu(S), Ninkarrak(B,S), Ninki(S), Ninmah(S), Nintu(S), Ninurta(A,C,S)

The Seven Who Decreed Fate

Deity
Patron City
Description
Symbol
Relationships
Comments
Also Known As...
An Erech Great Father of the Gods, the king of the Gods, the God of the Sun star Husband of Antu. Father of Ninhursag, Enlil, and Martu. Son of Ki and Nammu. An was at one time the head of the Sumerian pantheon. His worship waned over time and his powers were transferred to Enlil. Anat(As,C,Ch,S,Eg), Anatu(As), Anath, Anu(A,As,B,H,Hu,S,Sy), Anum
Enki Eridu Lord of water, wisdom, creation, and fertility. Invented writing. Keeper of the divine laws. Created the first humans. Two serpents entwined on a staff. WaIshtarrned Ziusudra of the impending flood. Son of Nammu. Father of Dumuzi, Ninsar, Uttu, Ninmu, Nindurra, and Asarlubi. Husband of Nintu. - Lumha(S), Nudimmud(B), Ea(S,A,B), Amanki(B)
Enlil Nippur Lord of rain, wind, and air. Invents tools of agriculture. Created the deluge or "amaru" to destroy mankind. Seven small circles. Raped Ninlil. Either the brother or husband of Ninhursag (sources differ). Father of Ashnan, Nergal, Ninazu, Ninurta, and Nanna. Son of Ki and An. Seceded An as the head of the Sumerian pantheon. Adad(As,B,C,S), Bel(B,S), Illillos(S), Ishkur(A,H,S), Lil(S)
Inanna Erech Goddess of love, fertility, procreation, and war. Queen of the beasts. Protector of Aratta. Eight or sixteen pointed star. Daughter of Nanna and Ningal. Wife of Dumuzi. Early traditions state she is the daughter of An. According to one account, she is the sister of Gilgamesh. Sister of Utu, Nanshe, Ninisinna, Ninmug, Nidaba, and Ereshkigal. - Absusu(S), Ianna(S), Ishtar(A,B,Ch,Se,S), Tamar(He), Annis(S)
Nanna Ur God of the moon. Crescent. Father of Utu and Inanna. Son of Ninlil and Enlil. Husband of Ningal. - Sin(A,B,S)
Ninhursag - Great Mother Goddess. Goddess of childbirth. Queen of the mountains. - Daughter of An and Nammu. Mother of Ninurta, Martu, and Ninkasi. Often stated as Enlil's sister, but also as his wife. - Ninlil(S), Ningal(S), Aruru(As,B,Ch,S), Bau(A,B,P,S), Belit(B,S), Belit-Illi, Belitis, Ga-Tum-Dug(S), Gula(A,B,S), Innini(S), Ki(S), Nammu(S), Ninkarrak(B,S), Ninki(S), Ninmah(S), Nintu(S), Ninurta(A,C,S)
Utu Larsa Sun god of justice. - Son of Nanna and Ningal. Father of Mamu. Brother of Inanna. - Shamash(B), Babbar(S)

The Annunaki

Deity
Patron City
Description
Symbol
Relationships
Comments
Also Known As...
Ashnan - Goddess of grain. - Daughter of Enlil. - -
Emesh - God of agriculture. - Brother of Enten. - -
Enbilulu - Appointed by Enki to be in charge of the Tigris and the Euphrates. - - - -
Enkidu - God of land owners and farmers. - Adversary of Dumuzi. Companion of Gilgamesh. - Enkimdu(S), Eabani(S), Enkita(H)
Enten - Farmer god. - Brother of Emesh. - -
Ereshkigal - Goddess of Arallu. - Sister of Inanna. Wife of Gugalanna. - Allat(A), Allatu(A), Alukah(C), Ganzir(Se), Ningirda(S)
Ishkur - God of the winds and lightning. - - - Adad(A,B), Iskur(S), Enlil(As,B,S), Immer(S), Mer(B,S), Mermer(S), Mur(S)
Kabta - God of the brickmold and pickax. - - - -
Lahar - Goddess of cattle. - - - -
Mushdamma - God of foundations and houses. - - - -
Nanshe Lagash Goddess of man's morals and ethics, widows and orphans, and seeks out justice for the poor. - Wife of Haia. Sister of Inanna. - -
Nergal - God of the plague, underworld, and fires. Supreme ruler of Arallu. - Son of Enlil and Ninlil. Brother of Ninurta. - Meshlamthea(S), Nirgalu(B), Gira(S), Enmesarra(B,S), Enmesharra(B,S), Ira(S), Lugalmeslam(S), Malik(S), Mekel(S), Reshef(Sy)
Nidaba - Goddess of writing and accounts. Patron deity of the palace archives. - Sister of Inanna. - -
Ningal - Sun goddess. - Wife of Nanna. Mother of Utu and Ianna. - Aruru(B,Ch,S), Ninhursag(A,S), Ninmah(S), Nintu(S)
Ninurta - God of the south wind, irrigation, copper and coppersmiths, and fertility. Patron of hunters. A warrior deity. - Son of Ninhursag and Enlil. Brother of Nergal. - Ennammasht(S), Ningirsu(S), Ninhursag(A,S), Ninib(S), Ninkilim(S), Ninsubur(A,B,S), Ninurash(S)
Ninisinna Isin Goddess of healing and medicine. - Sister of Inanna. - Ninedinna(B)
Ninkasi(Se) - Goddess of brewing and alcohol. - Daughter of Ninhursag. - Ninkas(S,Se)
Ninlil - Goddess of grain. - Daughter of Nunbarshegunu. Raped by Enlil, and is sometimes referred to as his sister. Mother of Nanna, Nergal, and Ninazu. Identified with the Babylonian god Mullitu/Mylitta. Belit(B,S), Haya(B), Ninhursag(A,S), Ninki(S), Ninlilla(B), Nisaba(S)
Sumuqan - God of plant and animal on the Sumerian plain. - - - -
Uttu - Goddess of weaving and clothing, plants, and vegetation. - Daughter of Enki and Nindurra. - -

Demigods and Heroes

Deity
Patron City
Description
Symbol
Relationships
Comments
Also Known As...
Adapa - Created by Ea to rule over man. Refused bread and water, which would have granted him everlasting life, and in turn brought illness, disease, and death to other humans. - - Possible source for Adam. Adapa Uan(S), Addu(Ar)
Dumuzi - Shepherd god over the fertility of plants and animals, and stables and sheepfolds. - Husband of Inanna. Brother of Geshtinanna. Son of Enki and Ninsun. Adversary of Enkimdu. Historical king of Erech who was deified. Damu(S), Tammuz(B), Ziapsu(S)
Gilgamesh - One-third man and two-thirds god. Sought out Utanapishtim for the secret of immortality. - Son of Ninsun and Lugalbanda. Companion of Enkidu. According to one source, he is the brother of Inanna. Historical king of Erech who was deified. Gizdubar(Ch), Izdubar, Gishgimmash(H)
Geshtinanna - Goddess of autumn vines and wine. Poetess, singer, and interpreter of dreams. Known as "The Lady of Desolation," "The Lady of the Vine," "The Recorder of Hell," and "The Bookkeeper of Heaven." - Sister of Dumuzi. Daughter of Ninsum. - -
Gugulanna - Bull of Heaven. - Husband of Ereshkigal. - -
Khumbaba - Guardian of the Cedar Forest of Amanus. Defeated and slain by Enkidu and Gilgamesh. - - - Hubaba(E), Humbaba(A,B,S), Hum-ba, Humhum, Huwawa
Kur - Underworld monster depicting the empty space between the earth's crust and the sea. - - - -
Ziapsu - - - - - Dumuzi(S)
Ziusudra - King of Sippar who was warned by Enki of the impending deluge. - Son of Ubartutu of Shuruppak. Granted eternal life by An and Enlil. Possible source of Noah. Ziusura(S), Utnapishtim(B)
Ziusura - - - - - Ziusudra(S)

Other Gods

Deity
Patron City
Description
Symbol
Relationships
Comments
Also Known As...
Aa(A) - Moon goddess Disc with eight extending rays. Mother of Tammuz. - Aah, Aos(Ch), Iah, Khensu(Eg), Sirdu, Sirrida
Ab(Ch) - Lord of Wisdom and Father of the Waters. - - - -
Absusu - - - - - Abtagigi(S), Ishtar(As,B,A,Ch,Se,Si,S)
Abtagigi(As,B) - An evil goddess of harlots who preys on men. - - - Absusu(S), Aphrodite(G,P), Ishtar(As,B,A,Ch,Se,Si,S), Kilili(As,B)
Abu(Ab,E) - Appointed by Enki as king of the plants. - - - Elephantine(G), Elephantis(G)
Abzu - Primordial Lord of the Inner Waters. Joined with Tiamat to begin creation. Abzu eventually grew angry with the gods and attempted to stop them, but he was slain by Ea. - Father of the gods. Abzu and Tiamat created the first life forms, Lahamu and Lahmu. Derivative of the modern word "abyss". Apsu(S), Apzu(B), Apason(B), Aphson(B), Rishtu(B), Zigarun(A)
Adad(Ar,As,B,C) - God of floods, storms, punishment, and justice. - - - Baal of Mt. Lebanon(Se), Baalsamame(P), Balsamem, Balshameme, Balshamin, Bardad(Se), Belshim(Se), Ber, Bir(As), Birque(Se), Dadu, Hadad(P,Se,Sy), Haddad(B,P), Ilhallubu(B), Ilumarru(A,B), Iluwir, Ishkur(A,H,S), Iskur(B), Jashar(He), Kur-Gal, Kurgal(C), Marri(B,S), Marru(B), Martu(S), Ramman(Ar), Rammanu(S), Rammon(S), Rimmon(As,B), Riummon(Sy)
Addu(Ar) - - - - - Adad(Ar,As,B,C,S), Adapa, Marduk(A,As,B,S)
Ahhazu(B) - Demon of disease and death. - - - Labasu
Aleyn-baal(A,B,C,P,U) - Storm and Weather god. "God of the Waters." - - - Baal(B,P,S,Sy), Baal Hammon(Ca), Baalshamin, Ba'al-zebub(C,P,U), Bel(A,B,S), Hadad(P,Se,Sy), Marduk(A,As,B,S), Melkart(Am,P)
Alu(B) - A murderous demon who preys on humans. - - - -
Alulim - The first antediluvian king with a reign of 28,000 years. - - Alulim is the first king on the Sumerian Kings List. He is attributed with a reign of 28,000 years. Aloros(G)
Ama - - - - - Mama(S), Mami(A,B,Ch,S)
Amaruduk(B) - - - - - Marduk(A,As,B,S)
Amashilamma - A cow goddess. - - - -
Amathaounta(E) - Goddess of the sea. - - - Ashima(E,S)
Ana - - - - - Anat(As,C,Ch,E,S)
Anat(As,C,Ch,E) - "Lady of Heaven," "Mistress of the Gods." An Earth goddess. - Daughter of Baal. Wife of Anu. - Ana, Anata, Anath, Anath-yahu, Anatha, Anatu, Anna-nin, Annuthat, Anta, Antit, Antum(As,B), Hanata, Quadesh(P)
Anatu - - - Wife of Anu. - Anat(As,C,Ch,E,S)
Annis - - - - - Inanna(S)
Annunaki - - - - - Anunnaki(As,B,S), Ennuki(As,B,S)
Anshar - God of Heaven and Sky. - Son of Lahamu and Lahmu. Father of Anu and Ea. Wife of Ki. - Assorors(S), Shar(S)
Anshur - - - - - Anshar(As,B,S), Ashur(As,S)
Antu - - - Wife of An - Antum
Anu(A,B,H,Hu,Sy) - - - - - An(A,As,B,E,S), Ana(S), Anos, Anum
Anunit(As,B) - Goddess of the moon and of battle. Sun with eight extending rays. - - Anunitum(B)
Anunnaki(As,B) - High gods of the Sumerian pantheon composed of An, Enki, and the children of Anshar and Ki. Their palace, Diligina or Ekalgina, is located in Arallu. - - - Ennuki(As,B,S)
Anzu(Pe) - - - - - Zu(S)
Aos(Ch,G) - God of light. - - - Aa, Hoa(Ch), Oannes(B,Ch,G,S)
Apsu - - - - - Abzu(S), Apzu(As,B)
Arallu(As,B) - The underworld kingdom ruled by Ereshkigal and Nergal. The dead are judged here. - - - Anduruna, Ganzir(Se), Shualu(B)
Arazu(A) - The god of crafts. - - - -
Aruru(As,B,Ch) - Earth goddess who created the first men out of clay. - - - Belet-ili, Mami(A,B,Ch,S), Ningal(B,S,Se), Ninhursag(A,S), Ninmah(S), Nintue
Asarlubi - God of magic and sorcery. - Son of Enki. - -
Ashnan(Ch) - Goddess of grain. - - - -
Ashshur(As) - - - - - Ashur(As,S)
Ashur(As) - A warrior deity endowed with many powers of creation. Winged disk, bow and arrow, and the fir cone. - - -
Assorors - - - - - Anshar(As,B,S)
Assur(As) - - - - - Ashur(A,S)
Asur(As) - - - - - Ashur(A,S)
Azur(As) - - - - - Ashur(A,S)
Babbar Larsa Ancient sun god of Larsa. - - - Utu(S), Shamash(A)
Bau(A,B,P) - A primeval goddess of the "Dark Waters". - Mother of Ea. - Baau(As,B), Bahu(I), Bohu, Gula(A,B,S), Gur, Ninhursag(A,S), Ninki(S)
Bayl - - - - - Bel(B,S)
Bel(B) - A title attributed to gods. It translates to "lord". - - - Aleyn-baal(A,B,C,P,S,U), Bayl(S), Belit(As,S), Enlil(As,B,S), Marduk(A,As,B,S)
Beletersetim(As) - Scribe of the underworld. - - - Belit-Sheri(As,B)
Belit(As) - "Lady of the Gods," "Lady of Childbirth" - - - Ba'alat, Beltis(B,S), Belit-Ilani, Belit-Ile, Belit-Illi, Mylitta(B,Ch), Ninhursag(A,S), Nintud(A,B,S)
Belti(B,P,Se) - Mother goddess. - - - Baalath(Se), Beltis(B,S), Belitis, Beltu(B,S)
Beltis(B) - - - - - Belti(B,P,Se,S)
Beltu(B) - - - - - Belti(B,P,Se,S)
Bogu - God of wealth. - - - -
Chemosh(C,E,M,Se) - Possible historical king who was deified. God of the sun. - - - Baal-Peor(M), Kammus, Kamus, Shamash(A,S)
Damgalnunna - - - - - Ninki(S)
Dagon(A,B,C,Se,U) Ashdod - - - - Oannes(B,Ch,S,G), Zeus Arotrios
Damu - - - - - Dumuzi(S), Tammuz(B), Ziapsu(S)
Dazhbod - - - - - Dazibogu(S)
Dazibogu - A solar deity. - - - Dazhbod(S)
Dilmun - The home of the gods. Possible location of Eden. - - - -
Dubbisag - An ancient Sumerian god. - - - -
Dumazu - - - - - Dumuzi(A,S)
Dumu-e-zi - - - - - Dumuzi(A,S)
Dumu-zi - - - - - Dumuzi(A,S)
Dumunzi - - - - - Dumuzi(A,S)
Dumuziabzu - - - - - Dumuzi(A,S)
Dumuziapsu - - - - - Dumuzi(A,S)
Dumuzida - - - - - Dumuzi(A,S)
Dup Shimate - The Tablets of Fate. - - - -
Duttur - Goddess of sheep and flocks. - Mother of Dumuzi and Geshtinanna. - Sirtur(S)
Ea(A,As,B) - God of the earth and waters, magicians, healers, and wisdom. - - - Amma-Ana-Ki(As,B), Aos(Ch,G,S), Dunga(As,B), Enki(As,B,S), Engur(As,B), Enki-Ea(As,B), Hea(Ch), Hoa(Ch), Lumha(S), Nadimmud(B), Nidim(As,B), Ninbubu(As,B), Nindubarra(As,B), Ninigiku(S), Ninigikug, Nudimmud(B), Nurra(As,B), Oannes(B,Ch,G,S)
Eabani - - - - - Enkidu(S)
Eannu - Anu's home on earth. - - - -
Edimmu - Evil souls of the dead who have not received proper funerary rites. - - - -
Elat - Female aspect of El. - - - -
Ellat - Defender of cities. - - - Allat(Ar,As,B,Ch)
Engidu - - - - - Enkidu(S)
En-Mersi - - - - - Ningirsu(S)
Enkimdu - - - - - Enkidu(S)
Enmesarra(B) - - - - - Enmesharra(B,S)
Enmesharra - - - - - Nergal(S)
Ennammasht - - - - - Ninurta(A,C,S)
Ennuki - - - - - Anunnaki(As,B,S)
Enuma Elish(B) - Poem of Creation. - - - -
Erescheigal(B) - - - - - Ereshkigal(B,G,S)
Erishgal(B) - - - - - Ereshkigal(B,G,S)
Erishkegal(B) - - - - - Ereshkigal(B,G,S)
Eriskigal(B) - - - - - Ereshkigal(B,G,S)
Etuda - - - Father of Tammuz. - -
Ezuab - Ea's home. Located in the city of Eridu. - - - -
Gabil(As) - Goddess of fire. Patron of metal workers. - Son of Anu. Sister of Nin-karrak. - Girau(A,S), Nusku(As,B,S)
Ga-Tum-Dug Lagash Earth goddess. - - - Ninhursag(A,S), Ninki(S)
Gibil(As) - God of fire. - Son of Anu. Sister of Ninkarrak. - Gabil(S), Girau(As,S), Nusku(As,B,S)
Gir - - - - - Ira(As,B)
Gira - - - - - Ira(As,B)
Girra - - - - - Ira(As,B)
Girau(As) - - - - - Gabil(As,S)
Gizidu - Chief gatekeeper of the Underworld. Scribe of Kur. - - - Neti(S)
Grismadevi - Goddess of the seasons. - - - Dbyar-Gyi-Rgyalmo(T)
Guhkin-Banda - Patron of goldsmiths. - - - -
Gula(A,B) - Guardian of homes. Goddess of the earth, illness, and health. - Daughter of Anu. - Gatamdug(As,B), Gula-Bau, Ninhursag(As,S), Ninki(S)
Haia - - - Husband of Nanshe. - -
Ilabrat(B) - A messenger of Anu. Sent to find out why the south wind stopped blowing. - - - Ninsubur(A,B,S), Papsukkal(S), Papukkal(S)
Ili-abrat - - - - - Ilabrat(B,S)
Illillos - - - - - Enlil(As,B,S)
Imgig - - - - - Zu(S)
Imhursag - - - - - Ishkur(A,H,S)
Immer - Mother goddess. - - - Ishkur(A,H,S)
Innini - - - - - Inanna(S), Ninanna(B), Ninhursag(A,S), Ninki(S), Ninsinna(B), Nintud(A,B,S)
Ira - - - - - Nergal(S)
Ishtar(A,As,B,Ch,Se,Si) - Mother goddess. Goddess of storms, fertility, spring, war, love, the hunt, fate, childbirth, and marriage. Personification of the planet Venus. Goddess of the underworld. Invoked as protection against poison and ill health. Eight pointed star. Daughter of Sin. Sister of Shamash and Ereshkigal. - Absusu(S), Abtagigi(As,B,S), Agasaya(Se), Ashtart(P), Ashtoreth(B,C,Se), Athar(Ab), Aya(As,B,Ch), Belti(B,P,Se,S), Bisi-Bisi(As,B), Dilbar(B), Gamlat(B), Gumshea(As,B), Hanata, Inanna(S), Innini(S), Irnini(B), Kilili(As,B), Meni(B), Minu-anni(As,B), Minu-ullu, Nin-kar-zi-da(As,B), Nin-khar-sagga(As,B), Nin-si-anna, Ninkarrak(As,B,S), Ninkasi(Se), Ninlil(As,B,P,S), Sharis(Ar), Shaushka(H,Hu), Shimti(A), Zanaru(As,B), Zib(B)
Isimud - Messenger of Enki. - - - -
Jabal - Patron of tents. - Son of Lumha. Brother of Jubal and Tubal-cain. - -
Jubal - Patron of music. - Son of Lumha. Brother of Jabal and Tubal-cain. - -
Kadi - Goddess of justice. - - - -
Khumban Elam - - Husband of Kiririsha. - -
Ki(Ch) - A primordial being. Personification of the earth. - Daughter of Nammu. Mother of Enlil. - Kishar(As,B)
Kingu(B) - Keeper of the Tablets of Destiny. Tiamat's general in the war against the gods. - Son of Apsu. - -
Kiririsha Elam - - Wife of Khumban. - -
Kishu - Goddess of earth. - Sister of Anshar. - -
Lagamal Elam - - Son of Ea. - -
Lahamu - A primordial being. One of the first life forms created by Apsu and Tiamat. - Mother of Anshar and Ki. Daughter of Abzu and Tiamat. - Asakku(As,B)
Lahmu - A primordial being. One of the first life forms created by Apsu and Tiamat. - Father of Anshar and Ki. Son of Abzu and Tiamat. - Asakku(As,B)
Lakhamu - Lahamu and Lahmu, the serpentine deities. The first gods created by Apsu and Tiamat. - - - -
Lamassu(B,He) - A terrifying demon who preys on children and women. - - - Labartu(As), Labasi, Lamme(S)
Lamech - - - - - Lumha(S)
Lamme - - - - - Lamassu(B,He,S)
Lil - - - - - Enlil(As,B,S)
Lilithu(B) - - - - - Lilu(B,S)
Lilitu(B) - - - - - Lilu(B,S)
Lilli(B) - - - - - Lilu(B,S)
Lillu(B) - - - - - Lilu(B,S)
Lilu(B) - A demon who seduces sleeping women. - - - Lilith(He)
Lugalbanda - Legendary shepherd king of Erech who was said to have reigned for over 1000 years. Protector of Gilgamesh. - - According to the Kings List Lugalbanda was the third king of Erech after the deluge. -
Lugalmeslam - - - - - Nergal(As,B,E,P,S)
Lumha - Patron of singers. - Father of Jabal, Jubal, and Tubal-cain. - Ea(A,As,B,S), Enki(As,B,S), Lamech(S)
Mah(A,C,Pe,Se) - Goddess of the moon. Creation goddess. - - - Aruru(As,B,Ch,S), Belit-Ili, Gula(A,B,S), Mama(S), Mami(A,B,Ch,S), Ninmah
Malik - - - - - Nergal(As,B,E,P,S)
Mama - - - - - Mami(A,B,Ch,S)
Mami(A,B,Ch) - Mother Goddess, Creator of Mankind, Goddess of Childbirth. Molded men out of clay. - - - Ama(S), Aruru(As,B,Ch,S), Mah(A,C,P,Se,S), Mama(S)
Mamu - God/Goddess of dreams and visions. - Child of Utu. - -
Marduk(A,As,B) Babylon Supreme god. God of storms, lightning, fertility, and the sun. Became lord of the gods after defeating Tiamat. - Son of Ea and Ninki. Father of Nabu. - Addu(Ar), Agaku(B), Agilma(B), Amaruduk(S), Aranunna(B), Asaru(B), Asarualim(B), Asarualim Nunna(B), Asaruludu(B), Asharu(B), Barashakushu(B), Bel Matati, Dumuduku(B), Enbilulu(B), Epadun(B), Exizkur(B), Gibil(As,S), Gil(B), Gilma(B), Gishnumunab(B), Gugal(B), Hegal(B), Irkingu(B), Kinma(B), Lugalabdubur(B), Lugaldimmerankia(B), Lugaldurmah(B), Lugallanna(B), Lugallugga(B), Malah(B), Manru(B), Marukka(B), Marutukku(B), Mummu(As,B,S), Namtillaku(B), Nari(B), Nebiru(B), Papalguenna(B), Shazau(B), Sirsir(B), Suhgurim(B), Suhrim(B), Tuku(B), Tut(B), Zahgurim(B), Zahrim(B), Ziku(B,S), Zisi(B), Ziukkinna(B), Zulum(B).
Martu - God of the Bedu. Destroyer of cities and people. - Son of An and Ninhursaga. - -
Me - - - - - Nabu
Mekel - - - - - Nergal(As,B,E,P,S)
Mer(B) - - - - - Ishkur(A,H,S)
Mermer - - - - - Ishkur(A,H,S)
Meshlamthea - - - - - Nergal(As,B,E,P,S)
Mirsi - - - - - Mirsu(S)
Mirsu - God of irrigation. - - - Tammuz(As,B)
Misharu - God of law and order. - - - Misor(P,Se)
Mummu(As,B,S) - Personification of ocean waves. - - - -
Mummu-Tiamat - - - - - Tiamat(As,B,Ch,Se,S)
Mur - - - - - Ishkur(A,H,S)
Nabu - God of vegetation, writing, and speech. Maintains the records of mens deeds and produces them after their death for judgment. stylus Husband of Tashmetrum. Son of Marduk. - Nabug(As), Tigranes, Me(S), Sa(S), Ur(S), Dubbisag(S), Vretil(He).
Nah-Hunte - God of the sun and law. - - - -
Nammu(Ch) - A primordial being representing the primeval sea. The Sumerian Creatrix Goddess. "The Mother who gave birth to Heaven and Earth." - Mother of An and Ninhursag. - Aruru(As,Ch,S), Ki(Ch,S), Ningal(B,Se,S), Ninhursag(A,S), Ninmah(S), Nintu(S).
Namtar(As,B) - Servant of Nergal who brings death and disease to man. Messenger of Ereshkigal. - Husband of Husbishag. - Namtaru(S)
Namtaru - - - - - Namtar(As,B,S)
Nannar - - - - - Nanna(As,B,S)
Nazi(Se) - A goddess created by Ninhursag. - - - -
Nebo(He) - An aspect of Marduk. God of trading. - - - Ak(A), Marduk(A,As,B,S), Merodach(A)
Nedu - Chief gatekeeper of Arallu. - - - Neti(S)
Neti - - - - - Nedu(S)
Nimah - - - - - Ninmu(S)
Nina Nina Local goddess with a temple at Nina. - Daughter of Ea. Sister of Nisaba. Mother of Ningirsu. - Ninetta(S), Ninevah(S)
Ninazu - God of the sun. - Husband of Ninsu-Utud. Grandfather of Tammuz. Son of Enlil and Ninlil. - -
Nindurra - - - Daughter of Nintu and Enki. Mother of Uttu. - Ninkurra(S)
Nineishizda(B) - - - - - Ningishzida(B,S)
Ninetta - - - - - Nina(S)
Ninevah - - - - - Nina(S)
Ningirda - - - - - Ereshkigal(B,G,S)
Ningirsu Lugash God of irrigation and war. - Son and husband of Bau. - En-Mersi(S), Ninurta(A,C,S)
Ningizzida(B) - God of the dawn and trees. - Companion of Tammuz. - Nineishizda(B,S), Unummuzida(S)
Nin-Ib(A,As,B) - God of the spring and morning sun. - - - Adar(A,Se), Nerig(B), Nineb(B), Ninurta(A,C,S), Nirig(B), Reshep(E)
Ninigiku - A title of Ea meaning "King of the Sacred Eye." - - - Ea(A,As,B,S)
Ninkarrak(As,B) - Goddess of healing. - Daughter of Anu. Sister of Gibal. - Gula(A,B,S), Ishtar(As,A,B,Ch,Se,Si,S), Ninhursag(A,S), Ninki(S)
Ninkas - - - - - Ninkasi(S,Se)
Ninki - Goddess of fresh water. - - - Bau(A,B,P,S), Belit-Illi, Belitis, Damgalnunna(S), Damkina(As,B), Ga-Tum-Dug(S), Gashan-Ki(As,B), Gula(A,B,S), Innini(S), Ki(Ch,S), Ninhursag(A,S), Ninkarrak(As,B,S), Ninlil(As,B,S), Ninmah(S), Ninmu(S), Nintu(S)
Ninma - - - - - Ninmu(S)
Ninmah - An aspect of Mah. - - - Aruru(As,B,Ch,S), Mah(A,Ch,Pe,Se,S), Ningal(B,Se,S), Ninhursag(A,S), Ninki(S), Ninmu(S)
Ninmu - The goddess of plants. - Daughter of Ninhursag and Enki. Mother of Ninkurra. - Ki(Ch,S), Ninki(S), Ninmah(S), Ninsar(S)
Ninmug(B) - - - Sister of Inanna. - -
Nimurta - - - - - Ninurta(A,C,S)
Ninsar - - - - - Ninmu(S)
Ninshubur - Vizar of Inanna. - - - -
Ninsubur(A,B) - A messenger of the gods. - - - Ilabrat(B,S), Ili-Abrat(S), Ninurta(A,C,S), Papsukkal
Ninsun(Ch) - - - Mother of Dumuzi, Gestinanna, and Gilgamesh. - Situr(S)
Ninsu-Utud(A,B) - Goddess of healing. - Wife of Ninazu. - -
Nin-ti - One of the eight goddesses of healing created by Ninhursag to heal Enki. She healed Enki's rib. - - - Ninti
Nintu - - - Wife of Enki. Mother of Ninmu and Nindurra. - Ninhursag(A,S), Ishtar(A,As,B,Ch,Se,Si)
Nintud(A,B) - Earth goddess. - - - Belit(As,B,S), Belit-Ilani
Ninurash - - - - - Ninurta(A,C,S)
Nisaba - Goddess of architecture. - - - -
Nunbarshegunu(As,B) - - - Mother of Ninlil. - -
Nusku(As,B) - God of justice, fire, civilization, and light. Messenger of the gods. A lamp. - - -
Oannes(B,Ch,G) - Earth deity. Gave man knowledge of science and culture. - - - Aos(Ch,G,S), Dagon(A,B,C,S,Se,U), Ea(A,As,B,S)
Papsukkal - Vizier of the gods. - - - Papukkal(S)
Papukkal - - - - - Papsukkal(S)
Pazuzu - God of wind who brings disease to man. - Son of Hanpa. - -
Rammanu - - - - - Adad(Ar,As,B,C,S)
Rammon - - - - - Adad(Ar,As,B,C,S)
Sa - An ancient Sumerian god. - - - -
Satan(A,B,Pe) - An evil underworld deity. - - - Arya Sarasvati(T), Belial(A,As,B,He), Charun(Et), Devil, Eblis, Iblis, Nergal(As,B,E,P,S)
Sataran Der God of settling complaints. - - - -
Shala(Ch) - Goddess of compassion. - - - -
Shamash(A) - God of the sun and fire. - Son of Sin. Brother of Ishtar. - Babbar(S), Shahan, Shullat(S), Utu(S)
Shar - - - - - Anshar(As,B,S)
Shullat - - - - - Utu(S)
Siduru - - - - - Siduri(As,B,S)
Siduri(As,B) - A sea goddess. - - - Siduru(S)
Siduri-Sabitu - - - - - Sudiri(As,B,S)
Sige - - - - - Zi(S)
Sin(A,B) - Moon god in charge of maintaining each day of the month. Crescent Son of Enlil. Husband of Ningal. Father of Nusku. - Nanna(As,B,S), Nannar(S)
Sirara - Goddess of the Persian Gulf. - - - -
Sirrush - A sacred dragon of Marduk. - - - -
Sirtur - - - - - Duttur(S)
Situr - - - - - Ninsun(Ch,S)
Tablets of Fate - The tablets holding the fate of the world. - - - Dup Shimati(S)
Tashmetrum - Goddess of writing. - Wife of Nabu. - -
Tubal-cain - Patron of the forge. - - - -
Tiamat(As,B,Ch,Se) - Evil primordial Goddess of the primeval depths. Joined with Apsu to create the gods and the world. Warred on the gods. - Mother of Lahamu. Slain by Marduk. - Baau(As,B), Bis-Bis(As,B), Hubar(B), Mummu-Tiamat(S), Omorka(B,Ch), Omoroka(B,Ch), Tamtu, Tauthe(B), Tehom, Thalass, Thalath(B), Thamte, Tiawath, Tisalat, Ummukhubar, Leviathan(B,U)
Unummuzida - - - - - Ningishzida(B,S)
Upshukina - The home of the gods. - - - -
Ur - An ancient god. - - - -
Ur-Nammu - King of Ur who was deified. - - First king of the third dynasty of Ur. -
Utukku - Assistants to the gods. The good were called Shedu, and the evil were called Edimmu. - - - -
Vilin - Malevolent shape-changing female spirits. - - - -
Zalgarra - One of the first ancestors of man. - - - -
Zaltu(As,B) - Goddess of strife. - - - -
Zi - Nature spirits who were bestowed with individual names as they gained importance. - - - Sige(S), Ziku(B,S)
Ziku - - - - - Zi(S)
Zu - A underworld god. Stole the Tablets of Fate from Enlil. - - - Anzu(Pe,S), Imgig(S)
------

 

Interlude II -- MesoAmerica

Forward to:

Epic of Creation

Chronology of Babylonia and Assyria

The following article was originally based on content from the 1911 Encyclop�dia Britannica, so it became partly obsolete. (A suggested updating below that text has been offered, by removing some of the conflicting numbers and offering much more absolute dates, mainly solar and lunar eclipse records.)

The later chronology of Assyria has long been fixed, thanks to the lists of limmi, or archons, who gave their names in succession to their years of office. Several copies of these lists from the library of Nineveh are in existence, the earliest of which goes back to 911 B.C., while the latest comes down to the middle of the reign of Assur-bani-pal. The beginning of a king's reign is noted in the lists, and in some of them the chief events of the year are added to the name of its archon, Assyrian chronology is, therefore, certain from 911 B.C. to 666, and an eclipse of the sun which is stated to have been visible in the month Sivan, 763 B.C., is one that has been calculated to have taken place on the 15th of June of that year. The system of reckoning time by limmi was of Assyrian. origin, and recent discoveries have made it clear that it went back to the first days of the monarchy. Even in the distant colony at Kara Euyuk near Kaisariyeh (Caesarea) in Cappadocia cuneiform tablets show that the Assyrian settlers used it in the 15th century B.C. In Babylonia a different system was adopted. Here the years were dated by the chief events that distinguished them, as was also the case in Egypt in the epoch of the Old Empire. What the event should be was determined by the government and notified to all its officials; one of these notices, sent to the Babylonian officials in Canaan in the reign of Samsuiluna, the son of Khammurabi, has been found in the Lebanon. A careful register of the dates was kept, divided into reigns, from which dynastic lists were afterwards compiled, giving the duration of each king's reign as well as that of the several dynasties. Two of these dynastic compilations have been discovered, unfortunately in an imperfect state.

In addition to the chronological tables, works of a more ambitious and literary character were also attempted of the nature of chronicles. One of these is the so-called "Synchronous History of Assyria and Babylonia," consisting of brief notices, written by an Assyrian, of the occasions on which the kings of the two countries had entered into relation, hostile or otherwise, with one another; a second is the Babylonian Chronicle discovered by Dr Th. G. Pinches, which gave a synopsis of Babylonian history from a Babylonian point of view, and was compiled in the reign of Darius. It is interesting to note that its author says of the battle of Khalule, which we know from the Assyrian inscriptions to have taken place in 691 or 690 B,C., that he does "not know the year" when it was fought: the records of Assyria had been already lost, even in Babylonia. The early existence of an accurate system of dating is not surprising; it was necessitated by the fact that Babylonia was a great trading community, in which it was not only needful that commercial and legal documents should be dated, but also that it should be possible to refer lasily to the dates of former business transactions. The Babylonian and Assyrian kings had consequently no difficulty in determining the age of their predecessors or of past events. Nabonidus (Nabunaid), who was more of an antiquarian than a politician, and spent his time in excavating the older temples of his country and ascertaining the names of their builders, tells us that Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon of Akkad, lived 3200 years before himself (i.e. 3750 B.c.), and Sagarakti-suryas 800 years; and we learn from Sennacherib that Shalmaneser I. reigned 600 years earlier, and that Tiglath-pileser I. fought with Merodach-nadin-akhi (Marduk-nadin-akh~) of Babylon 418 years before the campaign of 689 B.c.; while, according to Tiglath-pileser I., the high-priest Samas-Hadad, son of IsmeDagon, built the temple of Anu and Hadad at Assur 701 years before his own time. Shalmaneser I. in his turn states that the high-priest Samas-Hadad, the son of Bel-kabi, governed Assur 580 years previously, and that 159 years before this the highpriest Erisum was reigning there. The raid of the Elamite king Kutur-Nakhkhuntë is placed by Assur-bani-pal 1635 years before his own conquest of Susa, and Khammurabi is said by Nabonidus to have preceded Burna-buryas by 700 years.

Modern critical revision with suggested updating as follow:

It is generally accepted by the archaeological consnsus that the son of Sargon of Akkad cannot be placed as high as in 3750 BCE. As the reign of King Nabonidus ended by the accession of Cyrus in Babylonia around 539 or 538 BCE, the years may have been given by actual modern half years. The Jewish chronology and the Old Testament has the same situation with the same dilemma. Their "years" may have been commenced both by the first day of Nisanu (Nisan) and that of Tashritu (Tishri) in their remote histories. Therefore, it is likely that the correct interval is not 3200 but 1600. It is probably a rounded figure. One must be careful with the several intervals between rulers and events cited by the above mentioned unearthed documents. We cannot prove that a totally reliable chronological list was available for all the scribes, and they have been versed historians. They may have been pressed to give a figure but not enough time for a thorough research. Many of the figures contradict to each other, etc.

We start our list of Babylonian kings with a significant ruler of Erech called Lugalzaggisi, placing him from 2411 to 2376. He was a contemporary of Urukagina king of Lagash (reigned 2407-2399) and Sargon (2399-2343) king of Akkad.

After Sargon, the next king was Rimush(...). His contemporary in Ur was Ka-kug or Ka-ku (2376-2341). The son and successor of Rimush was Manishtusu (2334-2329), whose Assyrian viceroy was Abazu, son of Nuabu.

In this period the rulers of Kish were Simudarra or Simudar (2399-2369), a contemporary of Sargon. After him Usi-watar (2369-2362), Eshtarmuti (2362-2351), Ishme-shamash (2351-2340), and Nannia (2340-2243) reigned in Kish.

In Akkad, after Manishtusu, the following kings reigned:

2329-2282 Naram-sin

2282-2257 Shar-kali-sharri

He was contemporary with the first Gutian king, Erridupizir, and he later defeated Sarlagab, another king of Gutium.

2257-???? Igigi, Nanum, and Imi, pretenders

????-2254 Elulu, a pretender, maybe King Elul(u)mesh of Gutium.

2254-2233 Dudu

2233-2218 Shu-durul

Shu-durul was the last ruler. (Agade/Akkad was defeated by Erech. Then Erech dominated until 2194, then eight Median-Elamite usurper tyrants ruled for 224 years, according to Berossos, from 2194 to 1970 BCE. Some of them are listed here.)

Erech:

2219-2212 Ur-nigin(ak)

2212-2206 Ur-gigir(ak)

2206-2200 Kudda or Gudea

2200-2195 Puzur-ili

2195 (?) Lugal-melam (?)

2195-2189 Ur-utu(k)

2189-2179 Utu-khegal or Utu-khengal

He was a contemporary of Tirigan, the last king of the Guti.

During this period the Gutian or Guti kings flourished as follow:

2280-2277 Erridupizir, the first ruler.

2277-2274 Imta

2274-2268 Inkishush

2268-2265 Sarlagab

2265-2259 Shulme'

2259-2253 Elulmesh or Elulu-mesh

2253-2248 Inimabakesh

2248-2242 Igeshaush

2242-2227 Iarlangab or Iarlagab

2227-2224 Ibate

Ibate's name curiously reminds one to Ibates, one of the earliest ancestors in the Irish and the Scottish pedigrees.

2224-2221 Iarlangab

2221-2220 Kurum

2220-2217 Habil-kin

2217-2215 La'erabum

2215-2213 Irarum

2213-2212 Ibranum

2212-2210 Hablum

2210-2203 Puzur-sin

2203-2196 Iarlaganda

2196-2189 Si'u or Si'um

2189-2189 Tirigan

Tirigan reigned only for 40 days, according to Jacobsen. His chrononolgical table (1934: 208 ff.) has placed the accession of Ur-Nammu (Dynasty III of Ur) ten years after the end of Utu-khegal's reign. His fall may or may not have coincided with his lost battle against Erech. This famous battle took place on the day of an eclipse of the moon, on the 14th day of the month Duzu or Tammuz, from the first watch to the middle watch. See Schoch (1927: B6-B8), and Thorkild Jacobsen, The Sumerian King List (Chicago, 1934: 203). This is the first eclipse record in the Near East that is identifiable with high probability. It took place on August 13, 2189 BC, with a magnitude of 120% which is remarkable.

After the defeat of Gutium, the Third Dynasty of Ur was fourishing:

2179-2161 Ur-Nammu or Ur-Engur

2161-2113 Shulgi

A double (solar and lunar) eclipse took place 23 years after Shulgi's accession to the throne. Prof. Jacob Klein of Bar-Ilan University in his book Three Sulgi hymns (1981: 59 and 81) tells that the first 23 years of his reign was peaceful, and that the sun was eclipsed on the horizon, just like the moon on the sky, during the first battles of Sulgi. (Most historians do not feel confident about their own astronomical profiency, therefore the extreme importance of this double eclipse record remained unnoticed. Another difficulty is that the reading has a questionmark.) Z.A. Simon adds that the lunar eclipse is mentioned first in the poem, because the worship of Sin (The moon) was predominant for them, and that the record is poetic, not that of an astronomer. This rare phaenomena occurred on May 9, 2138 BCE (solar eclipse), with a magnitude of 34%. The lunar eclipse took place on May 24, 2138 BCE.

2113-2104 Amar-Sin or Bur-Sin. His viceroy in Assyria was Zariqum.

2104-2095 Shu-Sin

An eclipse of the moon observed in the month Simanu (Sivan) may be placed near the end of Shu-sin's reign, called patricide eclipse in the literature. The clipse "drew through" and "equalized" the first watch, meaning that has coincided with it, then touched the second watch. It took place on July 25, 2095 BCE. Refer to Carl Schoch, Die Ur-Finsternis (Berlin, 1927: B6-B8). Professor Peter J. Huber, Astronomy and Ancient Chronology in the journal Accadica (Vol. 119-120 deals with this issue about the omen EAE 20-III. We have learned from him that it may have belonged to the death of Shulgi, or it may have been another king, for the name is not mentioned. (Therefore, it could have belonged to Shu-sin, we believe, also adding that the expression will wrong him does not necessarily mean murdering a king. We note here that the data evaluated by Huber (page 166) "rejects the middle chronologies on the 1% level... this is a strong argument against the correctness of the middle chronologies." (Editor's note: those are still in common use.)

2095-2070 Ibbi-Sin

Ibbi-Sin's reign lasted for 24 or 26 years (S. Langdon and John K. Fotheringham, The Venus tablets of Ammizaduga, 1928). An eclipse of the moon caused terror shortly before his fall, in the month Addaru or Adar. The real eclipse had a magnitude of 153%. (Schoch describes this eclipse as well, proposing a different candidate.)

A few years before the fall of Ibbi-Sin, another city started to flourish: Isin. Its first ruler had emerged several years earlier. The kings of Isin are as follow:

2083-2050 Ishbi-erra

2050-2040 Shu-ilishu

2040-2019 Iddin-dagan

2019-2000 Ishme-dagan

2000-1989 Lipit-Ishtar

1989-1961 Un-ninurta

1961-1940 Bur-sin or Amar-sin

1940-1935 Lipit-enlil

1935-1927 Erra-imitti or Ura-imitti

1927-1927 Tabbaya

1927-1903 Enlil-bani

1903-1900 Zambiya

1900-1896 Iter-pisha

1896-1892 Ur-dulkugga

1892-1881 Sin-magir

1881-1858 Damiq-ilishu

The First Dynasty of Babylon was almost contemporary with Isin. Their chronology is debated, because there is a King List A and a Babylonian King List B. Hereby we follow the regnal years of List A, because those are widely used, although we believe that the other list is better, at least for one or two reigns out of the first six. (The reigns in List B are longer, in general. Unfortunately, it is not available for the editor.)

First Babylonian Dynasty:

1959-1945 Su-abu or Suum-abum

1945-1909 Sumula-ilum

1909-1895 Sabium or Sabum

1895-1877 Apil-Sin

1877-1857 Sin-muballit

1857-1814 Hammurabi

His other name was Hammurapi-ilu, meaning Hammurapi the god or perhaps Hammurapi is god. He could have been Amraphel king of Sinear in the Jewish records and the Bible, a contemporary of Abraham.

1814-1776 Samsu-ilana

1776-1748 Abi-eshuh or Abieshu

1748-1711 Ammi-ditana

1711-1690 Ammi-zaduga or Ammisaduqa

His Venus-tablets (i.e., several ancient versions on clay tablets) are famous, and several books had been published about them. Several dates have been offered but the old dates of many sourcebooks seens to be outdated and incorrect. There are further difficulties: the 21 years span of the detailed observations of the planet Venus may or may not coincide with the reign of this king, because his name is not mentioned, only the Year of the Golden Throne. A few sources, some printed almost a century ago, claim that the original text mentions an occultation of the Venus by the moon. It seems to me a misinterpretation because the original texts in the book of Erica Reiner and D. Pingree, The Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa there is no such sentence. Prof. P.J. Huber's detailed calculations at this point also prefer 1659 for the fall of Babylon, based on the statistical probability of dating based on the planet's observations. He finds the presently accepted middle chronology too low from the astronomical point of view.

1690-1659 Samsu-ditana

A text about the fall of Babylon by the Hittites of Mursilis I at the end of Samsuditana's reign tells about a twin eclipse is crucial for a correct Babylonian chronology. (The reading of the word Babylon is uncertain but why should a Babylonian tablet refer to another city?). The pair of lunar and solar eclipses occurred in the month Shimanu (Sivan). Professor Peter J. Huber has computed several options that would satisfy the conditions of the detailed description. The lunar eclipse took place on February 9, 1659 BCE. It started at 4:43 and ended at 6:47. The latter was invisible which safisfies the record which tells that the setting moon was still eclipsed. The solar eclipse occurred on February 23, 1659. It started at 10:26, has its maximum at 11:45, and ended at 13:04. See Peter Huber, Astronomical dating of Babylon I and Ur III in Monographic Journals of the Near East (1982: 41).

The Assyrian kings of this period are as follow:

Zuabu

Nuabu, son of Zuabu

Abazu, viceroy of Manishtusu of Akkad, son of Nuabu, died c. 2330

Belu or Tillu, son of Abazu, died c. 2309

Asarah, son of Belu, died c. 2288

Ititi

Enlil-kabkabu

Ushpia, son of Asarah, died c. 2267

Apiashal, the 17th tent-dweller king, son of Ushpia, died c. 2246

Halu, son of Apiashal, died c. 2226

Samanu, son of Halu, died c. 2205

Haianu, son of Samanu, died c. 2184

Ilu-mer, son of Haianu, died c. 2164

Iakmesi, son of Ilu-mer, died c. 2143

Azuzu or Uzuzu

Urda or Urdahi

Zariqum (c. 2116-?), viceroy of Amar-sin

Iakmeni, son of Iakmesi, died c. 2122

Iazkur-ilu, son of Iakmeni, died c. 2101

Ilu-kapkapi, son of Iazkur-ilu, died c. 2080

Aminu, son of Ilu-kapkapi, died, c. 2060

Sulili, son of Aminu, died c. 2039. End of the dynasty.

 

The Primogenitors
Biblical Egyptian Sumerian Jehovahns

The relation of the archaic Sumerians ca the 4th millennium BC to the lineage of Adam and Eve in the same area north of the Persian Gulf and then-concurrent development of civilization in Egypt ... cross-referencing their patriarch-gods and document records ...

"Before Abraham was, I am-- [relating]." (JOHN 8:58)

BACKGROUND SUMMARY:--

The recounting of geneologies is of little importance to mankind, -of interest to get a perspective of the Biblical span, and no more;- the seven days of creation are typical-day-types in an early sequential redaction of the development of this planet by major improvements; yet, there is a fundamental importance to living the practicable possible Christ before Abraham was-- I am, the primogenitor... That Adam lived 930 years is accurate enough to tell us that he was different-- that there is a longevity possible:

The Bible is a reconstruction of records, -translations, correlations-... Discrepancies therein have been resolved many times over thousands of years: not all the translations were done by modern scholars: It takes some understanding of what they were talking-about, as it also took of the scholars who translated and the scribes who recorded it ages ago. Times and dates given by project 'lambhorn' are goods of the mathematics and sciences: we estimate 3670 BC as the beginning-of or early-about Adam's timeline as aligns well with subsequent astronomical events as makes it more cogent ... The Jewish calendar by scholars who've worked through the same Bible wording and compared original manuscripts, puts the first date as 3761 BCE, But reference bases are not always certain (cf the 430 years of the children of Israel in Egypt are unscheduled and list about three persons) and for individuals first and last years recounted are usually not full years, ages were not all determined from birth-months not all listed, calendar years were not all the same count of days, thus allowing -1-3 years overage-variance, each, possibly cumulative-averaging months or years per step through the geneology....

Project 'lambhorn' articles, put Jehovah, Adam, and Eve, at the Pison river north bend (today's Wadi Batin) northwest of the Persian Gulf; And Cain, in the land of Nod, east of the river confluence as close as the Euphrates marshland;-- So, till Noah's flood in that region, Sumer was the mixed lineage-deltages of Adam and Cain plus the local mankind settled there, and mercantile travelers ... where Adam and Eve started, and the children of Noah restarted: on the eastern Arabian steppe: in the land of Shinar (Shingar) Kienger, Shumeru Sumer-- today's Babylon: The Sumerian word, Edin Eden, meant fertile plain, and derived from the local Akkadian-Ubaidan centuries older (in whose days it wasn't desert).

Archaeologists, have dated the Sumerians to ca 3100 BC, amid the era of Bible name parallels in Seth's and Cain's lineages before the flood.

The Sumerians exhibited characteristics suggesting possibly direct knowledge of a Jehovahn-smart mindset like Cain's: Sumerians were city-builders, and brought or invented a clay-pictographic language evidently superior to Akkadian cuneiform that succeeded it through the flood a half millennium later, and by which scholars reconstructed it.... The Bible indicates two kinds of persons mixing in the region: The sons of God, may have been educators wiving the daughters of men and probably-therefor teaching the sons of men, 'paid' ... But which raises a point:--

Cuneiform would have been a lot of work, for intelligent spacer-origin society ... And no-joke-intended, saying, spacer-origin: Their -(known)- speech didn't use voicing for letters, b, d, g, but unaspiration [SIC], the constriction at the vocal chords, compared to p, t, k, the constriction at each consonant itself-- i.e. clearly heard in a whisper, that meant its origin was indoor or with near-absolute intolerance of loud sound ... (This also raises question by-inference whether they used visual-assistance handsignage in speaking: which subject is presently in-development.)

By making cuneiform so simple yet tedious the sons of God kept the sons of men relegated to gradually learning uniformity: It was the planet-of-the-mankind, for spacers, But there is the possibility that cuneiform was a Jehovahn spacer font, approximated by their clay-writing implements: Though called 'wedge', it is apparently tailed-triangular, which allows point, line, angle, staple, trigon, whole ...at least a font subset... something for scholars to research,- for though Adam began without highly technical support, he had centuries of upbringing, and technical evidences may have reappeared at times....

Also, Sumerian is deemed a language isolate and themselves untraceable, yet they were prolific builders -indoorsians-... Whence we infer, Sumerians included Adam's deltage, and maybe other or later siblings;- And, being 'dumped' on Earth, they did just as they were given-to:- Given their spacer education, given their high technology, to being replaced by clay ... they made-fun, building Earth with a future-now, high-technology... till their attitude became recalcitrant, contentious, unruly, wicked, wild, evil, mad (which sounds like the Cain-justice scenario).

Further distinction may also be drawn that the sons of God were nine generations all alive together, Adam to Lamech, (plus any Jehovahns: ten generations) while the sons of men were the shorter-lived mankind made in the same image and likeness of Adam's lineage.... The later senior Jehovahn decision or prediction in flooding the land, assuming Noah was directly told and didn't just figure it on Godly interpretation of the night sky, and shiftings of the southern monsoon, is one of the strong teachings in the Bible that the Godly are not to defile themselves in speech and action;- that death is not the end of sin but severest punishment ... Jehovahn concepts of life seem less-than-absolutely concerned for the life of mankind: as though mortality were a phase of living thought, high tech in low gear; though in subsequent centuries they did use softer approach e.g. confounding the language of the people gathered at the Babel tower construction job site.

Additional traces on Cain's deltage suggest a perpetuation of violence e.g. Lamech's inditement for seventy-sevenfold of Cain's avengeance; and wandering albeit Cain settled long enough to start cities named, Enoch: Cain may have followed the Gihon (Karun) river up the ridge, and the foothills along the Persian Gulf east, starting cities in Elam, western Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India... Indian history was not prominent in that era but Indian scholars suggest connections with a "blackheaded" Dravidian people, settling Sumer,- whom Sumerian records identify as ordinary humans ruled by the 'gods',-- who could have been imported by Cain's people returning to Edin and adopting local language words,-- implicating this was subordination of the indigenous Akkadian-Ubaidans, by newer, educated, 'Sumerians', under Cain's governorship.

(Note that in the sense of wanderer, Cain was also living-out his concept of spacer-living wandering the cosmos: It was almost regressive.)

And further parallels appear in the same area, the same era,- such as the introduction of breeding woolly sheep, Sumerian names for rivers, Idiqlat, being the Hiddekel now known as Tigris, Purattu the Euphrates, the Pison, now known as Wadi Batin on the east, Wadi Rimah to the west, coming out of Eden in the Genesis account, or some scholars say, springs out, which may indicate its appearance by subterranean or sub-dune passage and thence passing the garden it also waters, and from there becomes into [in-to] four heads, The rivers listed, the Pison first in deference to its significance, and the others from the other direction, Gihon, Hiddekel [Tigris], Euphrates, indicating a righthand-dawn first perspective from somewhere south, Ur, Eridu, Egypt ... And ... monumental stepped pyramids in Egypt similar to Ziggurats in Sumer....

N.B. The concept of one God was never jeopardized by the Jehovahns, by their sons and daughters, by gods plural synonymous with the sons and daughters of God, though as strange as myths in literature, but by false emphases on lineage and worship of animality and matter as their hierarchy as it were something to pass down, -by mystifying reality;- whence the worship of one incorporeal-God-Principle became necessary for the saving of mankind,- though still fraught with misunderstanding nations, religions, denominations, and kinds of man and gods....

ANSWER EXTENDED: The early Sumerian and-contemporary Egyptian records reported most significantly on the first-sons, of the gods:--

EXEGESIS AND EXPOSITION:--

GODS, OR MEN:

The distinction, in meaning sons of God, or of men, is best hinted in Egyptian references to First Dynasty king Menes, or Narmer, known as the first, mortal, king of Egypt, -first though following several Abydos-region kings since Iry-Hor, Sekhen, and before them name-references back to Ny-Hor, Hathor, etc:- For nine centuries Adam and his sons were nominally immortal, -living, traveling,- though killable as Abel and whence they could be angry sons as became the 'myth' gods of later Akkadia, Babylonia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, and worldwide, China, America, etc....

Nevertheless, the gods did call themselves, men man, at first-- as that was what they knew of their existence and purpose: They were the 'min' the precious-seed (Egypt.), the 'mene' the many by careful-count (Heb.). Only much later, centuries later, was mankind, more-pretty, like 'men'.

THE EGYPTIAN VERSION:

The Egyptian references are important, because Menes/Men Hor-Aha (fighting hawk; Horus protects) started this dynasty in the same era as Sumer began, just after upper and lower Egypt were unified under Horus first god-king in Egypt, a century after his father king-god Osiris was funeralized by uncle god Seth, Osiris' younger brother and usurper. Both civilizations developed clay-writing, and the next dynasty recorded an eighty-year raging dispute between Horus and Seth ... this is a side of Adam's story the Bible does not tell directly:-- Horus was the later inline son of Seth's older brother Biblical Cain who after marrying their elder sister, took his family wandering, beyond the land of Nod, south-west to Egypt, becoming king WSR Osiris eventually venturing out to transform the world, leaving his wife god-in-charge in Egypt.... Seth married their younger sister, but, though at first amiable with Cain Osiris, he was childless and eventually hatched a plot to improve themselves and avenge Abel whom the Egyptians did not know in person but by a hint Apep Apophis, as a god-memory haunting Cain, till Seth ultimately took Cain to task and murder ... Some Egyptians mistook Horus as Adam Geb's second son and Seth third: equating them as brothers instead of nephew and uncle; Others labeled Horus, 'the son of Ra', as he was Osiris Cain's wife's first inline in Ra's lineage; -historical parallax not far from fact;- However, Horus-the-Elder, Heru-Ur, was not well-known but as one who perpetually bates Apep the snake:- thus associating the two in deadly battle -as Cain slew Abel;- But also this elder was nightblind eyeless and so, in multiple pun, could not travel, had no wife at night that "Eye-of" meant in Egyptian slang, -wife 'Hathor' was Isis, as Cain took the sister,- There were no stories of him but referential, he was revered as elder yet younger than Osiris, And even Biblically, Eve's Seth, was touted as his, -Abel's,- replacement. (And momentarily we'll detect Osiris' actual, entangling usage of this placeholder-identity as his own alter-ego in Sumeria: to obliterate Abel forever.)

(Note. Hebrew translation gives Nod/Nwd, the meaning, exile-flight, but which may have been contextually assumptive, comparative to nos ... However, the Sumerian indicates, Nwd Nud, meant to lie down in the sense of weary, probably disheveled stony laid land adjacent to Edin,-- from-which Cain then made stone houses... possibly as far east as the foothills of the Persian range, where large boulders tumbled down....)

CAIN'S ANCESTRY:

Put outside the Adamic reference, to wander, Cain and his wife took to the wider world, close knowledge of the sons and daughters of God as gods themselves by their personal names, from their grandfather Shw whom the Hebrews called, Yahweh, of the Genesis garden, -though that, would have been his twin sister-wife Tefnuit if centuries-old grandmother was even distinguishable from grandfather,- on down... and added his own children, consistent with Cain's early childhood as first grandson: Cain Osiris married sister Isis, Adam's first daughter, (as Adam married his own sister Eve); Seth got second-daughter sister Nephthys.... Cain knew his great-grandfather Amun Ra, his wife Amaunet Iusaaset known also as his shadow, Khaibit, (family humor on Ra's fame as sun-god), also his greatest-grandparents Ptah and his consort Sekhmet, plus Ra's Council of ancestors, gods described as the dark infinite invisible dissolution of space, depicted as watertable frogs Heh and wife Hauhet and snakes Kek and wife Kauket ... But, the Biblical record starts with only Lord Shw Yahweh ... Note it is conceivable that the very-very-older gods were smaller, shrunken, wrinkly, and mostly lounged their centuries by rivers on Earth,-- hence, frogs, snakes, in allusion....

(Note, Extrabiblical Hebrew-Jewish records identify Adam's two daughters as sister-wives Awan and Azura, -or other,- and list all their years.... These records also indicate that Adam and Eve themselves were not-born in the garden of Eden, but brought-there at 40-and-80-days ... yet ... beware that the depiction given of the earliest years reads somewhat desultorily and the seven days of the week seem more like seven years.)

THE INBRED TWINS, PARADOX:

Both Egyptian and Sumerian records, usually list twins born among the gods:- Tefnuit's twin brother would have been Tefen, but, Shw replaced Tefen at some point and Tefen was no longer mentioned, Yet, Shw was also, Tefnuit's twin, or he was Tefen himself after a renaming event, or, Shw and Tefen were near-identical twins:-- single-lineage inbreeding yields progressively-nearer twins by loss of genetic diversity till male and female are otherwise indistinguishable ... whence Ptah reputedly living 9000 years would have looked identical to Ra in his future age if Ra did not pass early; and Tefen, Tefnuit, Shw, were Ra's near-identical sub-twins but some millennia younger not seen as sub-twin by Earthers... and once on Earth, the abundant varieties of food and atomic nuclear chemistry altered that. This sort of exception recurring makes reading history probable and iffy and revisable: Adam may have been the son of Tefen, resurnamed son of Shw; Tefnuit may have been sister Shwh, known in Egypt by title Tef-nuit Chwh-nuit, Eve-nuit, mother of Nuit; Biblical Jehovah Yhwh was Shw or his wife; Cain 40 and Abel 32 were near-identical twins of minorly different years; Isis 203 and Nephthys 146 were dressup-substitutable... and history may have an unexpectedly new future....

(Note, the Egyptian record lists four pairs of copredecessors with Ptah:-- a few pairs per two millennia exhibit myriadal natural-life longevity; Ra Amun "the hidden god" lived and ruled 7000 years before arriving on Earth, then ruled 1000 on, Earth, as Ra Atem. But, born ca Ptah's 2000th, after two interstitial male ancestors each 666~years apart, implies nine generations in lineage were dropped between Ra and Shw: Significant events at the end of millions of years of space-travel ... possibly some were deposited earlier on planets at suns before our own, maybe alone.)

(Note that Ptah, said-to-be self-begotten, may have transferred title to his first-son and subsequent generations shifted titles till Shw ... Ptah was known for creating children by thought, -by thorough planning:- He named them and plotted their destinies long before he had them, and passed this information to Ra; Over 9000 years of pre-observing our Earth and solar system by telescope foreseeing their destination and future before they arrived, Ptah had generated his precursor of a preplanned 'zodiac', but which information remained primarily within his first-lineage family.)

(Note bioscience, assumes that inbred twins do not produce clone-exact copies, due to molecular rebounding in identical-chromosome pairs.)

A TALE OF TWO FAMILIES THE SAME IN TWO PLACES:

While it is not directly certain whether a fuller name, Shw-Ah, was rendered as, Yahweh Jehovah, Or, just his given, Shw, --superenunciated,-- 'Shuve' Yhwh Jove cf Geo Jew Chw Zeus Deus Tues, worldwide supreme lord-god-and-father over Earth, Jehovah grandparented Adam and Eve's family in which came three sons, Cain the gardener, Abel the shepherd early slain by Cain, and Seth, -who, two, married but their wives unidentified in the Bible;- And the Egyptians, parallel, with Shw grandparenting the family of son Geb and daughter Nuit and their sons, Osiris god of heaven-signs and cultivation, unknown Elder-Horus (vs. Apophis, haunting Cain, who apparently talked about Abel, not full disclosure), and Seth, Plus their two daughters sister-wives, Isis Iset (may be 'IShHt woman wife consort) and Nephthys Nebt-het ('daughter of the house').

The active Egyptian gods generally used titles instead of names, once their family operation got started; There are some telling exceptions....

Millennia-later Egyptians revised such working knowledge of the gods, refining the notion to One God-Family, but very like their early models: Invisible Amun, Mut, Khonsu, became the primary god triunity natures, but still relied on personal identification (in general all god-names were associative-revisionist-identifications not always the names used by the persons themselves; and later generations played mix-and-match) ... Yet, notable details remain: Khonshu, meant wanderer, when khan lord Shw/Yhw left; Amun Ra became top-god Atem Tem T'amu, when Ptah left; Mut became top-goddess T'Mut Tiamut, over in Sumeria, when a to-be-identified senior female, probably Ptah-tanen T'Nun's Naunet, left, And Mut remarried her sisterless son Shw who became 'the contented father' Abba-Shw Apsu of Enuma Elish fame, our prototypical Jehovah.

(Similar 'spiritual' notions exhibited in early-pre-'christian'-un-jew theology, as father Adam, son Cain, holy ghost Abel, adversarial satan Seth.)

(Note that Amun's wife Amaunet Mut's name may have actually been 'Amut', whence the Sumerian, Ti-Amut with the syllabic 'a', was real exact.)

(Note the titular, Khonsu Khonshu, Kh'An-Shw THE-Lord-Shw, hints that Amun Ra was so-old he didn't expect to remain millennia in rulership.)

But also, Egyptian records tend variously to the Sumerian, as the gods were known more seniorly, visiting gold-gatherers later city-developers along their longer river; and as god-populations increased they became individually diversified finely refined, making them indistinguishable to all-but-a-native... We'll, estimate their name conventions to their character uniqueness and family structures; Historic Egyptians themselves, as well as Moses' scribes, and ancient and modern archaeologists, have attempted reconstructions such as we'll try anew:--

THE ANUBIAN DILEMMA, ENOCH THE FIRST:

As the story developed -in the Egyptian- it was apparent that Seth or Setekh, third son of Adam Geb and Eve Nuit, was out to improve his lot even if at the expense of first son Cain Osiris... Having no children for lineage rights by sister-wife Nephthys, (nor later with consorts Taweret, Ishtarte, Inat), -nor yet had Cain Osiris by his, wife Isis:- Nephthys went to Osiris, disguised as Isis, --(in Hebrew folklore this would have been demon Lilith though who was attributed as Adam's wife before Eve though perhap Nephthys had tried Adam too),-- and she seduced Cain to impregnate her:- Her child Anubis Ienpw (meaning sickly-putrid; he despised men), is in Sumerian references lord Anu, Enos of the highland-heaven, first king, -Anu, in the Akkadian; Anos, in the Babylonian; Ouranos/Ur-Anus, in the Greek and so on globally-... He grew up as a loner the shared,-loaner, the product of two families, four parents, everybody's same child, everybody owned him: 'the offspring', the only next god-- and at first lived with Isis in Egypt, and Nephthys attended assisting with 'the sick baby'. In title he was, Enoch, a next-first lord-chief, and Cain Osiris built cities named after him, a century after Cain's days in Sumer, possibly Nekhen and Nekheb situated oppositely on the Nile....

(Sumerian name, Lilith, was anciently interpreted, female demon, but Egyptian Lil-heth, reads more as air-of-the-house: a close fragrance as of flirting ... a first-century-AD biographer found that Osiris had dropped a Melilot garland in departing his tryst with Nephthys:- possibly the source for the attributed names, Lilith, and subsequent Mualaleth.... In Hebrew lore, Adam deflected wife Lilith over protocol,- but that may have been a later misassumption upon his transition to sister-wife Eve, at age 65.... The Second Book of Adam and Eve identifies Awan Isis as Luluwa; the linguistical L-Lu-affinity and nasal-assumption applied to L'L-Awan.... Lilith was commonly a demon that steals babies probably due to Luluwa.)

(The Egyptian pronunciation of, Ienpw, is about 'Yenophu', the p sounding open-tip-oph; cf the Egyptian star Spdt, is Greek Sothis pronounced about, 'Sophdth'; cf also Mesopotamian Purattu Prtth, is Greek Euphrates pronounced about 'oPhratth'... the gods were indeed of one tongue.)

But Anubis Anup didn't have a twin sister in Egypt,-- a terrible prospect, for Anubis, as for all four parents, Cain Osiris, Nephthys, Isis, Seth, and grandparents Adam Geb and Eve Nuit, and great-grandparents Shw, Mut, and great-great-granddad Ra... Seth had to table his plot to kill Cain Osiris outright for lineage rights, till Enoch Enos got children of his own, -somebody to carry-on the godhead:- The family began calling upon the name of the Lord of-gods: Where, was god Enos going to get a wife?!-- This was a turning point in the gods' history: after 9000 years planning.

(Note. Sumerian records indicate Anshar An-Sar, high-plenty, then, Anu An-U Lord-of-heavens Enos-- whom men began to call-upon by name, Lord An:-- not Jehovah/Yhwh Shw Lord for Adam and Eve; nor Seth himself Enos' father under their lineage-law.... And as, Anshar, sounds like Egyptian, WSR, pronounced 'oongsher', it may be that Cain Wsr Osiris was visiting Sumeria, But which was much-later, in the time of both Anu and his son En-Ki Lord of the Earth, when Shw was Apshw Apsu long-no longer Khonshu.... Note also the Biblical name-version, Enos, Enosh, may have intentionally recorded his father Cain's, name, Osiris Wsr, shortened to, Ws:-- En-Ws lord-(of)-Ws ... as Cain was great Ws-(of)-aR.)

(Subnote the similarity in these titular, Angshar, WngShaR, may indicate the similar was used by both, Cain Osiris in Egypt, and Seth in Sumer.)

And, how he got sent east to the Edin mountain-heaven, is quite a story ... a very different story ... that fits only after detangling the real, Enoch--

THE BILATERAL IDENTITY SPLIT HEIR-- IN AN OTHERWISE VERY LONG AND NARROW LINE:

The Egyptians had two, Anubis', one by Ra, one by Osiris, one by Seth; and of three, all by Nephthys, one or two are a redoublement; Anubis, Osiris Cain's Biblical first-son Enoch, was 'god of the dead', when the only dead was Abel, and he lived in Egypt 39 years before they figured out who had sired him legally conclusively, and removed him--

The god family was ruled by their inbred lineage system. They had a purpose distinct from anything mankind has known but by fables such as we'll review later for corroborative content. Briefly, they sought immortality in propagating family and maintaining their oldest genetics, -(it was the way they spent millions of years before arriving on Earth):- Their lineage children came 8-years apart beginning at the fathers' age 65 and first by the seniors in order: The rule was simply-- parents in-lineage, sire in-lineage, the child firstborn of the mother ... the seniors 'prevented' the husband in maintaining their oldest genetics, then let the husband to be fruitful and multiply.... Ra, Shw, and brother-not-first-lineage Thoth, being seniors to Adam; Ra had sired Cain, Shw sired Abel, but needing a sister for Cain, Ra ordered Thoth to sire to get first daughter Awan Isis ... and decades later, Adam sired Seth and in first-lineage, Azura Nephthys; The odd inclusion of Thoth suggests he was ranked closer to first-lineage than merely second, --possibly close as a birth-twin to Shw,-- though the distinction still resulted in second-lineage Abel believing second-lineage Awan was to be his; (Biblically, Jehovah/Yhwh Shw had favored Abel, his-sired grandson, only to be the tender of the sheep).

(And forenote that they also finely-adjusted the birthing schedule by the daughter-sister-wife-mother's sibling-rank, about a year per rank step, and probably also by the sire's rank with still finer single moon offsets for further exaction but only for exclusivity at less than ten months apart.)

(Note our estimated 8-year-sibling-separation, is 4-10 by Jubilees span for Cain, Abel, Awan, born in successive 7-year 'weeks'; 6-9 years as Cain was born 'midweek' by 2 years ca Adam's 65th; 8 years in Methuselah getting Lamech in his 187th 8-shy of 195; and dependent on what senior-fill should accomplish ... Seth's 3-10 years marriage before getting Enos; Enos' 10-16 years marriage twice-5-8 before getting Cainan; and their sevenfold rule of vengeance in a case of murder being 1+7=8 family deletions an entire continguous group of eight senior sires, even possibly explaining the gap of nine in Ra's senior lineage if the first senior of that nine had been murdered by the second ... and, if 8-years was deterministic, it was 100 moons, synodic months, about 8.1 years, 8.33 'years' in its corresponding lunar calendar and 66.66 'years' over eight generations divided 8-times: a new baby every year to gradually fill-in the schedule eventually becoming a lineage-phalanx where according to Abraham his seed would count as grains of sand large in number and packed tight gods-by-number-and-name ... the 65-year estimate is from examples, 130-year double-examples, Jubilees' 196-year triple-example for Cain begetting Enoch; and in fact Jubilees' 364-day-calendar 65-'years' is the best-match at 64.9-'years' near-real-years, for 8×100-moons, -virtually proving the whole case:- its cumulative mismatch drifting a 'year'-per-666, 1-per-665 Jubilees', 1-per-203 real-years,-- which error the Book of Enoch using the same 364-day-year blames on "sinners"-- which, we may additionally note the origin of the word, sin, was, Sin the moon-god, so, "sinners" were 'Sin'ners because they were 'moon'ers.)

(Subnote that Jubilees' 364-day-year calendar, may have, had, a source-correction 'realizer' dropping 1.2 intercalated moons per generation.)

(Subnote, Jubilees' record on the birth of Adam and Eve seems duplicitous wherein they were born two years before the chronology began, but which may be a few days difference between their primordial exact lunar-month calendar and their jubilee-year calendar from their arrival date.)

(It may be that each god calculated lineage time on his own calendar schema, which would then change primacy at next-top-god epochs, and Ra chose the solar year approximation, for where living in the temperate zone close enough to the planet equator minimized seasonal effects against Ptah's preplanned planetary-alignment-'zodiac'-scheduling.)

So Ra, not Cain Osiris, sired Anubis Enoch and put him in first-son Cain's family. But there's a catch in this explanation, involving Cain and Isis:

(Note that phraseology alone could intend that Ra was senior-father at Anubis' birth, but the records are certain -and fit- that he had sired; And senior-sire order maximized genetic recycling on a multisample-crossbreeding grid minimizing any decline to a manageably recoverable rate and timeframe while keeping the longest-lived most inbred, up front, in first lineage, gleaning-and-culling for the genetic subset of immortality-- from which they should extract the genetic-master race whose members lived 9000 years and retired not died, not imagined floating west in a Tuat and north with hearts as light as a feather, but living as long as the planet and the sun itself, across the galaxy, across the universe....)

It was Cain's 130's decade, in which to father-sire with his first-lineage sister-wife, (compare Adam sired with Eve first in his 130th) ... but who was not Awan Isis 3rd-sibling, second-lineage, but Azura Nephthys 10th-sibling, in the next generation, But, were she his wife before marrying Seth, he'd old-father-sire with her a generation later in his 196th, 187th+9, six decades after Ra sired with her in his 139th. And yet Osiris was not recorded as siring with Nephthys off-schedule, but that she had sneakily substituted for Isis, And Ra sired with her in Cain's 131st as if she were 2nd-sibling in Seth's generation: and, married to Seth ... So, something was amiss in Egypt and Nephthys' sneak was another thing than reported in the Egyptian record.... By Council rule Anubis was sired by Ra not Cain Osiris but put in his family; and that complaint of Nephthys' trick was only quaint story: Awan Isis and Azura Nephthys would not have mothered a lineage child in the same year and month, (The Egyptian records also noted that Nephthys abandoned the child, But yet Isis too left her own child in the swamp while running errands in nearby villages; allowing either, as mother, and Nephthys took responsibility afterward; a question more of appearances which leaves open the possibility that Isis collaborated with Nephthys to sneakily get Isis a first-lineage child the next year in Osiris' 132nd, year 197....)

(Ra may have sired 8-years early with Nephthys on the clever assumption that he was older than most-senior-sire Shw who should most-senior-sire in Cain's 139th, 130+9; or, implemented a rule that Nephthys was first in her own generation as the only-sired;- scheduling difficulty like that Ra had experienced with sisterless Shw ... But by jumping himself in at Cain Osiris' 131st, Ra may have set the pace for Cain later siring early.)

('Old-father-siring' with a next-generation-2nd-rank wife was not an actual order but in its equivalence to grandfather-siring with a 10th-rank wife e.g. 3×65 +1 = 187 +9; so, possibly probably Ra whose seniority position was not sliding till the senior-siring gap should be refilled, was okay.)

Anubis-the-first Enoch was born in Adam's 196th year (says extrabiblical Hebrew-Jewish record The Book of Jubilees; Also note, The Book of Jasher calls him, "Enoch the son of Seth"), -but of Ra and Nephthys- and 39 years he lived not in Edin with Seth but in Egypt with Cain and Isis, because Cain was in-lineage and got the first child when in-lineage mother Nephthys was ca age 57 and Cain 130, (per Jubilees),- as was her time to bear a first-lineage child ... Cain was still in-lineage in-family, just living in Egypt instead of Edin where he was forbidden by Jehovah for having murdered Abel a century before ... And Anubis was under the care of his two mothers, Nephthys and -stepmother- Isis... But Shw wasn't siring in Cain's lineage, so, Anubis was called home, to Edin, because he was first-lineage and supposed to live eastward and Cain wasn't his sire, and Ra was convinced he was in Seth's lineage despite Cain's permanent vacation, and, he needed a first-lineage wife sired by Shw and his mother Nephthys who belonged home in Edin, and being 'god of the dead' was not-all-that-important... And Anubis Enoch fumed, He made the worst stink imaginable, He claimed sick-out, He painted his head red (Ra's was blue),-- he despised the old gods, for their lineage system, men (the gods called themselves before mankind-became more than talking animals) ... and went home to Edin, --Enos Anu-- moved east and up-the-mountain, and sat up there and watched everybody below crawling like ants: He was First Watcher in the east, and god of the mountain-sky heavens; He bred bulls like in Egypt, and got used to being first-son of his estranged father; and began to laugh at having two mothers, two lands, two names, two beginnings like two births, reregistered as Seth's Enos in Adam's 235th (more precisely started ruling in the 235th), and soon-- he'd have two, first,-sons....

(That, Enos began in the 235th rather than 236th, is just possibly their year-registration, or, possibly Council's indication that it was not by birth, needing as-it-were father but no generational mother for his second-first-lineage beginning, in Sumer.... Cain's family had started officially late, one 65-year cycle, having waited for generation-younger Nephthys who was not sired on senior schedule but father-sired in the next.)

(Note the 39-years-not-knowing was longish by Ra and Shw arguing whether Cain had actually killed Abel, or could not account for Abel, and, Shw's certainty he did, and their desire to stay-the-course on lineage despite Abel's death, as that was the purpose of senior-sires, and, Shw decreed that Cain owed him one son, and they locked on whose-first son that would be... Council would have their final decision when Anubis was 39, but which only accentuated Cain's trouble in getting senior-sired children ... family-lineage-schedule-rules had to be followed too, and Council decided Cain's firstborn be his restitution not-direct-replacement for Adam's dead second, Abel, in Shw's line fathered through Seth.)

(Note. Seth taking his wife's son Enos, and carrying-on for Cain, and Abel, set the Hebrew tradition famous even for Christ Jesus' parentage.)

But to detangle all this and explain the wait of 39 years, we check their senior-siring-rule order: Ra had sired first in Cain's generation, so, Shw would sire-first next, But the next generation was not, Cain's family, --Ra did not sire for Cain, in Cain's 65th year, because Cain's wife Isis was second-lineage, (murder aside, there were lineage-rules to follow),-- but Seth's generation, family ... In Seth's 66th year Ra sired with Nephthys Azura though she had not yet married (says Jubilees; so something was amiss) and would soon enough marry Seth; Ra, sired first Anubis and put him in Cain Osiris' lineage, (they were all four first-lineage), But -here we deduce,- Shw refused to sire next, He did not have to sire any: He had lost Abel and sent Cain away east ca age 40, and received in-return Anubis east ca age 40 ... and Thoth deferred, superseded by Adam.

(That, Nephthys Azura was not yet married, may have made it easier for Ra to sire early: as she did not yet belong to any husband's schedule.)

Ra wanted to fill lineage as quickly as possible and, with the murder of Abel, saw that as requiring himself to sire again; Ra wanted Shw to sire Anubis' first-sister, but Shw refused to jeopardize another child under backup-less Cain but rather took Cain's Anubis as replacement for Abel: Anubis was reassigned and transferred to Shw, given the Iranian plateau beyond Edin, but no longer in the main lineage;- Nephthys Azura then mothered a second child with Osiris Cain senior at 196 years (or 188 but who too young to marry at barely 7 years in this generation, waited to be stuffed, in the next).... Ra was keeping himself, Shw, and Thoth, at the head of the senior-sires queue while moving new first-lineage seniors Adam, Cain, Seth, in to fill the prior missing-seniors gap-- so all Ra's sired were on his primordial 65-year-cycle senior-sire schedule calendar.

(Yet note, there is still the odd hint that Adam did not sire with Lilith, Nephthys Azura, for her position above him in birth-order sired by himself in lower senior-order, Yet Lilith might have been Luluwa, Isis Awan, he avoided; And, it was not impossible that Shw could sire a sister for Anubis, but the Egyptians have no such record, for a sister within 8-years of Anubis, nor by senior Thoth 16-years after, nor brothers, within the 39 years Anubis lived in Egypt with Osiris and Isis; nor by Geb, later, in Egypt ... It's our best estimate, given the paucity of information on a sister-wife for Anubis, even Anu in Sumer, that she was born long-after Anubis left Egypt,- And it would have been said that he'd married a foreign-born wife.)

And here we see the beginning of dual-first-lineages: the earthly-first lineage, of Adam, distinct and second to the primordial-first lineage of Ra, though actually sired by Ra, moved from Egypt to Sumer at Anubis' age 40 years, Anu Enos' 1st ... rather than the usual 40 days for baby boys.

N.B. Ra sired Enoch firstborn in first-lineage Cain's family; Ra sired Enos firstborn in first-lineage Azura Nephthys' family; Cain and Azura were brother and sister, father and mother but unmarried; there was one firstborn daughter who married Enoch and Enos; there are no indications of either being replaced, or dying, but definite indication that one moved from Egypt to become 'Watcher in the east' ... and hence one same son. (Note Anubis' title, 'god of the dead', cannot mean he died, because centuries later Isis summoned him and his hunting jackal to find a body....)

SHW'S TAKE ON CAIN'S ENOCH VERSUS SETH'S ENOCH ENOS, -OR- WHAT WE'D HAVE EXPECTED DIFFERENT:

The Biblical record and Hebrew pseudepigrapha would have us believe that Cain was outcast and uninvolved with Seth's line but using similar baby names... A better alternative is that Cain and Seth proceeded on their course, Shw notwithstanding, but that was modified along the way, particularly in that lineage order was revised by Council to repack the senior-siring schedule to take up the slack in the missing-seniors gap ...

There are, ways, to fit this puzzle: Cain and Seth were siring lines in a different order on 130-years, for Cain was outcast and Seth was father-sired ... Cain would sire his Enoch in the 197th but Ra did in the 196th; Seth would sire or Adam or Shw surrogate-sire, his Enos in the 261st, but who appears 26 years earlier and we understand was Cain's Enoch moved 39 years later ... Cain's Enoch would sire Cainan in the 326th and may have as appeared in Seth's Enos' 90th instead of 91st, but the Bible says it was Irad who appears Jared later in Seth's line ... Seth's Enos would sire Mahalaleel in the 395th, nudged 5-years for the wife's rank in Seth's line, which fits and the Sumerian perception agrees, Ellil Mahalaleel was Anu Enos' true-first son ... and Cain's Enoch's Cainan would sire Irad, Mahalaleel's Jared in the 460th also-nudged 5-years in Seth's line, which fits and the Sumerian agrees, Cainan Enki fathered Mered Marduk... But that coincidence of Cain's Enoch and Seth's Enos must imply some re-coordination making two be one, But then that doesn't fit unless Enoch also sired as Enos and kept secret in Sumer what he'd actually done... and which may also, fit ... But those fine one-year-discrepancies still have us pondering about Anubis' mother-consort, or, about the alignment of their calendars, their lunar-months, solar-days, and solar-years, calendars ... (which we may ultimately align to the day).

Cain would have father-sired in his 132nd with wife Awan Isis 2-years-offset for her sibling-rank as 3rd child of Adam, But Ra preempted him a year in Cain's 131st in 196 with Azura Nephthys 1-year-offset for her sibling-rank as 2nd in Seth's generation (but which was 10th to Cain's: Ra knowingly sired with Nephthys in Seth's generation, not Cain's; but she was not married to Cain, so it was proper) ... and the son was moved to Seth's family 39 years later, in 235, setting the new offsets for Cain and Seth senior-siring ... But ... Cain had not yet senior-sired, and Seth had not yet father-sired; Cain would senior-sire next as grandfather in his 196th-or-188th with Nephthys, and Seth would father-sire 8-years later his 139th-or-131st, and two sons or daughters would be ranked in Anubis' generation or the next, and would be first-lineage, -and the first possibly replacing Anubis, if a son,- but both also too young to be fathers or mothers so soon and they would have to wait an additional generation....

(It may seem curious, that Ra did-not sire with Isis the only daughter in her generation born by order upon Thoth to sire ... Ra had started, picky, but his formalism was wearing thin and beginning to fray ... maybe the death of Abel had given them cause to rethink, what should work ... Or, it may simply be that their schedule included the father's sired, first two children, in what may have been primordially a 10×10 siring-matrix where the father sired last-of-ten the sibling-interval before the most-senior, folded down to 8×8 with the father ninth-and-tenth to better fit Earth's lunar calendar, about-12 moons per year, per-hundred about-8 ... Azura Nephthys thus qualified as the tenth in either, system, primordial or Earthly.)

That either way almost does fit, means we'll have to decide their fixes, check both alternatives with equal diligence; then decide the likelier--

The more-plausible explanation, if Isis' report is true, is that, Shw didn't take Ra's sired son Anubis from Cain, but Cain subrogate-sired, for Ra: the closest thing to justified: Ra decided he was getting too old to stay-on as a senior-sire, and ordered Cain to subrogate sire, whence Anubis was sired by Ra with Nephthys on the Council record but sired by Cain with Nephthys in Isis' factual report where Isis complained that Nephthys sneaked to Osiris... Isis wouldn't complain of Ra, directly, so she complained of Nephthys ... Ra didn't lose a son to Shw, because Cain sired it, on Ra's schedule, and fathered it, and turned it over to Shw; and Council gave Anubis Enoch Enos his own branch lineage offset at 40 years....

(Enos' branch offset 40 years represented that he would senior-sire as the 6th-ranked, after Ra, Shw, Adam, Cain, and Seth, -or maybe that his father Seth was 6th-ranked, after Ra, Shw, Thoth, Adam, and Cain;- and that same offset would put Enos' children back on Ra's main schedule: Such 'statistical data fudging' numeric-manipulation, would seem to make all the god's wrongs appear adjudged right-fitting their master plan...)

So, Anubis had even two sires, in Council's legal-context: Ra was still at the top, Cain didn't supersede Shw but did duty for Ra ... But, it wasn't really per Isis' claim of Nephthys' sneaking seduction of Cain Osiris: It was at Ra's order, possibly with Council's foreknowledge and decision;- Except for why, Nephthys, say Egyptian records, dressed up and played Isis, to seduce Osiris:- unless Osiris was flabbergasted and reluctant, siring before all the other seniors, with the superior authority of Ra, advancing with recalcitrance against the mental breakdown that would lead even to the later instigation of murder to supersede Shw in Sumer.... The Egyptian-version would thus be uninformed commentary by Isis when better fact shows it all timely, and the report that Osiris had dropped his garland upon exiting Seth's house, also, consistent ... Isis' thought was notably perturbed by her-own second-standing before her next-generation-younger sister and brother receiving all of Osiris Cain's first-lineage children,-- and within two more centuries she was referring to Seth as 'that fiend', which carried down the millennia to Jesus, as, devil, Satan....

(Note that Nephthys' impersonation of Isis and sneaky seduction of Osiris may have been rather over Shw's instruction to stay away from Cain; cf the Egyptian interpretation, that, Nephthys got the notion that Cain did not want to sire by her for she was to become his brother Seth's wife;- But, if the record meant that she was already, Seth's wife, then the seduction occurred on the next, son, Enoch Enos', first-son, yet to be born.)

(Subnote to clarify: Cain Osiris did-not-sire child with Nephthys-pretending-as-Isis, because he was not-siring children with-Isis: whence demon Lilith but the scribe did not recognize that; Biblical Enoch son of Cain, was sired by Ra and Nephthys: in the Egyptian record, which knew a little better ... Osiris Cain would not sire children 'til his seniors finished their schedule after Enoch, But yet the Egyptian record indicates Osiris Cain had no-lineage-children-ever, in four centuries, till after he was dead and Isis pulled a cute trick;-- and we'll get to that one.)

(Secondary subnote to clarify the clarification: Cain may have later, had non-lineage children, by Isis, whom she and they never acknowledged.)

(One last-twist on the Anubis-sire: If Isis' report is truer than not, it is possibly that Ra instructed Cain that he co-sire, in year-196, in the reputed tryst with Nephthys: Genetics does not work that way but Cain was ensuring the outcome ... Nephthys not yet married to Seth in her enticement to Cain could mean she was avoiding Ra for the stipulation by Shw that would return Cain's first lineage-son to replace Shw's Abel ... She may have done both: then abandoned the child to Isis' care.... Cainan came on the normal schedule by Cain and Isis didn't complain for the usual.... And the-last twist, in-the-twist: Eve may have surrogate-mothered to quash the disagreement between her two daughters: One vague hint says Anshar Cain sired with his own mother... that might put Enoch at 195, still consistent with Jubilees, and privilege her to wear a melilot garland.)

FIRST-ENOCH ANUBIS ANWPS ENOS ANU'S 40-YEAR-OFFSET BRANCH LINEAGE, SIBLINGS, AND IN-BETWEENS:

NAMMU

Seth married Nephthys and 8-years later Anubis came home to Sumer and was put in Seth's family ... and waited ... And here's the dilemma:--

Enos' 90-year gap till Cainan, or Enoch's 90 if Cainan was also, moved 40, was not 66-years by Ra, 74 by Shw, (or 82 by Thoth), or 107-years 41-later by Adam moved up a notch in sireage, but 24-later, as-if by the nobody-next after Thoth; Plus the Sumerian record says he was of Anu Enos' own mother Antu Nammu Kishar, not, his lineage-sister-wife Kiki Ki ... (and by some Sumerian scholars, Anu's sister-wife Kiki's first-son was the elder, but which may be a referential mistake of the younger's relative-birth-year as Anu's son). Only if a younger senior, -Adam Geb or Cain Osiris,- moved up to the 24-year position, could this possibly work....

Furthermore, the era between Cain's Enoch and Irad in the Biblical record of Cain's lineage implies Enoch fathered or sired Irad, and, requires somebody else sired the in-betweens, meaning Seth (or one or two, surrogates) sired one-or-more after Enoch and before Jared, even though Seth was not ruling... Also, the Sumerian record requires that Enki Cainan and Ellil Mahalaleel both were Anu Anubis Enos' brothers-and-sons, having a common mother, father, or sire: Indeed, Anu and Enki had mother Kishar Nephthys in common, But young Kiki mothered Ellil with Anu her husband who must have shared sire Ra, but didn't, or by softer mix, Seth, fathered Anubis and sired Ellil (by surrogate):- Ellil could not have been sired by Cain unless Irad was too-- on a stationary schedule,-- but the branch siring schedule must have been sliding, partly, the youngest seniors advancing to allow for the next-newer but while Ra and Shw remained temporarily fixed ahead of the gap ... Or alternatively it may have been the cleverer assumption that Enki Cainan was Anu Enos' brother, sired in Anu's shifted-generation, and, Ellil Mahalaleel in the next where Cainan had moved-down-40-years to father, began as Cainan's brother till he moved, and thus in their compounded-delayed-transitivity sense, Enki Cainan and Ellil Mahalaleel both were brothers-and-sons of Anu Enos,- possibly the family humor to explain-and-cool fraternal arguments.

And some-senior sired Kiki, wife of Anu Enos, whose son would be a second-first-son, after Nephthys' insert, and, by calculations subsequent, Kiki would have to be 7th-rank-equivalent in Enoch or Enos' generation as Nephthys had been 2nd in her own, and, as Ra didn't sire twice with Nephthys, Kiki was likely sired by Shw, at 49-years offset as-if 8-years-after Enos, that being 7th-rank 48-years-after Enoch, so that, she would mother 6-years offset 5-more-than Nephthys' offset ... Ra had effectually sired Enos' at 40 by removal of Enoch at 39, and Shw sired a parallel-daughter-line that did not-move but held a dual-rank of first-lineage in Enos' offset branch while delaying mothering by sibling-rank on the main; (Thoth probably remained ready on the sideline in case Shw failed to get a daughter).... This would also imply that Cain's, Enoch's, generation, was foreshortened to 40-years, rather than the usual-65, at least by the Egyptian, order: in creating Enos' offset branch....

(Anu's branch represented Ra's son-line shifted-40-years to make-up for the loss of Abel, Kiki's branch represented Shw's daughter-line offset 40-years ... both sired with Nephthys Azura who had been Cain's assumed consort for 40 years and Seth's wife for the next 65 and more... We are seeing a bit of insight into their concepts of rank and value: both sons and daughters would be sired in their offset branches and so ranked for lineage firstness, but the daughters would become mothers offset on their main branch valuation, by sons dropped-in to father the families.)

And with Shw branch-siring, the others followed suit; (There are other less-likely equivalencies depending on whether the offset applied also to the wife-line, on whether Seth being-father-sired would sire at the 40th-temporarily-16-after Cain, and, on other, finer-point, reasonings).... Shw would still trail Ra, first-daughters would be first-lineage, but first-sons of the supra-seniors would be sub-lineage to Adam's, Cain's, Seth's etc. (Only Enos was a first, yet second-first, because he'd been born Enoch on the main-branch ... Had Shw sired a son he'd have been a second.)

It appears this branch-lineage held four first-sons since Enoch was moved at-40 to be Enos and thence each-next moved down 40-years....

Seth's marriage to Azura 3-10 years before getting Enos, was probably defined as Adam, Cain, Seth, packed forward in seniority to sire at 16, 24, 32, years, relative to the main-schedule by virtue of being the youngest-senior-sires on the branch-generation at 41, 49, 57, offset-40-years, (Seth received Enos at 39 years: who would father-sire at 40-years on the branch-65-years). Shw sired Kiki at 49-years, 9-years on the branch; And -after the gap- Adam may-have-sired a second daughter, or deferred to surrogate-sire for Seth, and Cain sired at that 25, putting Cainan's birth at the 89th of Enoch and subsequently transferred down 40-more, (Shw possibly allowed Cain's continued siring because his first son had been turned over to Seth's family, and as a second would be sired-in by Cain great-grandfather-siring having missed grandfathering in Enoch's short, generation) to Enos' branch lineage offset 40-years, in year-325. Shw, Thoth, and Adam, were not senior-siring into Cain's family but into Seth's and by transfer to Enos', and-or possibly as surrogates if needed for Seth or as follow-ons-after to prevent Cain-vs.-Abel type conflicts....

(Seth's marriage 3-10-possibly-8-years before receiving Enoch as Enos may have been to appreciate his next-generation offset, the 8-years.)

(That Cain, sired Cainan, is corroborated by Jasher's story of Lamech killing grandfather-Cain: being related by marrying Cainan's daughters.)

(The second-daughter, Cainan's sister maybe a birth-twin, purportedly disputed Enki Cainan's firstness-- because he moved 40 yet she didn't, and Cainan married his officially-first-sister-wife born later in the generation, past the 40-year cutoff, sired by Shw....)

(Siring-schedule delays were of no pressing matter as the gods were in no rush to be immortal....)

Nephthys Azura mothered a whole-65-year-generation offset 40-years by her marriage to Seth and receipt of Enoch down-one as Enos ... But, that is to say that she mothered once in one generation for Cain and several times in the next generation offset 40-years for Adam, Cain, Seth: Nephthys Azura bore Osiris Cain's sired child Cainan Enoch, in his 220th on his 24-year-offset +1 for her rank, to be moved 40 to Enos' offset: Cainan was born 25-years-offset-over-65 from Enoch, Ellil was born 5-years-offset-over-65 from Cainan, and Irad with no additional offset was right-on-the-65-years-after Ellil, (albeit, Irad Jared's older-brother Nanna-Suen Enan was born yet sooner by a reputedly-too-young wife).

In other words, formerly Cain would have grandfather-sired in his 188th, in Enoch's generation but which was foreshortened, so, instead great-grandfather-sired in Enos' generation-- moved-up: in his 220th which is equivalent to the 25th year in the main line; and because Kiki was thus born in Enos' 40-years-offset generation, she would not mother till the next offset generation, 16-years after Cainan was born. And the result of too many changes and equivalencies may have led to Ellil's subsequent confusion as to which year he should get his first son Enan or Jared....

Seth may-or-not have been moved-up to first-lineage as the replacement for Cain's lack of son in his 65th: He was fathering, but still less-first, Sumerian and Egyptian records essentially agree ... One hint of difference comes in later Sumerian texts that Anu Enos that is Anubis Enoch, sired his second, first-son: which would imply Cain had ceased siring in Anubis' line, -probably on Shw's order of exclusion, but we don't have the 'when-or-if',- and maybe Enos subrogate-sired for Seth at the 24th year offset ... limiting senior sires Cain's involvement and Seth's siring-trials, to grandfather-siring to get past their troubled generations, --or they got daughters,-- and then Enos father-sired prolifically....

Enoch Enos, senior-sired two generations after Cain, would sire 16 years after Cain, but beginning in his third generation, 8-years after Seth, sired, but so also would not father-sire with his true wife Kiki till after she and his brother-first-son and another sister were born (but not Ellil) ... But why the Bible does not list Cainan after Cain's Enoch, may be scribe confusion about Cain's Enoch who disappeared in becoming Enos: whence there were really two, Enoch's, one for Cain and one for Seth, and the Sumerian name, Enki, may have reflected that second use....

(Research note: There may be a 1-year-discrepancy in moving Cainan to Anubis Enos' branched-lineage: Although seemingly calendric, the move of Anubis by 39-years-rather-than-40 suggests Ra maybe sired with Nephthys even-1-year-earlier:- in which case, maybe, Isis was the mother of Cainan-- that Isis had been moved with Cain Osiris to his senior-siring rank and possibly this is when Nephthys sneaked-in, a year late for her own-self: to ensure Cainan first-lineage and avoid another Abel-in-second scenario ... sneaking-in twice ... on Ra's orders.)

But from here we have insufficient information to resolve what the supra-seniors did upon the Council's adjustments: Ra may have continued to sire generations offset-40-years, or maybe he avoided Kiki for she and her husband Anubis Anu Enos were second-first-lineage and Ra didn't sire in second though he'd started it-- or possibly Anu held Kiki back, despairing further involvement in Ra's lineage-system that had destroyed his prominence in Egypt and played prominently in the murder of Abel * by Cain, Possibly, Shw advanced in subsequent siring, and either held first position or Thoth sired again;-- With Kiki mothering offset-6-years the schedule appeared similar for the next children: Cainan's sister-wife offset 46-or-54-years and Ellil Mahalaleel offset 30-years 5 over Cainan's 25, Mahalaleel Ellil's sister-wife offset 45.75-or-46.75 years and Irad Jared offset 29.75-or-30.75: preserving their order-equivalence as-if Ra had held his place, (Except Enlil Mahalaleel and a sire got confused).

* (Anubis didn't learn about that from Ra or Cain Osiris, but from Shw in Edin; a trial of Osiris accused by Seth with Thoth sitting in judgment in Egypt, found in favor for Osiris not-having said anything bad about brother Abel:-- trial may have been Seth's attempt to ascertain the extent of Cain's recognized guilt; the accusation was probably inspired by Shw, Adam, and Eve, for Seth's protection: More than learning the history, of Cain vrs. Abel, Seth needed to understand Osiris' mindset, regarding Abel,-- as Seth was designated-proxy-replacement for Abel....)

(The reason for even supposing Ra would have stopped siring, --or used another subrogate sire,-- was that Ra always-got sons, on the record.)

It still seems more-likely that the 40-year offset was recognized at-that-time, for moving sons down, and not merely Moses' scribes' confusion: so Cain sired Cainan whose name was derived from his grandfather Cain, into Seth and Nephthys' family, but so late on the main line he was moved down to Enos' family when he reached 40-years; And next offset,-generation, Seth sired or by surrogate with Enos' sister-wife Kiki, on his-next sliding-order in the 24th further shifted 5-years by Kiki's rank: thus allowing Enos Anu to have two first-sons for 40 years: second-first-son Mahalaleel Enlil initially Cainan's next-generation brother, then also, moved down to be first-son; And Irad next, sired by Enos Anu Enoch.

The paucity of information on the daughters' birth-years leaves open much well-intended equivalency, But one-way-or-another Kiki mothered at 6-years offset upon the sire's 24-years-offset, -or 14 upon 16,- totaling 30, and her first-son moved down one-family after 40 years... as had his father and grandfather ... (Additionally, we will co-estimate, that, sired in Enos' 40-years-offset-branch, meant, mothering offset-plus-5-years...).

But the story of Anubis and Cainan gets stranger still as we recheck the details:--

CAINAN THE TITAN-- SECOND ENOCH AKA ENKI SON-AND-BROTHER OF ANU AKA ENOS AKA ANUBIS FIRST ENOCH:

Enos laughed harder-than-ever at this latest, lineage foul-up, which may be why the name, Enoch, is in Hebrew, Schnook, rather than Khan-uk The-Lord-One: The successive Earthborn sons were growing-up larger than their fathers; no longer 'Hawks': the later Greeks classified Enki's siblings as 'Titans' ... his birth-grandparents were one-of-spacer-appetite-and-three-of-Earther-appetite, and his own son was even larger yet.

According to the Egyptians, Anubis had one son, then all-but-forgotten: They knew Anubis much later with Horus, the two Watchers in the east... But the Sumerian record has Anu Anubis having two, first-sons, En-Ki and En-Lil, gods of the land and the air, both fathered by Anu Anubis. But understand, that, Anubis Anu was first-lineage: He'd have 4-5 children by Ra, Shw, Thoth, Adam Geb, Cain Osiris, before his own, and only one would be first-born ... But, the Sumerian is rather definite that En-Lil was firstborn while En-Ki was alive, and though our Bible had Cainan father Mahalaleel El-Lil (Malalel in Jubilees), the mother of En-Ki Cainan was Nammu (Noam in Jubilees) not Kiki who mothered Enos Anu's horde of Anunnaki Igigi gods, (the Anuna gods were inclusive by another mother) ... a trouble is, the name, Nammu, meant primordial waters, who would have been Mwt, but Mwt could not put children into Anu Anubis' family unless she married him -she never did,- and En-Ki Cainan was Ninigiku-- with charge over the Igigi Anunnaku, so, Nammu's son Enki had priority over Kiki's sons, (great princes as gods), and yet En-Lil was a first-son: They argued endlessly, in the Sumerian: something confused them about who-sired-whom; Nammu, was also attributed with mothering the Igigi Annunaki;- reminiscent of Nephthys and Isis both mothering Anubis and Anubis despising their lineage system but eventually relishing the fun....

(Note, The argument -not scholarly- was carried-on between Enki and Enlil over lineage first-rights concerning mother Ki's lineage as An's true wife and Anu's first wife, and mother Antu's lineage as Anu's own mother and second wife; -the argument style that Horus later relied-on as Isis' son, though he dealt with Seth directly in Egypt, rather than with Seth's wife's son Enos in Sumeria;- Researching this further may also detangle Ki's uncertain parentage ... Lineage calculation is an estimate in our reconstruction and may have more details and we'll have to decipher what they did, to put Ellil into Cainan's family by Cainan's wife Mualaleth 'grand-Lilith'; to clarify the Bible lineage and explain the Sumerian record as both-correct under their lineage-system.)

(Notable also, Anu was known to leave the Sumer region frequently, leaving second-first-son Enlil in charge, thus elevating his stature to that of stand-in for Anu while Enki had his own stature as firstborn; Anu left to them their argument that proceeded.... This also kept Enlil out of Egypt.)

(The 'primordial waters' is also hinted-at as the Greek Gaea Ge Ki 'the Earth' bringing-forth Oceanus the 'ocean-type waters',-- start and finish.)

Nevertheless, By family-structure, Nammu reputedly mothered both Anu and his first-son Enki plus Anu's wife Ki: which exactly imputes Nammu was Nephthys Azura herself mother of the same three, and entitled, in getting the first sired by Ra Amun, Nammun N'Amun princess-of-Amun to the primordial lineage of Amun, --though herself no part directly primordial born in Adam Geb's own-sired earthly-branch-first-lineage, and Cain actually subrogate-sired him for Ra;-- and further that she actually got Enki Cainan in Enoch Anu Enos' offset-next-generation, his first,-first-son, while Kiki was a youngish sibling of Anu --by either generation, main or branch,-- yet oldest and so qualified to be his first-lineage-wife....

(Note: Titular, En, An, is oft translated, sky or high, connoting overseer, lord,- reused by subsequent lords not specifically of mountain-heavens. Relative titular, Nin, meant secondary lord, wife, consort to the same En, but also an En lord of one role could be a secondary Nin in a multirole aspect.... Similarly, the Egyptian short-name for Anubis Anup, was, Wip:-- An-Wp thus being the same title-name, the same family linguistics... The 'is'-suffix appears more commonly in later versions of their names, Osir Osiris, Anup Anubis, Aset Isis, and is linguistically similar to '-uk'.)

So, Nephthys went to grandfather Cain Osiris in Egypt, and got second-Enoch, per the Council decision: who was thus twelfth-sibling-brother of first-Enoch Anubis, the generation after Anubis Enoch removed to Edin, and second-Enoch became first-son and thence also moved to Edin ... and they divided rule of the heaven-mountains above from the Earth below, En-U and En-Ki; Enki only much later taking the El-Ea appellative ... But by the shift in senior-siring-ranks he was born 25 years-in at 285 and began rule 40-later in the first of the succeeding generation, year 325, by the same 40-year offset as first-Enoch Enos, which was subsequently misconstrued as his birthyear calculated as 90-years-after Enos.

Like his father first-Enoch Enos Anu had been moved to Seth's family and its 40-year offset, Cainan sired by Cain at his siring-offset 24-years, next-generation, was effectually Cain's second, Enoch, moved 40 years to Enos',- his birth, 65+24=89 years after first-Enoch, recorded thence 90-years after Enos, offset to 90+40=130 after first Enoch on Ra's schedule; though Ra did not sire and Kiki only subrogate-mothered Cainan. And so by adjustable-design Cainan ruled, on a branch-lineage subsequently overlapping first-lineage: odd because only Ra, sired first in first. (Kiki became first-lineage full-mother in the subsequent-next generation, for Anu's second,-first-son Ellil Mahalaleel, and their Annunaki horde.)

Nephthys mothered Cainan senior-sired by Cain, in Seth's Enoch's family, brothers both of the same mother and sire, (they did not distinguish stepsiblings by sire), fueling later argument for Anu Enos' children ... (Note that Nephthys did not marry, Anubis Anu Enos, to do this).... Cainan being born after, Cain's Enoch's generation, went to the next, -Seth's Enoch Enos' generation,- a situation similar to Seth and Azura Nephthys' own.... (Yet-later-Sumerian references indicate Enki Cainan had a stepsister, -born of a different mother,- who disputed his family position, but the distinction must have been loose for she was also sometimes known as Enki's twin sister-- but they were all, close-twins.)

(The Sumerians say Enki Cainan at 40 years of age became very wise; possibly that he learned what had happened in his birth-arrangement: probably when he learned at age-40 that he was being moved from Seth's family to Enos' family-- as Enos had moved, from Cain's to Seth's.)

(This also created lineage-problems centuries later when Isis got her Horus, claiming he, was the first-son of Cain Osiris,- for as Nephthys got Anubis Enoch Anu by Cain Osiris, then Isis' Horus -by any, senior or, Cain,- would have been Cain's second-born-lineage son... except for the Council rulings... whence Ra could-not give Horus lineage-status outright, nor make Horus the replacement for Cain ... They, argued too ... But Isis did get Horus rule of Egypt, above Seth according to an Egyptian record that Geb gave Seth's portion to Horus: probably on the merit that Horus was Osiris Cain's best replacement for Abel, ahead of Seth and Anubis, upon his own death while saving Geb, whereas Seth replaced Cain, having plenty without restriction from Sumer... Probably Isis had encouraged Osiris Cain to resolve his dilemma about Abel-- in Sumer).

(Note the name, Cain-an, may mean Cain-of-by-for-An, maybe Cain-lorded first-lineage, or as, Kenan Ki-nun, the earth-at-the-river-flow-line ... Names, titles, words, were replete in multiple entendre, puns, not only for intellectual intents but constitutional, full of meaning however-turned.)

(Note that we've thus identified two, Enochs, actually sired by Cain Osiris but only one was by schedule, and only one Anubis, of three, officially sired by Ra but actually subrogate-sired by Cain Osiris first-father and Seth was second-and-final father:-- three responsible males, one child.)

Let's overview how-and-why this was all done, their method of arrangement and combinations in Ra's first-family:--

THE LINEAGE SENIORITY RULE-- AT THE TOP OF THE LINE:

Regard their method for attaining and maintaining immortality included only the firstborn except in a case of passing and second-born became living-firstborn (cf the centuries-later declaration by Egyptian Thoth "the firstborn son, the son of Ra" after first son Shw had passed) ... but also, this meant first-lineage did not sire into second-lineage but had replacement-seconds of-itself. (Hence, Ra's big family before him on his "Boat of Millions" must have gone somewhere else,-- and we'll get to that deeper reconsideration, eventually).

Recall that Adam and Eve had Cain, Abel, Awan (Isis), sired by seniors, but then waited till Adam was 130-years, before he, sired Seth and Azura (Nephthys) ... This was their Seniority rule;-- Adam did not sire children with sister Eve 'til his third generation years: Meanwhile, at 65-years he was put in charge of his god-family (retired from Liliths'); but Eve did not have to be 65-years ... For Adam's second-65-years each senior did their god-fill-duty separated about-8 years for adolescence, And at 130 he started begetting of himself ... (In the meantime before siring in-lineage he may, have, had off-lineage children in Ra's larger family).... Likewise, Azura (Nephthys) would have had children sired by husband Seth 65 years after her first, Anubis, allowing for senior-fill, in year 261 his 131st,-- albeit Seth was reputedly withholding.

(Siring off-lineage may have been a practice discontinued in Sumer or in Seth's line, as, for man [min seed] "his days shall be an [120] years.")

But let's clarify this: Adam, and Seth, were born on-time in their 65-year cycles ... but not all, sons and daughters, were born in the 65th year: In their last-possible-year cases, the grandfather-sired mother, or father, might be only-15 when the first senior sired for them delayed 7-years on sibling-rank into the next generation, and eventually the father would begin siring his own in his third, generation-- age 73-137....

Note also, Ra used a modified seniority rule starting himself with Eve, not having enough seniors to fill 40-years after Abel, which thus explains why Cain and Abel had one-sister rather than 3-5 before Adam's own, -not that it mattered 'til one was 65 but,- whence their argument over the woman and the murder of which Shw was certain;- And why, second-lineage-senior Thoth was included, and what was meant, that Ra ordered Shw to separate Adam Geb and Eve Nuit a while ... a lot of historic pieces quickly fit in place and tell a larger story: First lineage, was sired on their basic 65-year cycle, sublineages on 8-year offsets, one-year delays for sibling-rank, with sufficient flexibility retaining older seniors to sire gaps and substitutions, e.g. Seth was born ca Cain's 65th but of Adam in his 130th, sire-and-father effectually the ninth senior-sire.

(Subnote Ra's separation order: Under the same general regime we find their stories imitated nature-observations: e.g. Geb the Earth and Nut the Sky touch from evening horizon to morning horizon but Shw the Air separates them during the day ... the gods' planned-parenthood wherein they did first as Ptah ordered Ra, so as to be memorable, their emotions ranging plain humanly in appeal to 'lesser' mankind's affections; gods were as dramatic role models for mankind, a relation seemingly subverted in modern theater, and yet, Enoch Cainan was the wizard of en-Os.)

(Subnote also the first sirings by Shw and Thoth following Ra immediately-8-years rather than immediately preceding Adam 8-years, Shw and Thoth were 7-or-6 or-more generations older than Adam, 455-or-390 or-more years, and 3-or-more generations more-primordial ... and Thoth as Shw's immediate brother might have been assigned the place as replacing Shw's ordinary-lineage-son-no-longer-or-never-living; but not in first lineage, his exact lineage rank is almost specious at least as high as a self-sired-son but not Shw's; a second son of Ra would have been second to Seth, if by the same mother ... But Thoth was also extremely long-lived -longer than Shw- and we'll soon see just how significantly....)

The 40-year-offset of Adam's branch-lineage subsequent to Seth was not only coincident with Anubis replacing Abel from his years lived but, 5-offsets after Ra, including Shw, Thoth, and eventually upon closure of the seniors gap, Adam, Cain, and Seth: Seth himself was Adam's branch-lineage firstborn and needed in-place, because Cain had no other-next, but, Seth's children moving east from Cain Osiris' lineage, were added that 40 years ... The apparent fact that Thoth was retained in this siring lineup, tells us that Thoth's position was no-less-first than Seth's second-first ... But primarily Adam, Cain, and Seth, would sire first in this branch-first-line, with the primordial-seniors post-siring into pre-generations....

The 24-year-offset of Cain's Cainan, tells us that Cain was siring only 3-offsets after Ra, including Shw, but not Thoth-- but Adam moved up and replacing Thoth because Cain was first-first-lineage, and then, Cain; and we begin to see the pattern of construction in first-lineage: apparently, after the death of Abel, Ra and the Council decided to close-up the senior-sires-gap directly, refilling its middle rather than end; Ra would retire with a full ruling first-lineage-senior-siring-lineup in-place again after five centuries....

We'll see a lot of fine-adjustments, one-year-increments per the sibling-birth-year-ranking of the wife, maybe husband and sire; The god family recorded years as lineage rank which was adjusted not strictly destiny from birth... They were talking not only to themselves, but to a future that should rediscover their presence as gods, and judge them for fine detail ... Fine adjustments include Azura Nephthys mothering Enoch Anubis Anu Enos a year late 196 instead of 3×65=195, Jared's Enoch 522, says Jubilees, 2-years late by a 3rd-sibling mother rather than 8×65=520, Mahalaleel offset-5 in Cainan's 70th not 65th, and Jared not-offset ... One-year-increments also add-up eight steps equating late-born-siblings to on-time-siblings and there may be in some cases more-than-one-possible reconstruction to their history....

(Whether the males were also offset by sibling rank, is uncertain: Evidence exists indicating husbands with multiple wives, but not vice versus.)

From here, the race is easier, or downhill,--

THE ALTERNATIVE ENOCH'S RESPECTIVE BY NUMBER:

By their numbers, there were three Enoch's, --Anubis, Cainan, and Horus,-- shuffling among Cain, Seth, Enos, Jared, Isis, Nephthys, and Kiki....

By their name-titles, there could be but one, Enoch/ChNWK Schnook Khan-uk The-Lord-one ... And by succession, each was Enoch for awhile:

The Biblical record has Enoch the first-son of Cain, but, Cain Osiris' Egyptian first-son was much-later younger, Horus; so, we know something happened to Anubis that corresponds to Cain's Enoch 'til Anubis later revisited Egypt upon Isis' request.... Then Nephthys got a second-Enoch who corresponds to Cainan and also Cain's Enoch: who sired Irad who fathered Mehujael who fathered Methusael ... Then there's third-Enoch, preceded by Jared in Seth's lineage, and who also fathered Methuselah ... (Plus, a fourth-Enoch-surprise that Moses' scribes couldn't explain).

(Note that Anubis' later requested revisit to Egypt, premised on his loyalty to Isis and knowledge of Nile terrain: who would be only one, Anubis: Enos, who had grown-up his first-40-years as Cain's Enoch with the Egyptian side of the family: on the Nile....)

(Note that the Egyptian records of two-or-more sires for Anubis, are really only hinting that they knew of two-or-more versions of the siring and birth of Anubis, mothered by Nephthys, and-or, two-more-more first-sons, of mother Nephthys; where we've found the one version that fits-all.)

Also, the identities, of mothers Isis and Nephthys, after Nephthys pulled her Lilith-trick, became a mixed-correlation between the Sumerian and Egyptian records: Of the children of Lahmu Adam, Anshar's sister and wife was Kishar, very like Kiki, and very like Isis wife of Cain Osiris Wsr ("oongsher") like Anshar, given certain linguistic tendencies of k-kh-sh-s; and Nephthys and Antu, are likewise most similar, her "Lilith" being a fiction... Nephthys hid her child Anubis Enos Anu with Isis for a while, Isis even claiming the child, And father and son were both titular An, Lord; and Anu with Ki his mother begat the Anunnaki ... Yet Anu's wife was primarily Nammu with whom he begat Enki; and Ki purportedly begat Ellil name-similar to Lilith ... the Egyptians called Nephthys, Nebkhat the maker of the body of the Company of gods, but we see might be Ki maker of the Annunaki, (or later Nabu-uk-het) ... Yet the Bible doesn't know Enki the flood-predicter as Cainan, name similar to Cain not his purported Enoch, who has Mahalaleel Ellil son of Enos Anu long-before the third-Enoch ... Not surprisingly, Noah is the fourth 'eN-Och' (by subdued-En)... probably so-named, Noach 'lesser-Enoach', while the primary Enoch Horus was alive, and his death later confused in the Mosaic Pentateuch.

(The four Enochs were the chief-lords the An-uk in Cain's line: first-Enoch of Cain, Cainan second-Enoch of Cain after first-Enoch moved east, third-Enoch Horus sired by Ra for Cain, after Cain died, and fourth-(E)Noch Noah whom we'll soon find was sired by Cain's first-Enoch, Enos.)

(And too, note, The name-title, Isis, pronounced 'Ishish', is very-like, Kiki, pronounced 'KhiKhi'... Rather than being Nephthys' daughter Kiki; And too the name, Antu, is very-like An-het-U; meaning, An-U, was itself titular, and Ant-U was the formal wife of An-U, his sister not mother.)

We haven't yet confirmation on who-all-knew-which-when, whether the Sumerian record is correct because they were near, or, most-uninformed perhap -say the Egyptian story records,- for keeping Seth's anger at bay while Nephthys played wife and consort to many ... almost a pity Jesus was hard on Satan Seth-an's attitude for sanity among mankind, after all that,- but there's much more to understand about souls and bodies and sanity, and that's where Jesus started.... It is even possible that Isis pulled a Lilith-trick as Nammu to pull the lineage back to Cain, --Cainan thus having Cain for grandfather and Isis for mother: a corrected-staggered lineage; And Enlil was Nephthys' Lilith-pull-back resumption (from either, Cainan per the Bible, or Enos per the Sumerian),-- and Egyptians had little information about Anubis Anu's later son Ophios Upuaut/Wepwawet (Sumerian Mummu) and daughter Kabechet Kebhut... And pulling legal-strings, was Seth -the first power-of-attorney lawyer, for Abel,- grabbing Isis' sisterly claim on Anubis' mother and wifely claim on Anubis' father, making his own husbandly claim on Anubis' mother, and law-work claim vs. the lineage-downstep ('firstborn must be fullborn') and readiness of the actual mother to care for the baby (in her husband's household),- and whence things began to get nasty about Seth,-- labeling him, 'stinking face' (Thoth's pejorative), 'fiend' (Isis'), "Typhon/Tebh", 'Satan' (modern)....

(Under Isis' deft magical attributions, Nephthys' lineage responsibilities became the willynillyness of a promiscuous 100-year-old little sister.)

(Note the spelling pronunciation-enunciation and identity of Ophios Upuaut/Wepwawet may actually be Wp-Wt, Ap-uat, jackal-associate of Anubis Anup An-Wp,- Anpu, as their early oph-linguistics had a strong W-like tail-chaser depending on the succeeding letter, or space.)

(The term, Satan, probably developed from the notion that a certain later one of the sons of god Enos, an angel regarded as malevolent -cf the story of Job,- was the 'Seth-An', Seth-of-An, of Anu Enos,- by attribution relating the Seth of Adam and Satan of Enos ... by infamous character the ambusher or adversary lying-in-wait.... Most of Jesus' statements about Satan refer to the self-contradiction of that son of Enos not to Seth; and neither Satan nor Seth were known specifically as murderers but as instigators and orchestrators of such troubles Jesus knew confronting his near future destiny ... But note specifically Satan was not one of the first lineage fathers from the beginning listed in the Bible, albeit he may have sired sons: Satan, was not the father where Jesus disdained the Jews in the temple that their father was a murderer from the beginning... And in like fashion, Cainan, may have been Cain-of-An as the first son of Enos, -who also murdered: we'll get to that,- replicating the pattern of Adam's Cain, Abel/H'Bel, and later Seth, as, Anu Enos' Enki Cainan, Bel Ellil, and later Satan who may-or-not have been first of the seconds.)

The point is, Despite the precision in numerical accuracy we will draw up, there's still the possibility that they just did what they pleased, with the results later realigned to appear right: Living so many centuries yet accomplishing so little, it may have been as easy to fix, as ever to predict....

SECOND-FIRST-SON MAHALALEEL MALALEL ELLIL ENLIL-- SPRINGS AHEAD ON SUMER TIME:

The Sumerians relish telling of Enki Cainan siring with many successions of daughters ... apparently this novelty to mankind gaining its slight understanding of the gods, is exactly what we know about their lineage; but it may also indicate of some paucity of senior-sires in this line ...

Sumerian records have Enlil born of Anu Enos by his proper wife Ki, The Biblical has Mahalaleel of Cainan in his 70th year and Jubilees says by his wife Mualaleth (but which could be the old nomenclature for sister-wife 'Mau-halal-het', but Enlil's) ... And whereas Anu-through-Jared all appear shifted 40-years, into Seth's-lineage, maybe Mahalaleel was shifted, too:-- Numerically, Enlil Mahalaleel was born in Anu Enos' 160th, that is Cain's Enoch's 199th without the 40-year offset if he himself old-father-sired with next-generation 6-year-offset wife Kiki, but outside his advanced branch-siring position, so, which might be his 160th offset 40 which would be Cain senior-siring with Enos' wife Kiki but only if Cain shifted to the 16-year-position and Kiki offset 14 years: in the next-generation... Or, Kiki was 6-years-offset and Seth sired (or by surrogate) in the 24-year-position,-- which seems likeliest because Cain's Enoch Enos, sired Irad next, and the Sumerian message of Enlil's pursuit of Sud that she become his wife Ninlil, identifies Enlil himself as the descendant and offspring of Anshar (Cain Osiris "Oongsher", or Seth) not Anu....

(The equivalency of cross-generation-siring seems iffy in this present examination, But did appear to have happened previously with Nephthys, and at that time cast in Council's moving Cain's siring position back, half a generation: to senior-sire early,-there ... Cain or Seth, sired Enlil....)

These two-or-more alternatives, thus appearing merged, may have led to their later mistake of Enlil getting his first son Nanna-Suen too soon; The Biblical record assumed Mahalaleel was the first son of Cainan, (and the Jubilees record likewise, even including Malalel's first son Enan Nanna-Suen as Cainan's second), The Sumerian record assumed Enlil Ellil was the son of Anu Enos, and says all three, Anu, Enki, Enlil were brothers: which may be as Nephthys Azura had mothered both Enoch Enos and Cainan, and Cain Osiris sired both, and Seth fathered Enoch Enos and sired Mahalaleel, (and Enos Anu fathered Enki and Enlil), making them a threeway-brotherhood. But, -some- Sumerian records say Enki himself was the first-son of Ellil; There appears to have been a deliberately extended argument of who's whose-son-first ... (It may be that Cain's Enoch Cainan Enki was also -later- put-down a step further, under Ellil, after something 'unhearably'-terrible he did, and, worse, his son completed; that Moses couldn't mention and Jesus only got mid-sentence before a temple crowd took-up stones; Or simply the scribes, being ordinary mankind as the gods cultivated to take chores, did not understand the gods' family structure that a father might throw a party for a son and bow before him, and mistook such events for prevalent conditions) ... Either Cain or Seth (or by surrogate) sired Mahalaleel....

(Just what confused Enlil and the sire of Nanna-Suen Enan, is unclear: Birth-years were all preset by lineage-rank, not arbitrary.... Unless Enlil had avoided all other sires for his wife and the Council chose therefore that Enan was second to Jared Irad, there is no explanation, but facts: Firstly that the Sumerian story of Enlil and his premarital wife Sud Ninlil tells of Enlil imposturing other sires but which may mean they were his senior-sires; Secondly his father Anu Enos may have believed that only Enoch and Cainan were to have been moved down 40 years for Cain having murdered and subsequently sired replacement for Shw's Abel-- In other words, Anu may have believed Enlil would-not-move down but remain as second-first-son and-resume the main schedule: In which case Enlil may have volunteer-subrogate-sired for the senior Ra ca year-396 being 390-plus,-6 for his wife's-to-be sibling-rank-offset....)

(Note that the Biblical order of lineage reflects the perspective that Moses and his Hebrews resolved during their 220-years stay in Egypt, But-for that Egyptian record that said Seth never-sired, but which could have meant first-lineage, any lineage, sons, known in Egypt, or none at all.)

When Cain senior-sired Cainan, it was at his 24-year-position in the next generation 65-years, offset-40 matching Enos' 40-year-offset, Enos' 90th ... When Seth senior-sired Mahalaleel, it was at his 24-year-position matching Cainan's 24-years, in the next generation 65-years, offset-40, and further offset 5-years for Kiki herself offset 5-sibling-intervals, Cainan's 70th from Enos' 90th, Enos' 160th.... Then, Cainan, received a wife another Seth-lineage 7th-sibling -(if not Nephthys herself Mualaleth: there is indication that Nephthys eventually left Seth),- and Enos sired Jared at his 24-year-position, in the next generation 65-years, offset-40, offset 5-years for the wife, matching Mahalaleel's offset, Mahalaleel's 65th from Cainan's 70th, Cainan's 135th... But there are still calendric 1-year-uncertainties.... (Note that 24+40=64 but 24.3+40.6=64.9 nearer the 65-year generation-step: Jubilees is precise-and-so-accurate only to within one year of record-- till we exactly align their lunar-calendar.)

Or more simply put, sons and daughters sired-and-mothered-within Enos' branch lineage would be plus-5th-lineage, the first at (5×8)+(5×1)=45 years offset, adding the sire's and mother's offsets ... But until one was so, those sired-in were offset accordingly for each sire-and-mother pair.

It would thus appear that Cain Osiris sired or grandfathered 3-5 with Azura Nephthys mothering 2-4, And Awan Isis and Cain Osiris may have felt a deep anxiety for wanting to destroy all their estranged sons, (the verbage, 'Shall we destroy that we have created?', was later imputed to Tiamut Tefnut for Apsu Shw in the Sumerian trial record, though in fact Apsu Shw had no sire-part but the daughters and indirectly via Adam's Eve ... or, Cain was Shw's sired Abel, in fact) ... meanwhile somebody sired Mahalaleel Ellil's first son Enan Nanna-Suen too-soon-to-be-first.

(Either, Cain, senior-sired or subrogate-sired Enos' lineage because Seth was Abel's replacement sibling and Cain was really Abel, or each, Cain, Seth, Enos, sired, in sliding-order ... If Cain, had sired Mahalaleel, they'd be definitively brothers or stepbrothers, otherwise connotively.)

So they'd succeeded at putting Enos' offset lineage back onto the main lineage calendar schedule --apparent,-- but it shouldn't last there....

Mahalaleel Enlil was born in Adam's 355th rather than his 395th, the same 70th year of Cainan measured from our better corrected reference, and moved to Enos' 40-years offset.... Remarkably, the year mismatches then disappear for four-in-a-row equally offset by the same 40 years; until at Jared's Enoch, Jubilees significantly deviates a century from the Biblical, to return fully, to their main-branch schedule ... (Their calendar date years being their apparent best-authority, --but-- we'll find that eventually even Jubilees begins slipping generation-anchors).

Sumerian Enlil if not Enoch, is also known around the world: the Akkadian Ellil, the Babylonian Illinois, the American indian Illiniwek El-Enoch....

NEXT-NEXT-FIRST-SON JARED IRAD URDA NINURTA, MERED-THE-ONE MA-IRAD-UK MARDUK ... BIGGER THAN HIS FATHER:

Second-lineages were not deeply involved in senior-siring rules, as substitutions were one-on-one in case of a first-lineage passing; Yet, Anu was apparently relishing the fallout from Cain's first-lineage mistakes, equalizing them as his-own double-firsts, and honored by Apsu Shw....

Sumerians say, Enki's first-son was Marduk-- Mered, Cainan's third after Mahalaleel Enlil and his,-first-son Nanna-Suen Enan (per Jubilees) ... But the Bible has Jared the first of Mahalaleel, and Irad the first of Enoch, of Cain, but who we found was Cainan Enki, and Urda second of Ellil after Ellil started early with too-young Ninlil and Council decided that-first son Nanna-Suen Enan was not,-first lineage, (he later sat in judgment on cousin first-son Marduk Mered, that being a usual responsibility for second-sons: cf Seth and Thoth's trial of Osiris), But, Cainan's, was first:

That Anu, should have sired Marduk, is alluded in the Biblical reference to Cain's Enoch fathering Irad, But, this would assume Anu was at the top, exclusive of Cain Osiris siring... yet which very soon became the fact and they may have revised their history to give it a 'living'-reference: Enos Anu, first Enoch Anubis, had not-only two lineages, but two lineage-systems of rules, on two schedule-calendars, crossing divergently ... Cainan Enki was following suit with his, two-first-sons-brothers, And Ellil, to get ahead of that order, declared Irad Ninurta was his peremptory first. (Note that Cainan's two were both Ma-prefix names, Mahalaleel and Mered M'irad-uk Marduk; And Ellil's, N'n-prefix ... And when Marduk Jared's Nabu and Enoch came along next, the prefix-cycle restarted, En-och, Me-thuselah, inserted Lamech, and N-oah... a name-convention and the name of Lamech may have started yet another, an L'-diminuitive of El, El-Am-uk aL'Am-uk L'Am-ech....)

And when Marduk was later put on trial, it was by Nanna Suen, Not Jared Ninurta who would have been fourth, if not actually Jared Irad himself, Mered Marduk, born in Adam's 420th rather than his 460th (Jubilees' 461st), the same 65th-year of Mahalaleel Enlil measured from our better-corrected reference; (Jubilees' sources possibly had more precision, or counted from a different calendar starting-month: possibly Adam's).

The correlation of Marduk, Mered, Irad, and Jared, gets more involved in subsequent events but appears to be one same son: The Babylonian-India'n name-suffix, '-uk/-uc', Hebrew '-ach/-ek', Greek '-ish' (cf Osir Osiris), indicated Chief-one: Marduk was Enki's first-son by another wife not Mualaleth but sister or daughter Damkina Dawkina, (Enki was known for going after several great first-daughters, and his wife poisoning him to curtail that), but Jubilees says Dinah the wife of Mahalaleel got Jared... and thus two are the same; whence small linguistic steps among, Jared, Irad, Ma-Irad, Mered, the prefix 'Ma-' indicating the beyondness-of-grand, grandeur, finality ... and possibly, Damkina Dawkina Da[uk]ina Dinah.

And our special insight on the removing of brothers at-40 to become first-sons, suggests a new-and-better explanation, As Enlil Mahalaleel had been born brother to Enki Cainan-moved-down, but then moved down to be his son, so Mered Irad Jared was born originally into Enki Cainan's family as his first son, second-first to former-brother-Enlil, and after Enlil's own Nanna-Suen Enan, so Jubilees listed him third: of Cainan Enki....

(Irad's change-of-name to, Jared, was likely for the same reason Enoch's name had been changed to, Enos,-- when he was moved from Cain's line to Seth's line, down one-family, at 40-years ... but Mahalaleel's name wasn't changed on his, move at 40, being already sired in Seth's line.)

(It is likely that Osiris' Grecized-name was a reduplication of his name-title, already WS'R, Chief-Central-Eye, and pun, of Ra, become Wsr-ws.)

(Note that, Mualaleth, also sounds very closely to, mW-alal-heth, exposing an east-west cross-family Sumero-Egyptian-linguistic M-W-affinity....)

THE SUMERIAN-BABYLONIAN HORROR-STORY OF CREATION-- WITH MORE CORROBORATIVE DETAILS:

The Enuma Elish, a record from the middle of Adam's first millennium, related as from the beginning, recounted a major event in Jared's time: Scholars translate it as "When on high" but it has the more erudite sense of "From the top", though it reads plainly as the 'Account of Elisha': it was actually the legal trial document in the Tribulation of Marduk, for Marduk's mad-scientist approach in re-creating mankind to serve them ... (the Enumeration by Elisha the second-son of Enoch, per Jubilees, with Nanna-Suen Enan holding Marduk's trial a century-after the rebellion).

The Sumerian record followed closely by subsequent Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Ugaritic records almost as echoes, works out from the middle because, they, were the grandchildren gods, a youth-generation isolated by mixed lineage and of their self-identity-patterns, insulating themselves and obsoleting the older generation Apsu Shw Yhwh and Tiamut Tefnuit who had settled in Sumeria to be close to the royal family but were elderly and needed much rest and found the young gods too rowdy day and night ... Apsu plots with Mummu to cleverly subdue them, but Enki learns from Mummu and thwarts Apsu by his murder, putting Tiamut on the warpath and the young gods learn that great-great-mother and her commanders will exterminate them and has created terrible insects and monsters to terrorize them ... Fearing death themselves, they implore Anu's father Anshar, Egypt's Wsr ('oongsher') Osiris, Babylonian Assoros, Cain, for advice, but fail it for fear... then, Lahmu Adam--...

So prepares the opening statements of Enuma Elish....

(It is not definite whether Anshar was Cain Wsr, or whether Seth used the similar title in Sumeria: Kishar would seem to be Isis, not Nephthys... Seth was not-yet first-son, despite his parenthood over Sumerian-first-lineage Enos Anu An, and despite becoming first-son in the event; and,- Seth was purportedly busy ruling in Egypt, with Isis, missing this.... and Anshar's focus on Enki and Marduk, Cain's sired lineage, surely indites Cain's influence, flattery, and treachery, bidding Mummu put suggestions to Apsu that would ultimately fool Enki, and thence grandson Marduk. Note. Cain's, identity, is multiply in question: As Seth was away in Egypt much of the time, Cain Osiris could have impostured as Seth, as Seth was old-enough to look like a twin ... Something, someone, some act, had required Cain to wander again, possibly even leaving Seth in some-charge in Egypt, thus rather keeping him away from his usual security-duty for his older brother; i.e. Cain was scheming behind Seth's back as well as taking his 28-year world-tour sabbatical from Egypt, civilizing Sumeria, importing a population of mankind -and loud talk- ca 3100 BC.)

A character-check ... Why ... Ea Enki preemptively killed Apsu Shw over a mere scheme to quiet the younger gods not amid battle; precursor to Tiamut Tefnuit's creation of non indigenous vipers, reptilian dragons, jackals, monsters, scorpions, (gathered from Egypt and propagated a few years:- we also know the change in climate helped increase these in that era, there) ...

  1. Enki Ea's heritage seniority got him the full information of the plot from Apsu's young conspirator Mummu (great-great-grandson of Apsu; possibly Wepwawet of Anu; aged Tiamat's little house-help; possibly-but-probably-not her former husband Ra M'Amun, by secret-name):

  2. Though Enki was deemed wisest of the adult gods, he believed the worst from children: including Mummu's 'shock-joke' suggestions that got Apsu to smile and play-in but took Tiamat to surprise at the horror and play-out; And Mummu may have weighted the worse-specifics;

  3. Ra had been bitten by a snake and almost died but Isis healed him (or relented from hating him) on the condition that he reveal his secret name-- ensuring that her children would receive more than mere heir-title; and Enki Ea was not going to let Ra's son Shw shorten that title
    (Enki possibly knew Ra's secret name from Isis, possibly unbeknown to Shw, by which to accomplish a takeover);

  4. On Cain's side, Shw had sent Cain away over the death of Abel,- and whence Enki Ea did not associate easily with Shw Yhwh;

  5. Shw, in his later centuries, may have moved further eastward, in Edin, crowding his own to avoid being confused with Ra in Africa;

  6. Cain's prolonged re-residence in Sumeria became unwelcome 'loud talk' as Shw insisted he should continue wandering ...

  7. Cain Osiris was talking-up his world-tour for creating mankind civilizations, giving the young gods high-fancy titles-- which upset Shw;

  8. Enki as Eve's Nephthys' second son was gullible to believing every deadly-flattering excusal by Cain for being killed by older brother Anu;

  9. Cain Osiris Anshar, estranged son of Shw, was 'home', goading them all,-- setting-up his new-court-intrigue among his intended players;

  10. Shw may have ordered the workers' strike among his family deltage gods the Igigi, to squelch the 'loud talk' of Cain's sons;

  11. Shw's scheme (possibly it included sowing tares in the field, as tares are not tasty: whence Christ Jesus' parable of the wheat and tares), was something Shw had not thought-of and whence his grin at Mummu's clever suggestion:- Shw was a first-lineage-son, but Mummu the youngster had lots of authoritative relatives: he knew the torment of being just-another god, living to their expectations, and continual daily adjustments; and how such might affect the young gods' egos if they were to be upstaged: Mummu was drilled in the why-and-wherefore: his suggestion -undocumented but compare Tiamut's scheme,- was that, Shw sire a son by Isis and bump the young gods' place: drive a wedge between Seth and sons, and sire with Nephthys and drive a wedge between Anu and sons, (things Shw would not do; Cain's own plan); They placed much confidence in their assumed lineage structure, and high sons by Anubis' own mothers could be pernicious, upon their theory, upstaging them all; Anu's lineage-son Enki Ea found out; they were discontented to revise their understanding, and it toppled their egos:-- Enki Cainan, killed Shw, our original Biblical Lord Jehovah, and led Mummu around on a leash and nose-pin like a pet lamb; second-murderer from the beginning 'before Abraham was'....

  12. (Note also that young Mummu was not only subordinate to family-at-large, but, until he reached 121 he had only mankind-status in public).

(A note on Babylonian records:- There seems a rift between names and characters: Lamu, apparently derived from dLamu 'damu Adam, was characterized as wicked, yet that might better characterize Seth, in Egypt; Adam's wife Eve Nuit/Chwh Nuit, was like, Tefnuit; but the Egyptian records are precedent that Tefnuit was the mother-of "Mother" Eve Nuit,- and Babylon existed in Babel time. All records mix gender of names, e.g. earthgods female-Ki vs. male-Keb, justice-gods male-Mot vs. female-Maat; but god-names were titularly paired; both genders existed for each name, if not both used, and whence heaven-gods Anu, Nu, but Adam Geb not Nu, got wife Nut/Nuit....)

MARDUK, MAD-SCIENTIST EXTRAORDINAIRE-- RANKING OF YOUTH TOO YOUNG TO BE A GOD, BECAME THEIR DIRECTOR:

At this point an underage god of ingenious designs stepped forward with a counterplan to rid them of grandpa's widow Tiamut Tauith Tefnuit:--

Enki's first-son Marduk Merodach, -Cainan's third son Mered, Enoch's Irad, Ellil Mahalaleel's Urda Jared,- displays all his clever weaponries, including his invention of his primitive, flaming, nitrated-pitch hand-cannon, the 'thunderous-lightning bolt',- and, proving his devices sufficiently magical, the young gods approve him to lead on their gruesome victory.... Coming to Tiamut's place, Marduk spies on their proceedings, and calls, and great-mother comes out screaming ... he nets her and sprays her with such a terrible stink, called, the East Wind, -(Mrs. Eddy cured patients of the belief),- that she chokes and he spears her ... and the young gods bestow fifty nicknames of honor upon him; He hangs half her body in the doorway covering the heavens, and maps out his redistricting of Mesopotamia: her legs the sides of the Persian Gulf, her belly the Hiddekel-Euphrates swamp, etc., gruesome.... Then, implements his grand, plan: sacrificing a first-son of the gods unto the daughters of men, creating a new, human race, to please and worship the young gods-- And whence thus Marduk became, the new, Creator, god, of men, much-touted husband of mankind: the Bel, Baal, Belial ... as before that time the gods had married only among themselves, and hired, mankind....

(Bel Ellil was passive throughout the proceedings but did confer his 'Bel'-title on Marduk at the conquerer's party.)

(Note that in his deference to Anu's despising their prior female-important lineage system, Marduk would have sacrificed a senior, male god,- purportedly the one who instigated the Igigi-gods work-strike, in some, Sumerian versions,-- probably Cain promoting worker-civilizations; the Enuma Elish indicates Qingu, Caingu, was first generation, i.e. non primordial sired by Ra of Egypt, i.e. narrowly first-lineage, marrying Tiamut and receiving back -of Anu,- the Tablet of Destinies, their hardcopy of first-lineage chronology, that Cain had been early deprived under Shw's decrees but Tiamut had been or become more-forgiving ... and who had 40 children estimably 8-years apart over 130 + (38) × 8 = 434 years-- plus Horus, 40th, postmortem ... or possibly birth-twins along the way.)

(Subnote that "first generation" may have distinguished precisely that Cain had been firstborn but no longer first-lineage, in the Sumerian view.)

(Note six centuries later the sons of the gods were themselves generally going unto the daughters of Marduk's new mankind: Sumerian records specifically refer to the aboriginal mankind as having the muscular-strength of 'clay'; their subsequent genetic-mix was stronger and prettier; but also -Jasher reports- they were further experimenting in hybridizing animal species, inspired by their successes with gods and mankind.)

If we consider, why, Marduk would kill his very-great-great-mother, though he seemed without purpose at all but to garner the attentions of his immediate Elders bemoaning the task -and they lavished it-... If, Marduk Mered was in-fact Ma-Irad and first-sired of Cainan, and Mahalaleel second of Anu, he'd have a strong albeit equally bad reason:-- Irad, or as Jared, was determined more than his father to terminate the senior gods' peremption of his imagined first-son right, an extension of Enki and Ellil's argument... Marduk schemed to move a shortstep: and when Tiamut retrieved the family Tablet of Destinies from Anu, his imagined opportunity filled the void.... When Horus appeared a century later, his lineage again suffered peremption, in the wink of an eye, but Horus was strong, trained by Seth... and Jared's adoption of Horus as Enoch of Cain Osiris not as of Ra who sired, prevented upstaging and assuaged then-senior Sumerian anger a bit, as it seemed Apsu's and Tiamut's plots had been carried out despite their murders; And confirms that Jared was Cain's grandson Marduk through his father Cainan ... It is also notable how Marduk enthusiastically adopted Cain's and Cainan's bad-example, killing a fellow god and making-up with community service-- 'helping' civilize mankind... But his subsequent genetic-mixing resulted in even-worse bad-examples. (Note also a possibility that Tiamut may have ordered a halt to senior-siring, upon Shw's death, preventing Ellil siring for Marduk in his 65th;-- which would put Shw's death before 14-years-before, Osiris Cain's ... within-28, but a little more than our current estimate of 3-years-before.)

(Note alternatively for the moment: If, Marduk was Mered first son of Cainan -and- not Ninurta Urda Jared of Mahalaleel, he would have been a cousin-competitor:-- Both were labeled wargods, both retrieved the Tablet of Destinies, both received fifty official titles, both were Enki's sons; And, a scheme as would put him above his cousin after the lineage had been lost by his father Cainan Enki to uncle Mahalaleel Ellil, may have been his temptation and mens rea... However, Ninurta's stories are fabulations of personlike animals, and he was not first son but of a second wife, Yet, Enlil's first wife had been rejected by the council gods, as too young;-- Possibly Enki had therefor adopted them into his own lineage, adding his own first son Marduk Irad Mered third-in-line after he'd himself lost lineage, whence Marduk Irad appeared as Ninurta Jared by Ellil, and Enlil's first son Nanna-Suen, as Enan, Cainan's second.... The Sumerian record is sketchy here possibly because of Marduk's power-take name-take, possibly inserting himself twice into his most-immediate parents' succession, regaining his first-son position by both... maybe they did not know who sired Irad and Jared, by the same mother; Maybe the later record reflected additional postbellum confusion.... Or alternative-alternatively, possibly pre-historic-eventualities, other equally-bad reasons including usurping Nanna-Suen in the first-place....)

(Subnote that millennia-later Babylonian records do distinguish Irad from Jared, by planet-assignments, Marduk by Jupiter, Ninurta by Saturn ... Albeit, however, the still-later-Roman records had Jupiter as Ju-piter Amun, Shw-father Ra, the Greeks' Zeus, last, of Ra's lineage; and modern scholars nearly-blaspheme by relating Marduk to Mars ... planet-assignments are either evidence reliable or just not.)

TAKING THE SUMERIAN TANGENT ON LINEAGE:

Marduk's Enuma-Elish complaint against Tiamat had been that she'd contrived a plan to take the destiny of the gods his fathers, no mention of his mothers: Marduk had already mentally shifted to peremptory male leadership even against mothers including Tiamat: This had become the case since Enlil, as Jubilees records Mahalalel as first to marry an out-lineage wife, a cousin *, and those-after did also. But at his trial Marduk pled that he was merely doing Anshar's bidding: imputing Cain or Seth with, instigating the murder of Tiamut... Nevertheless the wording reads Marduk's amplification of Anshar's intents: the word translated 'conquer' may have meant 'dissuade the decree of a senior' ... Cain Anshar Wsr ('oongsher') was first-lineage, first father of Anu, sire of Cainan Enki Ea Nudimmud (familiar), and whence grandfather of Irad Mered Marduk ... and, playing dual roles, changing attires to be also Qingu, requiring -even usurping- the Tablet of Destinies. **

* (There is-yet their lineage seniority twist that Anu's sons were his own brothers and therefor Mahalalel's first-'cousin' was his in-lineage sister.)

** (Note that the Enuma Elish, though it did not specify Apsu Shw's plot, clearly indicated Tiamut Tefnuit's equipollent plot with-and-using Qingu, her commander and new husband after Shw's demise, taking the Tablet of lineage-Destinies, from Anu, and bestowing this upon Qingu, by her new baby-to-be, And thus obtruded Marduk's wargod-cleverness whereby he should commit double murder where his elders had failed even to approach Tiamut about her intentions: Marduk sprayed stink in Tiamut's face but aimed his spear at killing the baby in her belly: Her, death was easy collateral ... But subnote also that her only choice of husband to accomplish her plot, was, Cain Qing-U himself Anshar Alorus playing both sides disguised under two of his many names:- To pull lineage, she had to preempt Anshar's sub-lineage child Anu of unmarried Nephthys: she had to marry Cain herself; and with Shw gone the possibility opened.... Character-analysis suggests that Qingu's reluctance at Marduk's arrival, letting Tiamut face Marduk alone, was his setup -inditing Cain surely;- Tiamut Tefnut's verbal confrontation style had survived the loss of Tefen... That she risked demise at the hands of young wargods, reappears thematically in Jesus having Peter carry a dirk to ensure his, trial, outcome.)

Subnote: Remarriage to any firstborn other-than Cain Osiris, would have merely started a sub-lineage: Thoth in continuing Shw's, a child would follow Adam; Adam putting her secondary to Eve, a child would follow Seth ... Tiamut's lineage theory had had the effect of totally confusing the young gods and proving -in murder- their irrationality paying little attention to their family-studies ... Anu did relinquish the Tablet of Destinies....

(Secondary subnote: A Late Period, Egyptian record, however-reliable that may come so late, claims, that Tefnuit Tiamut became pregnant by Geb Adam after Shw's demise: Apparently, Qingu, did-not, sire, but Adam Geb in rare exhibition of character more than cackling, had insisted Tefnuit immediately recover the family lineage by taking a replacement husband in Adam's own line, consummated by having a child ... Thoth's responsibility was outline, Geb Adam would sire under their lineage rules ... the Egyptian record translates to Geb violating Tefnut but probably meaning deforced, and that, preventing Cain by seniority ... Each step, off their original plan, made its impression on younger generations.... A year can be estimated for this but comes up slightly less certain what Adam Geb was trying to accomplish: as it came so late on his schedule:- Adam may have sired into Seth's branch line for Qingu Cain, to recover its loss due to the vengeance rule, 455+40=495, 5-years before Adam escaped the rebellion, where Cain had sired several already and Isis would surely complain of Seth again; Maybe Adam counted Tiamut as 5-years offset into Cain's line because he knew her rank, 455+40+5=500 ... or, maybe as Ra had ceased siring with Tiamut Tefnuit long ago and Thoth had taked Shw's place but Shw had already sired with her, Adam took first-position and subrogate-sired promptly first ... Adam's correct position was 2nd-senior, both because Adam himself was exactly that old and because Thoth had replaced Shw, So, maybe he sired 8-years-offset, creating for Cain's next son a branch at 32-years, at the same total 40-years offset as Seth's son Enos, because Cain had already sired on the main branch, Tefnut becoming his second-branch-wife... Tefnut's complaint about Adam Geb may have been over 5-years additional, or maybe because Adam preempted newly-first-lineage Thoth replacing Shw, Shw having also moved to and stayed at Ra's first-year position; or maybe that Shw, had actually sired it as part of his plot with Mummu, and Adam had stepped-in and over-sired it to divert it into Cain's family.... The difficulty in this computation, is that Tefnuit was formerly Adam and Eve's mother and any offset should have applied to their-birth: meaning Adam and Eve may have been born 5-years-later than record but recounted to the beginning of their generation after-which Eve's mothering 5-months-late, went unnoticed in the year-records ... Tiamut's sibling-rank was either information on her primordial generation, or assumed as for lineages since Cain's Enoch's short-generation of 40-years, for which mothers were offset 5-years over the regular multiples-of-8,- as her baby was to be born as into Enos' generation, even to replacing him, but not Enoch's generation ... But-then-again sired by Adam ahead of the main cycle, meant a daughter-sister-wife to Jared Irad Marduk's son, because a son there might-not be first-lineage.)

(Adam had become 2nd-rank-senior-sire when there were six seniors behind him, ca year-500: Cain, Seth, Enoch Enos counted once only in the Council's offset-repacked schedule, Cainan, Mahalaleel, Jared; and Jared's son born in the prior generation would be the new father-sire. Thoth had replaced Shw as 1st-rank-senior-sire, at the beginning this generation, we estimate the 2nd-year ... Ra had shifted-out, previously.)

(Tertiary subnote: Qingu had forty children, Tiamut seven; Qingu was first-generation: not Ra's, nor Shw's where brother Thoth was second, nor the Sumerian-next-generation under Apsu and Tiamut, including unknown male siblings after Adam; The young-gods' generation would include Anshar Cain's siblings. And although it had been assumed by Enki Ea, and thence Anu, Ellil, and Marduk, that Shw and later Tiamut's plan was war upon them, she with her army lead by Qingu, it remains an open question whether she'd merely intended to enforce the law on the Tablet of Destinies: -destroying at-most their lineage, not, their persons:- The Tablet had been given to Anu, and Tiamut retrieved it from him, but Anshar Cain father of Anu was there, who'd been personally denied the Tablet, for killing Abel, and it was Anshar instigating the rebellion via Marduk.... The Sumerian does not record Anshar's death, but Qingu's, as instigator for encouraging Tiamut: Yet, Tiamut was not recorded as rebelling... It seems both the Egyptians and Sumerians were foisting the blame on Seth while the evidence implicates their, motive, opportunity, and means. Marduk was later put on trial -in still very fragmented Babylonian records- by Ellil's actual-first son Nanna-Suen et al, but, apparently released.... Anu had had the Tablet probably as the youngest sire-of-a-god; Enki was not-yet so qualified, as Marduk was not-yet old enough to be, a god... Or, maybe, simply, further indicative that Enos was the indicator for the Sumerian branch lineage: the oldest of the youngsters in the difference.)

(A quatertiary subnote: In the Egyptian angle on this story, Geb Adam himself was about to become king by taking deceased, Shw's, place, but his retinue was killed by the headdress-royalty and only himself escaped, injured; No mention of Osiris, infers Adam, was Qingu in the Egyptian perspective; And taking kingship infers Osiris was subordinate to Shw Apsu and Tefnut T-Mwt Tiamut, and name, Qingu, was titularly assigned; Adam's retinue killed, meant Eve and Cain Anshar Osiris, were killed; And Adam injured, meant Qingu was injured, not-killed, if not another.... It nevertheless appears more-likely, that, Moses' referential source for the name, Cain/Qyn, was, Qingu; cf Qing-U and son Ang-U: king, and lord.)

(A quintiary subnote: The Biblical record of Adam and Eve being cast from the garden, and the placing of the cherubim and flaming sword, may have recorded the rejection by Marduk et al, of Adam et al attempting to stabilize Shw's line, whence he quit not just for injury but for rejection of his lineage ... apparently the Ra-Cain line was already accusing the Shw:Adam-Abel:Seth line of causing the rebellion in Sumer.)

(Also note, in Marduk's rebellion, we detect the precondition to Babel wherein words already pliant in tongue forked into errors of thought: Marduk was the prototypical cheaply-educated risky-youth-terrorist, fascinated with technical-destruction of verbally-established seniority: Sending underage Marduk to annoy Tiamut for unreasoned demands, was a scam by one of the fast-tracking middle-management gods; Failure to complete the later tower at Babel, was attributed to Enki Cainan, but would have been in retribution for Marduk's rebellion ... By Marduk calling Tiamut, The Dragon of Chaos, we see her depicted wrinkly, lounging the day living in the chaos abyss rift in the mountain.)

(Subnote. The abyss, Absu, was a rift in the east mountain, later washed in the flood, later hiked by Gilgamesh, later forgotten, but also had the sense of a great deep, underground, originally the abrupt drop of the western slope of the Hejez range down into the Red Sea deepwater-filled gulf-rift: In dividing the lands, Ptah and Ra had taken west, Africa and the Nile, Shw got the Gulf of Aqaba and Red Sea middle whence he was later titularly Apsu lord of the absu, Geb Adam got the Pishon and Mesopotamian rivers eastward in Eden, the gradual near-level slope across the Arabian subcontinent dunes that was their 'flat Earth' steppe ... Cain went east but wandered, His first-son Enos got the eastmost mile-high plateau overlooking, where he was literally Anu the god of the up-heaven mountain ... And as apparently intended historic reference proof, both Ptah's Egypt Memphis and Adam's Edin garden on the Pishon were at 30±0.1°N. And, further west-and-north, Ptah and the old gods retired to the Mediterranean sea islands, and ultimately to the Atlantic ocean and around the world....)

(Secondary subnote: A variant to the Enuma Elish, the Magan Text, an expansive document classified as a fiction, specifies the rift, as, where, Apsu's "body was lain in an empty space in a crevice of the heavens" mountains, -curiously expository detail if fiction-... Similarly the Ordeal of Marduk refers to him being incarcerated in the "lips of the mountain", the gated 'Khaos' abyss which had belonged to Apsu and Tiamat. Other, cuneiform texts give measurements of 50 kaspu 300 miles length, 1 kaspu upslope 1 mile high, 9-foot width, a 14-foot depth of water, but their tablets are extremely fragmented and likely refer rather to the winding coils of the Karun River,- especially as Gilgamesh walked twice as tall.)

(Tertiary subnote, The Magan Text also mentions Enki Cainan telling Marduk, Ra's secret name, number, and shape, whereby to battle Tiamut; But this would imply that Isis had pulled her snake-trick and gotten these two-decades before her baby Horus' time;- indicting Isis as well ... The text also depicts Marduk's disk by-which he surprised Tiamut with her own image, like later Horus' sundisk, But intensity diverges, in this case.)

AND THUS WAS THE END OF THE FIRST, WORLD ORDER:

A note on Shw Apsu Jehovah's character: The Egyptians and Sumerians portrayed him as an airheaded crank:- He'd objected to Eve Nuit's marriage to Adam Geb because she'd objected to his overtures to her: Eve could understand becoming wife to her brother, and even beget children for senior Ra, but not for her father and uncle Thoth; Shw sent Cain away over the death of sibling Abel, but Ra wasn't sure that Cain had actually killed, Abel; Shw complained of the young gods' 'loud talk', and even plotted their demise with young Mummu, to amuse himself, upsetting his wife Tiamut ... Shw was closest to the family and charged with building lineage, but had to wait on Ra without second-guessing; and Ra had millennia-more experience at making decisions seem small-but-effectual: Shw seemed to be a disproportionate, amateur-Ra ... administrative middleman, executive imitator without a clearcut purpose, because it was family first; and Shw tended to push historic events.

(Eve's complaint for father Shw siring with her was obviated by the fact that he was so-old he was second-most-senior.)

(Note: Awan, sired by uncle Thoth, her name meant "Iniquity"... Modern broad society classifies that as incest, but their society was narrow and whence it was iniquity, an unbalanced estate for Eve.... Egyptian mnemonic used for remembering that story was that Shw decreed Eve should have no children 360 days a year, but Thoth pointed-out there were 365 days in a year and thence she had five children, one for each extra... 'til she had nine more. But we also see that their marriages were not young-man-marriages but retirement-extensions which ordinary mankind did not understand in moral or report: Much of the Egyptian record, though archaic, seems a memorized banal version retold by later-mankind.)

And, we also perceive the lot of the scribe and priest in version-methods for remembering all those details humankind did-not understand....

(A research subnote: Jubilees' 364-day year may have subtly intended that, as Abel was killed by Cain, only-4 of-5 days were addable to 360.)

Note the Greek record picked-up that, Ra, sired Osiris Cain and Elder Horus Abel, and Thoth sired Isis Awan, and whence, iniquity, meant out-lineage as Thoth was at that time second-son though he later replaced Shw; and Geb Adam sired only Seth and Nephthys Azura.... Reinforcing this interpretation, is the name of the younger sister, Nephthys -in Latin, Neptis,- meant 'granddaughter' ie. Shw's lineage-granddaughter ... and possibly Awan's Egyptian name-title Aset Asheth being near-reduplicated in Set Seth meant Seth was also-replacement for Isis taken away as both Seth and Asheth were second-lineage till someone first-lineage, Cain, Shw, pass-away.... Note the Egyptians have rather, that Shw, sired, Abel.... Seniority-cross-marriaging was by-design to ensure maximum genetic-and-gender diversity in case of first-lineage failure, and ensured new babies in the family at regular intervals ... Eve's rank created from Adam's rib (*) was thus equal him in heritage computation by god-parts, not second.... In-any-case it is known today that inbred heritage is not-exactly-50-50% between the mother and the father, But Ra's real concern was for equity in building-up the ruling family lineage....

* (The exact interpretation is, -and Jubilees concurs,- that, as a rib of Adam is born at the same time as the body, and of the same genetics, but individuated, so, Eve, was Adam's birth-twin, and lookalike, and her lineage-rank and sibling-to-parenting-rank were the same zero-year-offset; And thus also correcting-out a statement Rev. Eddy made about Jehovah changing methods for reproduction of children ... it was unchanged ... Rev. Eddy simply being more spiritually-minded, read-through the twisted wording to perceive that there are, other methods we know today....)

Secondary note, seniority-progression measured additional grandeur in lineage-demonstration: Firstborn lineage had the oldest genetics and fewest sires, at the eldest ages ... and firstborn living apart, the universe worlds were for the first-lineage to conquer and settle ... and then own. Quite possibly this has been the practice twelve billion years since the first family by our first home-star in our galaxy or the cosmos-preceding. (Note that the possibility of immortality may have achieved much greater than 900 or 9000, years, even 90,000, but also intones that they knew something more-significant from the beginning of time in the cosmos more than 9,000,000,000 years ago.)

We do not yet have an assured estimate of the year of Shw's death, but while Cain was returned, late in his last 28-years: The story-intensity reads like about-3-years before Tiamut's death ... For Cain to have built Sumer, ingratiated himself with his offspring, Tiamut to be incited to action, and Adam Geb's decision and action ... But Adam's action was on a specifically-disputed schedule following Shw's death, of senior-siring with Tiamut Tefnuit ca year-498-499 --within 9-months of her death,-- and before ca year-500 for Cain Osiris' death shortly thereafter.

A best-estimate on the age of Shw is somewhat contrived, amid conflicting discoveries yet-to-be-resolved ... But simplest, is-- Shw, and Thoth, following the senior-sire rule for Abel and Awan Isis, had sired immediately after Ra, before the 5-seniors gap-- implicating Shw and Thoth old-enough to sire that-early, as seniors 65-years-or-more apart siring 8-years apart ... therefor, Shw was at-least-455-years older than Adam; But, computation through the prior gaps in Ra's lineage has turned-up that Shw may have been a generation more, 520-536 years older, and Thoth, Shw's birth-twin, Mwt Tefnuit's second son, in lieu of first daughter, -whence Ra even decided and allowed, Thoth, to sire, from his 'minutes late' second lineage, to maintain the balance of genetics after Shw sired son Abel instead of a daughter sister-wife to Cain, (Thoth was said to be a "Form of Shw," i.e. lacking only the mark of first-lineage from birth)-... therefor Shw lived at-least-952 or 1017-1033, years, 'til ca Adam's 497th. (The 520-536 and 1017-1033 precision, is allowing that their earliest records counted 12-moons-per-year refined to 800-moons-per-65 before arriving,-- and as-such, estimates a limit to Ptah's telescope resolving-clarity for observing our Earth, moon, and sun, at a light-year's distance-- where they'd have measured lunar months only by the sidereal-year calendar moons: before they could also measure Earth's axial precession.)

This estimate is possibly exact, including Shw's passing in 497, given Jubilees' record of Adam being born in the 6th (year) of the week before the first jubilee, if their calendar was registered to their arrival at Earth just 29 weeks ×7 = 203 years earlier (or off by exactly 7 more) ... the 203 being 8-years more than three generations 3×65 = 195, implicates the usual sire-schedule-transfer, from Ra's branch to Shw's branch, but with Ra preempting Shw at the head of Shw's branch their new-main-branch ... i.e. they arrived on Ra's calendar, and switched to Shw's.... The year discrepancy in Adam's birth may have occurred during the 9-day transition from their preceding 666×12-moon-lunar-year-generation calendar.

(Note that Jubilees is translated as spelling-out "day" of the week, rather than "year" as used next, but such accuracy is anomalous for that early era, and the six days for Adam being introduced to all the animals to understand and name them, and then to Eve and learn that she is to be his wife, required years, not days,-- and was possibly a similar translatory mistake in the Sumerian records of the gods: confusing days and years.)

And such was the last and the end of the first Yhwh on Earth, and his wife and mother ... Later Jehovahs were merely later-contemporary Lords.

REBELLION IN THE EAST:

Egyptian records mention it. An Egyptian phrase says, Osiris had shut-in Geb and Nut on the day of the slaughter.... A variant implicated that a rebel-driven bull dozed the house: trampling Osiris.... And Adam quit for the Tuat, west, taking his lineage into silent perpetuity: the young gods had let him go: he had saved their lineage -if only by a legal stretch, as technically Adam Geb's parents and wife were dead; and he, injured-....

So, Marduk, first son of Ea Enki Cainan, became the new leader of the gods and keeper of the tablet of destinies ... Mahalaleel Ellil, while Anu, Enki, Ellil, had lorded near-equally, had become known as greatest, (the Ma-prefix records his greatness: Ma-Ellil great-Ellil), Bel, to aboriginal mankind on the Edin steppe below Anu's heaven, before Marduk prevailed and took their title-names including the 'Bel' title (hence Bel was the first son of Enki, twice: Enlil 'Bel' #1, and Marduk 'Bel' #2) and the M-prefixed M'Iraduk ... And according to the Sumerian, another younger Enki later became confused with Cainan Enki....

Whether Cainan Enki Ea lost lineage-primacy to Mahalaleel, in killing Apsu Shw, is not apparent though he did not have to move away as Cain had in killing Abel.... Marduk was put on trial, and the Enuma Elish was the libel ... another god was deemed culpable, and Marduk exonerated. But, in the Egyptian view, and by the Rule of Vengeance, the Sumerians were cut-off from the first-family lineage and fabricating their own....

NB. We begin to see why Cainan Enki did not at-first correlate in name, Enki Ea, a compound name in later Babylonian times meaning Lord of the Land-waters: he'd been Enki-nun En-Ki-nun Lord-Cainan of the Land-river-underground waters. Furthermore, the Mosaic recording method had changed from mother to father: Originally the god lineages related from mothers, as was obvious and incontrovertible, whereas fatherhood could be concealed.... Reexamination of Biblical records thiswise, reveals surprisingly good corroboration: Cain's and Seth's lineages were by their sisters-- Cain's sisters' first sons were Enoch, whose son was Irad, followed by Mehujael Horus; while Seth's sister's first sons were Enos, whose first son was Cainan, and possibly Mahalaleel of Nephthys-dub Mua-laleth, then Jared Marduk, and, Enoch Horus. (Note, a third-century-BC Babylonian-priest-scholar correlated earliest Ea to later Oannes, as would be derived from the earlier Egyptian nun, primordial waters, and the Sumerian suffix nun, for branching river waters; and an historical clue to Biblical Cainan's era: Oannes, Ea-Nun, came from the gulf after the flood and reconstructed civilization anew. However, said priest-scholar also equivalenced Oan and Thalatta to Apsu and Tiamut.)

Marduk, was later killed by Mot, (possibly corresponding to Egyptian Thoth's wife Maat's name meaning truth, justice, cosmic order, "things as they ought to be;" but also to the name of the great-mother goddess he slew, Tiamut Tia-mwt); probably because he'd later killed Mot's brother seagod Yamm Yam-Nahar for blackmail taking post-Seth Ishtar Astarte and a dowry of Nut's necklace and Geb's signet ring in Egypt;- Marduk Baal had moved to Egypt, the delta area where was his place as King Surid Yrd Jared, and eventually three great pyramids, two in his time....

THROUGH THE EGYPTIAN 'TELESCOPE':

Meanwhile, The fallout from Marduk's revolt left the young gods in charge, And, per the Egyptian record, Geb Adam and Osiris Cain took the opportune lull to escape: Geb for mid north Africa, and Osiris returned to his Egypt, and Isis --after 28 years--... But now Seth was waiting for him, along with granduncle Thoth and a queen from the south, and seventy-two male servants, and a big party, and a game with one winner--

And a prize mocking-tricky ambush that got Cain into a sealed chest floating down the Nile, --before Cain could have his own son by Isis, that would upset Seth's takeover so cleverly arranged--... The chest was found on a seashore, years later, and Isis retrieved it, opened it and left it outside, -probably because it stank,- But, then Seth got hold of the body and separated and hid its parts from proper burial, (technically, Seth, believing his hands clean of the murder, by having men, ambush Cain and incarcerate him in a sealable box,- providing only the lures and the men's inducements: not directly killing him)... While we do not have record of what happened to the men afterward, it was probably that which inspired men-kind to later rebel against the gods, in Egypt:-- Egyptian references characterize Seth as the embodiment of evil;-- and whence the term, Satan Seth-An, is understandable in Christ Jesus' complaint, Get thee behind me, Satan: Seth-an Seth-lord'ed: Jesus was alert to a broader Egyptian record, having sojourned there with his parents.

(Note, the cedar chest was purportedly fused-into a Tamarisk tree rooted at low tide, already a rapid-growth tree achieving full height in about two year-seasons, the weighty swaying press of the heavy chest caught floating in the water encouraging even greater growth of the tree trunk around it becoming something of a prize-find; But if Isis had immediately traced the Nile current, she could have located it within that time and completed her burial plans; We need research further, what took her 20 years to recover the body and be sure it was Cain's not Shw's, but the strong indication is that the child was to be sired precisely into Ra's 65-year-synchronous first-lineage schedule ca 520 = 8 × 65.)

So, Calling on her sister Nephthys and her child Anubis Enos Anu with his hunting jackal, Isis searched for and retrieved Osiris' body parts all but the crucial one, purportedly fed to a fish, and she fashioned that of wood, and got her child Horus Enoch thereby.... In faint allusion, to how Jehovah Yhwh Shw got Adam's sister Eve, from his rib, Enos embalmed, wrapped and perfumed Osiris Cain's body, to overcome its stench, and Isis got Ra to supply the man-seed, and taking Osiris' body, thereby, got her child Horus Ra-Horakhty son of Ra in deceased-Cain Osiris' lineage, his declared father; (and another gruesome story, and whence Egypt's subsequent fascination with embalming, necromancy, and the afterlife, and rapt wrapped mummies figuring-in).... So, Isis did get Horus by Cain, by, with, his body, but of, Ra, the source god on Earth. (But they were all, of Ra and his wife, by inbred lineage, so far:- naught but a few gene-code flukes, among forty-thousand, might tell today.)

(Note that Horus deemed father-sired by dead-Osiris, on Ra's main schedule, involves a contradiction-- Cain had sired Cainan offset 24-years, skipped Mahalaleel on his 16th, Jared on his 8th, none on his '0th', and pseudo-sired Horus not, on his '-8th' of the main schedule ... Explication involves arguments of view-- that they'd resumed the main schedule and Ra surrogate-sired for Thoth replacing Shw but Osiris Cain subrogate-sired for Ra, -and fathered, Horus-... Or, that Osiris Cain came back-to-life for a day -on the main schedule:- as was Isis' primary pretense....)

And Isis escaped with her child into the Egyptian bush and hid him decades from Seth, and taught him by both mothers herself and Nephthys....

(Note, The Egyptian record is rather-less-than-consistent on this: In many versions Isis had a son before, the body was recovered; And she had lesser-sons: It is possible but nowhere stated that Horus-of-Ra could have been of-Seth while he took her into his house as he became lineage-'firstborn' replacement for Osiris-upon-death; Or of-Thoth as he became lineage-'firstborn' replacement for Shw.... Isis may have later pulled her preemption with Ra, to supersede a lesser-one... and then Seth pulled the other way.... However, Their lineage system -purpose- had not made such a preemptive move possible: Lineage rule was to propagate the line, nearest-first; But, the Sumerian 'renegades' had gotten disruptive of rules, murdering-up the lineage ... the prototype renegade having been Sumerian-Egyptian Cain Osiris himself.)

(Subnote that both could have happened: Isis may have constructed a situation that violated their legal-notion of one-sire-only, to exclude Seth.)

(Note Enos Anu Anubis' double life, in double places:-- Anubis in Egypt was 'a boy and his dog' hunting jackal, far-junior to everyone,- with two mothers, a younger and her older sister foster-mother whose own later first son was of Ra, all the elder gods there far-outranking him, -but that was doting freedom, too;- while Anu in Sumeria was top-rank of the young gods, First Watcher, first son of great visiting god Alorus Elhorus of Egypt,-- whom the Sumerians record as the very first having ruled 45 Sars followed by lessers on lesser schedules....)

THROUGH THE SUMERIAN 'MICROSCOPE'-- CORRECTING THE RECORD FOR THE EGYPTIANS, TOO:

But an epitaph, note: The Book of Jasher "the corrected record" referred-to in Joshua, redepicts Cain's end:- Lamech had become related to Cainan, by taking his two daughters for wives, and when he was old he could not see that it was "Cain" approaching him in the field where he was hunting with young Tubalcain for guide, and his poor-sighted arrow killed 'Cain', and the Book depicts this as it were justice. But then this Cain, is called, grandfather, yet Cain was Lamech's great-great, grandfather, beyond 600 by time Tubalcain was born by Zillah when she was very old; Yet Jasher and Jubilees allow that Cain died in the same year as Adam (Cain's 864th), but Jubilees, his house fell on him, that might refer to the bulldozing the same year Adam left ca 500, Cain 435; if-not Lamech's stonehead arrow: Possibly the Egyptians did not have a full story; possibly the chest was in ceremonious procession with pallbearers, dumped in the Nile to drift away; yet the ages better fit the Egyptian record, as Jasher claims Adam passed in Lamech's 56th year-- not very old.... So, Lamech's kill might have been Cainan 910, grandfather of Tubalcain, 'justice' for Cainan killing Jehovah not Cain killing Abel,- but does not really explain why Lamech or Tubalcain 'spotted' a god as an animal.... Jasher goes on to say Lamech's wives sought to kill him, and that father Adam reconciled them but who would be some-other head-father for Cainan ...unless... the whole story was a disguise for another killing in Adam's own family and Adam reconciled them by telling them, "Say, it was Cain, for having killed Abel,"-- to make of it a story with a manly moral-- as Adam's legacy: for Adam himself died that same year.

(The reconciliation by Adam appears to have been sufficient to exonerate Lamech who then fathered Noah, but not Tubalcain through Kainam; The Rule of Vengeance must have applied to Tubalcain, who confirmed the shot, but not to Lamech who released the shot at Tubalcain's say;- Lamech had reasoned that he could rely absolutely on another's ability, and it appears reasoning prevailed in his era which misunderstood the rule of 7-fold -not 77 fold- vengeance ... and even Lamech's 7th, Kainam's exclusion was called into question by Jubilees ... but then later Eber, Kainam's next-65-year-generation son maybe should have been excluded too: it's a close-call on Lamech's birth, in their messy-calendar-era.)

(The existence of such detailed records -from which Jubilees might attempt a revised lineage,- suggests yet-more may yet be known today....)

In fact, this appears to have happened:- Isis assumed a fact-too-far (two-too-far, considering her classification of Seth as a 'fiend'), and got a nearly-correct story except for the detail of who actually killed Osiris, and how ... and yet there was, a party and, there were tricks employed,--

Isis laments in an Egyptian record that, her mother Nuit Eve is in "aqert" (dead), father Geb Adam is in the "tuat" (a Saharan oasis), and elder brother-husband Osiris Cain is in the sarcophagus (dead), while she tends baby Horus for an insect sting: with Ra's 'first son' Thoth's help; Yet there is no record of Eve passing, Egyptian, Sumerian, Biblical, but a clue,-- The millennium-later Babylonian Enuma Elish, (estimably derived from the Sumerian), lists Lahmu Adam and Lahamu Eve, and Anshar Cain their firstborn, all alive at the time of Marduk's plot ... but Apsu Shw deceased whence Thoth's ascendance; Isis' lament followed Osiris Anshar's death, a small number of years after he'd returned from 28 years absence-residence including Sumeria ... thus Eve Lahamu's death must have been very proximate to Tiamut's, but unnoticed in the overthrow.

Marduk ordered Qingu Cain killed, not appreciating his pretended feint from assisting Tiamut in her final moment; which, explains, how, Cain's "house fell on him," after Tiamut moved-in on her new husband, --and Marduk rolled some boulders down the mountain, crushing houses,-- and Seth's procession back to Egypt with 72 men bearing Osiris' body in an already-lead-sealed sarcophagus, -the cause Isis then disputed,- and, Lahmu Adam's altogether-exit within 3-quick-years ...

And the trick:-- Seth was alone, the young gods refusing to help, Adam injured, and mankind balked at touching a dead god, so Seth had them 'trick' the body on straps, into the chest, while facing away and not sober... and he had them test the balancing procedure by putting each in the chest momentarily with a tottering scare and selecting 72-men for uniformity of stature (the promise of ownership, whomever it fit, keeping their menial minds preoccupied), probably 3-rotations, paired each end of six poles, for a thirty-day thousand-mile journey to Egypt ... The party was Cain Osiris' funeral party, probably in the Sumerian fashion for mankind kings ...

Most probably, Seth was innocent of the murder of his older brother Osiris Cain at the end of Marduk's revolt in Sumeria, caring only to return the body to Egypt ... which Isis not only misconstrued but blamed him for not-better watching Osiris' back, in Sumeria, (a task assumed to the younger brother); she contrived it as having happened in Egypt or unmentioned to cover her own concerns and involvement in Sumerian war-politics (which-side Osiris nWsr/Anshar Alorus/El-Horus 'Cain'/Qyn/Qingu * took there); And history took its toll on her omission of statement.

* (Note: Qingu, was probably Cain's title-name, meaning, 'cane-goer, wanderer who goes among the reed-spears', the Euphrates marshland: It may have derived in replacement for deceased Shw's first-time-lord name, Khonsu, or, Cain's full name, Qyng-U or Qyng-of-Yhw/Shw.)

(Note that although Thoth's ascendance also moved Isis Awan up lineage, she remained second-first to her younger sister Nephthys.)

(Subnote, Osiris Qingu's missing body part, was used in the Sumerian young gods' first experiment at mass-generation of mankind; Egyptian records agree that Osiris invented men in the early era, which might intone the same or, might indicate Osiris' additional motive in his 28-year travel,-- to generate mankind... which Marduk then considered and used that part of Qingu ... Marduk figured or was told that as the children of Cain Qingu were successively larger and stronger, the same would apply to breeding with mankind; Egyptian Khnum may have suggested it.)

(Secondary subnote, Osiris' very-long absence from Egypt, out civilizing the world, -indeed not returning till he was dead,- suggests possibly his admission to Ra, of having murdered his brother Abel centuries earlier; or, -more likely- that he had been expelled, by Ra, for attacking Seth the replacement for Abel: in renewed-anger per an Egyptian story ... and 'wandered' back to Sumer alone from Isis and away from Seth in Egypt, to restart in one of his earliest-built houses; and thence Cain Qingu instigated Shw's murder by his sired son Cainan.... Note also, Cain Osiris' 28-years return in Sumer was about the same duration that Abel had lived there, 25-32, according to the Book of Jubilees, before he struck again.)

(Sidenote Isis' accusation that Seth 'tricked' Osiris, meaning not the infamous party-prize story but his failure as younger brother in his job as security chief for Osiris:- under thorough analysis turns-up a 'trial-of-six-millennia' presently redacted as our newest feature movie screenplay: Briefly, Seth's responsibility as acting first-son in Cain's absence from Shw's passed-on lineage instruction, put Seth in the pivotal conflict-of-interest to protect grandmother Tiamat from Cain's sons' pending revolt instead of protecting Cain: because Seth understood as Marduk did not, that the murder of Tiamat would cancel Cain's lineage unless Cain marry Tiamat and replace Shw: thus making it Cain's responsibility to protect Tiamat as her husband and commander-- which Cain, then failed, not Seth.... And Seth then passed the information to Horus Enoch:- the evidences indicting Cain's deliberate arrangements, leaving Seth to protect Isis in Egypt, a little enticement of rulership, while Cain left to coerce Mummu to conspired with Apsu, and Enki to murder Apsu, and Tiamut to marry him and take the Tablets and Marduk to murder her... That Seth was ruling in Egypt the while and not by Osiris, is fairly certain when Seth's rulership years are accounted... Otherwise see that Isis' said accusation may have extended-to and included Seth's insufficient legal, control, of great-great-grandson Marduk ... against enticement.)

AND ... NOW, THE SONS OF JARED-- NOW THAT WE KNOW THEIR SCHEDULE:

Jared should have had a firstborn at 65, ranked to 105 in Seth's branch-lineage before the Rebellion whereafter the Sumerian wives withheld themselves ... Or born later.... The Bible says, Enoch came 162 years after Jared, but Jubilees instantly disagrees by a hundred and says 61, sooner by 4 years than Nabu the son of Marduk, Sumerian records indicate by a reluctant wife... Enoch may have preempted, Nabu, when he arrived.... But the century discrepancy opens a challenge:- Maybe Moses' scribes indicated a wrong number by a mark resembling a century: they'd expected a minimum 65; maybe Moses' scribes had a parallel record that rejected Jared Irad Mered Marduk Bel, and reached back to Mahalaleel's real birth, but it too is short 4-years ... or maybe Moses' scribes had conflicting information on Enoch-- as we will indeed find that Enoch is more pivotal and confusing to the whole of Biblical history hereafter: Enoch didn't even arrive in Sumer for another 65, years, and the Bible may have his arrival year since Jared Marduk's real, birth, 162 years ... And, topping that, Osiris Cain was on his 28-year world-tour and unavailable to sire for Jared, albeit quite possibly he was there incognito, and, Seth would not sire when his surrogate was gone ... As there is no hint of Nabu having older sisters, we'll take an estimate that Nabu was sired by Anu or later with the reluctant wife....

(The Book of Jasher does in fact drop the century and as well a century from later Methuselah fathering Lamech, but drops none from Lamech; The interpolation of births at the transitions to-and-from Seth's branch, seems citeable for this and probably involved with the vengeance rule.)

But; Note the hint that Enoch Horus could have been Nabu himself N-second-lord-aB-of-father-U-of-heaven, (a)N(a)pu, having nearly outranked Anpu Anubis Anu and become Second Watcher of heaven, if, Nabu, was titular N-ab-u He-r-u En-wk even the source for Napi-shtim; Yet whom did he preempt, and did Moses follow Egyptian history-recording methods and drop bad rulers,- remained unrecorded.... Alternatively, Egypt's Abu was the 'source' of the Nile for lower northern Egypt, and Nabu could have been the Watcher on that secondary 'Nubian' mountain-heaven: secondary-Lord of Abu, Egypt, as the Sumerian name for Horus, who became the third Enoch, after Anubis first-Enoch and Cainan second....

(Subnote Jubilees' 61 years for Jared's son, if not referential, could have come from a mother ranked 4-earlier than KiKi, Mualeleth, Dinah, and Baraka, -that being Awan Isis herself, preempting Baraka-... Or likewise, the Biblical 162 years could have come from Mahalaleel senior-siring 32-years after Jared's 65th measured by his-own birth 65-earlier, 5th-rank after Enos got dropped in Tiamut's pull of lineage Destiny ... But that might be Nabu himself real-son-of-Jared-Marduk, assumed-still-in-lineage, confused with Enoch Horus of Awan Isis herself-- precursing Nabu.)

AND THE VERY-NEXT SON REQUIRES RECOUNTING THE GOD-FAMILY CHRONOLOGY ALTOGETHER-- AS ENOCH HIMSELF DID:

The Book of Jubilees recounts Jared begat Enoch in his 61st year, not 162nd, --contradicting the Biblical record with curious significance if no senior was born 101 years * before Jared, or maybe the Bible (mis)assumed significant information on the reluctant Sumerian wives' delay, or maybe misassumed son Marduk was removed;-- Methuselah begat Lamech in his 65th year, not 187th 4-years shy of 61+65+65 from Jared's birth, unless the Bible added another century for another, discrepant source, but even 87th disagrees with Jubilees; Lamech begat Noah in his 50th-56th year, not Lamech's but Enoch's 182nd, about Lamech's 52nd... putting the flood of Noah's 600th to Adam's 1308th, -three and a half centuries before the Biblical-... And yet-- Jubilees' accuracy has been highly instructive so far ... (And even in error, its later lineage-inclusion of Kainam, suggests, this foreshortened schedule was based on calculably reliable source information)....

* (to be declaratively correct, but Jubilees may have meant a checksum reference and Irad's actual 39-year-earlier birth weighs-in... Reference-checksums are standard procedure in tabulation, to catch single errors, but which result in double-errors if the source is incorrect.)

However, 52 is not a possible insert after Lamech of Methuselah's 65th: because Enoch's lineage is already first on the senior-siring schedule. Also, Lamech's Tubalcain-generation is missing and the Bible must have had reason for picking 187, Jasher, 87; and we may have to develop three possible schedules, one for Jubilees, one for the Bible, and one best for the Jasher-Sumerian flood-record.

(Jasher hints at a second flood-year but never relates; the Bible reports the third; But there's only one for Noah and the Sumerian Utnapishtim, and our better-corrected chronology aims to fit it: Jasher's 'great flood' in Enos' time before Enos' final-905th year 1140, limits Noah's flood to Enoch's, 600th, and Enoch's birth to by-year-540: He could-not have arrived a Biblical-century later; and his passing was probably his, 950th.)

Noah off Enoch's 65-year seniority schedule suggests he's another insert, like Enoch, but rather 52-additional for a delayed-branch lineage.

Jubilees' year-522 for Enoch is fairly sure: the 2-years fine-offset added to 8×65=520 for mother Isis Awan being third-sibling in her generation: Enoch did not follow Jared in Seth's branch-lineage by the generation-and-sibling-year rules applied thereto, but he arrived to take, rule, after.... (Moses' scribes may have assumed the 522-year was to be offset-39, and, 3-sooner, and therefor 'corrected' it to the 65-year-generation next.)

The Book of Jubilees recorded that Enoch was the first to learn writing -as was attributed to god Thoth adviser to Horus' mother Isis in Egypt,- who correlated the days and seasons -Sumerian and Egyptian calendars,- in his own book recounting their Sabbaths and Jubilees and week-sevens and years, -solving Anu's crazy-calendar dilemma,- and, wrote a predictive vision-testimony of what was to come before the judgment-flood.... Also, Jubilees reported Enoch being taken majestically to see the garden of Eden, and there write that judgment and condemnation;-- Having grown up in Egypt and kept hidden by Awan, Enoch Horus had never seen the famed garden that all the Sumerian gods knew so well.

(Note, Jasher, ascribes much of this predictive talent to Cainan, i.e. Enoch, i.e. Horus, i.e. not Cainan; Enoch, was apparently a generic name.)

However, This opens a new puzzle: Anubis had been given a new start year because he was pulled from Cain's lineage, -we know so because Horus became first-son later,- but, Horus did not get pulled, just moved... If Anu kept the requirement that Horus live in Sumeria 65 years before starting lineage, then Methuselah, Lamech, and Noah, would have been born later unless Ra or Thoth sired Methuselah with Horus' first-lineage wife, in Egypt ... We'll assume Horus did not rule during his first 65 years because he was in-hiding from Seth and without his father Osiris Cain co-ruling ... until he was old enough, and Isis took him before Ra and Seth and the Council, and after training with Seth, ruled his remaining 300 years before heading up the mountain in the east to become a Watcher with Anubis. We'll try a few optional-reconstructions with Enoch, but we know that he was too smart to mess-up the calendars, unless his fixing did-so when the later gods had two versions: their original, and, his fix--

HORUS THE UNIFIER OF KEMETIC EGYPT,-- KHAN-UK THE-ENOCH OF SEMITIC SUMER:

Postmortem-son Horus Horakhty, when full-grown, reclaimed father Osiris' first-rights in Egypt, and battled Seth for eight decades, wounding both... then a century later deposed god Ra purportedly for disapproving his taking Seth's half of Egypt ... In Sumeria, Horus became the new Enoch Enki god (El) Ea "El-y-h" Elijah (cf Books of Jasher and Enoch details), his rank above Anubis Enoch and Cainan, despite his relative youth; and the gods council decided he and Seth should alternate ruling Egypt, recompensing Seth special gifts:- Horus ruled 300 years, and studied with the gods in Egypt and Sumeria, learning everything ... Then, in a wintery end, the gods took him, departing him on horseback, up the Persian range mountainside amid a whirlwind (and icy snow, adds Jasher), to Anu's frosted-white sand-glass house;- and Seth ruled 350 years total, in Egypt, -partly before, partly with, and partly after, Horus,- till himself passed.

(N.B. Their notion of heaven, throughout their records was that of the "heave-n" mountains reaching to the sky: Rarely did anyone walk up, and mankind was forbidden and gods and goddesses themselves restricted; the same notion forwarded by the Hebrews,- as Jesus put it, Born of the water and the spirit;-- gods and conquerors came by the mountains.)

(Note, the Egyptian record indicated that Geb Adam gave Seth's portion of Egypt to Horus, but probably to strengthen Horus for Sumeria; and probably recognizing the trouble caused by Cain and his sired seed was not worthy of losing his third, son ... and Seth acquiesced to reason.)

A character-check ... Why ... Horus Enki deposed Ra over a mere complaint ... Horus, both son, and great-grandson on Isis' side, (whence Horus was known as Ra-Horakhty,-- the Horus name came from Cain Osiris' Sumerian king title, Alorus, Horus the Elder of Egypt):

  1. Horus believed Seth should stay east ... though Seth had double-duty as new first-son and, replacement for Cain;

  2. Horus knew Ra's secret name, from Isis, -obsoleting Ra:- Horus replaced him as sungod;

  3. Ra had agreed to let Shw send Cain away over the death of Abel; Yet he was willing that Seth stay, after 'causing' the death of Cain;

  4. Horus when a child had been stung by a scorpion, purportedly created by Ra's Tefnuit, (and healed by Isis and Thoth's incantations);

  5. Ra had neither prevented Tefnuit's preparations against the young gods, nor Marduk's revolt against his lineage, a century earlier;

  6. Adam Geb, grandson of Ra, Father of Cain Osiris and Seth, had already quit west; Thoth was senior in Egypt, Sumer needed Seth;

  7. As the young gods grew older they were to move westward to take the place of the passing elders, but were no longer doing so; Seth may have argued instead that Horus should move east to Sumeria (as he later did as Enoch El-y-h) because he was a younger, god;

  8. Egypt was filling with general-lineage god family, and likewise so was Sumer: Horus saw a family split;

  9. Ra had ordered a massacre of mankind over their rebellion in Egypt (probably for Seth's involving them in the murder of Osiris Cain), while, Horus was, as father Osiris Cain had been and Cainan Enki after, a champion of mankind and civilization....

  10. Horus may have agreed to dispose of Ra to save his own skin having grafted into Anu Enos, Ea Cainan and Marduk Jared's lineage;

  11. And, to prevent a further upstaging of the younger gods by Ra and Nephthys' daughter or other yet younger goddesses;

  12. Horus was wary of the claim-or-blame that Seth had drowned Osiris Cain in Egypt, and wanted to fully control the situation.

  13. Horus believed Ra was approving Seth for taking first-lineage that Isis wanted to keep for Horus in Egypt, after the Rebellion in the East.

  14. (We'll also find that Seth was secretly considered special by Ra and the Council: as possibly a longer-longevity god; See below.)

So, two, Cainan Enki (El) Ea and Horus Enki El-y-h, coexisted, stories fused, one in Mesopotamia and one in Egypt; who both traveled widely.

This positions Enoch -Horus- after, Jared, in time, while Enoch -Cainan- before, firstborn Irad Jared, Marduk, in the lineage of Cain; and Horus the same as Mehujael, and the Biblical 162 years delay: to his rulership inserted after birth... The odd part is that we never think of an Egyptian god, -especially, famous Horus,- as being Enoch or desert sage Elijah El-y-h El-Ea living 365 years, walking with the Sumerian gods, studying the things, of the gods, being taken places by, the gods ... though even Abraham and his lord Yhwh (Noah), were known as travelers-beyond....

The Book of Jasher says that Enoch was like Cainan, wise, and taught men righteousness: Enoch consented to rule 130 kings and princes (the number of priests and soothsayers in Egypt): they made him king, and he ruled 243 years and helped parttime until they stopped coming for his awed-countenance (his liver-complaint), till he knew his last was coming and a white horse took him several days journey, men following, then a whirlwind and snow-hail, and he disappeared up the mountain, leaving Methuselah, Elisha(a), Elimelech, and their sisters Melca and Nahmah.

(NB. Enoch's 243-years rule, made 'king', regarded his 'certified-god-over-120' status in Sumeria, his near-last 243 of his 300 years rule over Egypt; and the Sumerian young-gods managed probation and pullback on Marduk and Nabu, and declared Horus' family superiority. There is also hint in much-later Egyptian literature, that Horus in his 363rd, i.e. 120th+243, deposed senior god Ra, but the record is an unreliable fit of years and identities, and possibly indicating that Horus was bitten by a crocodile, or, compelled to leave Egypt for 'renegade' far-east-country for having attacked Seth again, even dragging him before Ra, and yet Ra per his thousand-years rule was long-gone from the scene.)

(Jasher indicates that Enoch Horus began kingly rule in his 65th, the year Methuselah was born, and he despised the "evil ways of men," which, could mean the Sumerian gods lived up the heaven-mountain, while the 'men' were those below, including Seth... But, cites Enoch's 308th year, for Adam passing; before Enoch was taken up but 100 years wrong.... Possibly, titular, King, was a diminutive role assumed while learning with Anu, before Enoch reached the 121-year-a-god rule, and then ruled 243-more, a fact misplaced ... And later Horus Enoch recused himself from the daily business of ruling the larger, Egypt....)

THE LARGER ARITHMETIC SO FAR - ENOCH WROTE THE BOOK:

According to Egyptian records, Geb Adam ruled 500 years and Osiris Cain first king in Egypt ruled 450-or-433 years (the family ruled together overlapped as a dynasty, though not all together in the same place); --But so did pre-dynastic Sumerian king Alorus rule 433 years: he ruled 45 Sars, but, he, started, the first Sar and ruled into, his 45th Sar: hence more than 44 Sars or 433.7 years: a Sar being 3600 days--... Cain Osiris Alorus El-Horus "Horus the Elder" ("hawk" god of Egypt) was one-same-god doing double-duty as himself-and his deceased twin-brother....

(Which thus-also hints at Egyptian Anubis Anwp Enoch, Sumerian Anu Enos' double-identity, the family-son doing like the family-father....)

But-- we need watch the calendar differences here: 433 Egyptian years, may be their 365-day 'years', or, their 365.25-day-average-Nile-flood, years ... Either way, Cain Osiris Alorus ruled about-435 Biblical/Jubilean years, and Adam Geb about-502 in 500-501-Egyptian years....

(A note on archaic counting: The Sumerian Sar was 3600 days, oft misrendered as years but which the Sumerians did not know until millennia later, because they lived in year-round balmy weather, 30° North latitude: They were the predecessory discoverers of the Saros cycles of solar eclipses measured by counting days, not seasons... whence their seemingly expansive year records are merely days multiplied out; -Sars can read as near-decades -Heb. Asar,- but they also counted Sars-started, where the Egyptians counted full years-... Nevertheless by comparison the Egyptian record is year-accurate because they had annual inundation-flooding of the Nile which meant their years were real years, -except when taking cattle census-.... Eventually Sumerian records changed over -albeit gradually, sporadically,- while conversely, Moses, -asserts the Book of Jubilees,- established a 364-day year for its divisibility by seven, and likewise jubilees of 49 years, 7-by-7's; -though we'd suppose he intended the Egyptian's-365th day as the celebration of the full year and the 50th year the celebration of the full jubilee as LEV:25 detailed with liberty and the return of land titles,- assigning Adam 930 364-day-calendar-years, 926.8 solar, years.... Jubilees' years also frequently fall short compared to its own account, e.g. 5-in-147 for Jacob's passing, and may have resulted from mixed calendars and realigned recounts....)

(Subnote. Osiris in ruling 433 Egyptian years just-short of 434, 435 Jubilean years, siring at 100-moon 8.1-year intervals since his 130th would have reached 3-years-shy of 39 children, plus post mortem Horus the 40th: the same child count attributed to Qingu: whence we deduce Qingu was exactly as old as Cain Osiris, --and both were, 'first-generation', sired by Ra,-- and the difference may count birth-twins along the way....)

(Subnote Anu's estimate for matching Sumerian mountain 'lunar' years to periodic Egyptian river flood years, counting days and partial Sars: It was beyond Anu's capacity to convert Egyptian calendar-time to Sumerian; the main flood-event wasn't there and Thoth hadn't yet found a 365-day cycle ... Sumerian record hints of their discovery of the year-cycle when Anu wrote to his granddaughter Ishtar, complaining that they would never be able to make his calendar of months, used atop his mountain range, meet her years, used in her underworld bottom of the mountain:- Apparently they had discovered unreconcilable the yearly north-south cycle of shadows falling daily with each sunrise over the mountain peaks. The much-later Book of Enoch delineates 30±day months by sunrise through gates and windows east and west and the variability of lengths of days and nights further delineated in twice nine parts, sunrise, early morn, midmorn, late, etc. However, it also registers Jubilees' 364-day year not the 365-day of Egypt, and 29.5-day lunar-months, and blames 'sinners' for centurial seasonal perversion....)

(Subnote: Early-history counting of objects, then time and distance, was by natural numbers, tallying 1-10 by fingers, both hands left and right undistinguished, later simplified by a count of counts: a third hand-motion-mark indicating 0-5 full-tallies in addition to the main tally,- whence "base 60" ... a fourth hand-mark extended that to base-360.... Days were the order of existence and so not counted primarily,- but months by moon-phases were obvious and counted days-at-extent fairly conveniently, 29.53 days per month by our science; then star-risings, 12 moons per year, 354 days, or their natural 360-count seemed good, till god Thoth or his wife Maat noticed that was quickly 5 days off every year and they replaced it with the 365-day year in Egypt, -later refined to 365.2564 days per sidereal 'star' year, and that later refined to our solar year, 365.2422 days-.... Centuries later one god, Enoch, put the calendars into order conglomerating 590.6-day twenty-moon Ners, 354-day round-lunar-years, 365-day round-years, and 3600-day Sars and 600-day Ners: and from which we got our early Biblical year and jubilee records.... Distance measurement was more challenging as there was no natural length but the body, so they measured fingers and hands, arms, strides etc. till millennia later the Babylonians estimated a 3600th of the Earth's circumference as their 10.8Km Beru, a Sumerian Danna, an Egyptian Schoenus, an English Stage, accurate at sea-level 14°N Persian latitude, but 11.13Km at the equator;- Note a Persian Kaspu was a two-hour walk, about six miles level for the shorter gods, maybe three miles uphill with a mile elevation at slower-shortened-stride.)

(Secondary subnote: The Egyptians also had a measure of short-time, such as for holding one's breath underwater "three months" in contest:- Scholars translate as "month" what was merely a 'minth' moon-in-the-house-diameter 2.2 minutes in site-passage, their archaic-minute; cf min seed, mene count-- the parts-of, not the whole cycle; and linguistically similar across the family... 6.6 minutes being their reasonable contest.... Note linguistically, our 'minute' may come from 'min-utu', seed of the sun, as the sun is the same apparent size, as the moon, whence eclipses, and is easily observed to measure with a pinhole-projection 'camera'; Or, farther-derived instead from 'min-het'.)

The Bible lists Adam as living 930 years, as Moses and his scribes calculated from a host of mid-second-millennium (1550±100) BC Hebrew memories and then-available Egyptian records if Moses knew how to correlate them; The Sumerian records start from Adam's mid years and later refer to him as man rather than long-lived god, and without furthering knowledge of Cain.... If these records agree then it may be deduced that Adam declined the titular, El god, started by Alorus Cain visiting from Egypt, and left or was deposed when the Sumerian lords began rule under their new, El god titles, and lived outside his offspring family 428±years more, --in retaliation for Cain retaking his birth-land by rebellion, they sent Adam oppositely away to eventually pass in the desert far west of Cain Osiris' Egypt ... (and the name, Adam, became generic: he'd been the first 'man' born on Earth, so they used his name-title to indicate their first-breed-'mankind' on Earth).

And after Osiris' 433-years rule, says the Egyptian record, Seth ruled Egypt 350-or-359, and Horus 300, with 80 years of infighting:- Thus Seth started ruling ca year 473, age 343, overlapping Osiris' last 28 years ruling by Isis in Egypt till year 500, 435 from Cain's birth year ca 65,- plus 22 till Horus was born, and 65 till Horus came to rule, plus 80 years co-rule with Horus, but waiting 220 while Horus ruled alone, plus 154 more, passing at age 912: year 1042.... The lineage gods reigned from birth or takeover 'til they passed or quit. (The discrepancy, 350-or-359, is the Egyptian uncertainty whether Adam Geb followed the Egyptian calendar in siring Seth, or in converting the Sumerian 10-year-Sar records and Egyptian 360-or-365-day-years, or, from pre-Horus attempts to convert from lunar-year calendars used in Sumer, with that 3% difference; And Seth's calendar may have been the Sumerian altogether: as Seth's record was more-Sumerian and concluded 5-centuries after Osiris.)

(Cf Had Seth's years-of-rule counted from age 51 when he became effectually-first son in his own generation, he'd have ruled 641-861 years.)

NB. This Horus, is the son of Isis and Osiris purportedly after Osiris passed, the elder Horus now confused in reference only: Seth's contention with this younger-Horus, was over a different set of criteria, more mythical by design, and more real in person: This Horus parallels the story of Enoch in Sumeria... Indeed, Cain's first son, named, Enoch, was possibly name-borrowed on Egyptian Horakhty, En-Akht, Lord of the horizon.

(Isis' similar-450-years rule, though born ca 16-years-after Cain, was probably assumed because they were storied as twins born together; but she also continued her rule, co-ruling with Seth, till she got her son Horus, and, moved out of Seth's house about-that-many, ca 22, years after.)

(Note the duration of Osiris' 28-year absence from Isis and Egypt: Many stories tell of the older gods no longer actively enjoying their mates.)

AMID SUMER'S NIGHTMARE,-- RUNNING ON EMPTY:

With the deaths of so many seniors isolating Sumer, their first-lineage stalled into a flat-spin mankind-creation era led by Marduk 'til his trial.... Their first-lineage sister-wives withheld themselves, no longer ranked as high among their brother-husbands ... they barricaded themselves in Apsu's mountain rift and ruled against each other in morbidity-motifed politics... visiting each other exacted terrible penalties ... Egyptian-side Ra instituted a foreign policy of Gallash guardians of his underworld:- any god who visited, stayed or sent a replacement to stay. (Prototypical modern-timeshare business arrangements; Not surprisingly, millennia-later Christ Jesus picked up on Ra Amun's familiar name, M'Ammon.)

The next, major Sumerian kings -after the kingship descended Anu's heaven- were the Alulim and the Alalgar.... Although it'd be nice to identify them as Ellil-related persons, the two titles were recognizably the combined efforts of the 'im' first sons, cf Elohim, plural, Enos Anu, Mahalaleel Enlil Ellil, Cainan Enki Ea: appointed under Ma-'rad Marduk's elevated leadership, and, the 'gar' turnings, Marduk's subsequent Azazeel-bunch leading teams of twenties; thence under individuals averaging 75 years; putting the overthrow of Tiamut early in the first 75 years and restarting the count of rulers from Enos. (The term, Alal, meant destroyer, and 'gar jar' might refer to Jared-- possibly referring to terribly-inventive wargod-slaughterer Marduk unifying the rule in Sumer, pre-parallel to Horus' efforts in Egypt and Sumer.)

(Note, the name-part 'Eloh' of 'Elohim' probably equated to Sumerian, Ilu, the general title for a god, but later refers possibly to a specific god.)

(The Sumerian kings were younger brothers of the patriarch gods: associated by name, given something to do, but not the highest authority... Scholars find stories of Kronos Kumarbi -possible origin of Shumer,- Tashmishu, Tarhun Teshub --possibly T'Shub'ek Sobek,-- confused into one-Sar sub-rulerships with the elders first-lineage Anu, Enki, Ellil.)

THE CONVERGENCE OF SETH'S AND CAIN'S LINEAGES - ENOCH MEHUJAEL, METHUSELAH METHUSAEL, LAMECH:

The Bible lineage of Cain lists Enoch as Cain's first son; but by matching interpretations we understand that Enoch was firstly Anubis his child sired by Ra via himself subrogate with his second sister Nephthys, moved to Seth's household: Enos; but then second-Enoch Cainan by Cain himself, with Nephthys, moved to Enos', household; And then first-or-second Enoch, Enos or Cainan, sired Irad as Jared put into Mahalaleel's household, who was Mered Marduk of Enki. Then Jared got Enoch in the Bible lineage of Seth, but who was Cain's great-grandson Mehujael, for he outranked them all, (except for his mother Isis being second-first-lineage daughter, second-lineage moved up to first, after Nephthys...).

Note, the name, Mehujael, is ordinarily interpreted as, Smitten by God, yet, also has the sense of removed or erased ... When Moses' scribes confronted the apparent discrepancies in Enoch's history, the record from Seth's line narrowed via the one surviving family of Noah, indicated Enoch had been taken by God, -By the gods, in the literal Hebrew; By God, in the manner of Elijah, on a horse in a whirlwind above Elisha his second son, in the Book of Jasher; By an angel, up the mountain heavens to the white house, in the Book of Enoch;- where, for the Egyptians, and the later Greeks, Enoch Prometheus 'the one before Epimetheus Methuselah', was Horus of Cain Osiris and Isis, sired by Ra with Isis by artifice on behalf long-dead Osiris, and moved to the east mountain the second Watcher with Enos Anu Anubis, who had been injured by god Seth, in Egypt, -smitten by a god, though he had survived,- suffering a liver-complaint as it were a bird eating at him daily, in colorific Greek....

(Horus Enoch's 'liver-complaint' injury could have been inflicted by other god than Seth, -albeit Horus was known for poisoning Seth's, garden;- particularly by Ra, as the year of Ra's exit from Egypt coincides with Tubalcain's birth and the expiry of the Vengeance Rule, thus disqualifying, Tubalcain of first-lineage; and the Greek report that Prometheus the-one-before-Metheus Methuselah, Enoch suffered liver-complaint 82 years might be much of the 85-ish years after Tubalcain's birth before Enoch Horus exited up to the mountain heaven ... small relief: to be a teacher.)

(Subnote the fanciful Greek story of Cronus swallowing all his children until Zeus, echoes the vengeance rule and termination just before Noah.)

(Subnote: Scribes probably found their sources a mess, and simply included all Hebrew patriarchs; The Book of Jasher was contemporary to Moses' Pentateuch, yet its Biblelike-Elijah-story was six centuries later than Joshua, -if we have the correct Jasher-... But then again, the Bible did-say Elijah would come again ... or ... that could mean Elijah, Mehujael Enoch Horus second-Watcher, would return from Anu's mountain....)

And thereafter, Cain's and Seth's lineages quite-apparently merge: To Mehujael Enoch was born Methusael Methuselah, and to him was born Lamech,-- identically Lamech, Methusael Methuselah nearly-obviously-identical ... And then Noah but who was counted only from Seth's line....

Thus were configured the same persons and lineages... But,--

LOOKING FORWARD TO THE FLOOD - THE ACTUAL, TOTAL, RULERSHIP YEARS:

Egyptian Geb Adam ruled 500-501 years, (If 500 is Sumerian 50 Sar then it's more accurately 485-95 years but depending on just-when the Egyptians discovered the year had 365 days attributed to god Thoth), And left in the same year Osiris Cain was killed (his 28th year of travel abroad, upon his return), and Seth took Isis into his house till Horus was born.... Sumerian records vary indicating the flood occurred 67 Sars after Alorus Cain, but also summarize, 107 Sars, including Alorus 435 years, eight kings, and five cities ... each rulership term ended amid a Sar summarily continuous within-cities, split across-cities: 67 Sars overlapped 4 and ended amid the final, spanning 62-67 Sars cumulative, 613-663 years, from Cain's death ca year-500, 1048-1058 from Cain's birth ca 65:-- The decade of years 1113-23 is our estimate for Enos' flood; and also that Enos Anu was still in charge some years after the flood: even for the fable of Gilgamesh who managed some ire over his daughter Ishtar... whence if the Bible age of Enos Anu is fully accurate 905 years after Adam's 235th, passing in 1140, then Gilgamesh' snub occurred 17-27 years after the flood, -depending on the veracity of that fable;- and the flood 534 years sooner than the Biblical estimate....

(The above paragraph is a mixture of calendars: When relating Sumerian to Egyptian-count it is estimated Nile-cycle years, otherwise Biblical.)

(Note another Sumerian rendering, of the 107-Sars, lists Alorus for 40-Sars: probably a naive scribe's confusion about the overlap in 67-Sars.)

(Gilgamesh the famous '2/3rds'-demigod-wiseman in the Sumerian Kings List, 73 years later if of consecutive rules, notoriously upset his city folk during his rulership, by preventing husbands on their wedding day, -his own interpretation of the gods' seniority rule,- and, having spurned Ishtar in his youthful age while ruling Uruk locally, thence reaped lessons in wisdom and Anu's retribution.... As a child he had lived through the flood that consumed mankind, -himself part god;- He was a descendant of immortal Utnapishtim.... Note the Sumerian, labels Ishtar, Inanna.)

We further refine our estimate to exactly, year-1122 plus 14 months in Noah's ark as was-indeed Enoch's, 600th: as now seems undeniable; Furthermore, the Utnapishtim version of the flood identifies Noah as a "man" at the time of the flood, later given, "immortal" status-- imputing Noah not yet an accepted, god, or more-plausibly his 100-year-old sons and importantly their mankind-wives; And later after the flood, Anu's clique acknowledged Noah's activities as that of an immortal already; (Other pseudepigrapha indicate Noah had a brother Nir, on the ark).... And the Biblical generations and Sumerian Sars-records will pack-tight to fit Noah's flood in Enoch's 600th to the Ziusudra record. A straight Bible-year-count is possible as 65+187+182+(68 to Shem)+98 = 600, but suggests skippage.... (And Jasher's second flood was missed by Noah already moved to the gods' Dilmun plateau-sea resort in the Gilgamesh-Utnapishtim fable, or didn't need another ark-- if it happened.)

(Note for comparison: Scholars pushing history back, place Ziusudra Noah's flood ca 2650 B.C., hereby pushing Adam to roughly 3770 B.C. Albeit then-again other scholars put the flood to the Chinese year 2348 B.C., and therefor Adam to 3468 B.C. nearly exactly 300 years later.)

MEANWHILE-- TIME DOUBLE CLUTCHES:

From Enoch born in Adam's 522nd, to the worldwide flood ca the 1122nd, were born Methuselah, Lamech, Noah, (Nir), Shem, -plus Arphaxad two years after,- in main lineage. But 600 years is space for 9, at 65-year intervals: The Bible adds 622+65+187+182+502+98 = 1656, though not the family schedule we've found unless the wives were stolid recluse after the rebellion. Noah was withholding, but lineage rules didn't allow that 'til the seniors were gone: Ra, Thoth, Adam, Cain, Seth, Enos, had followed rules: It wasn't Noah's responsibility but the seniors', for putting children into his lineage-family by his wife the next first-lineage daughter; unless the wife, was refusing to bear lineage children after Adam was dead 26 years before Noah was born... or the last-remaining first-lineage-sire, Enoch, was withholding... or, Noah wasn't a usual god....

(Note the Sumerian records hint at what happened that delayed or belayed the lineage after Jared, long before the flood:- The rift was gated-off with seven gates and one or more remaining first-lineage daughters dwelt therein: the first-lineage wives refusing to have children... and the two groups of gods separated there in Edin, one remaining on Edin level, the other up the mountain ... whence Lamech's surprise at Noah in birth.)

Nevertheless, Jubilees, adds 522+65+65+(53~)+(502)+101 = 1308, pushing the Biblical flood centuries-sooner; and Lamech got Noah by wife Betenos, but Noah's wife Emzara got Shem first, and Japheth last (Biblically the elder, maybe birth-twins re-yeared preferring Shem on Earth)...

(There is scholarly dither on whether Japheth the elder was eldest, or strictly elder-not-the-eldest, or even whether there were two, Japheth's.)

However, Jasher, adheres to the Biblical, but, dropping digits frequently this-Lamech married Ashmua first-lineage-daughter of Enoch's second son Elishaa, and got Noah, who married 82-year-older Naamah, daughter of Enoch, possibly Naam in Egypt, of Horus if not the near-equal-age sister of Tubalcain (whom Lamech had killed over misguiding him to kill a man while hunting animals and his wives abstained from having more children by him so, he got another wife)... And this-Noah got Japheth the elder, first, like the Biblical phrase, then Shem....

So, Quite apparently, there was, a major flood and weather disruption that Moses' and Jubilees' scribes knew and forced the year to be Noah's 600th instead of Enoch's, in the attempt to register their chronologies;- Most likely an historic revision of Moses' Pentateuch got the other major event that hit the region-- the Thira Santorini eruption tidalwave followed by years of fouled weather enough-like the Noachic flood to equate the two without proper knowledge of the event which Moses missed, having been guided by his 'god' to vacate Egypt and avoid Canaan. (But, this, does-not help fix the year, because the 600-number was taken from Enoch's history not from Noah's ... but Jubilees is giving us the 'heads-up'.)

(Sidebar-- Moses' Exodus-crossing of the Red Sea was literally of the 'sup' cf 'kopf' Cheops Sea the Gulf of Suez 'hairy'-head of the Red Sea... the all-night recession of waters was rare tidal action in a place Moses' god knew but the new Egyptian pharaoh did not, supposedly caused by east wind driving water, but which was also a reference to Marduk slaying senior Egyptian goddess T'Mwt ... The Thira tidalwave soon followed and buried Nile Delta history, -46 years before its prominent 18th Dynasty,- Else Moses would have recorded it for the Goshen region lands the Hebrews had dwelt-in 430 years, of Egypt east of the delta facing the Thira tsunami, and the low lands of Canaan, which also washed out to the Sea of Galilei, leaving that salty and so keeping Moses at-bay 40 years and weakening the Canaanite giants till it was potable.... Also sidenote famed sunken Atlantis was in fact Thira as the Egyptian depiction given the Greek historian was: that west from the Egyptian perspective which turned north following the Tuat oases to the Mediterranean to circle Ra's night, led directly to Thira beyond the pillars of Hercules, the mountains on the isle of Iraklio Crete, in the time of the Athenians, --Hence also note that Egyptian Apep was a sea serpent,-- And the Egyptian civilization returned to the Delta 5000 days, later: counting days, as the yearly weather was messed-up by the volcanic explosion; The ancient Greeks took the archaic Egyptian perception liberally, adding 5000 years to the Egyptian date-references whose state system had indeed existed since the very 3000 years not 8000 before the Greek 570 BC. The 5000th day was their official celebration of return: after they'd refound their landmarks, uncovered and restored their key temples, 13 years.... Scholars might take exception, to the strength of a tsunami caused by an eruption at that distance, but reputedly that island took a day and a night to sink: there may have been multiple tsunamis overflowing each other in the Nile delta region which does not drain floods rapidly, its yearly flood just-then subsiding, plus, refraction-lensing on the curvature of the Nile delta shoreline and sea shelf, in addition to surge-motion directing and lifting the reflection-wave to parallel the straight North Egyptian shoreline, compounding great height aiming straight for the Giza plateau... as well as possibly subsidence of the Aegean seafloor or along its shelf... and the story might also be mixed with eons-earlier lore of seamounts covered in a global tidalwave.... Dating the eruption event, is yet uncertain between scholarly views, the radiocarbon-dated 1630 B.C. but volcanoes affect this, historical late-1500's B.C. during the reign of Ahmose Nebpehtyre beginning the 18th dynasty and his major tempest and flooding of Thebes, and August 1603-01 B.C. Egyptian medical records of diseases, plagues, and conditions now-deemably most-likely attributable to volcanism ... Corroborative tsunami evidence at Jaffa-Tel Aviv records a 23-ft. wave: Surge motion focusing is the likely build-up in Egypt, where cities norther and souther survived, of waves appearing as 240-ft. walls of water passing.)

(Note that their concept of North included nightside, the cosmic path the set sun took, and cold, wind, or altitude, as well as directionally, north.)

Yet, None of these three chronological arrangements is particularly convincing, But remain fairly certain that they existed in order and did delay, and the Egyptians dropped regular contact after Marduk's rebellion, leaving little to corroborate anything they did in the succeeding centuries....

Technically, Noah was senior-sired in-lineage but off-Enoch's-lineage with Lamech's lineage-wife; Elishaa instead of Methuselah or afterward must have married the first-lineage daughter of Enoch, herself sired by second-become-first-lineage Thoth ... And Noah quite expectably, had three, in-lineage wives: leftover from the vengeance-rule-twice-broken-husband-lineages; one was Enoch's centuries-older daughter by Thoth; And their sibling-ranks were 2-and-3-years close, -all three first-lineage though prioritized,- and their ages were mixed-up in the calculation....

Yet reregistering the flood to Enoch's 600th has pitfalls: The only way to figure the largest steps, 187, 182, is, to assume missing-generations, Tubalcain killed by Lamech, possibly Duamutef killed by Neith, in the centuries of wickedness; or, possibly Lamech was born in Enoch's year-187 and Shem in Noah's 132nd, Or, possibly Enoch and his sons each received their-own, branches, thus offsetting them further, which could be the case if Enoch Horus had wanted as Seth and Cain and even Shw got-- their own branches ... and, several schedule variants fit.... Note that for Shem's birth, either 68th-or-133rd fits neatly 2-3-after Japheth his elder in the 65-66th-or-130-131st, and Ham 3-years thereafter.

But yet, there is, one more way that might fit all the records, -if somewhat wordy,- -if we look at why, Jubilees, would have the different record:- What Jubilees, is, telling us, is, Noah, was born to father Lamech, and, sired by Enoch, But, not Jared's but Cain's, Enoch: Seth's Enoch Enos Anubis: the rule of vengence had lapsed on his 8th generation, (Cainan was the first but wordily we must ask why-not Marduk two generations after Cainan and run to the tenth: as surely Horus argued), and Lamech thought Noah looked like a Watcher (which both Enoch's were, but not both by looks); The 65th from Enoch to Methuselah agrees with the Biblical, and somebody was born at the next 65th, but Lamech at that 65th may be referential: after saying Noah was born in the 52nd of a generation after Lamech and so agreeing with the Biblical 182nd, But, saying, that Lamech was sired by grandfather Enoch in his 187th, Methuselah's 122nd, but which put Lamech too young, so he was moved to the next generation the next 65, and thence possibly Tubalcain was senior-sired by Enoch ca the 40th year of the next-generation, ca Lamech's 113th, and then Noah, sired by Enoch Enos in the 44th of the next-generation, the 46th on Enos' branch, which was Lamech's 182nd; And then Noah father-sired, in his 130th, 132nd, and 135th, with three first-lineage wives, because Enoch had already gone up the mountain, and Methuselah was awaiting an impending calamity foretold for Earth.... At the 65th before Lamech may have been Duamutef father-sired by Enoch imitating how Seth was father-sired by Adam, but illegally skipping Methuselah and whence the personal battle with Neith in which Duamutef was killed though favored by Ra, and Enoch recovered by senior-siring Lamech in the same 65-year generation ... Plus, there were daughters, between.

(In effect Jubilees is also saying that its source was sure, that Jared's Enoch was still involved with lineage on Earth-level at Noah's birth time.)

But still, there are questions on either of these remaining best-fittings: the straight Biblical -and Enos sired Noah's sons but not for, them,- and, our adjusted -and Noah father-sired them, and Enos sired for, them;- And, whether the Council ever moved Enoch up the seniority schedule.... (But, Note our inference between the strict-Biblical Lamech-in-Methuselah's 187th, versus Enoch's-187th our favored, is drawn from Lamech's later 7th-generation-Kainam's exclusion from lineage, but not 8th-generation-Eber's, for the vengeance rule applied on seven, Tubalcain first.)

AND SECOND LINEAGE SHIFTS GEARS (YEARS):

From the facts available; Horus began ruling Egypt in his 65th upon becoming recognized, and Ra, -or Thoth,- sired Methuselah into his family with his first-lineage wife who was purportedly mother Isis who remarried, not having husband Osiris, whence 65th not 63rd;- and Horus began becoming acquainted with Sumer, as Enoch, in Jared's 162nd, then began ruling there too in his 121st for 243 years, ruling Egypt 300 years... within his 365 years on the Earth-level plains among mankind, then left to teach Anu's children on the mountaintop in the east. (Alternatively his first-lineage wife was sired by Thoth with Isis, 8 years after himself, but there is no record of that in the Egyptian but rather that Isis-herself was, his first first-lineage wife, -else Methuselah would have been 66 years, later, albeit that's near-enough,- But, per Jubilees, he did get a second-first-lineage-wife Danel probably in the style that Enos Anu Anubis his Egyptian predecessor and mentor Watcher had, two, first-sons, and got another first-son into his family possibly in acknowledgment that Anubis was still in charge, by either Jared Marduk in Horus' 121st, or earlier;- But even that possibly resulted in the internecine murder of Duamutef and further separated Horus Enoch from the Egyptian side of the family.)

But it was Enoch not Ra who senior-sired first-son Lamech into Methuselah's 122nd, Enoch's 187th: Enoch as his father, did so 8-years before Methuselah started siring his own: The Egyptian hints, that Horus had deposed Ra in Ra's 1000th year, ca 797, and Isis despised Seth and left his house and would not marry him, meant that Horus Enoch was divorcing himself and his lineage from Ra's timebase, and using his own, and may have been in imitation of how Ra had released Shw's mother Mwt to Shw. But, ignoring Thoth too, may be Thoth sired Methuselah's sister. (Horus Enoch, returned to sliding-sire-order. In generations following Noah's flood the lineages began to stray far from Ra's schedule regimen.)

(Ra was too senior, to be a regular senior sire... Had, Ra or Thoth sired Lamech, in Methuselah's 65th per Jubilees, Jared's 187th would have been 4-years shy, with no reason that the Bible would have the 187; and Enoch would then have to have waited 56 years before siring the next into Methuselah's... If Ra or Thoth did-sire, they may have gotten the occasional daughters; Adam was not around, for Lamech, and Seth sired none; Enos Anu might have sired, a daughter, but his lineage was excluded for involvement in the rebellion: until Lamech got excluded and the vengeance rule flopped back. Enoch should-have next sired into Lamech's 114th, 16-years before Lamech started siring his own, because he was his grandfather... but that wasn't the 182nd of anyone, -not even if Ra had sired a son before-Lamech, subsequently lost-....)

However ... the depiction of Noah at his birth, that caused Lamech much consternation that Noah looked like a child of the Watchers up Anu's mountain, -(though none-then knew much about gene expression),- explains an adjusted story: By the Vengeance Rule, Marduk, in murdering the greatmother Tiamut, knocked seven generations out of the lineage, in addition to Marduk ... However-still, Marduk's trial with Nanna-Suen sitting judge, exonerated Marduk on the causation that Marduk was only doing Anshar ('Oongsher') WSR Osiris Cain's bidding, -whom they'd also killed,- and from Cainan Enki who'd killed Apsu, through Marduk's son Nabu -plus the required 4-more, 8-in-all,- 8 × 65 = 520 years from Cainan 'til ca 805, were excluded from siring. Note that the exclusion did not-include Enoch Horus who'd been inserted to take-up the lineage after Jared Marduk, but Cainan-lineage sons; as siring lineage returned to Ra's schedule ... allowing only Anu and his greater sons, back into the lineage, (maybe even by vengeful plot) ... and hence the Biblical summary told us no more after Lamech of Cain:

Noah was born in Ra's Anu's lineage ...and it was a comfort to all to know they were past the exclusion, albeit on Anu's schedule, not Enoch's... Lamech had had sons by two Cain-lineage wives, before he got Noah and Nir by his wife in Horus Enoch's lineage sired from Anu's i.e. Seth's lineage ... We estimate that Ra ordered the preemption, a century before Noah's birth back when he would have done siring, and Enoch Horus became furious at this he perceived as favoritism, and banished Ra to the Tuat ... Thence Noah did his-own siring at 131 years: without Enoch who was up the mountain, Methuselah, who must have declined, Lamech, who was excluded for killing Adam though he'd reputedly reconciled; Japhet was born in Enoch's, 500th; Shem, 502nd; and Ham, 505th ... It arranges a bit more convincingly than the Biblical, the Jubilees, and the Jasher-Biblical, versions; And, they did,-keep Ra's 65-year schedule regime, though narrowing to 2-years-apart by father-sire Noah ... Enoch's scrap with Ra may have been the direct cause of his liver complaint (and possibly he was, chained atop the mountain) and possibly the driving factor in Unas later slaughtering Ra's descendant gods in Egypt... Methuselah's decline from siring for Noah may have been likewise required, (possibly for Enoch Horus' lesser crime in injuring Ra). And Noah's birth ca Enoch's 369th = 65 + (122) + 182, Lamech's 182nd, placed him ca 42 years, 5-offsets, after Ra's Enoch's first-lineage, and consistent with Seth's Enos' lineage 40-year offset.

(Note, three sons on 2-3-years separations implies three mothers sisters-or-wives, a senior-or-father sire possibly one, and all-three first-sons.)

(Note the choice of name, Noah N-Oah/Wah, is similar in formation, to, Nabu N-Abu, further intimating that Noah was in Anu's line, after Nabu; and later N-Oah/Wah was raised to immortal-god-status, El-Oah/Wah Yah-Oah/Wah, along with, -if not himself,- Utnapishtim ... Noe, Eloi, was the Greek-Hebrew Christ Jesus knew.... Note also that, Thoth, by then, T-Hwty, lived significantly beyond Ra's exit: It is possible that Thoth first-son of Ra, ca 90 years later, sired Noah, and baby Noah could thus have looked like Thoth's Isis' Anubis Anu the Watcher, in Seth's line: Thoth should have followed Ra's rule-reason-example of siring peremptorily first to restart after a loss of lineage. Note also that Noah counted only in Seth's line, after Lamech, was provably on these very reasons not born in Cain's Enoch's sons' line.)

(Linguistic subnote the name, Noah N-Oah/Wah, pronounced, nova, may have referred to the then-current nova 230-years before it went super: Nova in the Hebrew sense of strength, rather than newness; And whence his conclusion thereto with the record of the rainbow after the flood:- it may have been a rare night rainbow in the brilliance of the supernova, and the year in the ark being while the super shined brightest.... Also, the mankind Noah saved, may have included the wives his Egyptian sons saved: because Noah was born of the rebellion-group gods: the El's.)

(Note that while this solves the male-lineage birthyears, it leaves Noah's 82-year-older first-lineage wife, daughter of Enoch, virtually impossible unless it involves multiple adjustments: If, Anu sired Enoch's first-daughter on his own schedule 2-years-late, reattributed as Lamech's 100th... It may also be notable that Enoch's, 498th, was nearly the birthyear of Japheth or 4-before Shem, However his daughter could not have been 582 then-- unless she'd been sired into Jared Marduk's and later transferred to Enoch Horus; male and female lineage-vengeance kept separately.)

(Subnote arithmetically, Noah was 581 in Enoch's 950th,- whence that 582-age-year may have been Noah's not his wife's, at a different event.)

(The resubordination of Japheth from the Noachic lineage, appears to be their 'sacrifice' of first-sons, possibly for the killing of Adam, but in the case of the gods, meant the son was sent up to Anu's heaven while the second-son continued on the 'Earth' below ... and later a confused ritual murder by mankind infatuating on wooden-idol-meme-substitutes for gods long gone further east, having abandoned them ... But thus indicates the Hebrew line was their Earth-sub-lineage while the Heaven-first-lineage disappeared from human history, till Jesus-of-the-heaven-via-Egypt, albeit we do not yet know which-heaven, Nubian south or Anubian east, for the prophet understood he'd be called by way of Egypt in the south;- And yet, This leaves us without excuse for their lack of history in the eastward lands of the rising sun: Utnapistim, dwelt on Dilmun on the Iranian plateau; Iranian tells exhibit god culture much the same as the Sumerian ... god-longevities were equally declining ... But they were first-lineage, and would likely have reinstituted the family maintenance ... The most-senior, like Zeus, returned west, but the youngers would have continued.)

(Noah, Utnapishtim, was also, 'sacrificed' up to the heaven plateau, -where Gilgamesh found him centuries later;- Noah was, in Anu's, lineage.)

Meanwhile, in Sumer, the Watcher's sub-lineage children were getting in trouble out-of-control with Marduk's new mankind, those six centuries:

ENOCH AND NOACH, NOAH AND NIR, ZEUS AND ZIUSUDRA - ENKI AND UTNAPISHTIM, PROMETHEUS AND DEUCALION:

Other pseudepigrapha indicate bizarre circumstances in Noah's birth, -and his brother Nir's son,- that he was born fully dressed, speaking and praising God, and visage not of Lamech but the 'Watchers' who lived on the mountain above... in other words, a baby already growing up.... He took to bookwriting like Horus Enoch.... When the priesthood was later passed, from Methuselah, it went not to 'first-son' Noah but to Lamech's 'second-son' Nir, and thence to Nir's son Melchizedek -the famous,- on the command of the Lord by Enoch's old-age advice that priesthood be kept with Methuselah's line while lineage carried through Noah's: till he passed and priesthood and lineage-sonship reconverged on Abraham, (possibly through his wife whence the plagues in Egypt).... Nir's deadly aversion to having sons suggests he was not proud of Lamech's loss of lineage, though highly recompensed.

(Note also the reported man-body-size-increase beginning with Anu and greater with his son Cainan, had maybe begun unnoticed with Adam's children, that Adam could not control them ... that the 'Watchers' looked much smaller and different; Lamech would not have known of 'recessive genetics expression and redominance' and would have been assuredly concerned over proper fatherhood when differences went unnoticed for his wives and himself; and given the peculiar reputation of the sons of the gods in that era.)

(Note the inference that this was Horus Enoch's lineage-fatal mistake, losing significant 'immortal' longevity-years from the Sumerian gods' line, separating a quality of godhood from the individual long-life demonstration, costing them significant manhood: like murder in mere generations: Christian Science does not undo the laws of God but shows the paramount necessity, and the Way, of restoring godhood to manhood, and, so, reincreases longevity by its merely individual lifelong practice of that -ourly- priesthood. And-note the correlative that this was the era and cause that sacrifice of firstsons had begun, that ended when Abraham 'retook' priesthood. Also note the Biblical contrast of lineage-son Abraham and the Egyptian Pharaoh who by lineage-history was familiar with the role of the sister-wife but had not expected, a sojourner, with a sister-wife.)

(Subnote the Egyptian record of Unas Wenis the god who was flown to heaven by Upuatu Wpwtu, (Zi)un(d)s (Z)wns Enoch formerly Horus of Ra and Isis, last king of the fifth dynasty, his eating gods, without complaint, in this same era ca his 7th-9th century, the era in which murderers Enki and Marduk passed and a war of gods at the easternmost mountain range between the heavens above and the earth beneath. Anubis Anu and Horus Enoch were their 'two Watchers', the first-sons of Osiris Cain, sired by Ra by sisters Nephthys and Isis... This record appeared ca Enoch Horus' last century: Unas appeared for three decades, restored his father Osiris' respect-aka-worship and began writing history on tomb walls.)

(The pronunciation-enunciation of, Zinsuddu, Ziuns-Utu, suggests, sunlight of Zius, priest Nir by reference; Zeus, may have been, Th-Wns ... But, also likewise Zeus Ziuds-uddu and Melchi-Zedek, are similar enough to be the thought same.)

This raises question on which-Enki told Utnapishtim, Nir, Deucalion, Noah, of the impending flood; Enki of Anu as reads the Sumerian and who with Ellil was around long-after the flood; or, Enki Enoch, or, eNoach Noah Zeus, as read the Greeks;-- as a night vision per the Book of Enoch.

It is also noteworthy that Enoch had two children of names root-similar to Melchizedek, -Elimelech and Melca,- and he and Nir together named Melchizedek, possibly M'El-Chi-Zed-ek/-uk (Bab. king), a fully-clothed older-talking baby-switch, or, Noah's Enoch-sponsored ventriloquist act. (Also note the symmetry in names of Enoch's successive sons Methusael M'T'-Usha-El and El-Isha; Lamech and El-Imelech god-of-the-kings.)

We'll attempt to close the discrepancy on Enoch, Noah, and Nir, by suggesting that first-lineage-son Noah was Zeus removed to the Persian range heaven plateau after the flood, as Enoch had been, -where the later Greeks transliterated him to Mount Olympus,- and Moses' scribes simply could not trace his years but used Enoch's years believing Enoch had vanished at the mountain heaven ... Noah Zeus was not Enoch.

PRECURSOR TO THE FLOOD:

Over in the parallel Egyptian records King Surid (Ar. Saurid), Jared Irad, declared his nightdream of the Earth inverted, men falling off and stars falling (upto or men onto) with loud cries, and deduced a flood reputedly 300 years before it occurred-- and ordered the building of the Egyptian pyramids ... But note that this same prediction is attributed to Adam telling Seth to construct two columns -pillars- one of brick and one of stone, and recording the prediction; also Enoch Cainan and Enoch Horus both, were reputed with this prediction ... it was probably a big deal, -though we note from our larger informed perspective, that the dream was probably redacted of the storied escape from Ra's planet best-understood in the history he told his lineage-... The pyramids, scholars estimate as Khufu's XuPu? (Gr. Cheops) et al built ca 2550 B.C., but which is only 205 years before the flood itself we've estimated 3670-(203)-1122=2345 ... Seth's Columns were last visited in the Siriadic lands, (scholars identify with Sirius, a star the Egyptians called, Spdt Sothis), the area of the Nile delta assigned to King Surid, Jared ... But also subnote that reports by later Arabs picked up a notion that Thoth, also, had used these pyramids-- for safekeeping his knowledge of science, (presumably the famous-lost Books Of Thoth, cached inside) ... In any case the prediction was likely imprecise, 30-Sars in later recall, and the brick pyramids unknown,- unless the term, brick, meant the smaller two-cubit-wide man-carriable stones used in the first pyramid,-- as might be removed by a large flood.

(Note that Jared, King Surid in Qingu's lineage, was apparently sent to live in Egypt, -as Cain before him,- probably for the murder of Tiamut.)

(Note that Khufu reputedly described himself in a stele, as only a restorer of the Great pyramid, and his own was a small pyramid on the side.)

(Detail-notes: Seth's columns, -one of brick to last a world fire cf a supernova 3-light-years distant,- may have been fireable brick ziggurats, and pyramids cased in fire-calcinable limestone ... The Khufu 'great pyramid' was found in 14 feet of sediment sand, with salt encrustations in a mid chamber 90 feet up, -after a later eruption of Thira Santorini island sent tidalwave-dredged seawater splashing higher with seepage,- albeit the design of this pyramid included a water-weight-rammed granite plug they were-to-have flooded from the nearby near-sea-level delta ... this king was purportedly interred in there though no body was found and the plug hadn't been set,-- making it more-interesting than all the later pyramids with, bodies... like Surid Jared Marduk's brick ziggurat tower of Babel, but on the grander Egyptian scale, in his grandfather Cain Osiris' lands.)

(Note that in Horus' time, Seth and Horus had a stone boat race ... Seth at least was well into stone construction and understanding buoyancy.)

Note also the Sumerian record indicates several years famine preceding the flood,-- possibly years of extraordinary heat cumulating humidity without rain and the flood occurred some years later after the nova-bloom-heat subsided too for a cool winter with rain at-long-last all-at-once: The deluge and flooding was experienced worldwide, but its prolonged shallows mostly on river valley lowlands such as of Sumer and, Egypt.

(A note for further research: Surid's fame might thus have acquired stellar Sothis as 'Sirius' for its greatest-ever flood; but Sirius was below the equator and not the direction of that, supernova;- but by its brightness, mankind may have added the association ... Noah preferred a rainbow.)

(Note for sidebar research, contemporary scholarship is becoming increasingly interested in the first proper-pyramids, the Red pyramid 20Km SSE of the three Giza pyramids including the Great Pyramid and the sphinx facing east, and their alignment with a city 7Km NE in the delta, as possibly a star map of the nova bloom 54°N, the Orion belt and the bright star Sirius, all adjacent the Milky Way galaxy represented by the Nile, as possibly a marker before the destruction of Earth civilization... if not a pointer to Ra's original homestar location at their original exodus.)

THE DEATH OF ADAM GEB, FIRST OF THE GOD-SEED 'MEN' BORN ON EARTH:

Jasher's oddly-misfit murder of Cain disguised the murder of Adam himself:- Adam returned from escape-exile in Africa ... Arrayed in African wild-animal skins, hobbling on walking-poles since his injury, looking like a spy demanding attention, Tubalcain mistaking him for an unknown animal incompletely described on shoot-first wargod mentality: Tubalcain the instructor of artificers of brass and iron ... Lamech shot ... Adam forgave Lamech by moralizing to, Say it was Cain he'd struck-down... and whence both Adam and Cain were doubly-recorded as dead in the same year -the same day-.... (Jasher indicates only the Egyptian side of the family buried him: which may mean they paraded through Egypt.)

(Note that Enoch, in order to have attended Adam's burial, per Jasher, must have returned: wherefor Moses' Genesis-scholars expanded their chronology, and kept quiet on Lamech's loss: as they did on murders of senior gods: a trouble of-which Jesus complained about their fathers.)

(Note thence the proper, moral-- that Adam believed he existed because of arrow-ships shot across space at a habitable planet, and so died; Albeit the Biblical notion that Adam died because he ate of the Tree of Knowledge, may yet be stretched to the point that Lamech was hunting untended undomesticated wild game and so caught Adam by that childhood error in the open: that untempted obedience improves longevity.)

(But note also that Adam, in saying it was Cain who was killed, was metaphorically but finally placing the blame on Cain and putting thoughts of Cain's onus to rest: as none after Jared would have known Adam or Cain directly, and none should worry of Cain again at his father's words....)

(Adam's and Eve's garments were given to Enoch, -Horus,- and thence to Methuselah,... the Egyptian strong first-lineage side of the family.)

THE FINAL FLOOD WARNING,-- ENKI CAINAN, OR ENOCH HORUS, OR NOAH ZEUS, SPEAKS BEHIND THE WALL:

The wall-- of the house-- of Ziusudra Utnapishtim, say the Sumerian and Babylonian records:-- probably Nir... And not-only an imminent flood, but the famous retelling of the gods regretting their creation of mankind so prone to disasters: One of the gods, Enki, Enoch, Noah, warned a young earther-god, Utnapishtim, Noah or Nir, to build an ark in five years, to carry men, and local-animals, a year upon the flood....

There is ancient-report of a Saturnlike-ringed supernova in the northern sky, --probably concluding centuries of its bright stellar precursor bloom giving rise to Adam's prediction of fire-or-flood, Enoch's prediction of destruction, King Surid's dream, and Noah's reputation for refraining from having children, and enhancing their Watcher sensibilities,-- the event itself may have doubled sun brightness 24-hours-daily for 47 days quickly melting all northern polar and winter ice, affecting weather over months; permanently, afterward:- The north polar icecap is thin in our era but not necessarily in theirs built-up sturdy during the ice age, And melting may have raised sea level 6 ft. and warming seas yielded water vapor for an adjusted super-monsoon downpour once in the northern hemisphere, and increasing snow on the south pole (average age 5-millennia today) ... Additional effects, included mutation of the genetic-code by which mortals procreate, plus centuries-later thick interstellar-wind-haze of ionized-atomic-iron oxidizing in the atmosphere: seeding more major rains and floods.... Ra had seen maybe a dozen, and could tell what was coming.

(On the other hand of the historical balance are the ancient sea kings and their maps showing the land boundary of Antarctica today under ice... Although meteorological scholars estimate that could have occurred millennia before the Biblical Genesis, it is plausible that a supernova in the southern, sky, reduced the south polar cap 5000 years ago, raising the sea level, resetting icecap aging, etc. It is even possible that the Biblical 40 days rain and year of flood refer rather to 40 days brilliance of the supernova, and its year persistence, as seen from other places on Earth.)

Nir's son Melchizedek, was taken on the 'wings' of 'archangel' Gabriel, --saddlecloths flagging robustly in stiff wind: on the back of his big fleet horse,-- to the 'paradise' garden, Dilmun island-resort atop the Persian range, -one of two such places famed-as, the garden of Edin,- 'before the flood', connoting his flight to safety up the mountains for the child under special care of Horus 'hawk' Enoch of whitehorse-up-the-mountain-recluse fame; meanwhile Melchizedek's father Nir 'blaze, lamp, dominion' was later priest Ut-Napishtim 'flash-of-linen' born of Lamech; Greek Deucalion 'leader', also, on the ark with Noah Zius Greek 'Zeus', in the same, 'immortal', lineage of the gods: Thus Noah or Nir, was declared, 'immortal', by the gods, and moved up to Dilmun atop the Persian plateau, to live with the son Melchizedek and Anu and all the gods and their children... a whole-other-development up there expanding gradually eastward on their higher -next- plain of existence.... (His name could have been, 'Utu-N[ir]-Pishtim', or 'Utu-Nabuk-t-im' ... or simpler, 'Utu-N'Pishtim' lord of Pishtim.)

THE GREAT FLOOD:-- ENKI'S, ENOCH'S, NOAH'S, ZEUS', UTNAPISHTIM'S:

Then the flood: Enos' flood: The Sumerians record it; The Book of Jasher says the Gihon flood in Enos' time ruined a third of the land, and the seed storehouses, leaving none who knew the seeds; (and names the Persian gulf, Gihon Sea); The Book of Jubilees specifies Enoch as the one who figured the calendars and spent 243 years with the gods (but Jasher says he ruled the sons of men in this time), and testified against the wayward sons, and Cainan therefor predicted a flood, and wrote a book of predictions. The ca 150 BC Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls, have a version of Book of Jubilees that fits the flood to ca 1065, a generation too soon... they also have the Book of Giants and wrote of Gilgamesh... (and they moved Enos ahead 35 years inexplicably, but consistent with Enoch's 39-years).... Jasher claims that Noah's sons had daughters of men for wives, yet the Bible says their first-lineage children lived four centuries, -ages diminishing, but not like men;- but also says that Shem's first-son was born two, years, after, the flood: The wives aboard had been picked for keeping company on the Ark amid a risky venture but not the progenitors of the long-lived children;- And whence Enlil's rage at discovering mankind saved aboard the Ark, aimed at those wives, not at Noah or his sons... (Then Jasher names the wives as daughters of Eliakim son of Methuselah who then passed at 960, but that's younger than Jared who passed at 962, and Eliakim couldn't have been firstborn unless he filled the generation-gap before Lamech); The god-wives-to-be, had taken refuge up the mountain and waited till the Ark returned to land before immediately-that-year marrying into Noah's god-lineage,-- and then, the first-son lineage resumed two years later.... (See also brief paragraphs on Noah's flood.)

(Note also that the Sumerian record indicates Ziusudra Noah's deluge lasted 7 days not 40, while the Bible sentence is, Yet 7 days, and then, the rain; unless that's perspective and the downpour lasted 7 days atop the mountain or across Edin, and locally below on rushing flooding 40 days ... and Noah's ark floated calm at sea a year while the lands dried out and the trees gained their spring leaves ... the Sumerian being the god's mountain-view, note in perspective the special importance of the cascading Gihon river flood for the gods who lived atop overlooking it: their valley-below-turned-Gihon-Sea as-if-extending the gulf north-northwestward.)

(Their declaration of Utnapishtim's immortality was more Enlil's expressed relief-- that it was a god, who had saved some mankind not alone.)

(Note that Nir was youngish ca-120 years old and so first-thought to be an ordinary human aboard the ark,-- in addition to Noah's sons' wives.)

(Co-note: The passage in Genesis 6, ordinarily best-interpreted to mean mankind would-or-should live yet 120 years, may have had another purpose meaning "... the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh [as the gods]: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years [distinguishing men,-from-gods] ..." that, after the sons of the gods had sired many offspring among mankind, they could no longer generally distinguish man-from-god by appearance, -though maybe their parents knew;- yet they were assigning themselves privileges and therefor they instituted their 120-year-rule, as a 2x-3x factor unachievable by ordinary mankind, yet of little consequence to the youngest gods themselves.... The Sumerian record indicates Noah, was deemed a man, until sometime after the flood and he was centuries old,- though the longevity of the gods after, Noah, shortened to 200, and the distinction between man-and-god again became a big question, whence Abraham's surprise truer, having a child at 100 with Sarah 90 would have been unprecedented unless they themselves were of god-lineage-longevity, but his immediate predecessors were of the then-contemporary rapid-decrease in longevity and Abram and Sarai thought funny that they might be handed godhood by the visiting 'Yhwh': after Utnapishtim had failed Gilgamesh ... The 120 was just shy of 122 years, when a father received the first-lineage child sired-in by his own father god and so achieved god status himself.... Most of first-lineage, down through Moses who left at 120, were living 130-plus years.... And they may have also settled on only grandfathers siring-in.)

RECOVERY, AFTER THE FLOOD SUBSIDED:

NB. Although Moses' Bible ended all gods but Noah before the flood, the patriarch-gods high on high ground survived the flood, while mankind below did-not except the sons' man-wives in Noah's ark: The Gilgamesh fable has Anu alive awhile after, and the Sumerian record has Cainan Enki at Babel after,- which refutes even the possibility of a second story-flood that never got told. (There were plagues too.) In the Izdubar fable version there is no mention of the flood but it does tell that Izdubar Gilgamesh is the son of Khasisadra Noah by wife Ur-Hea (Grk. Hera, wife of Zeus).... Also noted was that the Greek indicates Deucalion Noah was born of Prometheus, Epimetheus' older brother Enoch Mehujael-before-Methusael, Horus, who brought fire, his winged sundisk, to mankind, and suffered a claim of liver-ulcer 82-years brought-on by bird, Seth or Ra striking him:- Jasher clarifies that Enoch was Methusael's-wife's, brother: Lamech's uncle.

(Note: Gilgamesh Izdubar was descendent of Utnapishtim Noah, possibly Ham's Canaan's first son Sidon/Tsydwn-bar or a Girgasite but who followed the flood: Either his fable is a mix of flood stories, or he was, so,- born of Noah earlier by a daughter of mankind, as had become so common under Marduk. He was also a contemporary of Nimrod of Cush of Ham: Both are credited with building Erech Uruk; both were giant men, hunters, wicked tyrants taking the first sons of men -and whence the later story of Abraham's intended sacrifice-... His rejection of Ishtar was oppression-humor for mankind that, despite his absolute womanizing, even strapping giant Gilgamesh had his limits regarding tiny 700-year old goddesses.... Gilgamesh, is apparently a title, equivalent to Bilgamesh, meaning a learned sage: His fable tells clues such as Anu's passing-the-bull almost immediately after Ishtar went to him over Gilgamesh's snub, -perhap she removed Anu as she had removed lovers;-- and of significant events of earthquakes and facts such as the gods' rift-crack in the Persian mountain range ... Greek records indicate Zeus' son Heracles, Ziusudra Noah's Ur-Agil-gamesh, was a giant man, while giants were larger and deformed and sprung-up in Zeus' time-- from Epimetheus Methuselah's wife Pandora's Jar 'Box', -and which led to a revolt and the extinction of the giants,-- probably the greater reasons Noah purportedly abstained so many centuries from having lineage children before the flood.)

(Subnote. Giantism occurred in Sumeria from the gods taking daughters of men:- the Watutsi of Ethiopia may have been from Cain's jaunts.)

(Subnote, Anu's Bull of Heaven depicted as causing earthquakes that swallowed men with each snort, may have meant giant boulders rushing supersonic speed down the mountain, pinioning birds in flight, flattening forests, boiling fish in rivers, -as a story of Ninurta, describes,- striking bottom ... that may have been prepared by Anu and the Watchers atop the mountain, to protect their dwelling; The six-century earlier bulldozing Cain's house, that killed Cain Osiris and Eve Nuit and left Adam Geb injured, may have been a smaller such strike started midway up.)

(Subnote. The fabled journey of Gilgamesh to find Utnapishtim, depicts an east-west-twin-headed mountain Mashu adjacent the Persian range, 12-double-hours hike eastward 'sun-return' through a narrow hot dark mountain fissure gradually rising till incoming "north" -chilling- winds blew, eventually reaching fertile land in sunlight and a little further crossed a 'poisonous sea' lake to reach the gods' island Dilmun... Thus 20-40 miles hike stumbly-slow up a tortuous close-in dark 'valley of the shadow of death' rift at 3-6 degrees grade, into the plateau about a mile high.... Note the 'poison' in their lake, if not volcanic though unexplained in the fable, may have referred to the gods' experiment in mass-producing mankind; and also note their sense of 'north' included the 'biting'-colder clime up the -east- mountain range.)

BABEL TIME:

EXCEPT,-- we haven't a proper fix on Noah's era to his flood: it didn't pack right: Though we've uncovered much that did, the Sumerian record tells of Enki Cainan 'changing the speech' of the people that they no longer had one language, -the fame of Babel,- But Cainan Enki passed in 1235, 29 years before the Babel incident Jubilees assigns to Reu (and to Peleg the division of lands among Noah's sons after the flood) amid 43 years amassing the tower-- which doesn't fit unless his-own speech changed, delaying them the 43 years ... (However, Jubilees' birth years are grossly different than in the Bible, possibly the flipside of Jubilees' assumed compaction of years after Jared; or more importantly Jubilees finds another step in lineage, Kainam, between Arphaxad and Salah the latter whose name was patterned on Methuselah M'T'W'shelach then-oldest great-father or just-passed); And just possibly, Enki was Enoch returning from two centuries teaching the young gods in Dilmun atop the Persian range mountain plateau, -oddly enough agreeing with the Greek record that Zeus' Deucalion was born directly of Prometheus Enoch,- and just decades later the gods found the mankind Noah had saved aboard his ark included his sons alive, and they were elated that Noah, of all, was having god-children not just man-children; -mankind having become so numerous in the image and likeness of the gods, that finding a god took genius;- And the gods declared Noah and his lineage 'immortal', and adopted-in after Lamech... And whence Noah was redeclared, Menachem M'Enoch-Im, 'a comforter': a comfort knowing they were not the last of their god-kind on Earth. (Minor note that Jubilees comments that Noah was righteous above all men -all gods,- save Enoch... where we see he was Enoch's special brood from Anu's mountain-heaven....)

(Subnote the name, Peleg, means division, plage, by-which the Greeks denoted the Aegean Sea, Archipelago: the island-dotted water divide.)

(Subnote also, in the time of the division of lands, Shem got westward from Mesopotamia, continuing the premise that the first-lineage children resided in the east; Ham got south-westward, whence the name of Egypt, Kemet, 'Hamet', and Japheth got the north-westward: Noah used the latitude and river-adjusted-longitude of Babylon, for his threeway division ... which suggests the more-curious purpose for the tower at Babel: a common landmark that all could see afar across the flatland steppe, for surveying their spread and keeping an eye on government-central; and secondarily subnote that Jubilees puts Japheth in the cold, northeast, Shem in the temperate middle, all of Edin, and Ham in the heat, south.)

(Minor subnote the Book of Jubilees -and possibly others- refers to an overthrow in which language was thereafter confused... this is commonly taken as the Tower of Babel but which was more human perspective, and quite probably mixed with the Rebellion in the East wherein Enki had committed the murder of Apsu over confusing words, "loud talk", false accusations,-- and with confused words soon leading to that overthrow ... Nevertheless the Book of Jubilees implicates a vivid depiction of what did happen at Babel: They'd spent 43 years preparing a mount to be the desired pyramidal shape, and in the 43rd year finished it in fired brick and asphalt-cement, But before the final closure, or possibly despite it, a mighty wind lifted the brick wall off the mount and "overthrew it upon the earth..." Enki's language confusion had been his forewarning them....)

(It is potentially corroborative that the Second Book of Adam and Eve claimed that Enoch was already 800 when Jared passed-- for here we've found that Enoch was alive in his 800th year of rule... Apparently there were some who knew of Enoch's return, which indites that the gods knew even if mankind's scribes didn't get the straight story ... Note also the book uses depictive language as when Cain "went down to the bottom" of the mountain, away from the garden: meaning the perspective of approaching a mountain looming above its bottom level ... but the book is also an inconsistent record of statistics, factoring ages, amid occasional insights on events, places, and at-least-two-regions, Sumer and Egypt.)

AND NOW THUS ARE CONFIGURED the same persons and their true lineages and the first realistic timeline solution to Biblical GENESIS....

THE POLY-LINGUISTICS (of archaic international names):--

PRONUNCIATION AND ENUNCIATION; PHONETIC AFFINITIES:

Aside taking many additional names, titles, suffixes, -as made the gods seem more numerous when travelers talked,- linguistic differences in names Osiris and Horus involve dnr-d-n-r and ngh-ch-k-c-s affinity-translations for Cain to become Osiris, and Horus, Enoch or Khanuk; cf the Egyptian alignment star Spdt Sothis, is Greek Sirius Roman Canicula (a different word), in constellation Canis Major; cf the language-various names of Enoch city Unug Uruk Erech Warka; (affinities also appear within languages, cf Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadrezzar, Akkad Assyria); and even more direct, Nekhen, Horus' city, Enoch-en, and Nekheb across the river, on the gold route between the Nile and the Red Sea; and, over the centuries Horus met Seth at Naqada cemetery north of Karnak on the upper Nile, (Scholars have dated the first Naqada era ca 3850 BC, probably earliest Ra or Ptah rather than Shw or Osiris). Also the original pronunciations, were closer: Enoch, was more properly ChNWK (the original Schnook the blamelessly-wrong baby), today less enunciated, more silent; and Horus/Heru was Horakhty. (The name Enoch may also give double entendre to the Egyptian ankh, the Pharaohs' official symbolic life: their Enoch-essence of lineage).

(Compare also the dr-affinity that persists today in the rolled-R, which may have also had a nasalized augmentation.)

(Another example, between canonical and non-canonical Scripture: Enos 'Enoch' begat Cainan 'Gaidad' who begat Mahalaleel 'Maleleel'....)

(Note that modern Sumerian scholars translate Unug Uruk Erech to Unu+ city, extended spread of an En lord, +ug +uk chiefmost.)

Affinities proliferate: Osiris, Egyptian Wsr, was probably pronounced w-nasal, Wnsr, becoming Anshar/Ansar in Assyrian ... Similarly also the pronunciation of Chwh-Nuit, Egyptian Tefnuit, Twnwt becoming Tiamut in Sumerian, Tiawath in Akkadian-Assyrian, Tauith in Babylonian; And each name had many enunciation-pronunciation variants: Osiris Assoros Asari ... Osir Aser Asar Ashur Azur Ausar Wnsr Anshar Ansar....

(Note the enunciation of N is near Ng, as in the Sumerian city Kienger Shngar Shinar; and likewise W nearer Wng than Wm herein so-denoted; Whence also it is linguistically possible to directly stretch Sumer Shumer, to Shwngir Kienger Kienger modernly Shingar Shinar ... and possibly the stretch was even assumed, after Shw, for Anu's Ki, Nephthys' daughter sired by Shw ... Also compare the Hebrew N-G font similarity.)

(Note the longer name, Ra-Horakhty, may have been Ra-Heru-Khwty:-- Horus' sire Ra, his mother's sire 'Khwty Huty Hoth' the later great-T-Huti Thoth.... And subnote Thoth's Greek-affiliate-name, Hermes, while it hints of T-Khwty, as W-nasal with Eh caused by the Kh is R-like Oe Ö,- He was the Lord of Khemenu/Khemnu city, which sounds similar to 'Khöme-Nu' Hermes.)

A simple arrangement-affinity is found in Ziusudra Atrahasis: the d-t and z-s affinities; Ha, being article, The/A, -Sis-Atra,- Atra-Ha-Sis ... albeit, Atrahasis was already also known as Khasisadra; Kha, being an enunciation of the article, Ha.... Ziusudra, was, Xisuthros, in the Greek....

(Affected-affinities, l-r, zh-kh, may have remoted the name of Azura, to Akhura-Akhula, Akhlia, Aklia, in The Second Book of Adam and Eve.)

WORD-PARTS, NAME-PARTS, ROOTS, AFFIXES; REFERENCE-TITLES:

Words and names are compounds of intelligenced phonemes with implicit interstitial prepositions: i.e. object-(preposition)-object; e.g. MN min M'N the firstmost-of/to/for-the-second i.e. the seed ... Apparently they found the prepositions too fluid-plastic to call, and left them to the listener.

The Biblical noun-by-prefix M appears possibly separable from names and almost a term of endearment or nearness, eg. Lilith Mualaleth, Ellil Mahalaleel, Irad Mered Marduk (M-'r'd'-uk), Noah Menachem (Methuselah called him, "Noah/Nch", but Lamech said, "Menachem", M-Nch-Im). Note in unexpected twist the M-prefix is also translated 'black', yet baby Noah Menachem was very white, And yet, 'M' has the sense of bound-limit minimum-or-maximum, whence liminal, pure-black, pure-white; e.g. man m'an first-of-the-An-lords i.e. seed; cf the 'im' were multiply most.

The archaic Egyptian-Sumerian name-title, Shw Absu, was quite apparently identical with the two-millennia-later Biblical Hebrew-derived title, Yhw Yhwh, in Greek-Y-gamma enunciation, and, Jhvh, four-millennia later, to the modern ... Such linguistic cycle appears likewise with archaic Egyptian-Sumerian King Surid, Biblical-Hebrew Yared, modernly Jared ... the S/Sh-Yh-J being a geo-temporal-linguistic affinity....

(Subnote the Egyptian meaning of 'Ab', is contentment, and whence the Sumerian is probably in the sense of fatherhood having sired lineage.)

(N.B. Later gods also assumed titles no longer in use; whence there was more than one sun god by the later centuries, e.g. Ra, Utu, Shamash, though it is possible in dnr-affinity to relate and translate Ra as Dnra to Udnra to Utu, as only R sounds in Dnra while aleph-vowels evoke the d-sound in Udnra; -cf Ziusudra Napishtim, Zeus-Udnra Zeus-'Noah or Zeus-Ut'u of Persian-flax linens, Utnapishtim-... Later head-gods were also, called, Jehovah/YHWH, long after the original Shw, as the term became only its meaning and title-of, no longer the name, Lord.... And mankind permuted and reassigned names by story-associations, e.g. Hephaistos for Ptah, Ailuros cat for Egyptian Bast Ba-Aset not Alorus hawk, often folding-in older and newer stories of civilization's three starts: the Ra-Shw-Osiris, the Anu-Marduk-Horus, and the postdiluvian Zius Zeus, eras.)

In the range of titles for lords and gods, the Babylonian was by latitude: Ea lord of the water-below was god of Eridu[g] south by the sea (and name-similar to Ur-unug); Anu lord of the heavens-upon-Earth was god of Uruk mid-latitude; Enlil lord of the sky-above was god of Nippur up north, (longitudinally they were more similar). The gods also took or were given variations of their names, in their youth and in their older age: The terms, El, elder older old, at the common root appear very similar in connotation: the Sumerian gods were generally each eldest brother. Also the related word root, alt, high, hints the young gods took overseeing residences in altitude up the ridge and 'l(a)titude up north.

Egyptian record of triad Amun, Mut, Khonsu, would have come from early contact names, only-later, (T)-Amun, (T)-Mut ... The T-prefix meaning greatest or eldest-available head-parent leader, would have been compoundedly true of great-father Tatenen Ptah('pTa)-tanen.... Khonshu the wanderer, was in the Sumerian sense of dingir (e)din-gir, field-goer: ruling god, (and probably related to our word, danger 'go-around')... Cain, meant a ruler's cane or spear, Keen Ki-An as in Khonsu, or in Sumerian enunciation, Qingu King... Thoth Tahuti, was Grk. T-Hermes (T-Hönti),- and further known as 'twice great and thrice great' meaning great-great-grandfather at the time he wrote after Tamu-Ra had gone west into the Tuat after Horus' grandson and great-grandson, after Horus-vs.-Seth 80 years, before Horus' great-great-grandson....

(Possibly, Methuselah's name was M'T'WS-Lah, comparably to Cain Osiris Wsr WS-Rah.)

(Note the possibly better translation of Atum-Ra to Utum ... And, Ra, may have meant, a supernova sun-burst, Utu Shamash the plain sunlight.)

(Note. In Egyptian, Eye-of is, Ar(t), the linguistic reverse of Ra, the sungod; but in Sumerian, Utu was sungod Shamash, but, Utu, meant, to see: Possibly the scholarly spelling-pronunciation-enunciation has missed an inflection or nasal emphasis on the otherwise-palindromic reiteration.)

The Egyptian name, Nun, and Sumerian titles, nun, nin, indicate water, a narrow river cf Buranun, a secondary lord, a divider of east from west, possibly by phonetic reduplication, n'n, cf An lord, related to English noon zenith meridian, ninth n'n-het hour, German nun English nõw. Though there is no record of Nun being on Earth, but as Ptah-tanen T'Nun, it was possibly in the sense of his first lineage, and dividing past and future.

(Note that the name, Zeus Zius Ziungi, presents possible linguistic trouble as ZiunGi Shw-Ki, when it should be Ra Temu-Ki ... unless Z is Ts and Ziu's is Tsum'sh, T'Shw, cf the Berber Ti-Swa lands ... maybe Zeus took the lesser title to indicate Shw as Isis' and Osiris' lineage-father; maybe T'Shw, Jehovah, was generic, lord, by then, as it was in Abraham's time.)

(Note also Adam's Egyptian name, Geb Gebb Gjeb,- The Hebrew, geb, refers to arch, back, strength, trenchant, plowing, the gouge, the ridge, whence of Adam's garden-depression, land-tilling, rib/bone-cage. But the protolinguistic meaning of Keb, is K'B Kh'Ab THE-contented-Father: Adam Keb was definitively First-Father of their Earth-family; whence the meaning, rib, derived from their depiction of the distinction of father or sire, from mother, male from female, which later translated to tsela the rib exactly ... Their archaic Jehovahn language was basal-associative.)

(Subnote their use of 'definite articles', 'Kh' supreme definitive, 'H' relative definitive, 'A' simple definite: in the names of Cain, Abel/H'Bel, and Awan,-- apparently indicating their priorities: sons Kh'Y'N and H'B'L, and daughter A'W'N.)

(Subnote: the Egyptian place-name for the home of the children of Geb, was, Tantere (Gr. Tentyra; Ar. Dendera), --the divine pillar; trunk of the god-lineage,-- probably wordplay on (E)den-dera, Eden woods, possibly related to Tartarus as his sub-land garden-depression: A Greek poet estimated the distance from Anu's mountain heaven as, an anvil thrown from heaven would fall nine days: assuming one walks after and keeps throwing: taking a tedious journey by foot, about 300 miles.... A city by that name in Egypt, westside of the Nile, is across from Qina on the Nile eastside, 300 miles from the Hejez,-- echoing Qyn/Cain sent east dwelling in Nod across the Euphrates river, opposite the Eden-garden ... the reduplication of places-and-concepts between Sumeria and Egypt being rather common: Dandara is Nile-side low-land probably old marsh.... Note also, the poet's explanation listed two, steps of equal size,-- meaning from the Persian range to Adam's Edin garden home, and from the Hejez range to Adam Geb's family city Dendara,- each 300 miles across the two steppes and gulfs and rivers.)

Many place-names in Sumeria and Egypt seem related-to or based-on names in the gods' lineage; Cities: Kish, Kishar; Elam, Lamech; Awan, Awan; Uruk/Unug, Horus/Enoch; Eanna, Enan of Cainan, or Inanna; Islands: Lamu of Kenya, on the equator central to 'where the sun rises', and Dilmun of Persia, upper plateau 'where the sun rises' before Edin, 'land of the living' gods, mortals forbidden, Adam Lahmu (adLahmun); Lands: Sumer Shumer, Shw; Sudan Shw-din, Shw's-field-range upper plateau 'where the sun rises' highest, yearly, north of the equator, (NW of Lamu); south of Pathros, Ptah-Ra, upper-Egypt lower plateau; south of the lower-Egypt delta of Aigyptos Hikuptah A-ki-ptah outflow-of-the-land-of-Ptah Memphis city. (Note that Dilmun was placed variously, in Sumerian references-- on the 'lower sea' Persian Gulf or in the mouth of the river, near Sumer by freshwater canal eastward in Edin, -Enki constructed his quay in the early mankind-creation era before it became bug-polluted;- later atop the Persian plateau to-which Gilgamesh hiked by mountain rift.... Subnote, Greek Tylos whence Telmun, Bahrain, is quite the contrast.)

(Subnote, the name, Lahmu, while he aligns exactly with Adam, could possibly have intoned Ra-Amun in the later Babylonian version deriving from Marduk's imposition that put all of Cain's line, including his sire Ra, against Shw's line, Apsu and Tiamut and unnamed, Adam and Eve;- The Babylonian record may have been a reconstruction informed that Ra was directly father-sire of Cain Anshar, but disrespectful of Tiamut-- assumed as mother of Ra because Ra was yet siring and Adam had long gone by Marduk's trial; Marduk was the culminating son of fathers.)

(Subnote the local-name of Egypt, Kemet, commonly assumed derived from Noah's Ham, is more likely with Ham derived from T'Kwnt T'Hõth.)

CONSONANTS AND VOWELS; LEARNING IN TIERS:

In Sumero-Egyptian-archaic-Hebrew protolinguistics, basic consonants and liquid vowels sufficed then-contemporary mankind needing only to identify things and gods as authorization... Inflections of meanings, by vowels, were pertinent for the gods speaking among themselves, but not recorded ... example the 'Shekinah' (she:puff)-kinah, diminuitive to 'Shukinah' (shu:Shw:breeze)-kinah diminuitive to Upsukkinaku Apsu-kinaku, Father-Shw's-kinaku,- knk, being the identity-word for gold,-- Father Shw's gold denotating his council of sons-on-Earth, Ki, name-patterned on later Ka-Nk (soul of) Enoch;-- The linguistics were such that, knk, identified the same whether inflected as Shw's-kinak gold-on-earth, or Shw's-kanak sons'-souls, etc.... (The subject of protolinguistics and its simplified 10-12-base-letter alphabet, is presently in development.)

Aleph, approximated by glottal stop, was a pronunciation-enunciation-eloper in their archaic language, effecting vowels, ah, eh: Aleph indicated accentuation, cf eNg-Ki vs. Ngn-Ki ... Although it is said that Hebrew-linguistics had no vowels, it did-have liquid 'vowels' Y (E), W (O-mega-V), in addition to nasals (voiced; nasal 'vowels'), voiced-consonants (compounded-with voicing), and their alef-cant short-vowel.

SUMMARY:

By reconstruction from the consequential external variants, we may estimate that the gods' quieter tongue consisted of combined consonants and nasalized liquids, close-lipped sibilant, highly aspirated and un-aspirated with nearly obscured or implied sub-vocalized vowels, resulting from stiffer short tongues and tip-of-the-mouth speech, characterized as birdlike (referring to part-god Gilgamesh) and spoken by animals too (referring to aboriginal mankind as animal, cf Thoth's observation of baboons), -a narrow shift from open-mouth human speech, sounding and heard differently in affixture of vowels and hearers' expectations;- Phonemes included, khsh kh rather than hard k, and sh nearly s, whence the unexpectedly-common ngh-ch-k-c-s affinity ... and, wn, dnr, lr, oph ... Early Hebrew and Kemetic (pre-Egyptian) Semitic and sematic linguistics captures much of this Sumerian flavor in spelling alphabets: unpointed.

COMMENT:

It is also worthy of comparison how close our own English language is to the original Sumerian and Sumero-Egyptian:- Particularly it may help understand the concept in word rather largely when words are already quite fluid-plastic in meaning: For example, Sumerian sag, is translated everything from, head, to leader, to gift, even a slave, or person, while in English, sheep are counted by head; and if we look closely enough at the concept word of sag or sack, we see the head a part of the body that sags even upright (animal heads are more definite, sags) ... Whence the meanings are clear: a gift sack, a protocol, the leader the purse holder or the purse itself as underling to a god, or, underling to a master ... saga, a cohesive story to deliver, a mindset ... sacred, possibly a sac+kur (the gods') mountain head(sack) to-which mortals were forbidden....

A SUMMARY CHRONOLOGY OF THE EARLY PATRIARCH-(AND-SOME-MATRIARCH)-GODS:--

(They all looked like twins but of different ages, fashion, demeanor, eating and exercise, weathering ... very alien on then-contemporary Earth.)

Note that lineage denotations are rarer than connotations that seem to result in mix-and-match lineages when merely intending some famous precedent honor, character, quality, household upbringing, etc;- Herein we've tried to resolve the actual identification, knowlege, or deduction:

(Bibl. year, is in the Jubilees-364-day-'year' roughly-best-coinciding with the 8th-100th-'moon' in its generational 65th-'year' accurate to 1/666.)
(In red, are not-broadly-agreed references, not-necessarily-impossible versions, coarsely corroborative.)
(In blue, traces our more-accurate years, including Seth's Enos as Cain's first-Enoch born in Egypt, acquired to Sumeria 39-years later.)
(In black, are the authorized fit versions, the most-broadly-agreed primary historical references, but not-necessarily-accurate by ±1 year.)

 
Identifications, names - persons, places, years - reference, research ... fairly well correlated, summary overview, sample spellings
Bibl.
year
rel. last Biblical Kemetic Egyptian
(ruling years)
Sumerian Akkadian
Assyrian
Babylonian
Persian Aegean
notes, other
... (lineage record) 'divine trunk' Tablet of Destinies 'Tablets of Fate'
Shinar/Shnar (ing; city) Kienger (Khngr) Shumeru Babylonia/B-bl Sumer
... (city) Eridu[g] Eridu (Enki Ea's) (by the gulf)
Erech/Erk ?Enoch (city) Unug Uruk (Anu Enos') Uruk Warka
... (city) (cf nefer) Nippur (Enlil's) Niffer (cf Niburu) (mid marsh)
... (city) Shuruppak (Ninlil's) Fara (by Nippur)
Shekinah (gods' site) Upsukkinaku Ubshu-ukkinakku (Persian range)
Lubar mount of Ararat Mt. Nimush Mt. Nisir ?Arrata (?later ziggurat)
... (gods' secure resort) Dilmun (sea island) (Persian range)
Pishon/Pyshwn (river) Tina Rimah-Batin
Gihon/Gychwn (river) Karun-?Khaneh
Hiddekel/Chdql (river) Idigina Idigna Idiglat/Idiqlat Tigris
Euphrates/Prtth (river) Buranun Purattu Euphrates
Gihon Sea (gulf) Persian Gulf
Red (Sup) Sea (gulf) (?Cheops' sea) Gulf of Suez
Atel (ocean) Souther Atlantic
Ma'uk (ocean) Norther Atlantic
Me'at (sea) ?Mediterranean
-9203 9K² 'creator'#1 (great-father) Ptah-tenen (9000)
(aP-T-Ah T-Nun)
'contented fount'
'father of greats:
of the diaspora'
... (wife/consort) Sekhmet, Sakhet
-8536 ... (intermediates) Heh, Hauhet 'frogs'
-7869 ... (intermediates) Kek, Kauket 'snakes'
-7203 7K² 'creator'#2 (son of Ptah) Amun (7000) 'the hidden god'
-6536
Δ666
-1203
... (9 intermediates lost) (Nekhb, Bas, Wdj, Ses,,,
Sekhm, Ma, Tefen/Tebh)
(cf 'eyes' of Ra,
wives of Ptah)
-536~ ... (sons of Amun+Mut) (Khon-)Shu, (T-)Huti
-203 3670 BC ~ ARRIVAL, EGYPT ~ BEGINNING THE RECORD
-203 1000 ... 'sungod' Ra/Re Temun (1000) +
(Amun 7000 prior)
(?M'Amun ?Ilu) 'Mummu'#1 'Moumis'#1
'Moymis'#1
Atem 'Jupiter'#1
Ammon Ammies
'Helios'
-203 ... (great-mother) Iusaaset Haset +
Amunet Ament (T-Mut)
(N'Amun #1) ('Nammu'#1) (?Ammit) Mut 'Khaibit'
-203 700² Lord Jehovah/Yhwh Shu/Shw (700) +
(Khonshu 333 prior)
(Apsu) Apsu-Rishtu Apason 'Jove' 'Khaos'
... (wife) Tefnuit (Ra's T-Mut) Tiamut/Tiamet Tiamat/Tiawath Tauthe/Tauith (?'Diabo-los')
... (first brother) Thoth/jDhwty (T-Huti) Taautus Thoyth (t'hönti) 'Hermes'
... (wife) Maat Ma'at
3467 BC ~ BEGINNING THE RECORD OF MESOPOTAMIA
-1¹
0
-1¹
0
930 Adam/Adm jGeb/hKeb/hSeb (500) Lahmu/Lakhmu Lache/Dache 'Erebus'
'Kronos'#1
-1¹
500² Eve/Chwh (sister-wife) Nuit/Nut Lahamu Lachos/Dachos Hawwah 'Nyx'
'Rhea'#1
0 0.0 [364-day] 0 Nile floods 1 moon 0.0 Sars 0 days 0.0 years
Adam introduced to Eve his 'rib'-sister-to-be-wife ¹ (probably in the garden)
Adam and Eve quit the garden (before the earthquake), and return to Elda their land of nativity ¹
40¹ 40¹ Adam moves back to the garden of Edin ¹
65 64.9 precisely 65± Nile floods 801 moons 6.6 Sars 23624 days 64.7 years
65¹² -130
64+¹
435² Cain/Qyn(g-U) (?'Azur') Osiris User/nWsr (433) Alorus (435) Urash ?Anshar/Ansar Assoros ?Asari An ?Ashur 'Eros'
73¹ 71+¹ 32¹ Abel/Hbl ('Cain'#2) Heru-ur (eyeless Elder)
'Apophis Apep' (dec.)
Aroueris ?'Eros'
'Apollo'#1
80¹ 80¹ Eve moves to the garden of Edin ¹, with 3 senior-sired children ² (pregnant with the 3rd)
81¹ 78+¹ Awan ('Cain's wife) Isis Aseth (433 co-rule) ?'Uriash' ?Kishar/Kisar ?Kissare Luluwa(n) ?'Lilith'
?'Lilwani' ?'Gaia'
105¹ 105-¹ 'Abel' slain, 'Cain' and Awan move east to Nod/Nwd Sumeria ... later to Ra's Egypt, as Osiris and Isis
130 129.8 precisely 129± Nile floods 1601 moons 13.1 Sars 47249 days 129.4 years
130 130 912 Seth/Shtth Seth Set (350) ?Anshar/Ansar (?great cycle)
?'Typhon' 'Aither'
138¹ 140-¹ Azura (Seth's wife) Nephthys Nebt-Het Antu Nintu
Nammu #2
Antum
?Kishar/Kisar
?'Asherah'
?Kissare
?'Lilith' 'Teleute'
'Hemera' ?'Gaia'
195 194.7 precisely 194± Nile floods 2401 moons 19.7 Sars 70873 days 194.0 years
196¹
235
196-¹
105
944
905
Enoch#1 ('Cain's: Ra's)
Enos/Anwsh (Seth's)
Anubis Wp (Nephthys'
as Isis') Anpu/Ienpw
An (as Ki's) Anu (as Kishar's) Anos (əAn mWphs(h))
'Ouranus'
-------------------- Noam (mother-not-wife) Anput (Nephthys) Nammu (N'Amun) Antu (Seth's wife)
235 235.3 precisely 235± Nile floods 2901 moons 23.8 Sars 85639 days 234.5 years
244 48 ... (true-sister-wife) Kiki Ki (Shw+Nephthys)
260 259.6 precisely 259± Nile floods 3201 moons 26.2 Sars 94498 days 258.7 years
285
325
89
90
910 Enoch#2 ('Cain's+)
Cainan/Qynn (+Noam's)
(cf Khnum) Enki #1 'Ninigiku'
(Ki's 1st Annunaki)
'Ninshiku' Ea Aos Ea Nudimmud Kenan ?'Cronus'
'Yah' 'Oceanus'
300 300.2 precisely 299± Nile floods 3701 moons 30.4 Sars 109263 days 299.2 years
306
314
46
54
Mualaleth (wife) Ninki 'Damgalnuna'
'Ninhursag'
Damkina (wm)
Dawkina (mw)
Dauke (Ra's/Enoch)
(Shw+Kiki)
325 324.5 precisely 323± Nile floods 4001 moons 32.8 Sars 118122 days 323.4 years
355
395
70 895 Mahalaleel/Mhll'l (Kiki's) (?hSahaloe) Enlil 'Nunamnir' Ellil Bel#1 Illillos Illinois Narru
(Aruru's brother)
?Mullil ?Belial
365 365.1 precisely 364± Nile floods 4501 moons 36.9 Sars 132888 days 363.8 years
371
380
46-
55-
Dinah (premarital, wife) (?Neith) Sud Ninlil 'Belit' ?dAnath (Ra's/Enos/Enki)
(Shw+Mualaleth)
390 389.4 precisely 388± Nile floods 4801 moons 39.4 Sars 141747 days 388.1 years
396~? -¹² Enan (too-early-son) Nanna-Suen Sin (Inanna's father)
420
460
461¹
65 962 Mered (Cainan's 3rd)¹
Irad/Iyrd (Enoch's 1st)
Jared/Yrd

(?hSurid hSaurid)
Marduk (Enki's 1st) Marduk ?'Ea'#2 Marduk Merodach
?'Cronus'
Nin-IB Niburu
Ninurta (Ellil's 2nd) Urda Bel#2 Belos ?Arad
430 430.0 precisely 429± Nile floods 5301 moons 43.5 Sars 156512 days 428.5 years
437
446
46-
55-
Baraka (wife) Sarpanitum (Ra's/Enki/Enlil)
(Shw+Dinah)
-- (Enos' granddaughter) Ashthertet Inanna Ninana Ishtar Astarte Ashtoreth
455 454.3 precisely 453± Nile floods 5601 moons 45.9 Sars 165371 days 452.8 years
472 -28 28 Osiris abroad 28 years, Anshar Alorus in Sumeria ...
485+
551+
65+
130+
... ... (son, ?Cainan's)
... (son, ?Marduk's)
(?N'Abu) Nabu
495 494.9 precisely 493± Nile floods 5801 moons 50.0 Sars 180137 days 493.2 years
497~ 700² Thoth now 'firstborn' Ea Enki kills Apsu Shw ...
500- 40+5 ... (unnamed/fetus) 2nd-senior Geb Adam subrogate-sires with 1st-rank-mother Tefnuit Tiamut ...
500- 'rebellion in the east' Marduk's revolt, kills Tiamut Tefnuit and her in-house army
500- 435² (Osiris, Nuit, dead,
Geb injured)
Cain's house fell¹ bulldozed: Cain, Eve, killed, Adam hurt ²
500 75~ Seth's funereal for Osiris Cain, in Egypt ... Alulim begin in Sumeria (75~) (?'Alalu's')
502 502² injured Geb Adam quits Egypt ca 501, west into the Tuat (N African oases)
510~ Isis recovers Osiris' body, Seth chops it up and buries hides its parts
520 519.2 precisely 518± Nile floods 6401 moons 52.5 Sars 188996 days 517.5 years
521+ Isis, Anubis Enos, find and compile Osiris' body parts, Isis gets a child (of Ra) ...
522¹
*622
*557
61+¹
162
(97)
*950
365
 
Enoch/Chnwk (Isis'+Ra)
Mehujael/Mchwy'l (Ellil's)
Horus Heru (300)
'Ra-Horakhty' 
Enki #2 Ea #2 ('El-y-h') Aos #2 'Elias'
(?Nabu)
'Yah'#2 (?Unas)
'Prometheus'
575~ 95~ Alalgar begins in Sumeria (95~)
585 584.1 precisely 582± Nile floods 7201 moons 59.1 Sars 212620 days 582.1 years
587¹ 65 969 Methusael/Mtthwsh'l
(Isis+Ra's)
(?Ra's, Thoth's) Methuselah (Mathusala) ?M'T'W'Sahluk
'Epimetheus'
*587 65²
162
300² Enoch Horus begins 300 years rule: 80 years co-rule vs. Seth in Egypt; preempting Nabu in Sumeria
*641 121 243¹ Enoch adds lineage-rule in Sumeria, as a god-of-121
650 649.0 precisely 647± Nile floods 8001 moons 65.6 Sars 236245 days 646.8 years
*652¹ 65¹ ... (unknown)¹ (?Duamutef, ruled east, Ra's, Thoth's, or Horus Enoch's father-sired) ² (?Eliakim)
667 80² Horus expels Seth after 80 years, Egypt 'unified', mortal pharaohs begin
*709
*774

 
(122)
187
*167

777
*753
Lamech/Lmk (Enoch's)

(cf Masoretic text)
715 713.9 correctly 712± Nile floods 8801 moons 72.2 Sars 259869 days 711.5 years
780 778.8 correctly 776± Nile floods 9601 moons 78.7 Sars 283494 days 776.2 years
*782
*797
*822
*650
*666
113~
*148
*133
*108
Tubalcain (Ra's, Thoth's, Enoch's, would-be-great-cycle, disqualified by the Vengeance Rule and-or-expiry)
797 1000 Horus deposes Ra advocating Seth (lineage); Ra quits, leaving Thoth in-charge
805 -82¹ Naamah (Noah's wife) ?Naam (Enoch's)
822~ -300² Adam's prediction, Seth's columns, Enoch's flood prediction, King Surid Jared's dream, pyramids begun ²
845 843.7 correctly 841± Nile floods 10401 moons 85.3 Sars 307118 days 840.9 years
885 243
+55¹
Enoch parttime ¹ (for 2?)
887 365
300²
70¹ Enoch taken up (for 70) Horus' man-rule ends ² Enoch El-y-h taken up the mountain: regent for the gods ¹
*891
*956
52±¹
182
*188
?950 Noah/Nch 'Menachem'
(Anu's: returned to 8th)
(cf Masoretic text)
?(Unas/Wenis) (Ziungj) (Ziunsh) (Ha-Sis)
(?Oannes)
(great-cycle)
El-Oah 'Zeus'
(TiSwa-Amun)
910 908.6 correctly 906± Nile floods 11201 moons 91.9 Sars 330743 days 905.5 years
930 Lamech kills 'Cain' ¹ (Adam) while hunting, when Tubalcain spots a wild animal (skin); and kills Tubalcain
930 930 Adam passes ... buried in a cave in his birth land, by sons Seth, Enos, plus Enoch Horus and Methuselah ¹ Elda¹ ?Aulad
975 973.5 correctly 970± Nile floods 12001 moons 98.4 Sars 354367 days 970.2 years
1022¹ 500¹ Enoch sees the mountain-heaven-peaks shake ¹
1022
1212¹
131
 
Japheth/Yphth 'the elder' (?Hapi, ruled north) 'Iapetos'
1024
1207¹
133
502
600 Shem/Shm (?Qebhsenuef) Adoni-zed-ek ¹
1027
1209¹
136
 
Ham/Khm (?Amseti, ruled south)
1040 1038.4 correctly 1035± Nile floods 12801 moons 105.0 Sars 377992 days 1034.9 years
1042 912 Seth passes
1056 -84¹ Nir (father of Melchizedek; Lamech's)¹ Zinsuddu Ziugidda
Ziudsuddu (Ziungj-)
Ziusudra
Ut-Napishtim
Atrahasis
Um-napishtim-ruqu
Shuruppak-king-
priest Deucalion
1105 1103.3 correctly 1100± Nile floods 13601 moons 111.6 Sars 401616 days 1099.6 years
1106 -16¹ Melchizedek (Nir's) Malki Sedik
1122 600
622~
The flood, Noah's ark
(Nir's ark per Noah)
Persian range Gihon river-sea flood, 14 months afloat ¹...
Utnapishtim's ark per Enki; (Deucalion's ark per Zeus)
(E Eden Edin)
(2348 BC Chin.)
1124 100 Arphaxad Arpachshad
1140 20± young Gilgamesh Gish-Bilgamesh Izdubar snubs Ishtar
1140 *944
905
Enos passes Anu passes, Ishtar gets his Bull of Heaven earthquakes
1154¹ [30]
66¹
[Kainam ¹ Lamech's 7th] [nonlineaged] *
[The following postdeluvians are to be revised by +30 years for insertion of Kainam per Jubilees ¹ though nonlineaged himself] *
1159 35
*64¹
Salah Shelah [57¹+7]
1170 1168.2 correctly 1164± Nile floods 14401 moons 118.1 Sars 425241 days 1164.3 years
1189 30
*64¹
Eber [71¹-7]
1195 73~ Gilgamesh hikes rift to visit Utnapishtim Noah in Dilmun (Persian range)
1221¹ -43¹ Babel tower job starts ¹ (a mount to be sculpted and finished with a layer of brick)
1223 34
64¹
Peleg
1225¹ Noah's sons, and Noah, subdivide the mideast lands ¹
1235 1233.1 correctly 1229± Nile floods 15201 moons 124.7 Sars 448865 days 1229.0 years
1235 *949
910
Cainan passes or killed Enki Ea #1 passes
1239¹ 14¹ ?(Unas' slaughter) demons begin destroying and slaying Noah's grandsons ¹
1253 30
*61¹
Reu [12¹+49]
1264¹ 11¹ Babel tower sides flop ¹ (windblown, Enki's forewarning had been mere confusion)
1285 32
*59¹
Serug Seroh [108¹-49]
1290 *934
895
Mahalaleel passes Enlil 'El' passes
1300 1298.0 correctly 1294± Nile floods 16001 moons 131.2 Sars 472490 days 1293.6 years
1308¹ The Book of Jubilees flood (reference)
1315 30
57¹
Nahor
1344 29
62¹
205 Terah
1365 1363.0 correctly 1358± Nile floods 16801 moons 137.8 Sars 496114 days 1358.3 years
[However, The following postdeluvians may not need the revision if Abram Abraham was already adjusted to 34 +29 +7 years] *
1414 70
?*63
175 Abram Abraham aBrahma -2000
1422 1001
962
Jared passes Marduk killed by Mot
1430 1427.9 correctly 1423± Nile floods 17601 moons 144.4 Sars 519739 days 1423.0 years
1472 950 Enoch passes (Noah's 581st/646th, Noah himself was great-cycle El-Oah/Wah Eloi 'the living god')
1486
1551
777 Lamech passes
1489
1491¹
75
77¹
Abram Abraham finally leaves Haran for Canaan; he'd visited at 50¹
1495 1492.8 correctly 1488± Nile floods 18401 moons 150.9 Sars 543363 days 1487.7 years
1494¹ 80¹ Abram Abraham in Egypt 7 years (Hebrews in Egypt)
1500¹ 86¹ Ishmael (Abraham's+Hagar, born in Egypt?)
1514 100 180 Isaac
1556 969 Methusael passes
1560 1557.7 correctly 1552± Nile floods 19201 moons 157.5 Sars 566988 days 1552.4 years
1574 60 147 Jacob Israel [*142¹]
1589 175 Abraham passes
1625 1622.6 correctly 1617± Nile floods 20001 moons 164.1 Sars 590612 days 1617.0 years
1624 600 Shem passes
1653 Eber passes
1655¹ 81¹ 137 Levi
1656 The Biblical flood (reference)
1662¹ 88¹ 110 Joseph
1677¹ 15¹ Joseph taken to Egypt [*17¹]
1690 1687.5 correctly 1682± Nile floods 20801 moons 170.6 Sars 614236 days 1681.7 years
1704 130 Jacob Israel moves to Goshen Egypt, 3rd/7-years famine
133 Kohath
137 Amram
1755 1752.4 correctly 1746± Nile floods 21601 moons 177.2 Sars 637861 days 1746.4 years
1791¹ 136¹ (mini exodus, Moses' father Amram stays in Canaan ¹)
1820 1817.3 correctly 1811± Nile floods 22401 moons 183.7 Sars 661485 days 1811.1 years
1844 -80 120 Moses
1885 1882.2 correctly 1876± Nile floods 23201 moons 190.3 Sars 685110 days 1875.8 years
1922 (-2) 1603 BC (Egyptian medical date) Nile plagues, Moses' pre-Exodus Thira eruptions
1924 430 1601 BC (Egyptian medical date) Moses' Exodus, 40 years wandering in the desert backside wilderness
1937± 40- 1610±20 BC (radiocarbon dated); tidalwave (unrecorded), Egypt pyramids silted;
1530±20 BC (historic dated) Ahmose's tempest; Goshen 'banned', Canaan 'melted';
Thira eruptions
?(1490 B.C.)
'Atlantis sinks'
1950 1947.1 correctly 1940± Nile floods 24001 moons 196.9 Sars 708734 days 1940.4 years
1964 40 Hebrews enter Canaan; Moses 120 taken east (vanishes 'died')
1964~ 14² Egypt returns to the Nile delta after 5000 days (13.7 years)

* (The factor-of-two discrepancy, periodic alternations, and misaligned cumulative sums, in the years after the flood, before Abraham, between the Biblical and Jubilees records, suggests single-senior siring every 64 years and lineages parallel to the vengeance-rule since Horus Enoch, plus the insertion of one extra, Kainam, by Jubilees which may have misinterpreted the 7-fold-vengeance-rule one fold: Lamech's 7th... Kainam was estimably 7x64 years since Lamech.... They may have been keeping corrupted prior records: Jubilees' 59 years to Serug's birth and 62 to Terah appear numerically exchanged.... Abraham is in Selah-Peleg-Serug-Terah's line ...but... if Abraham is via Nahor's line, then Jubilees' 57-years to Nahor and 70 to Abraham would appear off by one week from 2x64.... Corruption in dating may be due to lack of family cohesiveness after Ra et al retired west and Ellil et al withdrew, east, leaving Noah's further generations to their own recovery and expansion,- and possibly a revision to their siring-birthing calendar, realigned to solar, tropical, years, no longer set to the lunar cycle, and maybe exactly-8-and-64-years.)

(Subnote Moses' father Amram leaving Egypt with the war party and bones of their fathers and staying in Canaan occurring a jubilee plus three years before Moses was born under Pharaoh's baby-killing decree and Amram afterward taught Moses writing -says Jubilees,- signals a plot.)

Note the correct reading of "children of Israel" dwelling in Goshen Egypt 430 years would be the [generations] [by way of] Israel, meaning the generations of Adam, Shem, Abraham, through the branch, of Israel, and probably total elapse time since Abraham lived there and obtained Egyptian handmaid Hagar who bore him Ishmael in his 86th year, for his wife Sarah, possibly there or immediately thereafter upon leaving.... (Subnote scholars also suggest the name, Israel, may have been also a nickname for Abraham:- and thence like-grandfather-like-grandson.)

In summary total this calendar spans 31-43 Biblical births: 20 from Adam to Abraham (21 by Jubilees), 6 more to Moses' Exodus, maybe 1-2 more before the Thira eruption, plus the 5 early gods from Ptah to Ra and Shw, skipping the estimated 9 missing between Ra and Shw and 2 after Methuselah. The three listed in Egypt amounted to maybe 220 years ... whence depending on the date for the eruption, either the Jewish Calendar 3761 BC or project 'lambhorn' 3670 BC can be preestimated nearly correct-- for the arrival of the family in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The total-years-counted is 6.7-years-overcounted simply by Biblical use of the 12.33-moon 364-day-year instead of then-truer 365.2424 days.

(Subnote also the Book of Jubilees discovers additional years when giving a personal age, possibly including nine months gestation, first, and last, but arithmetically nearer the ratio of lunar and solar years, e.g. over 142 recorded years, Jacob Israel lived 3 jubilees, 147 years, a ratio of 0.966 being nearest 354.37/365.24 = 0.970, and no other calendars pair anywhere so close; And the Bible agrees with the larger, lunar count. However, Jubilees is not entirely consistent in the method of discrepancy, over millennia, and even seems to 'hunt' the long-term average: Age-dates for Jacob's daughter Dinah are about the extremum, e.g. she was abducted at under-9 years by modern count, where Jubilees says 12. The ratio-difference between Jubilees' moon-just years and the Egyptian flood-actual-years probably drove the recorded variance.)

INTERPOLATIONS AND EXTRAPOLATIONS:--

FINAL NOTES ON THE EARLY PATRIARCH-GODS AND ADAM-LINEAGE: ('The discontents of Pandora's lockbox')

The Egyptians recorded a family-dynasty of 'manly' gods beginning with Ptah the Creator ruling 9000 years but who did not leave much to show for his effort unless it is buried in the hills west of the Nile or sands of the Sahara desert or western Arabia east of the Hejez Range, overlapping Ra-Amun the sungod part of his 1000 years, overlapping Shw Jehovah the Lord 700 years, overlapping Geb Adam 502 years who moved west after overlapping Osiris Alorus Cain 435 years, overlapped 28 years by Seth, ruling 350 years, overlapping Horus ruling 300 years, 80 till Horus ousted him after building his Egyptian unification, then returning after Horus left for the east ... all overseeing human kings and early Pharaohs....

Atem-Ra and son-and-great-grandson Ra-Horakhty Horus, were denoted, sungods, for several reasons, including, When the gods first came to Earth from the night sky, before Adam Geb, Ra was owner-admiral of the "boat of millions" (years; passengers), his "long chariot of heaven" (cf their meteoric impact); they were gold-collectors, a color approximating sun color; Ra's appearance was notably goldened from centuries in the sunlight; Horus, became famous for using a "winged disk", a large sun-focused mirror with wing-handles for aim, used at evening before sunset or morning just after sunrise when least expected, to route rebels from hiding and confuse them to fall upon themselves....

Note, Egyptians tell of Ptah begetting Ra on a mound in lower Egypt... But without proper technical data, that could have been his ship in space analogous to that mound, or, his shuttle-lander opening hatches as a flower its petals on said mound in Egypt; If the first arriving gods had, left a spaceship in orbit, it was likely not geostationary but triple-synchronous watching the world day-and-night, years, decades, centuries.... Another, self-explanatory, description of Ra, was that he was born of primeval matter,-- not of-Earth, but before-arriving at Earth ... likewise Tefnut Tiamut and Shw Apsu but who lived long on the Earth before having Adam firstborn of-and-on the dust-matter of earth-ground of Earth....

(It is noteworthy that a 'starship' journey reaching Earth, at 300 light-years distance, at an angle from their original star motion, in 3-million years, travels a moderate 19-miles-per-sec., the velocity of Earth in orbit about our sun, adjusting a tiny 60mph over the last thousand years-- swinging passed other solar planets for slowing, and our moon for final alignment-- to match and catch Earth, and arrive 'easily' between 30°N Egypt and Sumer; that being their final exhibition of a touch of astronavigational prowess ... That they arrived at our, Earth, one of many, is empirical fact.)

Subnote the arrival of Amun, Mut, Khonsu, and Ptah, was nominally simultaneous, as none were born on Earth,- but some time before Khonsu became Shw, and Amun titular Ra... and nominally 203 years before first-lineage son Adam Geb's birth ... Shw may have had second-lineage sons prior even primordial who would have stayed in Egypt;- Shw's years as Khonsu are included in his 700-years rule of Egypt and Sumeria, But he'd lived 187-333 years 3-5 generations primordially name-unknown ... Amun had begotten Thoth before releasing Mut to Shw who went east and started the Jehovahn Adamic family; Amun's role thus becoming "the hidden god...invisible" when Ra no longer used his birthname.

The eastern gods lived high up the mountain range gouged by the original space-city-ship atterrissage; Anu atop; Ellil, about the middle; The Upsukkinaku Shekinah, was their vestibule in the side of the mountain, used for council sessions-- and, where they survived the flood, except old-youngster Noah pulled animal-savior duty for which the older gods joked they made him immortal again. The Book of Enoch tells of Anu's mountaintop house constructed of frosted-translucent sand-glass, "hot as fire [sunlight-radiance warmth] and cold as ice [touching the walls]". Some, records indicate that persons glowed or shined inside the Shekinah Upsukkinaku: Apsu's Knkw-golden shine, or possibly wall-lighted rather than in fiery shadow. The underworld was the land base of the mountain reached by the "long stairway of heaven," where gods dwelt in deep shadow 'til midmorn; the land of Tartarus and the garden of Eden were 300 miles west; The Egyptian lands below the Hejez range, may have been Anu's, lowest, underworld. The deep crevice-rift-abyss 'chaos' in the eastern mountain, was a netherworld....

(Sidenote: Christ Jesus' statement, "no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven," implicates that the Egyptians knew that Anubis was Enos: 'a man' having descended from the Nubian plateau, ascended the Anubian range plateau east of Edin, later et al descending and reascending... Jesus may have expected to follow the same route, only to be surprised on the cross, "Eloi [El-Oah/Wah], why hast thou forsaken me?" that he was participating in a planned deception now-taking himself where pagan god-men were but using humans.)

A note on the ancient Egyptian "style" ... Though not Hebrew, per sé, it was very similar at its base:- Early man recognized animal natures as dominant in their comprehension of mankind: Animals by animus, were a first concern; less by taste, smell:- Falcons overviewed on high and swooped down on prey: so would king-warriors; A cobra on a Pharaoh's crown, represented understanding with the ability to right, by half, in crisis ... cf Jacob's pronouncements upon his sons, "Judah is a lion's whelp ... Dan shall be a serpent by the way ... Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf," and millennia later, Jesus' analogy for his disciples, "I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves" ... Egyptian heiroglyphic writing was more graphic than Sumerian cuneiform ... but both connoted spiritual meanings upon the ordinary things more-or-less-directly, "Eye-of" was the monitor, reporter, investigator, usually mother, wife, daughter, "Voice-of" was the representative speaker-for, "Tongue-of" was an authorized-assistant aide or nurse, etc.

(Subnote. Egyptian gods were depicted wearing cooler, desert clothing, and only the heads as animals: e.g. Seth's fictitious-animal headgear appears to consist of the head and shoulder-skin of a scaly, African pangolin, larger aardvark, or other imported furry anteater, ears clipped to indicate its domestication as Seth's trained night-hunting 'dog'.)

Apparently, Probably, they started in Egypt while waiting for their space-city-ship to arrive and crash on the Arabian east steppe, and scouted the region about-203 years, Ra eventually starting Egyptian gold and silver mining teams and lapis lazuli mining.... The impact site cooled and eventually became arable, and Shw and T'Mwt Tfnt begat Adam and Eve, and toddled-off to Mesopotamia ... Finding their garden nearest the north bend of the Pishon suitable, but returning occasionally to Egypt, they started gold-mining the Pishon river across Arabia, to the Red Sea abyss... While Ptah, Ra, Thoth, the Egyptian side of the family, developed civilization in Africa at an easygoing pace, Adam and Eve got Cain, Abel, and Awan, -later, Seth and Azura,-... But, it really took Cain Osiris and Awan Isis from Sumeria, and much-later 'first-son' Horus, to settle mankind in Egypt; and actual-first son 'Enoch' Enos of Egypt, and his two, 'first-sons', to develop Sumeria,-- while Adam and Seth retreated....

This altogether casts a curious light on the reason for Noah's flood:- The antideluvian Sumerian men weren't merely wicked,- or worshipping gods instead of God ... promoting the younger contemporary gods, demoting the elders ... They weren't just saying that Ra's wife was so-old, that to get children he married a baboon; or Marduk's pejorative called her the dragon of the chaos-abyss, hideous scaly great-grandma who lived in the mountain crevice abyss chaos... They were renegade and rebellious, not yet wise as serpents knowing what was under the Earth, nor gentle as doves quick to move-on at the slightest ruffle ... Their Eden weather was drying ... Millennia of famines were on the way ... And,- Sumerian gods weren't doing their god-demonstrations and producing water: so they reaped a flood showing them what it really meant to be gods.... (Note that god-lifetimes decreased rapidly after the flood, -e.g. Shem lived past Abraham,- partly due to demon-plagues spawned by flooding where the space-city-ship had crashed and burned ... but the problem in Egypt was different: for god Unas slaughtered, the gods....)

After the flood, the gods rebuilt Sumeria much from their own part-gods stock ... and the gods quieted down -historically,- there, and in Egypt.

The gods' stories are weakened by inclusion of mythology, but much of that inclusion is merely myth-taken fact to-be-sorted by contemporary scholars straddling the Hebrew Testament, Sumerian and Egyptian records, and Gilgamesh, fables.... Archaeological evidence is turning up that may bear to fact that in that era, civilization of the Cainic model was rapidly expanding globally by sea, though not all due to Cain but that apparently he stepped into the general trend and recognized its worth and took up the cause and movement and became a legendary god,-- and whence a myth god worldwide ... The name, Ra, is apparently known worldwide as the sungod; and likewise others of Sumer and Egypt: The Algonquian American indians said that the flood was caused: when Manabush Ma-Nabu-ush/-uk killed two of the Anamaqkiu spirits who lived in the underworld -that mountain rift in which Apsu and Tiamut lived- whom Nabu's fathers, Enki and Marduk had killed, before the flood.

(Note even the Egyptians, received-back some of their mythology, such as Ammut the devourer of Amenta, the place of the sunset or the sun-returns, the infernal region of the netherworld, who was probably Tiamut "the dragon of chaos [abyss]:" who was originally Amun's wife a-Mut.)

(Extra notes: When reading Sumerian fables and Egyptian stories, and Greek and worldwide myths, elements agree or flourish according to their perspective,- where they got the information, and what they liked to tell ... oftimes seeming irrelevant, unrelated, and yet oft similar under comparative scrutiny by the original record.... World stories tell of the gods sending mankind a flood for mistreating a trout ... true, gods, wore fishskins, croc'skins, the original formalwear, in tails, enhancing their similarities ... other stories describe the gods as winking owls, Dumbi... the early older gods were a flock of twins, equally sized short, had long noses, straight combed-back hair, and talked birdlike speech -as did giant Gilgamesh, but who was part man- ... And then-again there were other floods driving men across oceans, that were not Noah's, flood.... Even close-up perspectives greatly vary:-- the Bible makes no mention of Adam being called, a god, yet soon enough describes the sons, of God(s);- the Sumerians described Adam as the man created, by, the gods, actually his offspring ... Adam did not wish to be known as a god, and moved away after the rebellion.... We do not have the ages of Sumerian gods but they were of the same multi-century lineage.... Foreign records sometimes give insights on conditions and events, who was marrying whom, consorting with whom, how short the king reigned, -like Gilgamesh who ruled just 126 days because he upset humankind in his behavior with their women-... Stories mix with older stories from prior millennia ... kings ruled in parallel ... events may be attributed to someone else ... the gods' speech was sufficiently unlike mankind's that they were less-well heard ... As for Enlil's complaint that mankind was noisy, it may well be, as for Shw before him, they hated human speech, like, "bull-bellowing...." Note that the name, Adam, may have meant first-man and been reused for the first demigod generated by Enki Cainan, or after the flood the first demigod son ... Note even aboriginal words, cf kangaroo, sounds like Qingu-ru, an edible god or his new suit, from the time Unas ate gods.... Such study is extra to Biblical Scripture, but does shed significant light on Biblical accuracy and referential detail....)

BUT THE PRIME SUSPECT WAS NONE OF THE USUAL-- A NEW SCENARIO: THE MARK AND AVENGEANCE OF CAIN:

Had Abel, confronted with the realization that he'd killed his older brother Cain for which he'd surely be put to death, assumed Cain's identity to stay alive?- put an injury-mark on himself so that everyone would be told that he was Cain... He could live with the fact that he hadn't killed Abel, who he was, no matter how many people accused him; He could live with sympathy for the purported victim being himself ... till Eve announced his replacement, Seth,-- and he moved to Egypt.... But eventually he got back to smiling and somebody recognized it wasn't Cain's, but Abel's, smile;- mother Eve saw, and Seth who'd only ever known one elder brother, found out and figured he had the right to remove what he replaced, got test-phrases from Adam, after Shw, Tefnuit, Eve Nuit, were dead, went back to Egypt, tested 'Cain' for Abel, and rose-up and slew him-- in posthumous Biblical-justification rephraseology: the new replacement for Cain, no longer for Abel, rose-up and slew Abel... four hundred years belatedly; and in so doing, Seth got a handle on that custom started in Cain-Abel's day of sacrificing the firstborn ... albeit by killing the second-born too... So the world has believed --behind its cover belief-- five millennia, despite the ample historical documentations and evidences...

(This should-not have made difference to Horus who was not actually of Osiris Cain nor Abel, But mother Isis was married to him and when the eldest deceased, his estate, went to his eldest descendant, over any sibling,- that being the purpose of firstborn-lineage: their concept derived from the prehistoric Ptah-Nun-Ra-Shw inhouse-arranged-marriage strictly-controlled first-son-first-daughter inbred-lineage: Horus was the next son of Ra, under Thoth, after Shw and 'Cain' were killed and gone: after, Nephthys' sons Enos and Cainan, and wife Kiki's son Mahalaleel, his, wife's son Jared Irad Marduk, and would have been after Marduk's wife's son Nabu but Shw and Adam were not around to sire Nabu, and Anu had refrained or been unable: there's an odd story in the Greek and Hurrian, indicating extreme measure taken by second-lineage-son Kronos Kumarbi getting three children sired by Ouranus Anu, plus advice from Enki Ea... but Horus, sired of Ra directly, outranked Nabu sired by any).

Cain's and Abel's twin-likeness we've discussed: A change of clothes and jewelry at the scene would have been easy disguise, -for age 32 to seem as 40-... But why would Abel murder his older brother?-- Just possibly he was scared to death, definitively: At that time there were three, Cain, Abel, and Awan: He did not know if Adam and Eve were going to multiply or just keep lineage as their ancestors had done thousands of years: he also knew of the 'fiction' of Tefen disappearing while Shw took Tefnuit: he saw himself in danger of personal extinction; and given the accolades lauded his sheepherding, he got a little air-heady and fell for that same delusion.... It was the year after Eve's second skip, that Abel and Cain got into their infamous fight... Bible phrases twist cleverly: "Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him": Rose up, meant the younger made himself equal to the elder: Abel, rose up; not Cain;- Slew, could have been mistranslated from meaning that Cain rose-up under attack, and was slain ... "Abel was a keeper of sheep," actually reads, herder,- so meaning, that 'Cain's purported retort, "I know not: [Am] I my brother's keeper?" was not in their sense of herding, or guarding Abel, but angry challenge: the strict sense of watching in the field where Abel watched for dangers to the sheep, not for what happened to Cain.... Who, would use such twisted phrases, but Seth under oath to Adam to not name the actual victim decades passed, but could not live without giving the facts their due light of truth?-- Adam was plain scared himself; the younger gods' law-lessness; the murder of Jehovah and his wife; the Sumerians may have not known Jehovah's actual killer: the accusation of Cainan was instigated, if not forged, by the same Abel long-guised as "Cain" An Anshar Osiris Alorus, the first-ever hawk god of Egypt:- Abel had to keep climbing the ladder of rank as the churning suspicions seethed, below: Periodic reconfession to having killed Abel long ago, kept political Sumerians quieter, (and indeed the Abel he had been was obsolete); Even his own name punning his rising grandiose title, fueled his delusion: Abel/Hbl, H-Bl, The-Bel, The-Husband ... and bestowing that great name on Marduk the murderer, tweaked his satisfaction ... Adam, wanted no more of this: and left.... Would, Abel, have really slain, Cain?- Abel was already normalized to animal slaughter, animal selection by killing, and wrestling to move the clumsy flailing fourlegged animals; not plowing fixed dirt; The penalty, wanderer, was approvable to shepherd Abel, not land-tiller Cain; Building sturdy houses was shepherd work, not farmer work: plants didn't move-about like heaving sheep folds,-- and who-but-sheep needed all the houses, till centuries later.... And this "Cain" went on to Egypt to civilize then-cannibal mankind by teaching them shepherding skills and farming;- and management of it all, was shepherds' work.... Becoming 'Cain' was a character conversion, the shepherd mocking the howling wolf, condensing the flock to trample it to death; the touch of disguise making it look like a well-executed slaying, imitation anger as-if anger were strength... But, somebody could read through that, eventually; And was silenced, without the Mardukian fanfare....

(If, Cain had, slain Abel, the retort, "[Am] I my brother's keeper?" would have meant he'd fought with Abel, and left him injured,- unaware that Abel had died from the injuries: not murdered outright, not risen-up to slay,-- and the Bible should have been wrong for being right.)

(And just commentarily, Cain, did-not significantly have cause to fight Abel, over their first sister, -Cain being already the first-son brother,- but Abel's counter-cause was that she was second-lineage as was he, and should be his.... From a metaphysical perception Abel had one more, cause, in that Shw being the most-senior-sire should have sired Cain, i.e. Abel believed he should have been sired when Cain was sired, But child-getting and identity does not work that way and any other sired by Shw would have been another, child, in no way the-selfsame-Abel. Ra had only preempted Shw in the sense of scheduling follow-on sires: hence we find Shw had first-senior-sired his ordinary last in siring Adam.)

(Note the name, Qingu Cain-Gu, might have been intended to inflect that Cain returned, not just wandered; Cain the prodigal son come home, though he was in fact the younger 'Cain' and the older Cain was dead ... Or, Caing-U, may have just meant his heavenly-seniority over Ang-U.)

(It is also 'emotionally curious' that Osiris Cain's wife Isis never had any children by him till after his body was dead-and-gone twice... She may have loathed having child by an internecine killer, yet, both of them had children outside their own union; She may have declined the man of no stable body-identity playing the roles of both himself in Egypt and his dead brother in Sumeria, unsure that he was, Cain the killer and not Abel the killer; yet, she fancied her title possibilities, even finding that title necessary; She may have lured Cain or Abel in the first place... Or maybe Osiris Cain himself was disinclined to have a child that might expose him as genetically not-Cain, as any full-son would be examined closely ... However, As soon as Cain was dead, Both were dead, Abel and, Cain, And Isis was then free to declare what had been pretended all along.)

(Note that despite, Seth's, attempt, at keeping Abel's identity covert, Some Egyptians record Horus the Elder as second of Adam Geb's sons; Although this is additional to the Osiris role, 'Osiris-abroad' was apparently just an alibi in disguising the alternate Cain Alorus role in Sumeria; The Egyptians knew naught of Alorus; And possibly Seth himself had been involved as Alorus-stand-in; part of his former duty and amiability.... Note also that Isis-referentially as wife of first-Horus the Elder, may have been imposed: to double Osiris' responsibility and Isis' inheritance: to seal their marriage ... And maybe it was not, Abel 'Cain' Osiris' Alorus-'trick' by design-- but compliance.)

Nevertheless; There is, by circumstantial, yet unavoidable, documentational, evidence, that Isis knew, Osiris Cain was-in-fact Abel:-- Their story goes that at the time Horus was grown and ready to rule, she'd taken him before the Council to recover his property, all of Egypt, from Seth who was ruling in that era many decades; Seth contended that Horus was a young man, unprepared for military command, but, in council discussion Isis' taunted Seth so much that he required the council remove to an island and the boatman refuse Isis crossing; yet she got across in disguise and confronted him again: as the widow of a deceased herdsman whose cattle were taken by a stranger from herself and her living son;-- Seth, instantly, decided this was not right, But whereupon Isis unveiled herself and declared Seth the same-thief, And Ra and the Council, acceded.... Seth of course did not believe cattle-herding was the same as ruling a country of lesser kingships, but, he was quick to accede, and took Horus outside and taught him knife-fighting and underwater stealth techniques becoming-a-ruler: which so freaked-out Horus, that, in a moment where Isis interfered with Seth, because she feared Horus would drown, and Seth reminded her he was her younger brother, (implicitly that she should not repeat Cain's mistake in killing Abel), and she released him,- Horus 'cut off her head to the flint' (scalped her) and ran away, -infuriating Ra,- and Seth went after Horus, and that was their most vicious fight where Horus lost an eye ("eye of" was the usual reference to a wife, a mother, a daughter) ... But the point herein is that Isis' imposture had to be and could be legally-direct, for, had she used other description of her husband, Seth would have declared her lying about her husband, -and himself;- meaning Isis knew, as did Seth and Ra (and Shw), Thoth, and Adam, that Osiris her husband had, been, that cattle-herdsman: the shepherd-- Abel, impostured as Cain... and she could reveal, now that both were gone.

(It is worth clarifying that, cut off, meant a slice: Horus did not kill, Isis, for releasing Seth: She was interfering as he and Seth were only amidst a challenge to hold their breath minutes underwater, for rulership of Egypt, which Horus needed to win on his own merit; Also the record seems to indicate that Horus' eye was popped out, and recovered, and Thoth replaced Isis' scalp: One of the tasks of a first-son, was to heal the injured.)

And to top it all off, that's also exactly what the Bible tells us:- The 'mark of Cain' was not, an injury, a disguise, nor a penitence-- but the mark of first-lineage, put on him by Shw Jehovah, after Cain was dead, that all should so recognize him -and none kill him,- for Abel was then firstborn... With Cain gone, Abel gained all accords and marks, (even as Ra had a sign and number and secret name; and later Melchizedek, an especial birthmark on his chest) ... And that special 7-fold avengence was not special but the usual penalty for killing a first-lineage son, (understand that vengeance meant additional to the murderer a line-of-7 sons would be omitted from the senior-sire rule, wiped off the family tablet;-- confirming our estimate of the 8-seniors-8-year-siring-rule) ... And hence we recognize that the Biblical record did know that Abel was 'Cain', even if all the scribes of Moses' did not know why the mark... And the name, Cain, was either titular or a final-touch over-the-mark, for Abel took Cain's place: Either Shw was not certain Abel had actually murdered Cain but the accusation stood, or Shw favored Abel, -as it was written,- his own sired....

(But note then that Abel took Cain's birth-year, too, for his death ca his 500th, 65+435, was near-coincident with Adam's exit not 508th for Abel; and whence-also the Greeks had gotten their notion that Ra, had fathered -or sired- both: for Shw had relinquished Abel to Ra to take-him-in as 'Cain'.... Also, had Abel died at Cain's hand, Shw would have adamantly demanded a replacement-son to Abel's age 32 rather than Cain's 40.)

(To clarify: They did not kill the murderer in first lineage but removed him as if his fathers never sired him nor in his lineage, and thus eight were nonlineaged while the surviving senior-sires restarted. The legal curiosity recorded in the east is that Qingu Cain and his lineage were ajudged culpable yet Anu Enos Enoch Anubis retained lineage, --whence the later dispute between Cain's brother Seth, and son Horus restarted of Ra, whence we are sure that Anubis was deemed sired of Ra, and Cainan was at-times Enoch of Cain,-- And whence both lineages are recorded. However, the rule needs be resolved for which,-sevenfold-vengeance applied: the murderer's first-lineage generations and all their siblings, or, upon his own senior-siring, and eighth when he became first-senior becoming his own replacement, or, whether sevenfold rather than eightfold applied to 'Cain' Abel specially-- because he was not yet a father or because Shw's sire-priority-seniority factored-in.... And, Considering Cain was already excluded from Shw's family for murder before Seth was born, Cain's further culpability might not remove Seth.)

(Note for further resolution: It would seem that lineage consisted usually of the first seven, senior-sired, -the eighth too young in its generation:- The Second Book of Adam and Eve refers to seven generations Shw awaited Cain, i.e. seven senior-sire-times; possibly affecting Nephthys: the grandfather-sired might belong to the next-generation, as 15 years, 8+7, might be deemed too young to be a parent, or, for the purpose of handling the case of a senior murdered where there would only be seven times fillable ... or, it meant, Cain died before he was 7×65 = 455....)

(It is noteworthy that the story on the whole would impute more exactly that, after the murder Shw sought to keep his own favorite Abel alive in-lineage, and the only way to do that was to make Abel become known as 'Cain', -with the stipulation he never let on,- and thence he was sent east to practice being and responding as 'Cain' with his wife Awan, some years, and then moved to live in Egypt with Ra, -Ra didn't know the difference,- and all were told the story of 'Cain' killing Abel ... But there, Abel 'Cain' given the task of civilizing the shortlived barbaric mankind, got the incorrect notion that the son replaces the father in this world,- and whence developed his resentment, fueled by abandon, to have Shw murdered, that he would then replace Shw, as he had replaced Cain,-- even marrying Tiamut.... Shw, in demanding Cain's lineage first-son in return for the loss of his own, Abel, -rather than Cain's second-lineage, son,- was saying this was indeed Abel-in-disguise-who'd-killed-Cain.)

(Ra may have finally learned of 'Cain's true identity, in this, and ruled against Shw's line including Seth, to allow his-own-sired Horus rule Egypt.)

Similar 'exceptional' deduction on Marduk, to his deliberate violence killing Tiamat, discovers that Cain Osiris Anshar figured-in there, too, Not only as instigator of revolt, but designer of an attempted coup: The summary, that Isis and Osiris did not have children in 433 years, but both by others, yet, the moment Shw, Tefnuit, and Osiris were dead, Isis appeared to become 'free' to declare a child of Osiris (albeit technically of Ra, but this figures-in as well), would suggest that the reason was by decree of Shw that Osiris and Isis were-not-to-have children-- under penalty of 'loss' of their firstborn -for Cain's murder of Abel-... In otherwords, the point herein is, Marduk, believed, Tiamut's child was of her new husband-and-commander Qingu whom he knew to be Cain, and, since Tiamut was first lineage, her child would qualify under Shw's decree and Marduk felt justified that the decree should remove her child (even though as Shw's mother she belayed his decree):- It took but a nudge from Anshar to assume that a known-seed was the same as what grows from it, to kill the seed still in the womb-- and take down Tiamut with, her dead-child ... quite unlike Shw's decree which applied only to the first-child, not to succeeding, And too far from just decree and mercy, to exonerate Marduk: This certainly fits their historic details of centuries, and intones Marduk's subsequent reprieve, and murder of another, under trial by Ellil's sons, who were second-lineage to Marduk first. (Marduk's stated primary concern was that she took Anu's destiny, when he did not understand how;- But we find Anu's destiny was pulled by a yet-finer detail, that, as Tiamut's son would be truly-first, Shw's decree would reactivate and have him replace Abel: while also removing Anu:- Qingu Cain's master-plot 'killed' Abel several-times-over: by killing his replacement, removing his prior replacement, and one version of Egyptian records even has it that Osiris Cain had onetime set out to kill Seth himself, but failed.)

The Bible and Book of Jubilees together, put a little finger on Abel:-- Enoch's birth in Jared's 162nd, points-back to who was the father at Enos-first-called-Enoch's birth: 235 - 162 = 73: Abel. Eventually his disguise cracked, And in a dither between right and wrong, with Apsu and Tiamut removed but Adam and Eve could still expose him, Cain made a late-effort to spare them, shutting them in his house, but to only one-third avail.

The gods had their own lives to live,- But what is notable is that there is more to the world than the matter of matter: A false accusation of the dead is wrong, -whether of Cain or of Abel-... Seth sought the facts; He also sought a higher science of God, beginning at legal. What Christ Jesus complained of, was, immortality did not justify nor legalize murder and mayhem: All, may seek the Science of God legally.

AND, ITEMS TO-BE-DETERMINED...

The indictment of Abel remains, but, while Enos' 905th is from Seth's house, Enos also had an unrecorded 944th from 'Cain' Osiris' house, and the likelihood of incorrect parentages appears more than of ages. This allows 2-decades for a storied tree to grow to enclose Osiris' chest and become suspected, and Isis informed; and ample years for proliferation of 'snakes and monsters' after Ea Cainan murdered Apsu Shw, before Marduk M'rad-uk Mered murdered Tiamut T'Mwt Tefnuit ... albeit we also perceive their longer-term hyperbole....

Horus' four Egyptian sons, Imseti Imsety Mestha, Hap Hapi Hapy, Duamutef Tuamautef, Qebhsenuef Gebhsennuf, were out-lineaged without a wife by Ra, Shw, Adam, Osiris; Little is known about themselves (Hapi is depicted as female), and nothing of their children, as also in the case for the Sumerian lord-sons of Anubis Anu, unknown in Egypt; Yet there are records of Methuselah having four brothers, names not-immediately corresponding, (or five but the fifth an obvious misspelling of Enoch Enos' Cainan as "Gaidad")... Am-seti might be Ham-of-Seth who inherited Egypt after the Noahic flood, Hapi might be Japhe(th) designated master of Ham; Tuamutef killed by Neith might be Deu-mutef, comparable to the name-construction, Deu-calion ... of both, Horus Enoch and M'Enoch-Im Noah's later restarted lineage after Lamech.... Noah's sons born in Enoch's 500th, would have been most-senior-sired by Enoch from his 455th sub-offset-5 by the wives, and moved to Seth's branch offset 40 ... which would make them Enoch's sons too and whence the name-similarities ... Enki Enoch had favored Utnaphishtim -Noah or Nir- for building the ark and surviving the flood, with his, sons....

(Note that senior goddess Neith purportedly killed Tuamutef favored by all in battle while Ra was yet in Egypt: Tuamutef was either a short-lived son, or Neith lived much later, Or, the story is a confusion of Methuselah banished to the east, later called, Tuamutef, 'T'Amun-Tefen, who in their numerical-age-competition when nearing living a lunar-year millennium had failed to prove his mind and body strength for becoming a T-god.)

(First-lineage Meth-uselah himself was possibly M-T-(W)-Sahluk (Ar.), there-purported father of Surid rather than son.)

(The name, Hapi Ha-Pi, implies, the contented-father: a pseudonym or title for the eldest, who made father contented: who made-possible the perpetuation of the firstborn lineage.... The name, Tuamutef/Duamutef, is linguistically close to (T)-Imhotep....)

(Note that the four sons of Horus are famously all depicted as wrapped-mummies: Their stories may have been only referential to Horus; Noah may have introduced them in Egypt, as great-grandchildren of famed, Horus, to curry a little favor, and then all-but-forgotten a millennium later.)

(Note that Shem having a son in his 100th, suggests the 8-year-senior-sire-step-rule was kept but delayed 2 years by the flood in Shem's 97th;- that would have been a call by Enoch, but that the lineage rules had not allowed,-- and may have contributed further to their decline in longevity.)

It is also notable that Noah's sons' names followed in the archaic-Egyptian order, Shem/Shm then Ham/Khm (cf Shw then T'Hoth/T'Khwt), more likely proof that Enoch Horus sired some of Noah's sons, than confusion of Noah Zeus with Ra-Amun or Enoch of Ra-aTem (cf the later story of Greek Alexander's visit to Ra's oracle at the Ti-Shwa (T)Siwa oasis, relating Zeus and Amun) ... Or even possibly Noah sired none: like Seth....

Note Jubilees' depiction of Noah's assignation of Earth to his sons:-- Ham's, third, appears an obtrusive assumption of Egypt, as-if ignorant thereof:- as if Noah were isolated from his own well-informed gods, and, the last major-longevity god, reorganizing a washed-globe-concept including Egypt and beyond -or- coming to power in Egypt on Enoch Horus' behalf, whence the names of his sons, Hapi Jap-het in the north, Amseti Ham-Seth-i of Egypt the south, and Shem whose name means name, became the new Jehovah, Qebhsenuef Qebhs-enuef first-son after then-greatest-father Adam Gebh Qebh had passed 94 years prior and sired by Anuef Anuph just 98-years before Noah's great flood of Enoch's, 600th ... It's reputed that Noah had delayed having children, but we find it may have been Enoch, after son Methuselah or Tuamutef: after the rebellion in the east ... about the time Unas slaughtered the gods in Egypt....** (Or, maybe Tuamutef was Noah's fourth, first-son....)

** (For son Shem Qebhs-Anuph to be sired ahead of H'Am-Seth-i, Anu preempted Seth because that he had been restored his original rank as Egyptian Osiris Cain's first-son first-Enoch, upon Thoth replacing Shw and, Isis Awan mother of both Anuph and Horus, moving into first-lineage behind Nephthys, before, Cain expired a few years later and -then- Seth became first-son and Anu thence was Enoch of Seth replacing Cain.)

The Sumerian clue for supposing Enoch was intimate with Noah, is their Ziusudra-version of the flood had Enki surreptitiously 'wall-talking' to forewarn Utnapishtim who was regarded as a man later 'made immortal' (or that would be, declared, one of the gods, a man, not mankind).... The Book of Enoch more directly relates conversations among Enoch and his lineage-sons, Methuselah, Lamech, and Noah....

There is also the possibility, in Terah's unusual wait for children till he was 70, and subsequently Abram's wait till he was 100, that there was a return to single-lineage siring, though not well documented ... This could imply Terah's 70th was a Biblical summary and Abraham was sired 4 years earlier by most-senior Enoch or 4 years later by the proper senior Noah putting Abraham youngest. The hint that Jesus worshipped Eloi Eloah, suggests that Noah Eloah outlived his own sons unknown years and was Abraham's Lord and sire and attempting to increase lineage-fraction and longevity to Earth-lineage even per the story of old Abraham's first son's birth, siring Abraham 8th after Kainam who disappeared from the Bible in a line of vengeance but is in Jubilees to keep calendar years truer by 30. There was no more-qualified senior than Noah, and apparently none-after till Eber, fourth after Noah albeit by only three 65-year-cycles, And he, was Earth-lineage....

The Egyptian Book Of The Dead, -of dubious date 240 B.C. 1240 B.C. 2400 B.C.,- records Osiris-Ani revising history by removing Osiris to 'yesterday' and admitting Ra as 'today', who sired Horus:- It indites the Benu-bird in Anu, keeper of the book of makings,- which might be the Sumerian Anzu bird that 'stole' the Tablet of Destinies from Ellil, or possibly punning a sand dune formation west of Abydos that resembles a bird in flight holding a disk when viewed from space; and further writes of the 'double nest' as Ra's 'boat of millions' and the 'great green' sea: suggestive of Horus Enoch having lived in both Egypt on the Nile and Sumer by the Persian gulf, or atop the range at Dilmun sea island.

Note the usual interpretation on Ra's 'boat of millions' as 'of years' --but-- as one of the 'double nest's, may mean 'of beings'; Or may mean both.

(Note also, the Hebrew name for Egypt, Double Straits, has a similar sense of, either, upper-and-lower-Nile, or two-fertile-sides of the Nile, But with a comparative etymological note, Egypt was named for its Nile Aigyptos, and Biblically Mazor possibly ma-zi-Ra filling-throat-of-Ra. Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea, would appear to be more-related as the source Nile and its receiving-pool....)

Jubilees also places the garden of Eden north of the Tina river possibly as we located it north of the Pishon Wadi-Batin north bend; The name, Tina, the river connecting across Edin, bears a threeway linguistic resemblance with Ba-Tina Wadi Batin and Ptah-T'Nun.

THE 'T'-GODS:

Sumerian Tiamat Tiamut was Egyptian (T)-Mwt formerly wife of (T)-Amun Temu Atem Utum Ra. (Jehovah taking a rib from son Adam to create Eve, may have been a mis-reference of from -her- son Adam: rather to save lineage after Shw passed; the child Marduk targeted in his revolt.)

Note this reference, may imply that 'T' meant the singular, top: that Mummu was grand M'Amun not-yet T'Amun... but which casts curious-light on Jesus' statement challenging vs. God, Principle, the serving of Mammon-the-maker who'd thus-become, wealthy -and not merely wealth-itself-... Thus the name, T'Mwt, possibly meant she was top god of all, gods, references ungendered;- whence Mwt became T'Mwt when Ptah left; Amun Ra became T'Amun after T'Mwt had passed, meanwhile calling himself, M'Amun ... and Kwt HOth became T'Kwt T'HOth when Ra T'Amun left.... By the familiar name, M'Ammon, Ra may have meant he invented 'self'-ishness where the family was formerly communal, in space, and whence associated with selfish-wealth on Earth ever after-- five millennia so far....

Subnote the missing Tefen, may have been Shw Khonshu's birthname but he was successful at dissociating it using only his titular Shw, -while less-covert senior Ra was historically reconnectable to his real-names-and-titles, Atum Temu T-Amun great-father Amun,- But more likely prior senior T'Pen in the gap of lost leaving sister-wife Tefnut who then remarried Amun, taking the name, Mwt, till eventually she got a daughter and named her, Nuit Nut, and herself regained the name-title, Tefnut... an assumed name from a colloquial phrase for Mwt as mother-of-Nut Tefnut. Or, just-possibly, Tef-Nuit was the mother-from-the-cosmic-night, and in respect for the great, Nuit Nut was designated mother-of-Earth-nights.

(T'Pen, by name, was the T-god Father of the En-Lords the shorter-lived millennial generations of whom even the eldest should have arrived on Earth with the T-gods,-- but for the gap loss of lineage through Tefen which decimated their prospects for full Council control of up-to 30 T-gods and 30 En-Lords, including wives ... The generations of An-secondary Lords expected to live as much as a millennium, each: a thousand lunar-years 970 solar-years, even as Methuselah for-example nearly did.)

(Secondarily subnote that their original first-city was Tapé Thebes, Waset today's Luxor,- hinting at an F-B-affinity, TF TB, Tefen Tebh Thebes.)

Subnote: Having here found, that Amun, was Ra's personal name, it may be that Nun, was Ptah-Tanen's personal name, leaving Heh and Kek without titles who indeed were not recorded as having ruled on Earth. Later Egyptian records disagree by separating Ptah and Nun in Council meetings, but then also put Shw, in meetings long-after his murder.... Tanen seems to be T-Nun 'top-greatest, Nun'; Ptah, 'the contented fount'; Nun and Ptah are both reputedly father to Ra, though that can mean any father-above, but not together: Amun-Ra is associated with Nun in the Ogdoad-8, but Atem-Ra with Ptah in the Ennead-9... It would appear Ptah-tenen is Ptah-T-Nun the same Ptah father of the top gods and, Nun. (And the title, Ptah P-T-Ah, redoubles as 'P'-father-of-the-'T'-greats-of-the-[spacer]-'Ah'-diaspora-outflow.)

THE GREAT-CYCLE GODS: THE EPITOMES OF FIRST-LINEAGE:

Corroboratively, Note that Ptah-T-Nun may have been the eldest, Amun-Ra youngest, to take-on the task of ruling Earth; and Heh and Kek and their wives may have been in-betweens with neither top-authority nor immediate-authority, and simply lounged-around Egypt, as Council:- This would indicate a greater cycle, of 666-years-average, every tenth generation, forced by their peculiarly inbred mating order, between greatest-longevity sons living sub-ten-thousand years ten-times longer than Adam's sub-thousanders... the next would have come at Amun Ra's 7333rd which by our reckoning was ca 130, exactly, --which would have been Seth, and maybe that's why Ra so-favored Seth--... And next-next, would have come at Ra's 8000th ca 796 Enoch-sired Tubalcain, but as eighth not tenth, but Anu's lineage would have resumed after the expiration of vengeance for Shw but Enoch Horus objected to Ra favoring Seth; when-and-why Ra left Egypt for the tuat ...maybe he'd given-up hope on the great-cycle... but Tubalcain was involved in Adam's game-hunting-death ... maybe the mark on later Melchizedek's chest was imitation, maybe that, was Ra's sign, shape, number, name, -that the Enoch's of Isis knew by her trickery-... And the next-thereafter ca 1463, is unknown-- lost in their rapidly declining longevity 'til Enoch's passing.... Nevertheless, Noah, as Tubalcain's replacement 94 years later, may, if rules are to serve and not be broken, may be the great-cycle... and whence he'd be El-Oah/Wah Eloi "the living, god" in Christ Jesus' day, and even today ... and whence-possibly the story of the gods 'making' Utnapishtim Noah immortal, and, Moses' Enoch-mix-up ... Of course Seth might be around too; And Thoth, if he went into hiding:- He was about 1333-years old when Ra left him in charge of Egypt, and continued possibly a century there....)

(But note their original calendar year-666 being lunar would be our year-650 16-years or 2-sibling-intervals before Seth; which sufficed as well. And, this may have been the very item of Horus' complaint that Ra was favoring Seth: upon Seth's first great-cycle his 130 + 666 = 796th year:- whereupon Ra left ruling Egypt and family in his 1000th as Ra: his 8000th as Amun Ra.)

(That Eloi Eloah was deemed The Living God, by Christ Jesus, suggests he was either great-cycle or he was Jesus' era then-current Elo-aH, since the original, Elo Ilu, linguistically comparable to Jehovah/Yhw-H Shw-aH, since the original Shw... That Noah Menachem was said to be their comforter for all their toil, may have meant he was expected to be the great-cycle of Sumer since Tiamut and Apsu were dead, and Seth they hadn't recognized that he was, and he was ruling Egypt ... Ra had left Thoth in-charge 94-years before Noah was born: and Thoth had no great council but maybe Seth and maybe occasionally retiree-or-councillor-only Geb, and no great-cycle counsel but his wife Ma'at.)

The compound effect of great-cycle every 666 years, on an 8-senior-sire-by-8.3-year 66.6-year rule, is that each great-cycle replaces its sire: 8 senior-sires, father 9th, son 10th, the next great-cycle the 11th would look especially like the great-cycle-senior's regular-cycle son so replaced. Every, 9th, generation, in a properly operated male-born-first order, would be in the same male-sire-line ... (Ergo, great-cycle Ra Amun T'Amun T'amu T'emu T'em Atem looked very-like his regular-cycle-sire 'Ra' of 6000 years prior; And Shw, 90 generations, 10 successive-male sires, 9 great-cycles...after the eldest great-cycle murdered, or removed for murder...it may have worried Shw, that he did not know the fault in his line.)

(Each first-lineage senior sired his ninth-following in a perfected progression; Nine male lines came to Earth, all broken between Ra and Shw. Shw was in-line with the eldest in the gap, Seth in the second by timing but not genetically: not the murderer-from-[long-before]-the-beginning.)

Note that the great-cycle was primordial and may have differed from Earth-years by early-estimate but serving simply to explain.... Shw should have been great-cycle but for his early demise ca his 1033rd; someone was Ra's next-great after the gap of 7000 years reckoning nine great-cycles lost: in a revolt aboard his Boat of Millions during their passage in the Oort Cloud of comets surrounding our solar system, as may have aroused their worst fears of competence in disputation over awakening a senior, maybe a case of insubordination attempting to divert around the arbitrary destination,- their trouble in arriving may have included prior factors, degradation of their telescope blasted by millions of years of space dust reducing their visibility to count days of Earth's surface per year: they could accurately time only the moon and planets for their last-chance Earth. Note that Shw's age could have been a tripping-point of contention where Cain was the son of too-old Ra, and Abel of then-first-sire Shw; but it was likely another clause in their rule of vengeance, that after a gap in lineage the prior senior sire restarted peremptorily first... except Ra could not sire Adam, for Shw, because Shw's wife had been Ra's, but Ra did preempt Shw in the next generations, in siring Cain....

(The more likely incitement, to the murderous gap of nine in primordial lineage, may have been their change of plan: to reduce tenfold-siring to better fit Earth months and years, one of ten would loose his line ... rebellion ensued ... To spare the lineage, it was further reduced to eightfold and Shw himself spared, -possibly before his birth,- and ninth would become a sub-senior father-sire of ninth,-and,-tenth.... Though highly likely for explanation, it begs the question, why, they'd started with ten: Had they hoped for another solar-planet more desertlike than uninhabitable?)

(The gap due to the Vengeance Rule was primarily for male first-lineage; it could conceivably have applied to their wives too, but probably not-- and probably the wives from the gap were the famous 'eyes' of Ra, from which we might reconstruct their lineage, missing Tefn of Tefnut, Ma of Maat, Nekhb of Nekhbet, Sesh of Seshat, Sekh of Sekhmet/Sekhwet/Sakhet, Wdj of Wadjet, Bas of Bast ... Several 'eyes' were Ptah's wives.)

(Subnote, Ptah's name meaning father of the T-greats of the diaspora the outflow, meant father of the superlongevity 9-millenarians, and hence Thoth T-Hwty thrice-great beyond his first millennium was expected to continue as a great-cycle himself replacing great-cycle Shw.)

Subnote: In awkward phrase beginning Enuma Elish, is an association of Mummu-Tiamut oft interpreted as Mummu-of-Tiamut, and minister to Apsu, and very young ... but just possibly Mummu-Tiamat, in relation, was the missing reference to the top god Ra, M'Amun self-created Amun, and she 'who bore them all' was mother at the top, after, Mummu; thus confirming that peculiar arrangement that Tiamut 'T-Mut' was Amun Ra's wife who got Khonshu Shw Apsu by Ra, then became Apsu's wife and got Lahmu Adam, as wives could remarry down their lineage.... And the young minister Mummu may have been a child named after her former husband Amun.... It is also recorded that she had seven children,- which reference may have intended her primordial lineage-seven, and which may align the synchronization of great-cycle males and females thereof, and which may also indicate lineage sparsity, or that the eighth-senior the grandfather did not usually sire, whence Eve's complaint about Shw.

Subnote that, while Nammu Noam might have been Awan n-Awmn, Sumerian references have no parentage and suggest she was a primordial goddess of 'khaos' abyss waters as would be T-Mut n-Amun herself... albeit, a final possibility might be that Mummu-and-Nammu were derived-familiar names-of-endearment for great T'Amun and T'Mut, Nammu, transferring to Nephthys for mothering Anubis Anu and Cainan Enki, two in Mummu Ra Amun's line, -after the Rebellion in the East and the Sumerians lost their family ties to Egypt but she retained contact with Anu,- and she inherited Tiamut's residence. (Or, Nammu, may have been Awan's name, Awmn, pronounced-backwards as a title as might have been Isis' sense of humor, cf Cain's title of, WS-R Osiris, backwards of, R-SW Ra-Shw, and subsequently her first-son Horus Herwk H'R-WS.)

Secondarily subnote that Jubilees maybe for being later writ appears to impose a 'moral assumption' on the wives after Kenan's Mualeleth his sister, persistently proffering the later wives as cousins, "daughters [possibly granddaughters] of [their husbands'] fathers' brothers"-- but which would have been thereby out-lineage as well as disagreed with Sumerian records but which further confuse Ki Mami as Tiamut by description, after, Tiamut was killed ... unless, Jubilees abused the phrase 'father's brother' to cover the senior-sire rule under simpler morals for mankind's progress by convenient omission of prior-correct facts, e.g. sired by Ra were half-brothers Shw, Cain Osiris, Anup Enos Anubis, Horus Enoch, but they did not distinguish step-siblings within the lineage, as they were all, senior-sired: husbands, wives, and sires, were one, secure family.

(We're deducing that the Egyptians kept Ra's lineage-system of sires and fathers, and so Egyptian prince Moses learned, while the Sumerians simplified, later, whenever, to recording sire-fathers ... and which crossed paths more-famously millennia-later, on Christ Jesus' 'unknown' sire.)

BITS AND PIECES TO SORT-THROUGH ... CRACKED, REVERSED, MIRROR IMAGES:

(But still, we are left with the trimmings of the double-Anubis puzzle: It is-possible that something else happened to Anubis first-Enoch, that got dropped through their pre-historic cracks:-- Cain's Enoch who begat Irad, must have been Cainan, as we saw, but first-Enoch was born on the earlier schedule, unless, first Enoch was lost, per Shw's stipulation (and whence the sacrifice-tradition that followed), or by stealth-murder (and whence Enki's near-stealth-murder of Apsu) ... or, first-Enoch was gotten by Nephthys, of Cain in his 131st, because Ra wasn't siring in either-half-family, -depending on how strict Ra was for marriage-first;- Enoch would-have-yet been sent home when the disorder was discovered, but after, Nephthys had married Seth and gotten a proper second Anubis Enos from Ra who'd-by-then relented to letting her start having seniority-rule-children even though Seth was-not-firstborn, and thus Cainan became very wise at 40-years, a year after Enos was born, because he was still out of order and had to wait till his-own 90th to become first-son of little Enos, and then changed his name to, Cainan... upsetting Enos and later confusing Enos' own-first daughter and son Enlil who then himself started before lineage ... the sum-and-difference being Enoch would be Cainan from the start, and either lived an extra-90 years reaching the 1000-mark, or died 90 years earlier than his common listing ... not-much, but a virtual Pandora's-jar difference of 'sic' jokes: the son, old-enough to be his brother's father but Moses didn't fully catch that meant Enos'.... Revision might seem, possible, but it would make Cainan the Anubis identified as Watcher; yet the records are not so confused till the Greek.)

(N.B. Although never recorded, Shw may-have made a stipulation on Cain's first-son, whether by Isis or, Nephthys, -if he did not turn him over,- and whence Cain's many-centuries delay from siring with-Isis, and Nephthys' dress-up as Lilith later-designated-as Isis: For a millennium there was a custom of killing firstborn sons by sacrifice, that may have been mankind's interpretation of the stipulation... possibly Cain responded by putting a stipulation on Seth, siring:- Neither did by their wives but seniors were providing lineage sons and daughters several decades.... This might not affect Anubis not sired by Cain but Ra -but surrogated- and merely living-with Cain, but might have affected Cainan, sired by Cain....)

(Subnote, the sacrifice of first-sons developed further later, upon rebellion in the east and later mass-eatings of gods in Egypt by Pharaoh-King Unas, -possibly a god-... The sacrifice precedent terminated, -in the Hebrew line,- upon Abraham's resistance and finding a ram in a thicket....)

(Note: The Annunaki were the lineage-deltage of Anu and Ki, -of the heaven-mountains and earth,- whereas the Igigi were all the other gods, -of the lower earth only;- Anshar Cain and Kiki Ki were loyalty-caught-between as their grandparents but themselves gods of the earth below.... The younger Igigi worked under severe conditions and staged a job-strike which prompted Marduk's creation of a new mankind-- in which, one Igigi was killed and part used for the semination.... Enki Ea's title, Ninigiku, probably meant Nin-Igigi sublord-over-the-Igigi: being the first Annunaki.)

(Subnote: Cainan's Greek name, Oceanus, may have been a pun on An-nuna-Ki, hKi-Anu, as well as hinting at the deep-water below the land. For research, note also Egyptian Khnum Khenmu fits the famous depiction of a potter creating mankind, and with Anuket, lives at the southern Egyptian boundary 'source' of the Nile, -depicted as welling up,- near Abydos, and Shw's Egypt-access land ... Abu ... Anuket would be wife of Anuk, and whence Marduk's Nabu N'Abu and Enoch Anuk may have been the same... In family-linguistics, Khnum Khenmu, was Khon-Um.)

(Second subnote among Marduk's won-titles, are many similar to names in Egypt, with descriptions nearly in parallel: Tutu, possibly meant Thoth, or T'Utu the son of Neith Tanit T'Nit, in Shw's 'form'; Kenma, possibly Khenmu Khnum or Kh'n-Amun; Asaru, possibly Osiris ... etc.)

(And, there was still Anubis Enoch himself who'd remained in Egypt 40 years: One presently-best alternate-interpretation says that Anubis Anu was-not Nephthys' birthed-son, but Isis', who disguised as Nephthys, got Anubis from Ra, because the seniors were not-already-siring children into Osiris Cain's family, -they didn't when he was 65, because Isis, wasn't first-lineage-... but then Isis declared Anubis was Osiris Cain's sired child -no particular problem there as he would be quietly second-lineage,- to keep the disguise ... and Ra thought Nephthys failed to bear child, and would not try again ... but eventually, Isis' deception was discovered and Ra ordered then-grown Anubis into Seth's family ... Isis argued he was provably hers, but Ra played trump before the god Council:-- Ra was Father of them all: it didn't matter which way the genetics went below him, and the semi-prehistoric record agrees Ra had a child by Nephthys, and Isis was trying to trick him now, -Great fathers are 'so corny',- Isis learned a lot, of trickery, that later nearly killed him.... So, Nephthys' baby son by Cain was first-lineage because it was her truly-first, -a Council ruling had made first-Anubis, first-... and second-Anubis second-Enoch, she put into daughter Kiki's lineage because he had to go somewhere first-lineage... and Cainan Enki Enoch became the Titan who made Anu laugh all the harder ... and to keep Cainan En-Ki Enoch separate from Anu's eventual own-first son En-Lil, he attached Cainan to his-own Egyptian birth, and El-Lil to his Sumerian-second, birth.... Other reasons, for this next interpretation include the years in the source-documents fit no-otherwise; How Cain sired Enoch who was Cainan who sired Irad; Why second-lineage Thoth would-have sired Awan; How Jubilees' rule for in-lineage-senior-siring of sister-wives became disguised 'daughters of a father's brother', i.e. first-lineage were all step-siblings... which may fit better.... In other words, first-Anubis Enoch Enos was first-lineage by Ra, by genetics by Nephthys' stand-in (Isis), by god-Council decree, on standby.... Second-Anubis Cainan was first-lineage by Nephthys, by Seth's stand-in (Cain), put in Enoch's family as first-son because he was, Nephthys' first. (Note that we'd also have question about Thoth's mother with Ra: whether Thoth and Shw had the same mother Mwt, as well as father Ra.)

(Note that Cain following seniority, would have started siring in his 130th, Adam's 195th as Jubilees recorded, But Thoth who'd sired Isis, would have preceded him, unless Cain himself was of doubtful lineage, or Ra ordered Thoth stop.... The alternative order that Nephthys refused by Ra because she was not married, went to Cain, disguised as Isis with Isis' collaboration that she'd get a first-lineage child, and stayed for the baby and purported baby trouble, and Isis' claim extended 40 years till their discovery and return to Sumer,-- such a baby was never-in any-lineage ... Nevertheless, Ra and the Council could have upgraded Anubis to first-lineage as part of a package compensating Shw's objection to Nephthys marrying Cain, and removing Anubis Anu to farther, east ... Nephthys may have then furthered this, remarried Anubis, and got first-son Cainan... but who would have been second-lineage to the next unless Ra relented ... Either way, Anubis, had moved East and gotten a second start-date, and Ra and Osiris Cain each sired one of the two Anubis', Anu Enos and Enki Cainan, by Nephthys Azura.)

(Subnote that for Seth's Enos to have not-been Cain's Enoch nor later Seth's Enoch, Enos would have been absent-sired 24 years before Seth was 130, i.e. ca Seth's 106th recorded as 105, but then either Cain's Enoch was lost altogether, or became Cainan and Ra's Anubis also went missing ... But for any of these cases it remains unlikely that Ra refused Nephthys first opportunity as Ra sought to fill the family with all possible speed, whether Isis sub'ed or not: Likely Ra did sire with Nephthys but then on Shw's argument, removed Anubis from Cain's first-lineage to as-Seth-sired at his 5th-offset, Ra sub'ing for Seth, corresponding to having been born 65-years after Cain, the same as Cain's first should-have ... The family lineage rules constituted not a static but dynamic position-filling-procedure.)

(Subnote: If, Isis did-not pull the deception, though records indict her for much trickery, it may be that Ra assumed Nephthys was, Osiris' wife as would have been the case except for Shw's edict which kept Cain separate from the rest of Shw's lineage, for both were first-lineage;-- And yet, Isis pulling the first deception, gives Nephthys specific cause to pull the second and recover her-own first-bearing status, and a child... Nephthys Azura would-not-ordinarily have had a child by Cain as husband until 65-years-after one by Ra, but by-then she was married to Seth ... Shw may have allowed her marriage, as he had Cain's to Isis, to get them to solve it, but-then Nephthys deflected to Cain, to get her child in-first-lineage.)

(A last thought on Anu Enos' schedule: Despite our thorough evaluation, piecewise and uniformly, the sources still fit like a puzzle with a third of the pieces missing; We now know that the Genesis chronology was 50% quicker, and revises the Biblical record accordingly; but there may be other revisions necessary, as far-fetched as Ellil born before Enki but preempted by lineage rank: Having re-begun Sumerian god lineage-rank calculation, Anu may have combined his own ages at their births, with his wives' and mothers' ages: that might confuse connotations more than denotations and as facts unconveyed when wives' ages were later no longer counted in Sumerian male-lineage giving rise to slight interpretive mistake of parentage versus lineage versus elder-prominence-relative-parentage.)

(A last thought on refilling Ra's senior-sire-schedule-gap: Just-possibly Council advanced only Ra-sired sons, Shw, Thoth, Cain, Enoch, Horus, while Adam, Seth, Enos et al, would have remained packing-in the late-end of the senior-siring order.)

(A last thought on Cain Osiris' first-family schedule and Azura Nephthys' pretense as Awan Isis: It is farther-fetched-alternatively-possible that Eve Nuit surrogate-mothered with Cain subrogate-siring for Ra, to quell the argument between her daughters, -and so Enoch was born in the 195th still-consistent with Jubilees, and Enos moved-40 to the 235th, explaining the hitherto-odd re-rank of Nephthys and first-year of Enos,-- and Nephthys' play as Isis would have been for Cainan, later remixed in the scribe records. Note: 40-years in lineage is more-precisely 40.6, but-while chronological-years-in-total is conversely drifting down and 195+40=235 would be more-precisely 194.7+40.6=235.3 not-234.7.)

AND SUMMARY NOTES-- THE LAST SOLID POSSIBILITIES:

A last note on the plan as a whole: Their 8×8 matrix, that sibling rank offset births 100/8 moons i.e. 12.5 alternating 12-or-13 i.e. 1-year, and the generational difference being 800, moons, suggests that this was not their original plan: The original-plan, before the gap loss of nine in senior-siring, was probably, 1000 moons between generations, 81 years rather than 65, 100-moons sibling-intervals, 8.1 years, 10 moons birth-offset, for parent-sibling-rank, 1 moon for senior-exclusivity, and 10,000 moons for the T-greats, 808.5 years, which would-then have been "833" lunar-years rather than "666" and Earth should have a different "number of a man," than that of St. John's First Beast: It'd require simply that Ptah had fudged in converting his T-great generation-years-counts chronological data, from original to altered memorably instructive;- that the gap senior had died before reaching 8085 years, or, murdered a prior and nine were removed, when the rule of vengeance said, 9, and Ptah covered it by changing the order to 8×8 ... the Egyptian gods may have used the 365 day year calendar because they knew it better suited-- the original plan.

(Subnote the rule may even have been changed from 10×10 to 8×8 to save the two youngest including Shw who may not have been born yet....)

(Subnote that, prior to their knowledge of our moon's orbital month, but which could have been before they set out if they had space-telescopes adequate for measuring our solar system at 200-light-years distance, when they were identifying destination planets, and knew only our Earth's orbital year, their siring schedule may have used one year for the mother's rank, sire-exclusivity at a tenth, ten years for the husband's rank, one hundred years per each generation, one thousand per each T-god ... Prior to that, they'd have used their home-planet-cycles, for spacer-living.)

And lastly note that the 'lambhorn'-estimated 3670 BC as the beginning would thus be the start of Khon-Shw Jehovah, 203 years before Adam; And is accurate for the very reason that Ptah had preplanned the family schedule of millennia; And later, Daniel, was let-in on some of its detail. (Mrs. Eddy's statement that there are no more prophecies, meant, she, was not let-in on family secrets, nor needed, in Christian Science;-- The "doctrine of unconditional election, or predestination," that so perturbed her thought, was not for mankind, but instruction for a ruling first-family.) (Subnote an 8-year difference between -211 and -203, may correspond to a shift from originally Ptah's branch 195, to Ra's 203, to Shw's 211.)

(Addendum Note: One of the strangest, facts, in all of Sumerian, Egyptian, Biblical, world Scripture, is the Sothic Cycle-Period, supermillennial coincidence of the Egyptian civil calendar 365-day year purportedly Thoth's invention, with the Sothic Year measured from the heliacal rising of star Spdt, Gk. Sothis believed to be today's Sirius: its coincidence with sunrise as viewed from a place in Egypt, which was typically any place: Scholars have tried to register Egyptian historic events to then-contemporary records of such, but their estimate is decades coarser due to the variables and variabilities of Earth shape, polar axial vector, orbital motion, pulled by the other planets over millennia, 13 months by the largest; phenomena that didn't bother the Egyptians watching sunrise every day; like Thoth's baboons;- The Sothic year itself was early useful as a Nile flood-minder, but over centuries became misaligned ... But, what's remarkable, is, long-lived Thoth would have noticed this early-on, and would have made some sort of adjustment for it, we'd presume ... unless Thoth was himself a fiction and whoever invented him didn't really care to be involved with mankind; which could refute the entirety of archaic history to mere cover story fabrication redacting observable facts to a different-version, to hide themselves probably equally-longlived.... Thoth should've noticed over his centuries, before becoming thrice-great after Horus.)

FINAL STATEMENT:--

So, The answer is-- No: The Bible was not previously cross-referenced to the Sumerian, nor the Egyptian,- but surely should have been....

Careful examination and alignment with the Egyptian and Sumerian records ties the whole world to the Bible ... despite their placewise dialects and despite the human-interpretation story placed to coverup the Scriptures through millennia of disputation, forgetfulness, and rediscovery....

And, unexpectedly, the actual first-lineage of the gods and their mankind, appears to be, --beginning with Ptah T'Nun:-- son Ra T'Amwn, great-daughter T'Mwt, their son Khan-(Ap)Shw Jehovah, Shw and Mwt's son Adam Geb, daughter Eve Nwt, Shw and Eve's son 'Cain'-pretend Abel, Shw's later-replacement-brother T'Hoth and Eve Nwt's off-lineage daughter Awan Asheth Isis, Adam and Eve's daughter Azura Nephthys, Ra-subrogate 'Cain' Abel and Nephthys' son Anubis Enoch Enos Anu, Ra and then-first-lineage Isis' son Horus Enoch Mehujael (Nabu?), Thoth or Ra with Isis, Enos Anu or a lineage 8th-angel and Lamech's yet-uncertain-lineage third-wife's Noah Zeus who by three wives including Enoch's wife's daughter's-- Japhet, Shem, Ham ... Cain Abel's and Seth's lineages several generations fail to figure chronologically but by murders and subterfuges from the beginning: the lineage almost didn't survive human context; There are research questions on the later poorly-documented wives, and Noah's famous son Shem was second-first-lineage. So now we perceive, Christ Jesus' transfiguration on the mount appearing with Moses and Elias (Elijah El-y-h El-Ea Enki Enoch Mehujael Horus): three endangered babies trained up in Egypt and taken by gods or magi ... And quite possibly, Christ Jesus from-the-mountain-heaven was of the gods' first-lineage Eloi El'Oah former-N'Oah immortal Zeus Utnapishtim the even-yet-now-living god....

(It should be noted that the Biblical lineage is fathered rather than this sired-biological, and whence simpler, messier, and ignorant of mothers... the list of fathers looks more like-- Ptah, Ra, Shw, Adam, Cain, Seth, Enoch Enos, Thoth inserted?, Horus Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah.)

And, conversely, It may be or become, notable, that the longevity of mankind beginning with the gods, was probably much greater than the nine centuries so enumerated: Most of the gods were killed: 'Abel' by 'Cain', Apsu Shw by Enki Cainan, Tiamut by Marduk; Eve and Osiris 'Cain' by bull-dozer; (Enoch Horus survived, returned); Anu Enos was put down by Ishtar, Marduk by Mot, Adam by Lamech's arrow (inadvertently) ... and ca Lamech's era genetic troubles beset them, creating giants and monstrosities, and, a millennium later, the god-line "immortal" long-longevity discontinued, with 'Jehovah' Shem last ... raising the odd-thinkabout whether human mortality is more by fiction (and fiction of senility) than fact.

(Additionally, Unas, slaughtered gods living on lineage status more than efficacy as gods in Egypt; and Zeus a rebellion of demigod giants, but who were shorter-longevity, up his mountain eastward of Edin, retold in Greece ... long-lived Thoth is recorded only as reaching "thrice great,"-- but which corresponded to Lamech's birth, after Awan Isis, Enoch Horus, Methuselah; so, if he was Shw's birth-twin, he reached maybe 1423.)

And, the Greek record, is comprised of four redaction methods:- a 'straight' Greek trans-nunciation of the Egyptian, eg. Greek Osiris-and-Isis Egyptian Wsr-and-Aset (nearest English enunciation 'Oongsher'-and-'Asheth') Sumerian Anshar-and-'Kiki' (Kishar); and, a Story-Of-Creation-philosophically-coded (genius or wit) memory-mnemonic Eros-and-Gaea 'love-and-earthiness' Os(Eros) Al(Eros)-and-Ki (Ge) Osiris-and-Isis; and, an absurd-poetic fleshed-in-facts tragicomedy (eg. the story of reaching Tartarus by anvil falling nine days), including, depictions of extra-limb deformities, busy-motor disorders, nonpublic; and, the so-called 'Greek myth/folktale/legend', which might be reexamined and gleaned of stray details and the later generations of gods... plus 'returns' of gods as LORD, -Jesus,- suggesting there are yet enclaves in high mountains.

(Note, the philosophically-coded mnemonic, greatly variably by the ancients, is-- Khaos 'the deep absu-abyss' Apsu, begat Nyx 'the night' Nuit, Erebos 'the darkness below the night' Geb; and by Nyx, Tartaros 'the underworld' Abel, Gaea 'earth' Ki (Ge) and Eros 'love' Os(Eros) Al(Eros), who last with Gaia produced Ouranus 'the heaven' Anu, and she became his-wife as-well and produced many offspring including Oceanus 'the ocean' first titan Enki Ea Cainan and the Anuna-Ki; Cronos Marduk created mankind; Nyx and Erebos themselves produced a pair, Aither 'the dry breeze' Seth and Hemera 'the day sky' Azura ... in approximation to the Sumerian and Egyptian records, with philosophical hints, of facts.)

And the Sumerian Enlil+Ninurta story is an animal-coded memory-mnemonic which didn't work as well as either the 'straight' or the philosophic, having confused Enki's Mered Irad Marduk 'straight'-story with Ellil's Urda Ninurta animal-fantasy-story itself of no subsequent history,-- Albeit, it may be noted that the Ellil+Ninurta version of the Story-of-Creation-of-Mankind does allude to the killing of one god known for his 'rationality' i.e. countermate of 'chaos irrationality', Tiamut's spouse by pseudonym; and wherefore the 'hero' was Marduk -by pseudonym- of Enki not Ellil, And the murder of the 'work-strike-leader' (pseudonym) was their counter-'rationale' for propagating mankind-workers.... (But note that Ellil's animal-fantasy version may have been a cover for murders that otherwise lost them first-lineage and land authority... as-likely his pretense of posing as other men siring with his wife Sud Ninlil, after himself, a gatekeeper, a riverman, a boatman, may have been his fantasized senior-siring-order.)

The alternative redaction methods were probably inspired by the 'secret name' business of the gods, though not an exposé per sé... Sometime prior to the propagation of mankind, the senior gods knew they would need a passcode 'secret name', probably assigned at 130-years, to gain entry with the gods-family.... Isis' 'snake-trick' of getting Ra's 'secret name', suggests that Osiris was not fully accepted into the lineage and they changed that by murder... and thus made the later surprising grand-entry for Horus....

And for millennia thereupon, stories of the gods inspired leaders among mankind to wisdom and understanding-- the progenitor of religion (e.g. Thoth's no-mere-prediction that a child of Nwt would takeover Ra's rule: Thoth foresaw the extremity of Cain and Abel lacking lineage-sisters)....

And, We get a better perception of millennia-later Moses the Egyptian Prince -born under a Pharaoh who did not know Joseph, -meaning, did not know Abraham and the prior Pharaoh's remedied appreciation:-- disappeared east, possibly the way up the mountain as of Enoch, whose story was likely precontrived by the Egyptian priesthood who did-remember Abraham and the consequences of neglect, generated local baby-trouble for the Pharaoh, and advised baby Moses' mother 'behind the wall' ... thus getting Moses brought-up as an Egyptian Prince who should rematch the geneologies, as Horus had done with calendars before.

(Note by comparison, Moses' meeting with his Lord God on Mount Sinai may have been with a contemporary 'god' possibly a then-son of Eloi.)

And, We get a better perception of two-millennia-later Christ Jesus, as not a fluke of divine-nature but a construction of the Watcher-gods: their Egyptian temple-boy in fulfillment of their preplanned prophecy ... and reducing the earthy recognizable stature of God to merely everywhere an everpresent, livable, divine Principle One of all mankind and Creation and good: since ever the universe 'began' (and before even that)....

And, We get a better perception of modern-millennia-later-'Älias' restoring all things, --of the gods,-- in preparation for the final reign and rule....

Ultimately, Ra had-intended to rule the entire Earth with his year-round lineage-phalanx of gods-by-number-as-well-as-by-name ... esoteric in its high-visibility one-god-a-year appeal no ordinary man should ascend to fit in with the god-lineage... And others like Ra may have succeeded on other planets elsewhere even astronomically-nearby, -before and, after,- but not here, because there is One-greater than even the gods, here.... (Nevertheless the diversity-between inbred families, over millions of years, may have been great enough as to effect distinct cultures.)

But, Lastly, The remaining question on Ra's lineage appears to be whether Adam was killed before, Ra passed in the Tuat,-- as yet unknown....

The question of mankind's future is thus now full-open to reinvestigation of the actual purpose for Ra's 'Mission To Earth' and what comes next.

QUESTION: Why, did all this happen, if they were, gods?

ANSWER: The question is, Where does man come from? soul? body? The answer runs deeper, But on the surface, plainly, the production of bodies is exponential process within the abundance of resources, while the extraction of souls from their source is one-at-a-time: and whence their perpetual mismatch Mrs. Eddy estimated, 'lisping in numbers', "there are a thousand million different human wills," --inner perceptions of infinity,-- an estimate of what the gods brought to Earth six millennia ago ... something she knew could-not be seen, but could-be counted-on...

The answer is, The gods' original, inbred lineage was a demonstration of immortality by the only means known in the universe: It was possible, They had little else to do, They did it.... The lineage structure was not for control nor fame, albeit that they had, but as a distant, lofty goal, it was perceived as doable and they did it ... a visible demonstration by every god in the lineage, by firstborn or first-sons: Every great...great...parent was alive;- whence it was not a singular trick, but proven, for themselves, and for the rest of the deltage... and eventually for mankind. That their experiment fell apart was more because Earth-living was not directly suitable to becoming an unruly version lacking the structure of boat-living; Allowing for dead gods even by murder shifting firstborn status to the next sibling and relocating the murderer, was very 'human' demonstration though far beyond what is called-human; and there were more dangers than they anticipated, as when genetic troubles appeared in Zeus' time and lifespans diminished rapidly in a few generations; Shem outlived the next nine in lineage except Eber three decades, fathering the Eb'r'im Hebrews, and Eber just-beyond Abraham:-- the three seniority peaks in the rapidly declining god-lineage since Noah, his flood, Unas the-god-eater, and Zeus the giant-exterminator: mass-murderers from the beginning pathogenic depopulation-warfare legacy...

The sense of, what-is-upright, had gained an Earthy, gravitational, perspective:- a push in space spread first-lineage, but on Earth, it toppled...

Ultimately it may narrow down to one specific: that, primitive space-travel is one-dimensional, here to there; Ptah was equal to his cargo and path: Either he arrived or he begat another who did ...-thinking of nothing more and nothing less-... one of hundreds traveling, in all directions: Materially conservative, economically mulling, a lineage of belief believing belief floating the level, lived, followed, demonstrated, reproduced; And narrowing the historical near-future of mankind, to all that was directly chasing Ptah's boat in the first place since three million years ago.

AUTHOR'S CLOSING COMMENT: This is what is meant, to be a Jew or a Christian: To be engaged in the conversation, slightly remote, -now 5680 years,- and try to figure out from the documentation, what in the world happened on Earth; to be a sinner praying that a missed nuance in Sumerian humor is passed over, or a saint telescoping-in the elders standing on the sea of glass approaching Earth, and divine knowing what the gods didn't ... to be constant and striving for the understanding of place and universe ... "and to be merciful, just, and pure." [S&H497:24ex]

[We must note here in closing, that the plausible actual would become speculative if we merely imagine what persons may have done, said, meant ... the importance is in the demonstration of the Christ Science: not to rediscover that which is today abundant, but discern and live it]


The teachings hereïn are not secularized nor classified: Sunday School pupils, Primary Class students, Normal Class graduates, scholars, researchers, astronomers, scientists, governments, find this coursework timely, modern, global, historical, democratic. The syllabus is the ALMS Program: Astronomics, Linguistics, Mathematics, Systematics: Scientific inferentiation on Holy Biblical Scripture: What actually happened.

FUNDAMENTAL CONTROVERSES: Christian Science Class Instruction * RKPetry

The theory of measurement propounded in this work is not to be cited (as) considering contraband or corpses; Nor are the intellectual appurtenances hereïn to be used for or in the commission of crimes against persons, peoples, properties, or powers (States): May your tabernacle measure true.

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ANU

Real Name: Anu

Occupation: Supreme Monarch of the Mesopotamian Gods, God of sky and heaven, former king of Sumer

Legal Status: Citizen of Celestial Dilmun

Identity: The general populace of Earth is unaware of Anu’s existence except as a mythological character.

Other Aliases: An (alternate spelling), Anus (Hittite name), Baal-Anu (Assyrian Name), Jabru (Elamite Name)

Place of Birth: Unknown, possibly Ur (now modern Tell al-Mugayyar, Iraq)

Marital Status: Married

Known Relatives: Anshar (father, alias An, possibly deceased), Kishar (mother, alias Ki), Ea (brother, alias Oannes), Mami, Damkina (sisters), Eriskegal (presumed sister), Dione (wife, alias Asherah), Aphrodite (adopted daughter, alias Inanna), Enlil, Hadad, Ninurta, Martu (sons by Asherah), Ningal, Nusku, Nergal, Gibil, Kinyras (sons by Mami), Zarpandit (daughter by Mami), Asnan, Ninlil, Gatumdug (daughters by Uras), Ithm, Sheger (sons by Uras), The Sebettu (sons by Aura), Shamash, Nanna, Ullikummis, Mot, Shachar, Shalim, (grandsons), Hammon, Pothos, Ninazu (uncles), Alalu (uncle, deceased), Wurusema, Omichle, Enmesarra, Derceto (aunts), Lakhmu (grandfather), Lakhamu (grandmother), Tiamat (great-grandmother, deceased), Apsu (great-grandfather, deceased),

Group Affiliations: The Anunnaki (Gods of Mesopotamia)

Base of Operations: Celestial Dilmun, formerly Ur, Sumer (now part of modern Iraq)

First Appearance:  (behind the scenes) Thor #301

History: Anu is the eldest son of the Elder Gods Anshar, god of sky, and Kishar, goddess of earth. Anshar and Kishar were the grand-children of the great sea-goddess Tiamat. Often taking the form of a great dragon, Tiamat was the ultimate power of the ocean who had coupled with the freshwater god Apsu and gave birth to a lethal progeny of creatures who ravaged the earth and terrified ancient mortals. (Tiamat might be an ancient name for the primeval earth-goddess, Gaea, but this is unconfirmed).

Among her children was the ancient god Alalu who Anu overthrew as ruler of Ancient Sumeria by fatally wounding him. Anu usurped his role as ruler of the gods as his brother Ea fought Apsu, Tiamat’s lover, for control of the seas of earth. Anu and Ea split portions of Earth between them with their sister Eriskegal ruling the underworld (Some references call Eriskegal a daughter of Anu rather than his sister.) Anu had numerous children who were worshipped as gods by the Sumerian people. Among them were the four storm-gods, Enlil, Hadad, Ninurta and Martu, his sons by the exiled Titaness Dione who he had accepted as his wife. He adopted her daughter, Aphrodite, as the goddess Inanna without any knowledge of her parentage, or perhaps to irk Zeus, Ruler of the Olympian gods, with whom the Gods of Mesopotamia had been warring with for years.

Sometime in the 25th Millennium BC, Anu eventually noticed that mortals were becoming lazy and corrupt and were allowing the temples of the gods to be neglected. Some of the gods tried to dissuade his decision, but he proceeded to destroy them all by a flood and sent Enlil to inflict earth with a deluge of rain to cover the world. Ea, meanwhile, had located an honorable man named Utnapistim and his wife Ziusudra and instructed them on how to survive the flood by creating an ark to ride it out. Utnapishtim loaded his family and all the clean animals into the ark to survive. After seven days of torrential rain, much of the known world of the Sumerian Empire had become flooded. Utnapishtim and his family eventually landed safely upon the top of Mount Nisir (now known as modern Ararat). As the waters receded, he made a sacrifice to the sun god Shamash. Now realizing the rashness of his decision, Anu allowed Utnapishtim to live on earth and allowed Enlil to bestow on him immortality. Utnapishtim and his family started repopulating the earth with new respect to the gods.

Inanna, meanwhile, fell in love with Dumuzi, the grain god, but Eriskegal, Queen of the underworld, for reasons of her own, kidnapped the handsome god. Inanna went down to the underworld to retrieve him, but Eriskegal disgraced her by having her leave an article of clothing at each of then ten gates of the underworld. By time Inanna entered Eriskegal’s court, she was completely naked and vulnerable to be taken prisoner. Anu sent Enlil to free her and Enlil found her by ripping the gates asunder from the underworld. Inanna was returned to earth, but Dumuzi had to stay behind. Anu, however, arbitrated that Inanna and Dumuzi could share six months out of the year on earth to be together. 

At some point, Adapa, the mortal son of Ea and ruler of Eridu, was displeased by the storm-god Ninurta because he had sent the south wind to turn over his royal boat. He shot an arrow into the sky that injured Ninurta and Ninurta revealed his injury to Anu. Angered, Anu wanted to kill the disrespectful king, but Ea brought Adapa to him to him to avoid any bloody consequences. Anu meanwhile decided on other means to get justice on his injured son. As Adapa arrived, he offered him some of the food of the gods out of courtesy. Suspecting it to be the food of the dead, Adapa refused. Anu then revealed to the mortal king that he had refused the food of the gods and because of it now all mortals would have to suffer eventual old age and death. 

Anu, however, was soon overthrown by his son Enlil, as king of the gods and ruler of Sumeria. Anu cursed him to have three miserable sons for his disobedience and escaped to the sky where he separated the heavens and the earth. Anu welcomed most of the gods into this new realm he called Celestial Dilmun, but Enlil, now calling himself Dagon, was soon overthrown by his brother Hadad, now called Baal. He confined both of them to Earth and after both of them were ousted as rulers, he confined both of them to separate kingdoms in the underworld. From the heavens, Anu reclaimed his role as King of the gods.

Tiamat by now was slain by the god Marduk working in tandem with his father, Ea and Anu, Ruler of the Mesopotamian Gods. He became ruler of the earth under the now ascendant Babylonian Empire by replacing Baal-Hadad. Anu and Ea together split Tiamat’s corpse in half and used it to permanently bind the separation of heaven and earth. (In later myth, they created heaven and earth from her remains)

The Babylonian Empire was soon replaced by the Assyrian Empire who revered the war-god Nergal as their patron deity in his role as Assur. They never accomplished the power of the previous Sumerian or Babylonian Empires and were constantly trying to hold their power against invading tribes and by the Phoenicians from the west who worshipped many of the same gods under different names. The conflict in interest over their worshippers divided the interest of many of the Mesopotamian gods. Anu also realized that there was unrest from the growing Judaism Religion, which erroneously accused many of the former Sumerian gods as unholy gods or demons. With this amount of concern and interior unrest amongst the gods, Anu was unprepared for the power of the Olympian gods from Greece entering Phoenicia.  The god Zeus in particular fell in love with the Phoenician princess Europa and spirited her off to Crete where she gave birth to the god-king Minos who founded the Minoan Civilization. Anu was finally able to route the interest of the Mesopotamian gods in the direction of the invading Olympian Gods as they both fought to withhold their perspective worship rites and establish boundaries on earth that they could claim. Asherah drawn out of loyalty to both the perspective pantheons arbitrated the peace between Zeus and Anu and eventually came to a truce. Part of the truce was that Zeus could retrieve Inanna, formerly Aphrodite, and bestow upon his daughter her true birthright as an Olympian Goddess. The Olympians promised to stay out of lands that the Greeks invaded and the Annunaki pledged to not interfere in the affairs of the Greeks.

The worship of the Annunaki meanwhile continued to wane, however, under Judaism and the now developing Christian religion. Anu began to believe he had been cheated in the deal with Zeus and Zeus started to feel an uprising from the Annunaki. As tension became unbearable and another war between the gods came close, Zeus found a way out. The Romans started slaughtering Christians in the names of the gods of Olympus. Dissatisfied with the bloodshed, he ordered the Olympian gods to break off ties with earth completely and cease interest in worship rites. The edict came to a surprise to Anu even as Zeus in a humble position presented the dilemma to Anu and proposed the same fate to his pantheon. The pact cemented their truce even as gods like Ares, Dagon, Apollo and others refused to cooperate. In 1000 AD, the Celestials returned to Earth. Long having an interest in human beings and their development, they ordered all the gods to stop trafficking completely with mortals. Their warning cemented the non-interference rule that Zeus and Anu had began and even spread it across the other pantheons of Earth. With the heads of the other pantheons of Earth that were or had been worshipped by mortals of Earth, Anu, Zeus and the other godheads discussed the potential threat the Celestials posed to Earth.

Arbitrating on behalf of Anu, Zeus met with Odin of the Asgardian Gods and Vishnu of the Hindu Gods and they went to confront the Third Host of the Celestials on behalf of all the gods of Earth. However, Odin and Zeus were pledged not to interfere with the Celestials when the Celestials threatened to seal off the inter-dimensional portals connecting the god’s dimensions to Earth. As a result of this pledge, the Annunaki had to lessen their contact with Earth although a few of them such as Ninurta and Shamash have masqueraded as mortals and spent time living with the human beings on Earth.

Odin, meanwhile, had withdrawn all the life forces of the Asgardians except that of his son Thor into the Destroyer created to oppose the Celestials. Odin’s spirit then entered the Destroyer and animated it into doing battle with the Fourth Host. They annihilated the Destroyer, but judged in favor of humanity’s favor when Gaea presented them with twelve genetically advanced human beings, the “Young Gods.” Thor meanwhile contracted Anu as per his pact with Odin and Anu bestowed upon him a fragment of the life forces required to restore the Asgardians to life after the destruction of the Destroyer.

In recent years, both Ninurta and Shamash have become renowned to the modern citizens of Iraq as superheroes. The modern-day descendants of their former worshippers do not actually believe them to be the actual gods of myth, but merely super-powered individuals paying homage to ancient myths. Considering the political turmoil in the area today, Ninurta has attempted to obtain from his father help in trying to bestow peace to the region and restore it to the glory seen in the past. Anu has had no part in these requests because in his mind it is the responsibility of mortal man to solve their own problems and find answers for the destruction that mankind has created.

Height: 6’2”

Weight: 445 lbs.

Eyes: Blue

Hair: White (Black in his youth)

Strength Level: Anu possesses superhuman strength enabling him to lift (press) almost 75 tons under optimal conditions.

Known Superhuman Powers: Anu possesses the conventional physical attributes of the Mesopotamian Gods. Like all of the Mesopotamian Gods, he is immortal. He has not aged since reaching adulthood and cannot die by any known conventional means. He is immune to all known terrestrial diseases and is invulnerable to conventional injury. If wounded, his godly life force would enable him to recover with superhuman speed. It would take an injury of such magnitude that it dispersed a major portion of his bodily molecules to cause him a physical death. Even then, it might be possible for Zeus, Odin, Ea or a number of gods of equal power working together to revive him. Anu does have some superhuman strength and his own godly metabolism gives him far greater than human endurance in all physical activities.

Anu possesses vast powers of an unknown nature, which seem to surpass the powers of any other Mesopotamian god. Magical in their form and nature, these powers can be employed in numerous forms. He can project rays of mystical forms resembling modern lasers that can explode on impact and erect shields and objects such as thrones and ships from this energy. He can also create dimensional portals at will to travel between earth and heaven and create spells that augment or enforce spells already in existence. He can project his image, voice or energy bolts from heaven to earth and even place bondage spells powerful enough of bonding individuals to certain realms. Anu seems to have limited precognitive and sensory awareness to perceive facts and information from beyond time and space.

Abilities: Anu is a shrewd and wily ruler as well as a just and beneficent deity.

Clarifications: Anu is not to be confused with:

  • Anu (Aine), Celtic goddess of earth

  • Danu, Celtic name of Gaea




MARDUK

Marduk - Tiamat

This is Marduk with Tiamat

MARDUK IS ANOTHER NAME FOR NIBIRU!


Alternatively, Tethys may simply mean "old woman"; certainly it bears some similarity to ἡ τήθη, meaning "grandmother," and she is often portrayed as being extremely ancient (cf. Callimachus, Iamb 4.52, fr. 194). Of the power exercised by Tethys, one myth relates that the prominent goddess of the Olympians, Hera, was not pleased with the placement of Callisto and Arcas in the sky, as the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, so she asked her nurse, Tethys, to help. Tethys, a marine goddess, caused the constellations forever to circle the sky and never drop below the horizon, hence
explaining why they are circumpolar. Robert Graves interprets the use of the term nurse in Classical myths as identifying deities who once were goddesses of central importance in the periods before historical documentation

Marduk [mär'dook] (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian AMAR.UTU "solar calf"; Biblical Merodach) was the name of a late generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century BC), started to slowly rise to the position of the head of the Babylonian pantheon, position he fully acquired by the second half of the second millennium BCE.

Marduk's original character is obscure, but whatever special traits Marduk may have had were overshadowed by the reflex of the political development through which the Euphrates valley passed and which led to imbuing him with traits belonging to gods who at an earlier period were recognized as the heads of the pantheon.

There are more particularly two gods - Ea and Enlil - whose powers and attributes pass over to Marduk. In the case of Ea the transfer proceeds pacifically and without involving the effacement of the older god. Marduk is viewed as the son of Ea. The father voluntarily recognizes the superiority of the son and hands over to him the control of humanity. This association of Marduk and Ea, while indicating primarily the passing of the supremacy once enjoyed by Eridu to Babylon as a religious and political centre, may also reflect an early dependence of Babylon upon Eridu, not necessarily of a political character but, in view of the spread of culture in the Euphrates valley from the south to the north, the recognition of Eridu as the older centre on the part of the younger one.

While the relationship between Ea and Marduk is thus marked by harmony and an amicable abdication on the part of the father in favour of his son, Marduk's absorption of the power and prerogatives of Enlil of Nippur was at the expense of the latter's prestige. After the days of Hammurabi, the cult of Marduk eclipses that of Enlil, and although during the four centuries of Kassite control in Babylonia (c. 1570 BC­1157 BC), Nippur and the cult of Enlil enjoyed a period of renaissance, when the reaction ensued it marked the definite and permanent triumph of Marduk over Enlil until the end of the Babylonian empire. The only serious rival to Marduk after ca. 1000 BC is Anshar in Assyria. In the south Marduk reigns supreme. He is normally referred to as Bel "Lord".

When Babylon became the capital of Mesopotamia, the patron deity of Babylon was elevated to the level of supreme god. In order to explain how Marduk seized power, Enûma Elish was written, which tells the story of Marduk's birth, heroic deeds, and becoming the ruler of the gods. This can be viewed as a form of Mesopotamian apologetics.

In Enûma Elish, a civil war between the gods was growing to a climatic battle. The Anunnaki gods gathered together to find one god who could defeat the gods rising against them. Marduk, a very young god, answered the call, and was promised the position of head god.When he killed his enemy he "wrested from him the Tablets of Destiny, wrongfully his" and assumed his new position. Under his reign humans were created to bear the burdens of life so the gods could be at leisure.

People were named after Marduk. For example, the Biblical personality Mordechai (Book of Esther) used this Gentile name in replacement of his Hebrew name Bilshan.Babylonian texts talk of the creation of Eridu by the god Marduk as the first city, 'the holy city, the dwelling of their [the other gods] delight'.

Nabu, god of wisdom, is a son of Marduk.

Etemenanki, "The temple of the creation of heaven and earth", was the name of a ziggurat to Marduk in the city of Babylon of the 6th century BC Chaldean (Neo-Babylonian) dynasty. Originally seven stories in height, little remains of it now save ruins. Etemenanki was later popularly identified with the Tower of Babel.


NAMMU - NAMMA  ANTU

ANTU-NAMMU

 

In Sumerian mythology, Nammu (more properly Namma) is the Sumerian creation goddess. If the Babylonian creation myth Enûma Elish is based on a Sumerian myth, which seems likely, Nammu/Namma is the Sumerian goddess of the primeval sea that gave birth to heaven and earth and the first gods. She was probably the first personification of the constellation which the Babylonians later called Tiamat and the Greeks called Cetus and represented the Apsu, the fresh water ocean which the Sumerians believed lay beneath the earth, the source of life-giving water and fertility in a country with almost no rainfall.

As Nammu/Namma is the goddess of the fertile waters, An is the god of the sky. Nammu/Namma and her son Enki created mankind as assistants for the gods. Enki is the god of human culture who also presides over the Absu. A winged goddess wearing a multi-horned crown stands with her head in the realm of the deities and their devotees. Her bird-clawed feet rest in a place, likely the underworld, inhabited by strange and demonic creatures. This shows the duality of her nature - as well as our own - above and below. Some think her to be Lilith, but the crown shows her to be a great goddess, almost certainly Inanna. Mesopotamian cylinder seal. Hematite. 2000-1600 BCE.

She was said to descend from the ancient family of the creator goddess Nammu, who was her grandmother. Inanna held "full power of judgment and decision and the control of the law of heaven and earth." Her sacred planet was Venus, the evening star. She was often symbolized as a lioness in battle. Along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers were many shrines and temples dedicated to Inanna.

The temple of E Anna, Inanna's House of Heaven, in Uruk, was the greatest of these. This temple was 5000 years old and had been built and rebuilt many times to hold a community of sacred women who cared for the temple lands. The high priestess of Inanna would choose for her bed one she would appoint as shepherd. He would represent Dumuzi, sacred son/lover of Inanna, if he could prove his worth.

In later times, Inanna's lost some of her attributes, which were then said then to have been given her by Enki, rather than by her grandmother Nammu and her mother Ningal.

The myth states that Inanna traveled to Eridu and was given the one hundred Mes, which were the gifts of culture such as truth and justice, as well as practical skills such as weaving and pottery-making. Though Enki regretted his drunken decision to release the Mes to her and sent mighty sea monsters to stop her boat as it sailed the Euphrates, she was able to defeat them and bring the knowledge back to Uruk.

Inanna was one of the most revered of goddesses among later Sumerian mythology. She was said to descend from the ancient family of the creator goddess Nammu, who was her grandmother. Inanna held "full power of judgment and decision and the control of the law of heaven and earth." Her sacred planet was Venus, the evening star. ...more on Wikipedia about "Inanna"

In Sumerian mythology, Nammu (more properly Namma ** ) is the Sumerian creation goddess. If the Babylonian creation myth Enûma Elish is based on a Sumerian myth, which seems likely, Nammu/Namma is the Sumerian goddess of the primeval sea that gave birth to heaven and earth and the first gods. She was probably the first personification of the constellation which the Babylonians later called Tiamat and the Greeks called Cetus and represented the Apsu, the fresh water ocean which the Sumerians believed lay beneath the earth, the source of life-giving water and fertility in a country with almost no rainfall. ...more on Wikipedia about "Nammu"

In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother- goddess she usually appears as the sister of Enlil. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ninhursag"

Ninlil, first called Sud, is the daughter of Nammu and An in Sumerian mythology. She lived in Dilmun with her family. Raped by her brother and future husband Enlil, she conceived a boy, Nanna, the future moon god. After her death, she became the goddess of the air, like Enlil. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ninlil"

Everybody should like www.shortopedia.com

In Babylonian mythology, Sarpanit (alternately Zarpanit, Zarpandit, Zerpanitum, Zerbanitu, or Zirbanit) is a mother goddess and the consort of the chief god, Marduk. She was worshipped via the rising moon, and was often depicted as being pregnant. She may be the same as Gamsu, Ishtar, and/or Beltis. ...more on Wikipedia about "Sarpanit"

Tiamat is a primeval monster/ goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. John C. L. Gibson, in the Ugaritic glossary of Canaanite Myths and Legends, notes that "tehom" appears in the Ugaritic texts, c. 1400–1200 BCE, simply meaning the "sea". Such a depersonalized Tiamat (the -at ending makes her feminine) is "The Deep" (Hebrew tehom), present at the beginning of the book of Genesis. ...more on Wikipedia about "Tiamat"

Foundation figure of Ur-Nammu

 

Foundation figure of Ur-Nammu

From Uruk, southern Iraq
Third Dynasty of Ur, about 2100-2000 BC

The king as a temple builder with a basket of earth to make bricks

This bronze figure represents Ur-Nammu, the ruler of Ur (about 2112-2095 BC). It was made for burial in the foundations of a temple of Uruk. It was one of the duties of a Mesopotamian king to care for the gods and restore or rebuild their temples. In the late third millennium BC, rulers in southern Mesopotamia depicted themselves carrying out this pious task. Ur-Nammu lifts up a large basket of earth for making bricks. The copper 'peg' acted as a record for posterity and to receive the god's blessing.

The cuneiform inscription around and over the king's body states that Ur-Nammu dedicated the figure to Inana (Ishtar), the patron deity of Uruk. It also records the restoration of her temple called Eanna 'the house of heaven'. Her name appears to mean 'the lady of heaven'. She was associated with the goddess Ishtar and the planet known to us as Venus.

Towards the end of the third millennium BC, southern Mesopotamia was united under the control of the city of Ur. Ur-Nammu founded the empire, which stretched into Iran. He was a prodigious builder. The most impressive monuments of his reign were ziggurats which he constructed at various cities. Although not unlike the stepped pyramids of Egypt in appearance, ziggurats were made of solid brickwork and did not have tombs inside.

J.E. Reade, Mesopotamia (London, The British Museum Press, 1991)

H.W.F. Saggs, Babylonians (London, The British Museum Press, 1995)

E.D. Van Buren, Foundation offerings and figur (Berlin, H. Schoetz & Co., 1931)

Descendants of

The AN.UNNA.KI

Generation No. 3

1D1. ANU3 (ANSHAR2, APSU1) {aka AN, Anos, Anum, Alalu, The Old God, The Sky, The Great Father Of The Sky, The Lord Of The Old City, The Lord Of The City Of Erech} ANU was the Great King, the King of the Gods. Whereas the ancestors of ANU were deities, ANU was the first to be considered a god to reign over all the rest. According to Zecharia Sitchin, in his Earth Chronicles series, ANU gained his superiority over the rest of the Anunnaki gods by deposing the ruler Alalu on his home planet, Nibiru, the twelfth planet in the solar system. At the time, the planet Nibiru was undergoing a period in which its atmosphere was being eroded, and the existence of its people, the Nephilim or Anunnaki, was being threatened. Alalu escaped ANU's wrath, and found refuge on the planet Earth in the same solar system as Nibiru. Alalu discovered that the Earth bore gold that could be used to protect Nibiru's atmosphere. This took place around 450,000 years B.C., according to persent-day reckoning. ANU, himself, came to Earth around 416,000 B.C., with his youngest son, EN.LIL.

ANU was the god by whose grace, kingship (aka Anutu, or 'Anu'-ship) flowed to earthly kings. ANU is often believed to have been the original principle, the 'god', of nature. He was once the universe in the form of both the upper and lower regions; and then he was divided in two, the upper region (i.e. heaven) remaining ANU and the lower region (i.e. earth) becoming his 'sister' / consort, ANATU. ANU bore children by both of his sisters, ANTU and KI, and by NIMUL, who was neither an official spouse or a half-sister (and for that reason, the firstborn son was destined not to be the rightful heir).

It should be noted that some scholars have stated that ANU, EN.KI and EN.LIL were siblings, rather than parent and sons, forming the "Creator Triad".

Child of ANU and NIMUL is:

A. E.A. / EN.KI4.

Children of ANU and KI or ANTU are:

B.  NIN.HUR.SAG.

C. EN.LIL.

Other Children of ANU and ANTU (or by various consorts) are:

D. HEA.

E. LUGAL-EDIN.

F. LATARAK.

G. AB.GULA.

H. KU.SU.

I. RAM.MAN.

J. GI.BIL.

K. ISTAR.

1D2. ANTU3 (ANSHAR2, APSU1) {aka Nammu, Anatu, Antum, The Lady Of The Sky, The Primeval Sea} ANTU gave birth to the heaven and earth, according to some traditions. But the Babylonian traditions maintain that ANTU was formed out of ANU. ANTU is believed by some scholars as being simply the female form of ANU, and as such is simply the opposite of ANU. In her association with the Primeval Sea, ANTU is sometimes compared to Istar or Venus; she is sometimes referred to as the 'female fish-god.' The Sumerians believed that ANTU, as NAMMU, fashioned mankind out of clay from the AP.SU. ANTU does not exist in the Akkadian mythology; she arose as a distinct contrast/complement to ANU through the mythology of the Semites.

1D3. KI3 (ANSHAR2, APSU1) {aka Urash, Nin.Hur.Sag, Nin.Khur.Sag, Nin.Ma, Nin.Mah, Nin.Ki, Nin.Tu, The Lady Of The Mountainhead, Queen Of The Mountains, The Exalted Lady} According to some accounts, NIN.HUR.SAG was the daughter of ANU and KI; in others, she was actually KI herself. KI was the embodiment of the archetypal 'earth goddess'.

1D4.  ELUM3 (ANSHAR2, APSU1) {aka Bel, Enu, Mul, Lord Of The City Of Nipur} ELUM married BELAT {aka Beltis}. ELUM was the lord of the surface of the earth and controlled the affairs of humans.

Children of ELUM and BELAT are:

A. SIN4.

B.  NIN.GAL.

C.  NINIP.

 

NAMMU

In Sumerian mythology, Nammu was the goddess of the watery abyss, the primeval sea. She gave birth to the heavens and the earth.

Omoroca

Myth ~ ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA (City of: Babylon) ~ Omoroca is another name for the Goddess Tiamat, who was the Serpent Goddess of Chaos. It originated with the Sumerian name "UM-URUK" (translation: "mother of Uruk"). Through the years, it slowly changed to Omoroca. She is first mentioned in the creation myth of the Babylonian epic poem called Enuma Elish, which is derived from the opening words (translation: "When Skies Above"). In the beginning of the story, only Apsu (her husband) and she exist. They are the parents of all the gods. Apsu decides that their children have become so misbehaved, that he plans to kill them. Ea (see Oannes) learns of Apsu’s plan and kills him. Omoroca builds an army to avenge her husband’s death. Marduk (also called Belos, Baal), Ea’s son, leads Ea’s army in the battle. Omoroca is killed in the battle and Marduk stretched out her skin to make the heavens.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Nem, her husband, is searching for information on what happened to her. After agreeing to help and having his brain zapped by Nem’s device, Daniel remembers, and tells him that "The god Belos came down onto Babylon unto the place of Omoroca and cut the woman asunder" (112 – Fire and Water).

 


NERGAL

NERGAL

The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah (or Kutha) represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. Nergal is mentioned in the Hebrew bible as the deity of the city of Cuth (Cuthah): "And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal" (2 Kings, 17:30).

Nergal actually seems to be in part a solar deity, sometimes identified with Shamash, but a representative of a certain phase only of the sun. Portrayed in hymns and myths as a god of war and pestilence, Nergal seems to represent the sun of noontime and of the summer solstice which brings destruction to mankind, high summer being the dead season in the Mesopotamian annual cycle.

Nergal was also the deity who presides over the nether-world, and who stands at the head of the special pantheon assigned to the government of the dead (supposed to be gathered in a large subterranean cave known as Aralu or Irkalla). In this capacity he has associated with him a goddess Allatu or Ereshkigal, though at one time Allatu may have functioned as the sole mistress of Aralu, ruling in her own person. In some texts the god Ninazu is the son of Nergal by Allatu/Ereshkigal.

Ordinarily Nergal pairs with his consort Laz. Standard iconography pictured Nergal as a lion, and boundary-stone monuments symbolise him with a mace surmounted by the head of a lion.

Nergal's fiery aspect appears in names or epithets such as Lugalgira, Sharrapu ("the burner," perhaps a mere epithet), Erra, Gibil (though this name more properly belongs to Nusku), and Sibitti. A certain confusion exists in cuneiform literature between Ninurta and Nergal. Nergal has epithets such as the "raging king," the "furious one," and the like. A play upon his name ­ separated into three elements as Ne-uru-gal (lord of the great dwelling) ­ expresses his position at the head of the nether-world pantheon.

In the astral-theological system Nergal becomes the planet Mars, while in ecclesiastical art the great lion-headed colossi serving as guardians to the temples and palaces seem to symbolise Nergal, just as the bull-headed colossi probably typify Ninurta.

Nergal's chief temple at Cuthah bore the name Meslam, from which the god receives the designation of Meslamtaeda or Meslamtaea, "the one that rises up from Meslam". The name Meslamtaeda/Meslamtaea indeed is found as early as the list of gods from Fara while the name Nergal only begins to appear in the Akkadian period.

The cult of Nergal does not appear to have spread as widely as that of Ninurta. Hymns and votive and other inscriptions of Babylonian and Assyrian rulers frequently invoke him, but we do not learn of many temples to him outside of Cuthah. Sennacherib speaks of one at Tarbisu to the north of Nineveh, but significantly, although Nebuchadnezzar II (606 BC­586 BC), the great temple-builder of the neo-Babylonian monarchy, alludes to his operations at Meslam in Cuthah, he makes no mention of a sanctuary to Nergal in Babylon. Local associations with his original seat ­ Kutha ­ and the conception formed of him as a god of the dead acted in making him feared rather than actively worshipped.

Text adapted from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.


SHAMASH    SAMA - AHAMASH - UTU

SHAMASH

Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu.

The name signifies perhaps "servitor," and would thus point to a secondary position occupied at one time by this deity. Both in early and in late inscriptions Sha-mash is designated as the "offspring of Nannar," i.e. of the moon-god, and since, in an enumeration of the pantheon, Sin generally takes precedence of Shamash, it is in relationship, presumably, to the moon-god that the sun-god appears as the dependent power.

Such a supposition would accord with the prominence acquired by the moon in the calendar and in astrological calculations, as well as with the fact that the moon-cult belongs to the nomadic and therefore earlier, stage of civilization, whereas the sun-god rises to full importance only after the agricultural stage has been reached.

The two chief centres of sun-worship in Babylonia were Sippar, represented by the mounds at Abu Habba, and Larsa, represented by the modern Senkerah. At both places the chief sanctuary bore the name E-barra (or E-babbara) "the shining house" ­ a direct allusion to the brilliancy of the sun-god. Of the two temples, that at Sippara was the more famous, but temples to Shamash were erected in all large centres ­ such as Babylon, Ur, Mari, Nippur and Nineveh.

The attribute most commonly associated with Shamash is justice. Just as the sun disperses darkness, so Shamash brings wrong and injustice to light. Hammurabi attributes to Shamash the inspiration that led him to gather the existing laws and legal procedures into a code, and in the design accompanying the code the king represents himself in an attitude of adoration before Shamash as the embodiment of the idea of justice.

Several centuries before Hammurabi, Ur-Engur of the Ur dynasty (c. 2600 BC) declared that he rendered decisions "according to the just laws of Shamash."

It was a logical consequence of this conception of the sun-god that he was regarded also as the one who released the sufferer from the grasp of the demons. The sick man, therefore, appeals to Shamash as the god who can be depended upon to help those who are suffering unjustly. This aspect of the sun-god is vividly brought out in the hymns addressed to him, which are, therefore, among the finest productions in the entire realm of Babylonian literature.

It is evident from the material at our disposal that the Shamash cults at Sippar and Larsa so overshadowed local sun-deities elsewhere as to lead to an absorption of the minor deities by the predominating one. In the systematized pantheon these minor sun-gods become attendants that do his service. Such are Bunene, spoken of as his chariot driver, whose consort is Atgi-makh, Kettu ("justice") and Mesharu ("right"), who are introduced as servitors of Shamash.

Other sun-deities, as Ninurta and Nergal, the patron deities of important centres, retained their independent existence as certain phases of the sun, Ninib becoming the sun-god of the morning and of the spring time, and Nergal the sun-god of the noon and of the summer solstice, while Shamash was viewed as the sun-god in general.

Together with Sin and Ishtar, Shamash forms a second triad by the side of Anu, Enlil and Ea. The three powers, Sin, Shamash and Ishtar, symbolized the three great forces of nature, the sun, the moon and the life-giving force of the earth.

At times, instead of Ishtar, we find Adad, the storm-god, associated with Sin and Shamash, and it may be that these two sets of triads represent the doctrines of two different schools of theological thought in Babylonia which were subsequently harmonized by the recognition of a group consisting of all four deities.

The consort of Shamash was known as A. She, however, is rarely mentioned in the inscriptions except in combination with Shamash.


SIN - NANNA

SIN-NANNA

Nanna is a god in Sumerian mythology, god of the moon, son of Enlil and Ninlil. His sacred city was Ur. The name Nanna is Sumerian for "illuminater".

He was named Sin in Babylonia and Assyrian and was also worshipped by them in Harran. Sin had a beard made of lapis lazuli and he rode on a winged bull.

His wife was Ningal ('Great Lady') who bore him Utu 'Sun' and Inana and in some texts Ishkur.

His symbols are the crescent moon, the bull, and a tripod (which may be a lamp-stand).The two chief seats of Sin's worship were Ur in the south, and Harran to the north. The cult of Sin spread to other centres, at an early period, and temples to the moon-god are found in all the large cities of Babylonia and Assyria.

He is commonly designated as En-zu = "lord of wisdom". This attribute clings to him through all periods. During the period (c. 2600-2400 BC) that Ur exercised a large measure of supremacy over the Euphrates valley, Sin was naturally regarded as the head of the pantheon. It is to this period that we must trace such designations of Sin as "father of the gods", "chief of the gods", "creator of all things", and the like. We are justified in supposing that the cult of the moon-god was brought into Babylonia by Semitic nomads from Arabia.

The moon-god is par excellence the god of nomadic peoples. The moon being their guide and protector at night when, during a great part of the year, they undertake their wanderings. This is just as the sun-god is the chief god of an agricultural people. The cult once introduced would tend to persevere, and the development of astrological science culminating in a calendar and in a system of interpretation of the movements and occurrences in the starry heavens would be an important factor in maintaining the position of Sin in the pantheon.

Sin's chief sanctuary at Ur was named E-gish-shir-gal = "house of the great light". His sanctuary at Harran was named E-khul-khul = "house of joys". On seal-cylinders he is represented as an old man with flowing beard with the crescent as his symbol. In the astral-theological system he is represented by the number 30, and the planet Venus and his daughter by the number 15. This 30 probably refers to the average number of days (correctly around 29.53) in a lunar month as measured between successive new moons.

The "wisdom" personified by the moon-god is likewise an expression of the science of astrology in which the observation of the moon's phases is so important a factor. The tendency to centralize the powers of the universe leads to the establishment of the doctrine of a triad consisting of Sin, Shamash and Ishtar, personifying the moon and the sun and the earth as the life-force.


TIAMAT - LEVIATHAN

BATTLE OF TIAMAT AND MARDUK

THIS IS THE BATTLE OF TIAMAT AND MARDUK

Tiamat is a primeval monster/goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. John C. L. Gibson, in the Ugaritic glossary of Canaanite Myths and Legends, notes that "tehom" appears in the Ugaritic texts, c. 1400­1200 BCE, simply meaning the "sea". Such a depersonalized Tiamat (the -at ending makes her feminine) is "The Deep" (Hebrew tehom), present at the beginning of the book of Genesis.

Apsu (or Abzu) fathered upon Tiamat the Elder gods Lahmu and Lahamu, the grandparents of Anu and Ea. Lahmu and Lahamu, in turn, were the parents of the heavens (Anshar) and the earth (Kishar). Tiamat was the "shining" goddess of salt water who roared and smote in the chaos of original creation. She and Apsu filled the cosmic abyss with the primeval waters. She is "Ummu-Hubur who formed all things".

The god Enki (later Ea), believing correctly that Apsu was planning to murder the younger gods, slew him. This angered Tiamat, whereupon she fashioned monsters to battle the gods. These were her own offspring, sea-serpents of terrifying size, storms and fish-men and scorpion-men.

Tiamat had the Tablets of Destiny, and in the primordial battle she gave them to Kingu, the god she had chosen for her lover. But Anu (replaced by Marduk, the son of Ea, in the late version that has survived) overcame Kingu and then her, armed with the winds and a net and an invincible spear.

 

The Gospel of Judas:Irenaeus notes: They produce a fictitious history of this kind, which they style the Gospel of Judas. There are other Gnostic sects associated which begin really in the garden of Eden where the serpent (a Musical Enchanter) wholly seduced Eve so that "Cain was OF that wicked one." Cain is derived from "A Musical Note" and his family fathered all of the COMMERCIAL and "magical" practices to steal other people's property.

 Ancient Near East (Babylonia) Glossary and Texts

Kenneth Sublett, Piney.com, Hohenwald, Tennessee

This page lists most of the important Ancient Near Eastern characters, a short glossary and links to online Sumerian or Akkadian Texts. LET THE WHOLE "SHAMASH" LOAD UP----WHEN YOU CLICK ON AN ENTERNAL GLOSSARY ITEM, THIS PAGE WILL JUST MOVE UP OR DOWN. IF YOU CLICK ON AN EXTERNAL LINK SUCH AS THE TRANSLATED TEXT, THIS HOMEPAGE WILL NOT HAVE TO RELOAD EACH TIME. A NEW PAGE FOR THE NEW LINK WILL APPEAR.

This list closely follows links in the OnLine Britannica. You will be well advised to spend the few dollars a month to be able to make sense of this material.

All of the list of onsite texts are on this page as well as links to the Online Britannica.

A (Babylonia) Chaldean moon goddess. Her emblem is a disk with eight rays, a number associated with the goddess of light.

AB (h1) Hebrew awb; a prim. word; father in a lit. and immed., or fig. and remote application): - chief, (fore-) father ([-less]), * patrimony, principal. Comp. names in "Abi-"

ABGAL Seven Sumerian wise men, the attending deities of the god Enki. They emerged from the sweet-water Apsu and are portrayed as fish-men. In Akkadian myth they are called Apkallu see below.

ABRAHAM

ABSU (Apsu, Abzu, Apzu)

The "sweet water." The limitless space, out of which the first waters precipitated (Ency Myth) This was where Ab, the father of the waters and lord of wisdom lives. The husband of Tiamat, father of the first level gods who evolved. The fresh underground water was the home of Ea and of the Seven Sages. It is also the name of Ea's temple in Eridu.

ABYSS [from Greek a not + byssos, bythos deep, depth]

Bottomless, chaos, space, the watery place where cosmos or orderly, adorned world evolved. It gave birth to Ea, the All-wise, unknowable infinite deity. Chaldean cosmogony Tiamat, the female principle, is the personification of chaos (Heb. Tehowm). It was the place where all wisdom lived.. This is the void and emptiness expressed in the Biblical creation, the Flood, Crossing the Red Sea and in the "become emptiness" of the Hebrew people people when they rejected Yahweh (Jeremiah 4

ABZU abzu wr. ab-su, ab-zu

The abzu as Enki's shrine / temple in Eridu ; mythical place where the life influencing powers reside and where their results, as well as the means to influence their effects, originate; incomprehensible, unfathomable, secret; a place producing raw materials.

ADAD See Hadad

(Sumerian Ishkur, West Semitic Hadad, Adar, and Addu, also Rimmon, Ramman, "Earth-shaker"). Storm-god, canal-controller, son of Anu. God of lightning, rain, and fertility. In the Gilgamesh epic, the god of winds, thunder, and storms. Symbols: bull and forked lightning; worshipped in towns including Babylon and Ashur

Adad's father was the heaven god Anu, also called the son of Bel, Lord of All Lands and god of the atmosphere. His consort was Shalash, which may be a Hurrian name. The symbol of Adad was the cypress. In Babylonia, Assyria, and Aleppo in Syria, he was also the god of oracles and divination.

See: An Assyrian governor standing before the deities Adad (centre) and Ishtar (left), limestone relief from Babylon, 8th century BC; in the Museum of Oriental Antiquities, Istanbul

ADAPA (Uan, Oannes)

One of the sages and citizen of Eridu. Given super intelligence by Ea (Sumerian: Enki), god of wisdom, became the hero of the Sumerian version of the myth of the Fall of Man. In spite of his possession of all wisdom he was denied immortality. One day, while he was fishing, the south wind blew so violently that he was thrown into the sea. Lost his temper and broke the wings of the south wind, which then ceased to blow. Anu (Sumerian: An), the sky god, called him before his gates to be punished, but Ea warned him not to touch the bread and water that would be offered him. When Adapa came before Anu, the two heavenly doorkeepers Tammuz and Ningishzida interceded for him and explained to Anu that as Adapa had been endowed with all knowledge he needed only immortality to become a god. Anu, relented and offered Adapa the bread and water of eternal life, which he refused to take. Thus mankind became mortal

ADMINISTRATION

The civil-religious cult created the base upon which society rested. The chief was the city ruler, or, when the country was united, the king. The city ruler and the king were civil leaders but also charismatic figures who impregnated god-given magic into their rule. This created peace and fertility. In certain periods the king was deified; throughout the 3rd millennium, he became, in ritual action, the god Dumuzi in the rite of the sacred marriage and brought fertility for his land. Most of the rulers were treated incarnations of the dying god Damu and invoked in the ritual laments for him. As a vessel of sacred power the king was surrounded by strict ritual to protect that power, and he had to undergo elaborate rituals of purification if the power became threatened. As in Israel's kingdom period, worship was the purvue of the king and his officials and not the "congregation."

The individual temples were usually administered by officials called sangas ("bishops"), who headed staffs of accountants, overseers of agricultural and industrial works on the temple estate, and gudus (priests), who looked after the god as house servants.

Among the priestesses the highest-ranking was termed en (Akkadian entu). They were usually princesses of royal blood and were considered the human spouses of the gods they served, acting as brides in the rites of the ritual marriage. Other levels of priestesses were orders of nuns. The best-known are the servants of the sun god, who lived in a cloister (gagûm) in Sippar. There were also priestesses devoted to sacred prostitutes under the protection of the goddess Inanna (Ishtar).

ADONAI

The Masoretes, who from about the 6th to the 10th century worked to reproduce the original text of the Hebrew Bible, replaced the vowels of the name YHWH with the vowel signs of the Hebrew words Adonai or Elohim. Thus, the artificial name Jehovah (YeHoWaH) came into being.

'Adonai (Hebrew) [from 'adon lord] My Lords; through usage, Lord, a plural of excellence. Originally a sort of appeal or prayer to the hierarchical spiritual powers of the earth planetary chain, and more particularly of the planetary spirit of the earth itself; later it became a mere substitute for the unutterable name of God, usually for Tetragrammaton (YHVH).

"As the inner nature of YHVH is hidden; therefore He (YHVH) is only named with the Name of the Shekhinah, Adonai, i.e., Lord; therefore the Rabbins say (of the name YHVH); Not as I am written (i.e., YHVH) am I read. In this world My Name is written YHVH and read Adonai, but in the world to come, the same will be read as it is written, so that Mercy (represented by YHVH) shall be from all sides" (Zohar iii 320a). Adonai is rendered Lord in the Bible, although it means "my Lords"; whereas 'elohim is translated God in the English Authorized Version.

AGADE See Akkad Below

AGRICULTURE

AHIKAR

Tale of Babylonian or Persian origin, about a wise and moral man who supposedly served as one of the chief counselors of Sennacherib, king of Assyria (704-681 BC). Like the biblical Job, Ahikar was a prototype of the just man whose righteousness was sorely tested and ultimately rewarded by God. Betrayed by his power-hungry adopted son, Ahikar was condemned to death, suffered severely, but was finally restored to his former position.

According to the book of Ahikar, the cupbearer of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon, was Tobit's nephew; he is a secondary personage in the plot, and his own story is mentioned. Ahikar is the hero of a Near Eastern non-Jewish work, The Story of Ahikar. The book exists in medieval translations, the best of them in Syriac. The story was known in the Persian period in the Jewish military colony in Elephantine Island in Egypt, a fact demonstrated by the discovery of fragmentary Aramaic papyri of the work dating from 450-410 BCE. Thus, the author of the book of Tobit probably knew The Story of Ahikar, in which, as in the book of Tobit, the plot is a pretext for the introduction of speeches and wise sayings. Some of Tobit's sayings have close parallels in the words of the wise Ahikar.

AKITU

The Babylonian creation epic (Enuma elish) "When on High") states that at first there was only the male (Apsu) and female (Tiamat) gods of the deep. They created a family of gods who made so much noise that Apsu plotted to kill them. This upset Ea who easily destroyed Apsu. However, because of her superior magical incantatiosn, Tiamat was too frightening for Ea. Marduk agreed to destroy her if he was made supreme god. This automatically transferred the role of Creator to him. In the Assyrian version, Ashur is important. Tiamat, wanted to get even for Apsu's murder. However, Marduk won the battle cut her in two and used her carcass to create the universe. Out of half her body he fashioned the sky containing the heavenly bodies to mark the periods of time, the other half was made into the earth and mountains. In song and sermon Marduk was now praised. The Enuma elish was read on the Akitu, or New Year festival, at Babylon, to reestablish order, by performing sympathetic magic caused by reciting Marduk's creation. The function of the Akitu is thus to regenerate society for the next year. When Israel "worshipped like the nations" this festival was repeated in Jerusalem.

AKKAD The first Babylonian city.

Akkad was the northern (or northwestern) division of ancient Babylonia where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers come close. The first people were predominantly Semitic, and their language was Akkadian. To the south of Akkad was Sumer, the southern (or southeastern) part of ancient Babylonia. This was home of non-Semitic people known as Sumerians.

Akkad was taken from the city of Agade, founded by the Semitic Sargon about 2300 BC. Sargon united the city-states and ruled much of Mesopotamia. After the fall of Sargon's dynasty in about 2150 BC, the area was ruled by Sumerians and Akkadians. Under the kings of Akkad, their Semitic language, known as Akkadian, became a written language made with the cuneiform system of writing.

AKKADIANS

A non-Semitic race before the Semites in Babylonia. The name is from Agade, the capital of Sargon I. They may have been emigrants from India and were the Aryan educators of later Babylonians. Peace and prosperity was interrupted by changes in the people who spread east, south and west

AN

(Sumerian) A sky god, the symbol, "Dingir," was the same as that for heaven and for divinity showing his high but not superior role. He was generally regarded as the child of Uras, or of Ansar and Kisar. In an "evolutionary" principle for the "gods," he was a product of the "embryo" heaven-earth before the world became visible.

His wife is Antum, or Ki. He is viewed as the 'father' of the all the gods. An exercised great authority. There is agreement with the Bible that the spoken command is 'the very foundation of heaven and earth.' In heaven, his authority allowed him to 'raise up' other gods to positions of greater power. Without losing authority he involved more active deities in support of his authority.

ANATH SEE ISHTAR

ANNEDOTI See Oannes

Even the name Annedoti is quite similar to the people of Enki - the Anunnaki, from whence it was probably derived. The Greek term may have originated with the Sumerians and was later carried over as a description of a race that was both retilian and loathsome.

ANSHAR and KISHAR

The male and female principles, the twin horizons of sky and earth. Their parents were either Apsu (the watery deep beneath the earth) and Tiamat (the personification of salt water) or Lahmu and Lahamu, the first set of twins born to Apsu and Tiamat. Anshar and Kishar, in turn, were the parents of Anu (An), the supreme heaven god. See Enuma Elish

ANTUM

In Akkadian myth Anu's consort was Antum (Antu), but she is often confused with Ishtar (Inanna), the goddess of love. She helped produce the Anunnaki or the seven evil underworld demons. She is replaced literally or figuratively by Inanna / Ishtar who is at times her daughter.

ANU Son of the first pair of gods, Anshar and Kishar. Consort was Antu (Anatum) later replaced by Ishtar He was the son of Anshar and Kishar.

(Akkadian), Sumerian An, Mesopotamian sky god and a member of the triad of deities completed by Bel (Sumerian: Enlil) and Ea (Enki). Like most sky gods, Anu, although theoretically the highest god, played only a small role in the mythology, hymns, and cults of Mesopotamia. He was the father of the gods Enlil and Enki and a daughter Ninkhursag. He was also the father of evil spirits and demons; Anu was also the god of kings and of the yearly calendar. He was typically depicted in a headdress with horns, a sign of strength. His city was Erech, (Later Uruk or Ur) king of angels and spirits, ruler of destiny

ANUNNA

Sumerian name for the sky and earth gods, the assembly of the high gods, and especially for the deities of a local pantheon. Before they destroyed the earth with a great flood, they warned Ziusudra, king of Shurappak, of the deluge. He built an ark in which the seeds of mortals were preserved during the seven days and seven nights the waters raged. The name means "those of princely seed". They are similar to the Akkadian Anunnaku.

ANUNNAKI (Anukki, Enunaki)

The Akkadian name for a group of gods of the underworld - chthonic and fertility. They are judges in the realm of the dead. Their counterparts are the Igigi or good gods (although in some texts the positions are reversed). The Anunnaku are the children of Anu and Ki and are like the Apkallu and they are paired with an igigi. Below the anunnaki were several classes of genii -- sadu, vadukku, ekimu, gallu -- some of which were represented as being good, some evil.

ANZU

The Babylonian version of the Sumero-Akkadian Anzu. Doorkeeper of Ellil, born in the mountain Hehe. One day, when Ellil was bathing, Anzu stole the Tablets of Destiny and fled to the desert. With these tablets you could rule the universe. Ea persuaded the mother-goddess Belet-Ili to give birth to a divine hero to defeat Anzu. Belet-Ili produced Ninurta and sent him into battle. After a huge battle, Ninurta pierced Anzu's lung with an arrow, and recaptured the tablets.

While normally evil, he is kindly in the Sumerian epic of Lugalbanda. These tablets were taken by Marduk from Kingu and gave all of the skills needed for sucular and religious rule. The epic ends with praises for the son of Ellil.

APKALLU

Akkadian mythology, the seven (or sometimes eight) sages serving the kings as ministers. Some were poets composing the epics of Erra and Gilgamesh, others were ministers to the god Ea. The arts or skills were the ME which existed before the flood. These included skills such as deviant sexual acts and instrumental music. These sages were:

  1. Adapa (U-an, called Oannes),
  2. U-an duga,
  3. E-me-duga,
  4. En-me-galama,
  5. En-me-bulaga,
  6. An-Enlida,
  7. Utu-abzu.

Each is known by other names or epithets, and is paired with an antediluvian king, hence their collective names "counselors", "muntalku". They were credited with building walled cities. Responsible for technical skills, they were also known as craftsmen, "ummianu.". Some of them were traditionally poets composing the epics of Gilgamesh and Erra. They were banished back to the Absu forever after angering Ea. After the flood, certain great men of letters and exorcists were accorded sage-status, although only as mortals. Some Deities other than Ea - Ishtar, Nabu, and Marduk - also claimed to control the sages. Thesy are seen as fish-men or with bird attributes appropriate to underworld creatures.

APOPIS

also called Apep, Apepi, or Rerek, ancient Egyptian demon of chaos, who had the form of a serpent and, as the foe of the sun god, Re, represented all that was outside the ordered cosmos. Although many serpents symbolized divinity and royalty, Apopis threatened the underworld and symbolized evil. Each night Apopis encountered Re at a particular hour in the sun god's ritual journey through the underworld in his divine bark. Seth, who rode as guardian in the front of Re's bark, attacked him with a spear and slew him, but the next night Apopis, who could not be finally killed, was there again to attack Re. The Egyptians believed that they could help maintain the order of the world and assist Re by performing rituals against Apopis.

See Oannes for some links

APSU Akkadian god: the consort of Tiamat and the father of the gods Lahmu/ Lahamu and Anshar/Kishar.

(Babylonian) Abzu (Sumerian). A primeval Sumero-Akkadian god who personifies the primordial abyss of sweet waters underneath the earth. He is the consort of Tiamat, the primordial abyss of salt waters of Chaos.

In the Enuma Elish, the sweet water mingled with the bitter waters of the sea and with a third watery element, perhaps cloud or Mummu, the first gods were birthed. When the younger gods got too noisy, Apsu plotted with Mummu to have them killed. However, Ea got wind of it and the waters of Apsu were held immobile underground by a 'spell' death-like sleep, but it is also said that Ea had Apsu killed.

AQHAT or Aqahat See DANIEL

ARURU (Mammi) A Babylonian goddess of creation. She created Enkidu from clay in the image of Anu. The Great Mother goddess in Babylonian mythology. See Ki/Ninhursag. Ninhursag's other names include: Dingirmakh ("Exalted Deity"), Ninmakh ("Exalted Lady"), As "Dropper," the one who "loosens" the scion in birth), and Nintur ("Lady Birth Giver"). Her husband is the god Shulpae, and among their children were the sons Mululil and Ashshirgi and the daughter Egime.

ASAG (KUR): Dragon of the Abyss or Abzu. Daemon of Disease. Asag was not separated like Tiamat. Instead, he lived within the Abyss "after" creation and held back the Primordial Waters from overflowing the Earth. He kidnapped Ereshkigal, and Enlil went to rescue her. What we know is that Enlil is the Lord of the Waters, and that he built his home on the Sea. On the other hand, Ereshkigal herself is still the Queen of the Underworld. Asag was not killed because another god decided to destroy him for some reason. This was Ninurta (possibly a model for Marduk). See Demons.

ASALLUHE Sumerian deity and city god of Ku'ar, near Eridu in the southeastern marshland region. Asalluhe was active with the god Enki (Akkadian: Ea) in rituals of lustration magic and was considered his son. He may have originally been a god of thundershowers, as his name, "Man-Drenching Asal," suggests; he may corresponded to the Sumerian gods Ishkur and Ninurta. In incantations Asalluhe was usually the god who first called Enki's attention to existing evils because he flew around as a thundercloud. He was later identified with Marduk of Babylon.

ASHERAH Ancient West Semitic goddess, consort of the supreme god. She was probably "She Who Walks in the Sea," but she was also called "Holiness," and, occasionally, Elath, "the Goddess." According to the texts from Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra, Syria), Asherah's consort was El, and by him she was the mother of 70 gods. As mother goddess she was widely worshiped throughout Syria and Palestine, although she was frequently paired with Baal, who often took the place of El in worship. As Baal's consort, Asherah was usually called Baalat.

Also a sacred wooden pole or image standing close to the massebah and altar in early Shemitic sanctuaries, part of the equipment of the temple of Jehovah in Jerusalem till the reformation of Josiah (2 Kings 23:6). The plural, 'asherim, denotes statues, images, columns, or pillars; translated in the Bible by "groves." Maachah, the grandmother of Asa, King of Jerusalem, is accused of having made for herself such an idol, which was a phallus. Called the Assyrian Tree of Life, "the original Asherah was a pillar with seven branches on each side surmounted by a globular flower with three projecting rays, and no phallic stone, as the Jews made of it, but a metaphysical symbol. 'Merciful One, who dead to life raises!' was the prayer uttered before the Asherah, on the banks of the Euphrates. See Ezekiel 31. Assyria is the "tallest tree in Eden."

ASHUR (Assur)

City god of Ashur and national god of Assyria. In the beginning he may be a local deity of the city of Ashur. From about 1800 BC onward identified with the Sumerian Enlil (Akkadian: Bel), while under the Assyrian king Sargon II (reigned 721-705 BC), there is some identity of Ashur with Anshar, the father of An (Akkadian: Anu) in the Enuma Elish. Under Sargon's successor Sennacherib, deliberate and thorough attempts were made to transfer to Ashur the primeval achievements of Marduk, as well as the whole ritual of the New Year festival. Then, as now, the "gods" are made in the image of the dominant city or nation.

ASHURBANIPAL

ATRAHASIS

The Old Babylonian "Myth of Atrahasis" is a motif showing a relationship with the account of the creation of man to relieve the gods of toil in the "Enki and Ninmah" myth, and with a Sumerian account of the Flood in the "Eridu Genesis." The Atrahasis myth, however, treats these themes with noticeable originality and remarkable depth. It relates, first, how the gods originally had to toil for a living, how they rebelled and went on strike, how Enki suggested that one of their number--the god We

BABYLON (Babil)

"Gate(s) of God", capital of the Babylonians, on the river Euphrates. Its patron god was Marduk. Also known as Shuanna. It is said to have been founded by the Assyrian Ninus or his wife Semiramis. The Greek form of the Hebrew word bavel, which is closely allied and probably derived from the Akkadian babilu or "gate of God." The connection between Akkad, Calneh, Erech, and Babylon (Gen. 10:10) indicates a period at least as early as 3000 B.C. Babylon may have been founded originally by the Sumerians, and an early tablet recorded that Sargon of Akkad (c. 2400) destroyed Babylon.

BABEL Hebrew baÇbel (confusion) from balal (overthrow). The inner meaning of the Tower of Babel,as a device so that the "worshippers could move into the presence of the gods" It is a house of initiation, a gate, portal, opening, or entrance to the divine. The physical tower was both the building to house and protect the initiation chambers, along with the ceremonies that take place in them, and an architectural symbol to signify a raising up towards heaven. The tower may have either a divine or evil significance, either haughty pride and self-sufficiency or spiritual aspiration.

BAU

(Sumerian), also called NININSINA, Akkadian Gula, or Ninkarrak, in Mesopotamian religion, city goddess of Urukug in the Lagash region and, under the name Nininsina, the Queen of Isin, city goddess of Isin, south of Nippur. Bau seems originally to have been goddess of the dog; as Nininsina she was long represented with a dog's head, and the dog was her symbol. Perhaps because the licking of sores by dogs was believed to have healing value, she became a goddess of healing. She was a daughter of An, king of the gods, and the wife of Pabilsag, a rain god who was also called Ninurta, or Ningirsu.

BEER AND BARLEY

Barley is still the primary ingredient of beer. It along with rye supports ergot, a fungus. After eating flour milled from ergot-infected rye, humans and livestock may develop ergotism, a condition sometimes called St. Anthony's Fire. The symptoms may include convulsions, miscarriages in females, and dry gangrene and may result in death. Ergot is also the source of lysergic acid, from which the powerful hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is easily synthesized. Mild beer or wine naturally fermented was often "spiked" with contaminated beer. The "exercises," then and now, were considered proof of the indwelling "gods." The same effect can be procuded by revivalistic music causing "speaking in tongues."

BEL

(Akkadian), Sumerian Enlil, Mesopotamian god of the air and a member of the triad of gods completed by Anu (Sumerian: An) and Ea (Enki). Enlil meant Lord Wind: both the hurricane and the gentle winds of spring were thought of

as the breath issuing from his mouth,
and eventually as his word or command.

He was sometimes called Lord of the Air. The Hebrew ruwach as in "the spirit hovered over the face of the waters" is often personified as a third member of the god "family" and is assigned tasks quite similar to Bel or Enlil.

Baal (Chaldean) [from Semitic ba`al chief, lord] Lord, considered as the lord of the land, and his temple at Nippur was called E-kur (the mountain house), just as Ea's was the watery house.

In Exodus he was named Ba`al-Tsephon, the god of the crypt. He was likewise named Seth or Sheth, signifying a pillar (phallus); and it was owing to these associations that he was considered a hidden god. Among the Ammonites, a people of East Palestine, he was known as Moloch (the king); at Tyre he was called Melcarth. The worship of Ba`al was introduced into Israel under Ahab, his wife being a Phoenician princess.

"Typhon, called Set, who was a great god in Egypt during the early dynasties, is an aspect of Baal and Ammon as also of Siva, Jehovah and other gods. Baal is the all-devouring Sun, in one sense, the fiery Moloch" As to the leaping of the prophets of Ba`al, mentioned in the Bible (1 Kings 18:26), Blavatsky writes: "It was simply a characteristic of the Sabean worship, for it denoted the motion of the planets round the sun. That the dance was a Bacchic frenzy is apparent. Sistra were used on the occasion"

BELILI

BELIT

(Akkadian), Sumerian Ninlil, Mesopotamian goddess, the consort of the god Bel (Sumerian: Enlil) and a deity of destiny. She was worshiped especially at Nippur and Shuruppak and was the mother of the moon god, Sin (Sumerian: Nanna). In Assyrian documents Belit is sometimes identified with Ishtar (Sumerian: Inanna) of Nineveh and sometimes made the wife of either Ashur, the national god of Assyria, or of Enlil (href="#BEL">Bel), god of the atmosphere. The Sumerian Ninlil was a grain goddess, known as the Varicoloured Ear (of barley). She was the daughter of Haia, god of the stores, and Ninshebargunu (or Nidaba). The myth recounting the rape of Ninlil by her consort, the wind god Enlil, reflects the life cycle of the grain.

BRAZEN Serpent

When the Jews in the wilderness complained to Moses, "the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died" (Num 21:6); wherefore "Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent has bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived" (21:9).

As the Hebrew words for serpent and brass are the same when the Massoretic points are omitted (N H SH),has been used referring to the Evil One, called by the later Jews the Deprived (Nahash), but the fiery serpents "were the Seraphim, each one of which, as Isaiah shows (6:2), 'had six wingsf.'

Just as the serpent is connected with knowledge, wisdom, and magic, so likewise has copper or brass since immemorial time in all mystic schools been a metallic compound supposed to be under the particular governance of the planet Venus, which is the ruler or controller of the human higher manas -- manas being at once the savior as well as the tempter of mankind, for it is in the mind where temptation and sin or evildoing ultimately arise. See also SERPENT. Nahash and Lahash make a close connection between the tempter in the garden of Eden, the offspring of Lamech (reincarnated as Ea) and the musical enchanters of Mesopotamis. Theosophy

BULL OF HEAVEN

Anu created this monster to kill Gilgamesh at the request of Ishtar. It had the bad habit of throwing spit and "Bull excrement" in the battle with Gilgamesh and Enkidu. Showing no mercy, Enkidu and Gilgamesh kill it and offer it to the sun or Shamash.

BULL WORSHIP

The bull has been worshiped as a symbol of fertility. He may be white as seen in the Egyptian Apis, who in legend is Osiris "incarnate" This was the worship by the Israelites at Mount Sinai where the golden calf was worshipped with singing, dancing, instruments and sex. The sacred bulls did not necessarily represent male animals, but were mystically considered to be hermaphrodite or even sexless: thus the Egyptian bull, Apis, was a hermaphrodite to show his magical character. Gender confusion was always a primary ingredient to the priesthood which H. Bamford Parkes identifies as the world's oldest profession.

See the worship in Egypt

BYTHUS, Bythos

(Greek) The depth; chaos, the primeval deep, adopted by the Gnostics. For example, with Valentinus it was the cosmic source whence emanated two by two the series of aeons. Sometimes it was considered as one member of a primordial cosmic mystic square -- sige (silence), bythos (depth), nous (intellect), and aletheia (truth); sometimes bythos was paired by Gnostics with sige as composing a primordial cosmic binary. See also ABYSS. The worship of Jesus Christ was not to be in "place" or "time" but in spirit (much like nous) and in truth (aletheia). Paul insisted that women remain in silence for that short period for taking the Lord's Supper and prayer. This extended to mose men who were nost inspired, which menta most men.

CALAH

Ashurnasirpal's most impressive monument was his own palace in Kalakh, covering a space of 269,000 square feet (25,000 square metres). Hundreds of large limestone slabs were used in murals in the staterooms and living quarters. Most of the scenes were done in relief, but painted murals also have been found. Most of them depict mythological themes and symbolic fertility rites, with the king participating. Brutal war pictures were aimed to discourage enemies. The chief god of Kalakh was Ninurta, god of war and the hunt. The tower of the temple dedicated to Ninurta also served as an astronomical observatory. Kalakh soon became the cultural centre of the empire. Ashurnasirpal claimed to have entertained 69,574 guests at the opening ceremonies of his palace

CHALDEA (Chaldaea, Assy Kaldu, Bab Kasdu, Heb Kasddim)

Chaldea is first mentioned in the annals of the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II (reigned 884/883-859 BC), though earlier documents referred to the same area as the "Sealand." In 850 Shalmaneser III of Assyria raided Chaldea and reached the Persian Gulf, which he called the "Sea of Kaldu." On the accession of Sargon II to the Assyrian throne (721), the Chaldean Marduk-apla-iddina II (the biblical Merodach-baladan), ruler of Bit-Yakin (a district of Chaldea), seized the Babylonian throne and, despite Assyrian opposition, held it from 721 to 710. He finally fled, however, and Bit-Yakin was placed under Assyrian control.

CHALDEAN

Chaldees, inhabitants of Chaldea or lower Mesopotamia, where Ur (Genesis 11:28) was the ancient city of the Sumerians. They invented writing, astrology, and the magic arts in the fourth millennium BC. They were highly in demand until Roman times for their knowledge of divining, interpreting dreams and fortune-telling. They are implicated in 1 Corinthians 13 as Paul compared speaking in tongues to the pagan musical magic made possible by the clanging sounds of brass or bronze. As long as the Persian empire lasted there was always a distinction between the Persian magi, who were credited with profound and extraordinary religious knowledge, and the Babylonian magi, who were often considered to be outright imposters.

COSMOS

Man's view of the cosmos has influenced his understanding of what are called angels and demons. The cosmos may be viewed as monistic, as in Hinduism, in which the cosmos is regarded as wholly sacred or as participating in a single divine principle (Brahman, or Being itself). The cosmos may also be viewed as dualistic, as in Gnosticism (an esoteric religious dualistic belief system, often regarded as a Christian heretical movement, that flourished in the Greco-Roman world in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD), in which the world of matter was generally regarded as evil and the realm of the spirit as good. A third view of the cosmos, generally found in the monotheistic religions of Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam, centred on a tripartite universe: celestial, terrestrial, and subterrestrial. This third view has influenced Western man's concepts of angels and demons as well as his scientific and metaphysical concepts.

DEMON OR Daemon

It seems that in addition to the public and official cult of the "twelve great gods" and their subordinate divinities, the Assyrians had a more sacred and secret religion, a religion of mystery and magic and sorcery. These "religious" texts, moreover, together with a mass of talismanic inscriptions on cylinders and amulets, prove the presence of an exceedingly rich demonology. Below the greater and lesser gods there was a vast host of spirits, some of them good and beneficent and some of them evil and hurtful. And these spirits were described and classified with an exactness which leads some to liken the arrangement to that of the choirs and orders of our own angelic hierarchy. The antiquity and importance of this secret religion, with its magic and incantations of the good spirits or evil demons, may be gathered from the fact that by order of King Assurbanipal his scribes made several copies of a great magical work according to a pattern which had been preserved from a remote antiquity in the priestly school of Erech in Chaldea. This work consisted of three books, the first of which is entirely consecrated to incantations (chanting a powerful song), conjurations (to summon a god), and imprecations (A curse) against the evil spirits. These cuneiform books, it must be remembered, are really written on clay tablets. And each of the tablets of these first books which has come down to us ends with the title, "Tablet No. - of the Evil Spirits". The ideogram which is here rendered as kullulu -- "accursed" or "evil" -- might also be read as limuttu -- "baneful". Besides being known by the generic name of udukku -- "spirit" -- a demon is called more distinctly ecimmu, or maskimmu. One special class of these spirits was the sedu, or divine bull, which is represented in the well-known figure of a man-headed bull so common on the Assyrian monuments. This name, it may be remarked, is probably the source of the Hebrew word for demon. The Assyrian sedu, it is true, was more commonly a beneficent or tutelary (guardian) spirit. But this is hardly an obstacle to the derivation, for the good spirits of one nation were often regarded as evil by men of rival races. (Catholic Encyclopedia)

DAG, DAGAN, Dagon

(Hebrew, Phoenician) [from dag fish + on diminutive; or from dagan grain] Fish or a little fish; a Philistine god, at Ashod and Gaza, mentioned several places in the Bible (e.g. Judges 16). He was more than a local deity, however, as place-names called after him are widespread. Some scholars assert there was an ancient Canaanite deity of similar name, and also associate this Shemitic god with the Babylonian Dagan. It is commonly believed that Dagon was represented as half-man half-fish and identified with Oannes, though no such early representations bear his name. Some scholars cite Philo Byblius as making Dagon the discoverer of grain and the inventor of the plow, an earth god parallel with Bel.

DAMKINA (Chaldean, Babylonian)

Consort of Enki, ruler of absu of Eridu. Dannina "Stronghold", term for the underworld. Sometimes Davkina. Consort of Ea or Hea, god of the watery regions, partaking of Ea's characteristics, therefore called Damgal-nunna (great lady of the waters), likewise Nin-Ki (lady of that which is below, i.e., the watery deeps or underworld). Mother of Marduk (or Merodach or Bel).

DAMU

Sumerian deity, city god of Girsu on the Euphrates River near Ur in the southern orchards region. Damu, son of Enki, was a vegetation god, especially of the vernal flowing of the sap of trees and plants. His name means "the child," and his cult--apparently celebrated primarily by women--centred on the lamentation and search for Damu, who had lain under the bark of his nurse, the cedar tree, and had disappeared. The search finally ended when the god reappeared out of the river.

The cult of Damu influenced and later blended with the similar cult of Dumuzi the Shepherd, a Sumerian deity worshiped by the central grasslands people. A different deity called Damu was a goddess of healing and the daughter of Nininsina of Isin.

DANIEL or Danel

DAZIMUA: Married Ningishzid amother of the Eight children of Ki

DEEP

(See Abyss, Bythos) The Hebrew word is "tehom" which is different from the normal word for sea which is "yam". Genesis 1:2 also uses it: "The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters." The waters from the flood also came from the deep as stated in Genesis 7:11: "on that day all the fountains of the great deep burst forth and the window of the heavens were opened." Rain was often thought to be the water of the deep coming through the sky ceiling of the firmament. The word "tehom" is related to the Babylonian word TIAMAT.

DEMIGODS One of the orders of semi-divine instructors, spiritual beings in human form. Herodotus, among other Greek writers, speaks of humanity being ruled successively by gods, demigods, heroes, and men. We still get confused.

DEMONS GALAS

The demons of the underworld. In ancient Babylonia many demons were mentioned on the clay tablets, e.g. Alu, who crushed men by falling on top of them when they were asleep. The demoness Lamastu, pale-faced with donkey's ears, bare-breasted and with poisonous claws, killed babies at their mother's breast. Illnesses and misfortunes were personified as demons, both make and female, with Akkadian or Sumerian names. She is a model for Lilith.

Groups of demons are:

Asakku (Sumerian Asag), seven created by Anu and defeated by Ninurta, a victory also attributed to Nergal. Gallu, a term which originally referred to police officers (!) Sebitti, "The Seven".

Individuals with Akkadian names are: Bel Uri "Lord of the Roof" Bennu "Fits" Idiptu "Wind" Libu "Scab" Lamashtu, a female demon, a disease Mimma lemnu "Something evil" Miqut "stroke" Muttabriqu "Flashes of lightning" Pasittu "She who erases" (an epithet of Lamashtu) Ugallu (Lion demon) Rabishu "The Croucher" Sarabda "Bailiff" Sidana "Staggers" Suruppu, a disease brought on by flood waters Tirid "Expulsion" Umma "Feverhot" Umu, a storm demon.

Individuals with Sumerian names are: Saghulhaza, "Upholder of evil" And the doorkeepers of the Underworld: Engidudu (also an epithet of Erra), Endushuba, Endukuga, Endashurimma, Ennugigi, Enuralla/Nerulla, Nerubanda.

DILMUN

Dilmun is the Sumerian name of an ancient independent kingdom that flourished c. 2000 BC, often identified with al-Bahrain

Because Dilmun has no fresh sparkling water ENKI orders UTU, the sun god, to fill it with fresh water brought up from the earth. Dilmun is thus turned into a divine garden. In this garden 8 plants are created and grown by NINHURSAG only to be eaten by ENKI. NINHURSAG becomes so angry that she places the curse of death on ENKI whose eight organs then begin to fail. NINHURSAG leaves Dilmun although the other gods eventually convince NINHURSAG to return to cure ENKI. She does so by creating eight healing gods including NINTI.

DIMME LAMASHTU

DINGIR

The chief deity of the Akkadians; one of the forms of the creative powers as recognized by the earlier Akkadians. Every one of these demiurgic powers is the chief or first in his or her own field of activity in the universe, so that in one mythology may be found several such chief or first divinities, each being the chief or hierarch in his or her own hierarchy, but all nevertheless subordinate to the karmic mandates of the inclusive, all-enclosing, cosmic primordial elements. These chief divinities are the cosmic elements originating in and from the primordial element, which because of the extreme reverence in which it was held by archaic thought is often not mentioned, it being part of the teaching of the sanctuary.

DRAGON

Monster usually viewed as a huge, bat-winged, fire-breathing, scaly lizard or snake with a barbed tail. These beasts are apt symbols of kings such as that of Tyre and Babylon who, when evil, are under the influence of Lucifer.

In the Middle East the snakes are large and deadly and therefore the serpent or dragon was symbolic of the principle of evil. The Egyptian god Apepi,was the serpent of the world of darkness. But the Greeks and Romans, though accepting the Middle Eastern idea of the serpent as an evil power, also thought the drakontes as beneficial--sharp-eyed dwellers in the inner parts of the Earth.

The Chaldean dragon Tiamat had four legs, a scaly body, and wings, whereas the biblical dragon of Revelation, "the old serpent," was many-headed like the Greek Hydra. Because they not only possessed both protective and terror-inspiring qualities but also had decorative effigies, dragons were early used as warlike emblems.

DUMUZI

"Son of the Abyss," the ever-dying, ever-reviving Sumerian prototype of the resurrected savior, was a harvest god of ancient Mesopotamia, Sumerian god of vegetation and the under-world. Also called "the shepherd" and "lord of the sheepfolds." Dumuzi known from his horned lunar crown, is the son-husband of the goddess Gula-Bau seen sitting in front of the serpent in a relief "Goddess of the Tree of Life" ca. 2500 B.C. Dumuzi's mother was Ningizzida, an ancestor of Gilgamesh, consort of Ianna (Ishtar). The Great Goddess (symbolized by Demeter) also correlates to Dionysus-Bacchus-Zagreus (or in the older, Sumero-Babylonian myths, Dumuzi-absu, Tammuz, the "child of the abyss," who was originally a tree god and son of Ningishzida, he died because of Ishtar's love. Tammuz also Thammuz is the tenth month of the year in the Jewish calendar [Hebrew Tammuz, from Babylonian Duíuzu, the name of a god]. In Egypt, Tammuz was a god of harvest (late summer month) of Mesopotamia, Akkad and Sumer.

Tammuz (Ezek. 8:14) is equivalent to Osiris (Hay-Tau) in Egypt and Adonis [Greek Adonis, from Phoenician adon, lord]. Osiris is Dionysus in the Greek tongue, and the Roman Bacchus. A cylinder seal from Erech, end of the fourth century B.C., depicts the god Tammuz (a fertility god widely worshipped in Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine) feeding the cattle of the temple. Tammuz was killed by a wild boar while shepherding his flocks. His wife rescued him from the underworld. His death was taken to represent the onset of winter. The Adonis Cult (in Nega, Byblus -Syrian coast) parallels Dumuzi, Tammuz, and Attis.

DUMUZI-AMASHUMGALANA

Tammuz and Damu were joined to become a fertility god who probably represented the power in the sap to rise in trees and plants in spring. The relation of still other figures to Tammuz, such as Dumuzi-Abzu--a goddess who appears to have been the power in the waters underground (the Abzu) to bring new life to vegetation--is not entirely clear. see marriage to Ishtar from above link

Sumerian deity especially popular in the southern orchard regions and later in the central grassland area. He was the young bridegroom of the goddess Inanna (Akkadian: Ishtar), a fertility figure sometimes called the Lady of the Date Clusters. As such, he represented the power of growth and new life in the date palm. In Erech, the marriage of Inanna, in her role as goddess of the storehouse, to Dumuzi-Amaushumgalana was essentially a harvest festival, symbolizing the security the community felt after laying in provisions for the new year.

DUMUZI-ABZU

Sumerian deity, city goddess of Kinirsha near Lagash in the southeastern marshland region. She represented the power of fertility and new life in the marshes. Dumuzi-Abzu corresponded to the Sumerian god Dumuzi (see Tammuz) of the central herding area, and thus around Eridu she was viewed as male and as son of Enki (Akkadian: Ea, also called the Lord of Apsu).

EA (ENKI)

(Akkadian), Sumerian Enki, Mesopotamian god of water and a member of the triad of deities completed by Anu (Sumerian An) and Bel (Enlil). From a local deity worshiped in the city of Eridu, Ea evolved into a major god, Lord of Apsu (also spelled Abzu), the fresh waters beneath the earth (although Enki means literally "lord of the earth"). In the Sumerian myth, "Enki and the World Order," Enki is said to have fixed national boundaries and assigned gods their roles. According to another Sumerian myth Enki is the creator, having devised men as slaves to the gods. In his original form, as Enki, he was associated with semen and amniotic fluid, and therefore with fertility. He was commonly represented as a half-goat, half-fish creature, from which the modern astrological figure for Capricorn is derived. He is also identified with Oannes.

Ea governed the arts of sorcery and incantation. In some stories he was also the form-giving god, and thus the patron of craftsmen and artists (see KOSMOS below); he was known as the bearer of culture. In his role as adviser to the king, Ea was a wise god although not a forceful one. In Akkadian myth, as Ea's character evolves, he appears frequently as a clever mediator who could be devious and cunning. He is also significant in Akkadian mythology as the father of Marduk, the national god of Babylonia. Also known as Nudimmud, a name associated with function as a creator-god. Epithet: "Nussiku" translated here as far-sighted.

When the younger gods grew too noisy, Apsu and Mummu decided to murder them. Ea, who knows all, discovered the plot and attacked Apsu with a magical spell. Tiamat plotted revenge but again Ea found out but was too fearful. His father, Anshar urged him on but Ea decided to negotiate. However, when Tiamat refused, Ea's son, Marduk, decided to destroy her if he could become the most high God. He succeeded and of course all earlier gods were demoted so that he got all of the glory.

EA-EL

Ea or Hea (Akkadian, Chaldean) [from house + water] One of the three chief gods of the Chaldaeo- or Assyro-Babylonian celestial triad of Anu, Bel, and Ea. In the division of the universe into heaven, earth, and water, Ea is king of the watery deeps (Shar Apsi); also Lord of that which is below (En-Ki).

Ea is seen as a man with the body of a fish, and is probably Oannes and Dagon. Marduk are also aspects of this same deity. His consort is Damkina (lady of that which is below) or Damgal-nunna (great lady of the waters).

EANNA or E-Anna "House of the Sky, name of the temple of Anu and Ishtar in Uruk, also called "The Pure Treasury."

Anu descended to Earth only on special occasions, in time of crisis, or for ceremonial reasons. When on Earth he would stay in the temple of Anu and Ishtar, the E-ANNA or "House of An" or the "House of the Sky" or "the Pure Treasury" atop the ziggurat in Uruk, his sacred city. The word ziggurat comes from the Babylonian "zaquru" and means "to be high or raised up." It signifies the top of a mountain or a staged tower and such a tower provided an artificial mountain on the flat Mesopotamian plain.

EA-ENGURRA Temple of the god Ea in Eridu.

EIGHT CHILDREN OF KI

Abu, Nintul, Ninsutu, Ninkasi, Nazi, Dazimua, Ninti, Enshagag. The Goddess Uttu, in the paradise of Dilmun, made 8 plants sprout from her union with Enki. He then proceeded to eat them all. Ki cursed him for this and he became ill. He convinced her to remove her curse, and she created eight gods of healing, one for each pain Enki was having, to cure him. Each name of the gods is a pun for the body parts they healed.

EKUR "Mountain-house" The temple of the god Ellil in Nippur, where Ninurta was born.

ENHEDUANNA

ELLIL (Illil, Sumerian Enlil)

Sumerian god, leader of the younger generation of Sumerian and Akkadian gods. Cult center Nippur. Temple called Ekur. Spouse Mulittu; son Ninurta. Old interpretation of his name as "Lord Wind/Air" uncertain. Epithet: "King of all populated lands." Symbol: A horned crown on a shrine. Son of the supreme god Anu, whom he succeeded. See also Anzu, Ninurta.

ENKI (EA)

Enki, son of An and Nammu, was the god of the underground freshwater ocean (the abzu", sometimes referred to as the apsu"). His name can be taken to mean "Lord Earth," but "ki" can also refer to 'the below' in the two-tiered cosmic structure, in opposition to "an": heaven. Enki is also a god of wisdom, a faculty which included practical skills (such as arts and crafts), intellectual faculties, the ability to "decree fates", and the command of magical powers. In the Atrahasis myth, for example, it was Enki's intercession which saved mankind from the flood and pestilence ordered by Enlil. He is sometimes referred to as Nudimmud or Ninsiku. His wife is Damgaknuna/Damkina. Among his children are Asarluhi, Enbilulu, Adapa, and Nanse. His symbols include the goatfish, the tortoise, a ram-headed staff, and a ship or similar vessel overflowing with water.

Created bySasha Lessin, Ph. D.
based on 
Study of Zecharia
Sitchin's 2002 epic
The LOST BOOK OF ENKI: Memoirs and Prophecies of an Extraterrestrial God

Essay 39  ENLIL SENDS IBRUUM TO STOP MARDUK

Story So Far:

The Gutians subdued Inanna's rebellion of 2255 B.C. and Gutian calvary supported Ninurta's rebuilding of Mesopotamia.  The Gutians returned to the Zagros Mountains 2160B.C.. and Ninurta's brother Nannar ruled Sumer for ninety-one years.  This was the Era of Ninurta, an era of agricultural develpment.  During this time Nannar, no longer eclipsed by daughter Inanna, ruled Sumer.      Nannar appointed Ur-Nammu, son of the the "goddess" Ninsun, as Supreme King. [Sitchin, Z., 1985, The Wars of Gods and Men, pages 262-264],  
      

Narrative (Essay 39) Resumes 

CLUMSY DEATH OF ENLILITE'S CHOOSEN KING, TWO THIRDS NIBIRAN UR-NAMMU, DESTABILIZES SUMER   

In 2113 B.C.E., Enlil choose Ur-Nammu, Ninsun's son, Supreme King of Sumer/Akadda. Anu approved Ur-Nammu. "The choice was a signal that the glorious days under the unchallenged authority of Enlil and his clan are back." [Sitchin, Z., 2007, The End of Days, page 52].The King would serve under Enlil's son Nannar who'd dictate laws of obedience, justice and morality. [Sitchin, Z., 1985, The Wars of Gods and Men, pages 262-264; 2007, The End of Days, page 60 -61].  

The Enlilites ordered Ur-Nammu to destroy Marduk's Amorites west of Sumer. Ur Nammu and his forces attacked cities where Nabu had allies for Marduk's drive to rule Earth. Enlil gave Ur-Nammu a "divine weapon that heaps up the rebels in piles" to zap the cities Nabu'd suborned. Enlilites called Nabu "the oppressor" and the areas he influenced "evil, sinning and rebellious." The Enlilite gods of Sumer gave Ur-Nammu blessing, honor, weapons and protection.

NABU fils de MARDUK

But in 2096 B.C.E., "in the midst of battle, his chariot got stuck in the mud; Ur-Nammu fell off it, the chariot rushed along, leaving the King behind.  The boat returning Ur-Nammu's body to Sumer sank with him on board."  In Sumer, "The people could not understand how such a religiously devout king who only followed gods' directives with weapons they put in his hands could perish so ignominously."  Support of Utu, Nannar, Inanna, Enlil and even Anu couldn't protect him. 

The people of Sumer believed Nabu.  The Enlilite gods had deceived and deserted them.  Nibiru would return in the constellation The Ram--Marduk's constellation--sooner than the Enlilites said.  Nibiru's return, said Nabu, would herald the Era of Marduk, the Redeemer, who'd conquer Sumer & Akkad, the Elamites, Hittites, Enlil's Sealand allies and the whole world. [Sitchin, Z., 2007, The End of Days, page 63 - 66]

Ninharsag and Enki decided Nabu, rather than Enlilite Utu/Shamash could command Tilmun, the Nibirans' post-flood spaceport.   From Tilmum, Nabu spread the word of Marduk's coming supremacy to the cities and islands of the Eastern Mediterranean.

Shulgi succeeded Ur Nammu in 2095 B.C..  Inanna invited Shulgi to Uruk and declared him "the man chosen for the vulva of Inanna." They wed in the temple where Anu had elevated her in tantric ritual.  She again bonded with an alpha Adapite [Sitchin, Z., 1985, The Wars of Gods and Men, pages 276 -279],

Shulgi and his Elamite allies launched military expeditions in the West and built The Great West Wall from the Euphrates to the Tigris (north of modern Baghdad) to keep out Nabu's forces.  But , in 2048  B.C.E., Enlil had Shulgi killed for his sexploitations and failures to drive Nabu from Tilmum.  Enlil replaced Shulgi with Shulgi's son, Amar-Sin.

The Enlilites sent Amar-Sin to crush a rebellion in the north and fight an alliance of five kings along the Mediterranean in the west.   [Sitchin, 2007, The End of Days, pages 68-72]

GALZU VISION LEADS ENLIL TO CHOOSE ABRAHAM TO BLOCK MARDUK

Enlil dreamed the mysterious Galzu, whom he thought represented the Creator of All, warned him that when Earth moved zodiacally from the Enlil’s age--the Age of the Bull--to the Age of the Ram, Marduk would rule the Earth. In the dream, Galzu told Enlil "a righteous and worthy man must be choosen, by him and his seed will Civilized Man be preserved! " Enlil told no one of the vision but prepared to create a mobile general who could stop incursions by Marduk and his son Nabu. 

Enlil ordered his son Nannar to have Tirhu, Nannar's high-priest/king [ie, hybrid of much Anunnaki ancestry] establish himself in Harran at the headwater of the Euphrates (in what's now Turkey, near the Syrian border) the trade center in Hatti, land of the Hittites.  The Euphrates flows from Harran to the Enlilite capital, Ur.  Harran's also at the crossroads of the trade and military land routes to the postdeluvial spaceport in the Sinai.  [Sitchin, 2007, The End of Days, page 73]

2048 BC, the year Enlil had Shulgi killed, Enlil sent Ibruum/Abraham from Harran on missions to thwart Nabu's control of Tilmum, the spaceport on the Sinai.  "Protect the sacred places, the chariots' ascents and descents enable, Enlil Ibruum to go commanded." 

As soon as Ibruum left Harran, Marduk moved in, made Harran his headquarters, and spent the next twenty-four years planning his take-over of Earth.  "By that he took away from Nannar/Sin this vital northern crossroads and severed Sumer from the Northern land of the Hittites, deprived Sumer of its economically vital commercial ties" and enabled Nabu to marshal the cities west of the Euphrates" which were now under control of the father-son team, including the landing place [Tilmum]" [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki, pages 302 - 306; 2007,The End of Days, page 78].

"The failure of the War of the Kings to subdue the rebel land secure the landing place, led him to send his Champion, Ninurta to supervise and alternate spaceport in Peru.  Enlil, too, had been away from Sumer, and he returned to find that the Elamite legions--Ninurta's Foreign Service garrisoned in Sumer-Iraq had gotten out of control and committed what the gods considered to be "sacrileges."  

Enlil summoned Ninurta to account for his Elamites' crimes but Ninurta put all the blame on Marduk and Nabu, so Enlil ordered a council to try Nabu. In the council meeting, Utu-Shamash, the Spaceport Commander, accused Nabu of aggression. "Nabu blamed Ninurta and revived old accusations against Nergal in regard to the disappearance of the pre-Deluvial monitoring instruments and the failure to prevent sacrileges in Babylon. Nabu got in a shouting match with Nergal. Then Nabu accused Enlil of telling the Elamites to violate Marduk's temples in Babylon. ''There is no justice, destruction was conceived" Nabu shouted. Nabu's outburst, "an unheard-of accusation against the Lord of Command."

Enki defended Marduk and said that in Celestial Time (rather than the Zodiac Time Enlilites favored), Marduk should rule Earth. But Enki's other son, Marduk's jealous brother Nergal, blamed Marduk and Nabu for the turmoil. Enki told Nergal to shut up and stop obstructing Marduk and Nabu.

Enki and Nabu "argued so much that Enki shouted to Nergal to get out of his presence. The gods' council broke up in disarray." [Sitchin, Z., 2007,The End of Days, pages 87-88].

 In 2041, to counter the  moves of Nabu and Marduk, Enlil sent Ibruum and his cavalry to block a coalition of kings near the (not yet but soon to be) Dead Sea at a fortified oasis at Kadesh-Barnea  (Dur-Mah-Ilani), "the closest place where men could approach in the region of the spaceport without special permission.  The war was intended to prevent the return of Marduk" [to Babylon] and thwart Nabu's control of Tilmum [Sitchin, Z., 1985, The Wars of Gods and Men, pages 302 - 307]. 

Ibruum/Abraham was Enlil's loyal general.  Enlil "equipped him with the best chariots, finest horses. "  Abraham won many skirmishes for Enlil, "defending the spaceport in the Sinai which was out of bounds to all humans.  Abraham had a crack squad of 380 well-trained, well-armed soldiers. " 

Enlil gave Abraham weapons that "could smite an army of ten thousand men in hours."  Enlil rewarded him with riches and land which made Ibruum the richest man of his time.

Enlil's emissaries (angels) "used Abraham and his nephew" [Lot] to spy on Sodom and Gomorra, cities Marduk controlled.  From Sodom and Gomorrah, Enlil feared, Marduk "would marshal his large number of human followers and take control of all establishments on Earth, including Enlil's spaceport."  [Tellinger, M. 2006, Slave Species of god, page 506]

 

 next: Essay 40: The Gods Nuke Sinai Spaceport Before Leaving Earth to Marduk
 

References:

Bramley, W.
                1989, The Gods of Eden

Cremo, M.
and Thompson, R.
                1993,  Forbidden Archeology: The Hidden History of the Human Race

Cremo, M.
                2003, Human Devolution: A Vedic Alternative to Darwin’s Theory

Marrs, J.
                2000, Rule By Secrecy (Part V, Ancient Mysteries)
                1998, Alien Agenda


Sitchin, Z.
                2002, The Lost Book of Enki
                1976, Genesis Revisited
                1983, The Stairway to Heaven
                1985, The Wars of Gods and Men
                1990, Genesis Revisited
                1990, The Lost Realms
                1993, When Time Began
                1995, Divine Encounters
                2004, The Earth Chronicles Expeditions
                2007, The End of Days
                2007, Journeys to the Mythical Past

Freer, N.
                1999, God Games
                2000, Breaking the Godspell

Tellinger, M.
                2006, Slave Species of god 

Enki/Ea is the Nibiran who (4,000 years ago) dictated his autobiography to his scribe, Endubscar of Endu.

The Lost Book of Enki, Sitchin's translation of Enki's tale (augmented a bit by my imagination) is the source–with many of Enki's slants--of most of the account in this essays. The Lost Book of Enki itself is
historical fiction, wherein Sitchin has woven information meticulously documented in his Earth Chronicles.


 

Essay 

(Click on title to open)            

1

The Celestial Battle: Nibiru Meets Solaris and Tiamat ( Proto Earth)

2

Alalu Kills Nibiru's King Lahma, Gives Daughter to Ea for Feality From Anu

3

Alalu, Deposed by Anu, Nukes to Earth, Threatens Nibiru

4

Nibiru Council Sends Ea, Not Enlil, to Earth

5

Ea Blasts to Earth with Water, Hides Alalu's Nukes, Sends Anzu & Gold to Nibiru

6

Anu Sends Enlil to Rule Earth, Verify Gold

7

Anu, Enlil & Ea Draw Lots for Nibiru, Earth, Seas & Mining

8

Anu Defeats Alalu, Banishes Him & Anzu to Mars

9

Ea (Enki), Enlil & Ninmah, Three Incestuous Siblings

10

Enlil Banished for Rape; Abgal Betrays Enki

11

Enki & Ninmah Make Girls Till She Curses 

12

Anzu & Astronauts Rebel

13

Enki Instigates Goldmine Mutiny

14

Ninmah, Enki and Enki's Son, Ningizidda (Thoth) Create Adamu and Slave Species

15

Nibiru Nearing Means Climate Crisis & Food Shortage on Earth, Marsbase Closing

16

Enki Loves Hybrids Descended from Adamu & Ti-amat; Hybrids Bare Son Adapa & Girl Titi

17

Ningishzidda Takes Adapa to King Anu on Nibiru, Tells Anu That Enki's Fathered Adapa, Wants Adapa Denied Immortality

18

Adapa's Sons, Ka-in & Abael

19

Marduk & Astronaut Corps Seize Hybrid Brides, & Spaceport, Threaten Enlilites

 20

Enki Begats Noah (Ziusudra)

 21

Galzu Keeps Nibiran Leaders on Mission Earth

 22

Galzu Helps Enki Save Ziusudra & Earthlings

24

Ningishzidda, Memorialized as Sphinx, Creates Pyramids to Lead Rockets to Sinai Spaceport

25

Marduk's Son Satu Kills Brother, Asar; Asar's Son Horon Defeats Satu, Unites Egypt

26

Enlilites Send Ninurta to Build Second Spaceport in South America

27

Marduk Foils Marriage of Enlillite Inanna & Enkiite Dumuzi

28 

Inanna Revived Defeats Enkiites; Ninurta, Not Marduk to Next Rule Earth

    29

Enlil Deposes Marduk, Divies Earth, Gives Ningishzidda Egypt but No Realm for Inanna

    30   Anu Uncovers Galzu's Ruses to Keep the Anunnaki Fostering Nibiran-Earthling Hybrids
    31

  Enlil, Enki, Inanna rule regions through kings, Ninharsag, Sinai for Nibirans & Their Families Only

    32    Anu Takes Inanna as Lover; She Seduces Enki for Programs for Uruk
    33    Anu Pardons Marduk, Departs Tiahuanacu for Nibiru
    34

Enlilites Bomb Marduk's Babylon Spaceport, Confound Earthling Languages

    35    Marduk/Ra Deposes Ningzidda/Thoth in Egypt
    36    Inanna Rules Indus & Uruk
    37    Utu Revives Banda; Inanna Beds Banda As Dumuzi Ressurect;
  
Banda & Ninsun Begat Gilgamish, Who Seeks Immortality

 38

 Inanna & Marduk Again Fight, This Time, For All Earth

    39    Enlil Sends Abraham/Ibruum to Stop Marduk
    40   Anunnaki Nuke Sinai Spaceport Before Leaving Earth to Marduk
    41   Fallout from Nergal and Ninurta's Nukes Kill Sumer, Spare Marduk's Babylon

   Contact Dr. Lessin at sashalessinphd@aol.com

ARTICLES

ENKIDU (Ea-bani): Hero and friend and fellow warrior with Gilgamesh. Earlier, he is a wild man who lives with wild animals. He was tamed by a harlot and taken to Uruk to oppose Gilgamesh. His name means "created by Ea"

ENLIL See Bel He is the wind or storm god and Christian writers are prone to equate the Holy Spirit as a "person" to Enlil as the chief administrator of the other "gods." His chief, in turn, is Nusku and he is the leader of the Anunnaki.

Enlil is one of the most important gods of the Mesopotamian pantheon. Sometimes he is said to be the offspring of An, and brother of the birth-goddess Aruru. He is also, however, sometimes described as the descendant of Enki and Ninki "Lord" and "Lady Earth," not to be confused with the deity Enki). Yet a third tradition attributes his birth to the primeval water-goddess Nammu. His wife is Ninlil ( Among his prominent offspring are Inanna, Adad, Nanna, Nergal, Ninurta, and Utu. The personality of Enlil is very complex. It is not certain what the Sumerian element "lil" originally stood for. It has had meanings as diverse as 'air,' and 'spirit.' He is the lord who 'determines the fates,' a function he shares with the god Enki. It was Enlil who was said to have separated the primordial heaven/earth, thus bringing forth the created universe. On a cosmic level, while Enki's realm was below (the abzu), and An ruled above (the heavens), Enlil's realm was the earth and the spheres of the winds and weather above it. Enlil was responsible for all aspects of life: fertility and prosperity, as well as famine and catastrophe. His great cult center was the temple E-kur at Nippur. He is sometimes also referred to as Nunamnir.

Enlil, who saw Ninlil bathing in a canal, raped and impregnated her. For his crime he was banished to the Underworld.

ENMERKER

A Sumerian hero and king of Erech, a city-state in southern Mesopotamia, who is thought to have lived at the end of the 4th or beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. Along with Lugalbanda and Gilgamesh, Enmerkar is one of the three most significant figures in the surviving Sumerian epics.

Although scholars once assumed that there was only one epic relating Enmerkar's subjugation of a rival city, Aratta, it is now believed that two separate epics tell this tale. One is called Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta. The longest Sumerian epic yet discovered, it is the source of important information about the history and culture of the Sumero-Iranian border area. According to this legend, Enmerkar, son of the sun god Utu, was envious of Aratta's wealth of metal and stones, which he needed in order to build various shrines, especially a temple for the god Enki in Eridu. Enmerkar therefore requested his sister, the goddess Inanna, to aid him in acquiring material and manpower from Aratta; she agreed and advised him to send a threatening message to the lord of Aratta. The lord of Aratta, however, demanded that Enmerkar first deliver large amounts of grain to him. Though Enmerkar complied, the lord of Aratta refused to complete his part of the agreement; threatening messages were again sent out by both men, each claiming the aid and sanction of the goddess Inanna. The text becomes fragmented at that point in the narrative, but in the end Enmerkar was apparently victorious.

The other epic relating the defeat of Aratta is known as Enmerkar and Ensuhkeshdanna. In this tale the ruler of Aratta, Ensuhkeshdanna (or Ensukushsiranna), demanded that Enmerkar become his vassal. Enmerkar refused and, declaring himself the favourite of the gods, commanded Ensuhkeshdanna to submit to him. Although the members of Ensuhkeshdanna's council advised him to comply with Enmerkar, he listened instead to a local priest, who promised to make Erech subject to Aratta. When the priest arrived in Erech, however, he was outwitted and killed by a wise old woman, Sagburru, and the two sons of the goddess Nidaba. After he learned the fate of his priest, Ensuhkeshdanna's will was broken and he yielded to Enmerkar's demands.

A third epic, Lugalbanda and Enmerkar, tells of the heroic journey to Aratta made by Lugalbanda in the service of Enmerkar. According to the epic, Erech was under attack by Semitic nomads. In order to save his domain, Enmerkar required the aid of Inanna, who was in Aratta. Enmerkar requested volunteers to go to Inanna, but only Lugalbanda would agree to undertake the dangerous mission. The epic concerns the events of Lugalbanda's journey and the message given him from Inanna for Enmerkar. Although obscure, Inanna's reply seems to indicate that Enmerkar was to make special water vessels and was also to catch strange fish from a certain river.

ENUMA ELISH

ENSUHKESHDANNA See Enmerker Above

ERECH

Sumerian Uruk, Greek ORCHOË, modern Tall Al-warka', ancient Mesopotamian city located northwest of Ur (Tall Al-Muqayyar) in southeastern Iraq. According to legend it were built by the Gilgamesh.

The principal Sumerian divinity worshiped in ancient Erech appear to have been Anu (An), a sky god, and the goddess Inanna ("Queen of the Sky"). One of the chief landmarks of the city is the Anu ziggurat crowned by the "White Temple."

ERESHKIGAL

Eriskegal, Ereshkigal (Allatu). Queen of the underworld (Kur), of death, and enemy of Inanna. All underwold deities are called Chthonic Deities. She is said to be the sister of Inanna, making her the daughter of Nanna. She is defineitly not one of the Seven Chthonic Anunnaki, yet she is still an Anunnaki. Most likely she is the Destructive Forces of Saturn as Inanna is Venus.

She was sister of Ishtar, spouse of Nergal, mother of Ninazu. The Babylonian Persephone, spouse of Nergal, the god of the dead in the Underworld. As Mesopotamian goddess of the nether world, queen of the lower regions, she is often praised in hymns. One day Nergal was sent to her from heaven with an offering of food. They fell in love with each other, and when he had to leave, she was in tears and threatened Anu, the supreme god, that she would revive all the dead, over which she ruled, and send them back to earth, "so that they will outnumber the living", unless Nergal was sent back to her, for ever, as a husband. Her minister Namtar had to go to heaven as her messenger, for Ereshkigal felt that she was already pregnant. At last Nergal came storming down the stairs, broke down the seven gates and burst into the goddess' palace straight into her passionate embrace, "to wash away her tears."

ERIDU

One of the oldest seats of religious culture in ancient Babylonia, located a few miles SSW of Ur in Chaldea, and mentioned in ancient records as the city of the deep. In it was a temple of Ea, god of the sea and of wisdom. Rediscovered in 1854, it is now about 120 miles from the Persian Gulf, though spoken of in old records as being on the shore; calculations based on the rate of alluvial deposition places its date in the seventh millennium BC. Sayce, by comparing the Akkadian calendar with the present position of the vernal equinox, gives a date going back to 4700 BC

THE ERIDU GENESIS

Sumerian epic primarily concerned with the creation of the world, the building of cities, and the flood. According to the epic, after the universe was created out of the primeval sea and the gods were given birth, the deities in turn fashioned man from clay to cultivate the ground, care for flocks, and perpetuate the worship of the gods.

Cities were soon built and kingship was instituted on Earth. For some reason, however, the gods determined to destroy mankind with a flood. Enki (Akkadian Ea), who did not agree with the decree, revealed it to Ziusudra (Utnapishtim), a man well known for his humility and obedience. Ziusudra did as Enki commanded him and built a huge boat, in which he successfully rode out the flood. Afterward, he prostrated himself before the gods An (Anu) and Enlil (Bel), and, as a reward for living a godly life, Ziusudra was given immortality.

ERRA (Mythica)

God of war, hunting, plagues. Etymology "Scorched earth" probably incorrect. Assimilated with Nergal and Gerra. Temple Emeslam in the city Kutha. Epithet Engidudu "Lord who prowls by night" (see demons). See Nergal. Babylonian god of war, death, and other disasters. His greatest ally was famine caused by drought. He may be identified with Nergal, the god of death. He expressed death himself symbolically by his continuous lethargy as he lay in a drunken stupor. War has always been the major cause of death throughout history. Erra was supplicated to ward off pestilence and other calamities. One of the earliest known epic poems to come to light, written on clay tablets, is the Epic of Erra. At the opening of the epic, Erra sits in his palace while his weapons, which are in reality minor gods called the Sibitti, complain about his inaction. Erra persuades the old king-god of Babylon to visit his old craftsmen in the land of Absu beneath the earth. Erra is just on the point of destroying Babylonia when old Ishum, minister of Marduk, warns him: "Those who make war are the ignorant/War kills the priests and the sinless..." Although he has already started devastating the country, Erra is pacified by the wise minister and calls off the hounds of war. Marduk returns to peace. See also Sibitti.

ESAGILA

Most important temple complex in ancient Babylon, dedicated to the god Marduk, the tutelary deity of that city. The temple area was located south of the huge ziggurat called Etemenanki; it measured 660 feet (200 m) on its longest side, and its three vast courtyards were surrounded by intricate chambers. The whole complex reflects centuries of building and rebuilding by the Babylonian kings, especially Nebuchadrezzar II (reigned 604-562 BC). The tremendous wealth of Esagila was recorded by the Greek historian Herodotus.

ETANA

Son of Kish and twelfth king of Kish after the Flood, father of Balih. Thirteenth god-king of the Sumerian dynasty ruling the city of Kish. Though he was appointed by Anu and prayed daily to Shamash the sun-god, he had no son. Shamash directed him to an eagle who had been snared by a snake. Etana freed the eagle who, in gratitude, carried the king on his back to heaven. There, Etana, in front of the throne of Ishtar, begged for a son. She gave him the plant of birth, which he probably had to eat together with his wife. We know from history that Etana had a son named Balih. An incomplete epic about his exploits has been discovered.

ETANA MYTH

In the beginning, according to the epic, there was no king on the earth; the gods thus set out to find one and apparently chose Etana, who proved to be an able ruler until he discovered that his wife, though pregnant, was unable to give birth, and thus he had no heir to the throne. The one known remedy was the birth plant, which Etana was required to bring down personally from heaven. Etana, therefore, prayed to the god Shamash, who heard his request and directed him to a mountain where a maimed eagle, languishing in a pit (into which it had been thrown as punishment for breaking a sacred pact), would help him obtain the special plant. Etana rescued the eagle, and as a reward it carried him high up into the sky.

According to one fragment, Etana reached heaven and bell before the gods. There the text breaks off. According to another fragment, however, Etana either became dizzy or lost his nerve before reaching heaven and crashed to the ground. If, as many scholars believe, Etana was successful, the myth may have been used to support early dynastic claims.

ETEMENANKI

The Esagila was the seven-storied temple of Marduk which was the "House of the Platform of heaven and earth." This was the ancient and modern "Tower of Babel" where the slave-enriched population were convinced that they could musically ascend the steps and possibly come into the presence of a god. Then, as now, they believed that the temple at the top was the platform upon which the gods landed. From Esagila northward passed the paved Processional Way, its walls decorated with enamelled lions. Passing through the Ishtar Gate, adorned with enamelled bulls and dragons, it led to the Akitu House, a small temple outside the city, visited by Marduk at the New Year festival. West of the Ishtar Gate, one of eight fortified gates, were two palace complexes that covered about 40 acres with their fortifications.

FLOOD

Tablet XI of the epic of Gilgamesh describes the great flood epic, as George Smith and Friedrich Delitzsch discovered around the turn of the century, is about a thousand years older than the biblical tale of Noah in Genesis 6. The Babylonian epic introduces the immortal sage called Utanapishtim (in Sumerian called Ziusudra). The gods decided one day to drown all human beings because they were noisy. The god Ea however, secretly descended to his favorite - Uta-Napishtim - and told him to build a ship, giving him the exact measurements and other instructions: "Dismantle your house, build a boat, leave your possessions, look for your living ones to save them, out the seeds of all that lives in your boat!" - a remarkably practical piece of advice, such as one needs when disaster is immanent! Uta-Napishtim did as he was advised, adding gold and silver to his cargo. For six days and seven nights the storm blew. After that, the wind and sea became calm once more. The flood then receded. Silence reigned. All humanity had returned to clay. Uta-Napishtim the sent out a dove followed by a swallow and a raven. The first two returned but the raven did not. The flood had by then diminished and land become visible. In the Sumerian version all the windstorms (spirits), exceedingly powerful, attacked as one At the same time the floods swept over the cult-centers For seven days and nights the boat was tossed about... Ziusudra (Zisutra) who has built his boat with instructions from the god of wisdom, Enki, "Opens a window in his boat...[until] Utu the sun-god sends his rays of light into the boat." Ziusudra then worshipped Utu.

GALAS, THE: The demons of the underworld. Gallu In Chaldean theology, a class of spirits beneath the angels of earth

GESHTINANNA, GESTINNANA (Demi-god)

(Sumerian) Sister of Dumuzi, Divine poetress, singer, and interpreter of dreams. The dying Dumuzi, tortured by nightmares, brought the dreams to his sister for interpretation. Gestinanna realized her brother was under attack by demons. She tells him this and advises him to flee. Dumuzi flees, swearing Gestinanna to secrecy as to where he is going into hiding. The demons attacked Gestinanna to force her to reveal her brother's whereabouts, but she remained silent. The demons, however, soon found Dumuzi, hiding in the form of a gazelle in his sister's sheepfold. He was carried off to the underworld by them; Gestinanna then set out to rescue him. They were eventually reunited after many adventures. The goddess then persuaded the underworld divinities to grant Dumuzi half her own life; thus each was allowed to live on earth six months of each year. Her sister in the netherworld was Ereshkigal.

GILGAMESH

King of Uruk, son of Lugalbanda and Ninsun in the Epic. Name may mean "The old man is a young man" in Sumerian. Listed with gods in very early texts. Late epithet: "King of Earth"

GUDEA general background)

GUGALANA

The Bull of Heaven husband of Ereshkigal's

GULU

As Ninmah (See Ninkhursag) alias Nintu, Ki, Ninki, Ninmah, Ninlil, Innini, Bau, Gula, Ninkarrak, Gam-Tum-Dug, Belit-Illu, Belitis, was one of four main Sumerian gods (See Damkina). Damkina or Damgalnunna; alias Ninka, goddess wife of Ea -- Sumerian god of sweet waters. As Ninlil wife of Enlil; as Ninki wife of Enki (Ea).

HADAD

Also spelled HAD, HADDA, OR HADDU, the Old Testament Rimmon, West Semitic god of storms, thunder, and rain. His attributes were identical with those of Adad of the Assyro-Babylonian pantheon. He was the chief baal ("lord") of the West Semites (including both sedentary and nomadic Aramaeans) in north Syria, along the Phoenician coast, and along the Euphrates River. As Baal-Hadad he was represented as a bearded deity, often holding a club and thunderbolt and wearing a horned headdress. The bull was the symbolic animal of Hadad, as of the Hittite deity Teshub, who was identical with him.

HAMMURABI King of Babylon 1848-1806 BC.

HESOID

Theogony: Deals with the origin of the gods and is the fullest record of the Greek myths which have parallels in Babylonia.

HULLUPU TREE

After the heavens had been separated from the earth and as Enki was attacked, a huluppu (tree) had been planted on the banks of the Euphrates. Then the South Wind plucked it up. Inanna roving around in fear found the tree and took it to Erech. As it grew, the snake set up a nest in the roots, the bird reared its young and Lilith built her house. Everyone laughed at Inanna's weeping. Later, Gilgamesh struck the serpent, the Anzu-Bird flew away and Lilith smashed her home and fled into the wild. From the trunk of the tree Gilgamesh carved a throne for his sister.

HUMBABA (Humwawa)

Guardian of the Pine forest, fire breathing servant of the god Wer, depicted with a face lined like coiled intestines, ancestor of the Greek Gorgon. His voice is the Abubu-weapon.

Gilgamesh, also of that dynasty, figures as the hero of a variety of short tales; some, such as "Gilgamesh and Huwawa" and

In tablet 3-5 Enkidu and a friend of Gilgamesh set out together against Huwawa or Humbaba, the guardian of a remote cedar forest. There is not record of the outcome. Clay mask of Humbaba, the guardian of the ceadar trees of the Gods; defeated by Gilgamesh

IGIGI (ee gee' gee)

Sumerian term for the great gods of the younger generation, sky-gods headed by Ellil, often paired with the Anunnaki.

Early deities who guide and control every aspect of nature. Either they were not given much promenance later, or they simply were never given much attention. Chances are that these are Angels were the gods are Archangels. Collective name for the great gods of heaven associated with blood, madness and revenge.

INANNA (Inannu)

Sumerian earth-goddess, sister of Ereshkigal. She loved Dumuzi. Babylonian mother-goddess, "mistress of heaven." See Ishtar (Babylonian) .

Nanna's daughter, and goddess of love and war. Inanna also visits Kur, which results in a myth similar to Greek seasonal story of Persephone. She sets out to witness the funeral rites of her sister-in-law Ereshkigal's husband Gugalana, the Bull of Heaven. She takes precaution before setting out, by telling her servant Ninshubur to seek assistance from Enlil, Nanna, or Enki at their shrines, should she not return. Inanna knocks on the outer gates of Kur and the gatekeeper, Neti, questions her. He consults with queen Ereshkigal and then allows Inanna to pass through the seven gates of the underworld. After each gate, she is required to remove adornments and articles of clothing, until after the seventh gate, she is naked. The Annuna pass judgment against her and Ereshkigal killed her and hung her on the wall.

The goddess Inanna was the most important female deity of ancient Mesopotamia. The etymology of her name is uncertain; but by the end of the third millennium B.C. it was taken to derive from nin.an.na : "Lady of Heaven." Also known as Innin, her epithets reflect her broad role in the pantheon: Ninmesarra - "Queen of all the Me," a title making her one of the most influential deities in the world of gods and men; Nu-ugiganna - "the Hierodule of Heaven," a projection of her erotic functions to the cosmic scale; and Usunzianna - "Exalted Cow of Heaven," she who provides life and sustenance to the land. In this aspect, it was Inanna who yearly reunited symbolically with her consort Dumuzi to restore life and fertility in the land.

This cycle, known as the Sacred Marriage, was a common theme in songs sung in her praise. Inanna represented the force of sexual reproduction and the power of the passions so incited. This passion finds its compliment in her martial character, 'the heroic champion, the destroyer of foreign lands, foremost in battle.' She was the daughter of the moon-god Nanna (though some traditions held her to be the daughter of An). Her sister was the netherworld goddess Ereskigal. Inanna's beast was the lion. Her usual symbol was the star or star disk (though it may also have been the rosette).

IMDUGUD See NINURTA

ISHKUR Married goddess Shala

Sumerian god of the rain and thunderstorms of spring. He was the city god of Bit Khakhuru. He is similar to Ninhar (Ningubla) and was imagined in the form of a great bull and the son of Nanna (Akkadian Sin), the moon god. When he is portrayed in human shape, he often holds his symbol, the lightning fork. Ishkur's wife was the goddess Shala. In his role as god of rain and thunder, Ishkur corresponded to the other Sumerian deities Asalluhe and Ninurta. He was identified by the Akkadians with their god of thunderstorms, Adad.

ISHTAR

(Akkadian), Sumerian Inanna, in Mesopotamian religion, goddess of war and sexual love. Ishtar is the Akkadian counterpart of the West Semitic goddess Astarte. Inanna, an important goddess in the Sumerian pantheon, came to be identified with Ishtar, but it is uncertain whether Inanna is also of Semitic origin or whether, as is more likely, her similarity to Ishtar caused the two to be identified. In the figure of Inanna several traditions seem to have been combined: she is sometimes the daughter of the sky god An, sometimes his wife; in other myths she is the daughter of Nanna, god of the moon, or of the wind, Enlil. In her earliest manifestations she was associated with the storehouse and thus personified as the goddess of dates, wool, meat, and grain; the storehouse gates were her emblem. She was also the goddess of rain and thunderstorms--leading to her association with An, the sky god--and was often pictured with the lion, whose roar resembled thunder. The power attributed to her in war may have arisen from her connection with storms. Inanna was also a fertility figure, and, as goddess of the storehouse and the bride of the god Dumuzi-Amaushumgalana, who represented the growth and fecundity of the date palm, she was characterized as young, beautiful, and impulsive--never as helpmate or mother. She is sometimes referred to as the Lady of the Date Clusters.

Ishtar's primary legacy from the Sumerian tradition is the role of fertility figure; she evolved, however, into a more complex character, surrounded in myth by death and disaster, a goddess of contradictory connotations and forces: fire and fire-quenching, rejoicing and tears, fair play and enmity. The Akkadian Ishtar is also, to a greater extent, an astral deity, associated with the planet Venus: with Shamash, sun god, and Sin, moon god, she forms a secondary astral triad. In this manifestation her symbol is a star with 6, 8, or 16 rays within a circle.

As goddess of Venus, delighting in bodily love, Ishtar was the protectress of prostitutes and the patroness of the alehouse. Part of her cult worship probably included temple prostitution, and her cult centre, Erech, was a city filled with courtesans and harlots. Her popularity was universal in the ancient Middle East, and in many centres of worship she probably subsumed numerous local goddesses.

In later myth she was known as Queen of the Universe, taking on the powers of An, Enlil, and Enki.

She appears at times as Anu' second consort. Ishtar, with Shamash and Sin (the life-force, the sun, and the moon), formed an important triad of divinities. In astronomy Ishtar was a name of the planet Venus -- the double aspect of the goddess being made to correspond to the morning and evening star. (Lucifer)

(Chaldean) Ancient Babylonian deity, eldest of heaven and earth, daughter of Anu (the lord of the heavens) and Antum. She is the sister of Ereshkigal and has to face her in the underworld. This visit is conntected with Tammuz. Her worship was fervently pursued by the multitude both in Babylonia and Assyria, although she was known under various names in different localities -- Anunit, Nina, Nanna, Innanna, Atar -- even when represented as the consort of Marduk (Babylonia) and of Assur (Assyria). In popular conception, she was the bounteous nature goddess, queen of beauty and joyousness, equivalent to Aphrodite or Venus, however, rather than Ceres, although synthesizing certain attributes of both these goddesses. Her other aspect is as the grim, stern harvester, withdrawing the life-forces so that everything during this period shall have sleep and rest. This aspect was stressed by the warlike Assyrians, who represented her as armed with bow and arrows, and hence she becomes their chief goddess of battles; whereas the Babylonians stressed the mother and child idea. Her symbol was an eight-rayed star.

KI / Ninhursag

(Sumerian) (Aruru), Mammi -Babylonian) goddess of earth. Ki is likely to be the original name of the earth goddess, whose name more often appears as Ninhursag (queen of the mountains), Ninmah (the exalted lady), or Nintu (the lady who gave birth). It seems likely that she and An were the progenitors of most of the gods. She is the mother goddess and assists in the creation of man.

There advised Enki as he shaped several forms of man from the heart of the clay over the Abzu. In Dilmun, she bore eight new trees from Enki. When he then ate her children, she cursed him with eight wounds. After being persuaded by Enlil to undo her curse, she bore Enki eight new children which undid the wounds of the first ones. Most often she is considered Enlil's sister, but in some traditions she is his spouse instead.

KINGS (Sumerian)

KINGU The dragon of chaos. See Below

KISH

First to establish the kingship after the flood according to the Sumerian king list. East of Babylon, connected to it by canal. Cult center of Ishtar (temple E-hursag-kalama) and Zababa (temple E-mete-ursag). A Babylonian city. See Etana.

KISHAR

"Whole earth" Sumerian god of old generation, paired with Anshar. She is the offspring of Tiamat and Apsu and the mother of Anu.

KOSMOS Pythagoreanism

Speculation on number and proportion led to an intuitive feeling of the harmonia ("fitting together") of the kosmos ("the beautiful order of things"); and the application of the tetraktys to the theory of music (see below Music) revealed a hidden order in the range of sound. Pythagoras may have referred, vaguely, to the "music of the heavens," which he alone seemed able to hear; and later Pythagoreans seem to have assumed that the distances of the heavenly bodies from the Earth somehow correspond to musical intervals--a theory that, under the influence of Platonic conceptions, resulted in the famous idea of the "harmony of the spheres." Though number to the early Pythagoreans was still a kind of cosmic matter, like the water or air proposed by the Ionians, their stress upon numerical proportions, harmony, and order comprised a decisive step toward a metaphysic in which form is the basic reality. See Apopis. Chaldean is a synonym in the Bible for soothsayers or enchanters who always used music to deceive people. Judas, for instance, carried the Glosokomon or the bag for carrying the mouthpieces of wind instruments. It is made up of "speaking in tongues" and "of the Kosmos."

KOTHAR

Also called KHASIS, OR KHAYIN, ancient West Semitic god of crafts, equivalent of the Greek god Hephaestus. Kothar was responsible for supplying the gods with weapons and for building and furnishing their palaces. During the earlier part of the 2nd millennium BC, Kothar's forge was believed to be on the biblical Caphtor (probably Crete), though later, during the period of Egyptian domination of Syria and Palestine, he was identified with the Egyptian god Ptah, patron of craftsmen, and his forge was thus located at Memphis in Egypt. According to Phoenician tradition, Kothar was also the patron of magic and inventor of magical incantations; in addition, he was believed to have been the first poet. SEE Aqhat Epic.

KUR The Underworld. (See Asag).

Kur is the name of the area which either was contained by or contained the Abzu. Enki also struggled with Kur as mentioned in the opening to "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Underworld" and presumably was victorious and thereby able to claim the title "Lord of Kur" (the realm). Kramer suggests that Kur was a dragon-like creature, calling to mind Tiamat and Leviathan. The texts suggests that Enki's struggle may have been with instruments of the land of kur - its stones or its creatures hurling stones. (See also Apsu and Tiamat.)

LAGASH

The city was founded in the prehistoric Ubaid Period (c. 5200-c. 3500 BC) and was still occupied as late as the Parthian era (247 BC-ad 224). In the Early Dynastic Period the rulers of Lagash called themselves "king" (lugal), though the city itself never was included within the official Sumerian canon of kingship. Among the most famous Lagash monuments of that period is the Stele of the Vultures, erected to celebrate the victory of King Eannatum over the neighbouring state of Umma. Another is the engraved silver vase of King Entemena, a successor of Eannatum. Control of Lagash finally fell to Sargon of Akkad (reigned c. 2334-2279 BC), but about 150 years later Lagash enjoyed a revival.

It prospered most brilliantly under Gudea, who was probably a governor rather than an independent king and was nominally subject to the Guti, a warlike people who controlled much of Babylonia from about 2230 to about 2130.

Lagash was endowed with many temples, including the Eninnu, "House of the Fifty," a seat of the high god Enlil. Architecturally the most remarkable structure was a weir and regulator, once doubtless possessing sluice gates, which conserved the area's water supply in reservoirs.

LAHMU AND LAHAMU

in Mesopotamian mythology, twin deities, the first gods to be born from the chaos that was created by the merging of Apsu (the watery deep beneath the earth) and Tiamat (the personification of the salt waters); this is described in the Babylonian mythological text Enuma elish (c. 12th century BC). Mummu is the womb for this "evolution of the gods."

Usually, Lahmu and Lahamu represent silt, but in some texts they seem to take the form of serpents, and, because the wavy line of a gliding snake is similar to the ripple of water, some scholars believe that Lahmu and Lahamu may have been only synonyms of Tiamat. Lahmu and Lahamu were rather vague deities who do not seem to have played any significant part in subsequent myths, although they may have been the parents of Anshar and Kishar.

LAMU: He and his wife Lahamu are said to be the silt created by the junction of the primeval Waters, the rivers and sea. They are the Children of Apsu and Tiamat. (see Lahamu).

LAHAMU: Wife/sister of Lamu.

LAMASHTU

Demoness who steals babies from their mothers. A source for much of the Hebrew Lilith. (Akkadian), Sumerian Dimme, in Mesopotamian religion, the most terrible of all female demons, daughter of the sky god Anu (Sumerian: An). A wicked female who slew children, drank the blood of men, and ate their flesh, she had seven names and was often described in incantations as the "seven witches." Lamashtu accomplished a variety of evil deeds: she disturbed sleep and brought nightmares; she killed foliage and infested rivers and streams; she bound the muscles of men, caused pregnant women to miscarry, and brought disease and sickness. Lamashtu was often portrayed on amulets as a lion- or bird-headed female figure kneeling on an ass; she held a double-headed serpent in each hand and suckled a dog at her right breast and a pig or another dog at her left breast.

LARSA

One of the ancient capital cities of Babylonia, located about 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Uruk (Erech; Arabic Tall al-Warka'), in southern Iraq. Larsa was probably founded in prehistoric times, but the most prosperous period of the city coincided with an independent dynasty inaugurated by a king named Naplanum (c. 2025-c. 2005 BC).

LEVIATHAN liweyathan (Hebrew)

Hebrew LIVYATAN, in Jewish mythology, a primordial sea serpent. Its source is in prebiblical Mesopotamian myth, especially that of the sea monster in the Ugaritic myth of Baal (see Yamm). In the Old Testament, Leviathan appears in Psalms 74:14 as a multiheaded sea serpent that is killed by God and given as food to the Hebrews in the wilderness. In Isaiah 27:1, Leviathan is a serpent and a symbol of Israel's enemies, who will be slain by God. In Job 41, it is a sea monster and a symbol of God's power of creation.

Foldings, turnings, windings, hence whatever is infolded or wound. Mystically time as the great serpent of cyclic or circling time, likewise space and the various phenomena that happen in space such as the turnings and windings of forces as manifested by electricity in lightning or thunderbolt. Ancient Hebrew Biblical esotericism made of Leviathan a great sea monster, with particular reference to the waters of space. In its exalted sense it means the cycling and everlasting motion of divinity in duration and in abstract space; its concrete or lowest aspect signifies the apparently unregulated, winding, turbulent forces of the material worlds -- also inimical forces which seem antagonistic to the spiritual and intellectual balance of him who strives upwards. One significance was that of a great serpent or crocodile -- it is sometimes compared to the Hindu Makara; another is "Deity in its double manifestation of good and evil" (Theosophy)

LILITH (Hebrew)

Isaiah 34:16b

Female demon of Jewish folklore; her name and personality are derived from the class of Mesopotamian demons called lilû (feminine: lilitu, from layil night ). In rabbinic literature Lilith is variously depicted as the mother of Adam's demonic offspring following his separation from Eve or as his first wife, who left him because of their incompatibility. Three angels tried in vain to force her return; the evil she threatened, especially against children, was said to be counteracted by the wearing of an amulet bearing the names of the angels. A cult associated with Lilith survived among some Jews as late as the 7th century AD. ( In Isaiah 14:12 Heylel (h1966) hay-lale'; from 1984 (in the sense of brightness); the morning-star: - lucifer.) Represented by the king of Babylon and of Tyre called "the harp-playing" prostitute who used musical priestesses to seduce travelers out of their wealth.

Babylo-Assyrian Lilit or Lilu. In Rabbinical writings Lilith is the first consort or wife of the mindless Adam, and it was from the snares of Eve-Lilith that the second Eve, the woman, become his savior.

"The numberless traditions about Satyrs are no fables, but represent an extinct race of animal men. The animal 'Eves' were their foremothers, and the human 'Adams' their forefathers; hence the Kabalistic allegory of Lilith or Lilatu, Adam's first wife, whom the Talmud describes as a charming woman, with long wavy hair, i.e., -- a female hairy animal of a character now unknown, still a female animal, who in the Kabalistic and Talmudic allegories is called the female reflection of Samael, Samael-Lilith, or man-animal united, a being called Hayoh Bishah, the Beast or Evil Beast. (Zohar, ii, 255, 259). It is from this unnatural union that the present apes descended" (Theosophy view)

LUCIFER (Latin)

Light-bringer [Hebrew heylel, from halal) the planet Venus, the morning star. Lucifer is light bringer to earth, not only physically as the brightest of the planets, but in a mystical sense also. In mysticism he is the chief of those minor powers or logoi who are said to rebel against high heaven and to be cast down to the bottomless pit -- the so-called war in heaven and the fall of the angels.

LUGALBANDA (Mesop. hero)

Lugal-gabajal

Father of Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, son of Emerkar, deified hero of several Sumerian stories. Consort of the goddess Ninsun, native of Kullab. Ancestor of Gilgamesh.

Dumuzi (not Dumuzi the shepherd) was a human offspring as The Wild Bull. His mother was Ninsum the "Lady Wild Cow." Her husband was Lugalbanda.

MARDUK

The son of Ea and Damkina and in Mesopotamian religion, the chief god of the city of Babylon and the national god of Babylonia; as such he was eventually called simply Bel, or Lord. Originally he seems to have been a god of thunderstorms. A poem, known as Enuma elish and dating from the reign of Nebuchadrezzar I (1124-03 BC), relates Marduk's rise to such preeminence that he was the god of 50 names, each one that of a deity or of a divine attribute. After conquering the monster of primeval chaos, Tiamat, he became "lord of the gods of heaven and earth." All nature, including man, owed its existence to him; the destiny of kingdoms and subjects was in his hands.

Marduk's chief temples at Babylon were the Esagila and the Etemenanki, a ziggurat with a shrine of Marduk on the top. In Esagila the poem Enuma elish was recited every year at the New Year festival. The goddess named most often as the consort of Marduk was Zarpanit, or Zarbanit (She of the City Zarpan). (See Akitu.)

MARTU

Of the kings after Shar-kali-sharri (c. 2217-c. 2193), only the names and a few brief inscriptions have survived. Quarrels arose over the succession, and the dynasty went under, although modern scholars know as little about the individual stages of this decline as about the rise of Akkad. Two factors contributed to its downfall: the invasion of the nomadic Amurrus (Amorites), called Martu by the Sumerians,

from the northwest, and the infiltration of the Gutians, who came, apparently, from the region between the Tigris and the Zagros Mountains to the east

MASHU, Mount

See First Adam and Eve for a description of the Supernatural Mountain and Second Adam and Eve

ME

Remember that when Jacob tricked Esau out of his father's blessing Esau had no tribal authority as first born. The recitation of the words by his father gave power which we cannot understand. In a similar way, in Sumer, the ME were words, incantantations or skills such as music or perverted sex required to pass on the "spirit of" arts and sciences to keep civilization going. All of these ME were collected in Ekur but then given to Enki to protect and hand out as "gifts of the spirit." Eridu, where he was worshipped, was to be the central sanctuary of these gifts. However, Inanna complained and got Enki drunk and gained 94 of the Me and removes them to her center at Erich. When Enki sobered up he tried to recover them.

MESLAMTAEA

One of the three underwold gods. These are not part of the Seven Dreaded Anunnaki, as they are children of Enlil and Ninlil. (See Ninazu). In Mesopotamian religion, city god of Cuthah in Akkad. His temple in Cuthah was called Emeslam, or Meslam ("Luxuriant Mesu Tree"). His name, which means "He Who Issues from Meslam," perhaps indicates that he was originally a tree god, which would agree with his general chthonian, or underworld, character. He was the son of Enlil (Akkadian: Bel), god of the atmosphere, and of Ninlil (Belit), goddess of grain, and he appears in hymns as a warrior similar to the war god Ninurta. Meslamtaea's weapons, however, sometimes seem to be turned against his own people and their herds, when he kills them in great plagues. He seems to have been closely related to or identical with the god Nergal, and, as such, he was ruler of the netherworld and the spouse of its queen, Ereshkigal; this position, however, may not have been original with the god. The Assyrians are treated as fir trees in the garden of Eden whose head reached into the sky.

MESOPOTAMIAN CULT

In the cultic practices, humans fulfilled their destiny: to take care of the gods' material needs. They therefore provided the gods with houses (the temples) that were richly supplied with lands, which people cultivated for them. In the temple the god was present in--but not bounded by--a statue made of precious wood overlaid with gold. For this statue the temple kitchen staff prepared daily meals from produce grown or raised on the temple's fields, in its orchards, in its sheepfolds, cattle pens, and game preserves, brought in by its fishermen, or delivered by farmers owing it as a temple tax. The statue was also clad in costly raiment, bathed, and escorted to bed in the bedchamber of the god, often on top of the temple tower, or ziggurat. To see to all of this the god had priests trained as cooks, bakers, waiters, and bathers, or as encomiasts (singers of praise) and musicians to make the god's meals festive, or as elegists to soothe him in times of stress and grief. Diversions from the daily routine were the great monthly festivals and also a number of special occasions.

See the story of David and Saul

Such special occasions might be a sudden need to go through the elaborate ritual for purifying the king when he was threatened by the evils implied in an eclipse of the Moon, or in extreme cases there might be a call for the ritual installation of a substitute king to take upon himself the dangers threatening, and various other nonperiodic rituals. When Israel demanded to live like the nations David's counting of the warriors with the goal of enslaving them in a peace-time army, he had to perform similar rituals to purify the temple. When the temple became totally polluted with Assyrian idols and worship Hezekiah had to purify them with animal sacrifices and musical instruments. As usual, this was not a ritual for the common citizens.

Partly regular, partly impromptu, were the occasions for audiences with the god in which the king or other worshipers presented their petitions and prayers accompanied by appropriate offerings. These were mostly edibles, but not infrequently the costly containers in which they were presented, stone vases, golden boat-shaped vessels, etc., testified to the ardour of the givers. Appropriate gifts other than edibles were also acceptable--among them cylinder seals for the god's use, superhuman in size, and weapons for him, such as maceheads, also outsize.

MOABITE-STONE

King Omri of Israel (reigned c. 884-c. 872 BC), who is mentioned in 1 Kings 16:23-28, reconquered Moabite lands that had been lost since Solomon's death in 922 BC, when Israel split into two kingdoms. Omri's reconquest is known from the Moabite Stone, a stela that the Moabite king Mesha erected about 40 years later in the city of Dibon (modern Dhiban, Jordan).

MUMMU -Tiamat

The Sumerian goddess of the primeval ocean also called the deep and the consort of APSU. Mummu means "mold" or "womb."

APSU needs a vizier named MUMMU as an aid in carrying out his forming (creating) commands. Thus TIAMAT represents or is the personification of the deep without the molding life-giving abilities. MUMMU-TIAMAT seems to be the equivalent of the Canaanite ASHERAH.

MUSARUS See Oannes

MUSHUSSU (Offsite Mushussu) The Snake Dragon

"Red/furious snake" A dragon or monster made of many animals. Symbol of Marduk. Previously read "sirrus." "Mushussu has been in the mountain for over two millennia, and perhaps longer. Why he came here is unknown. What is known is that he seeks to free someone from the 'heart' of the volcano. Mushussu has never shown the capacity for speaking Greek or any other language known to the characters, instead speaking an alien language quite outside the character's experience (ancient Babylonian)."

MUSIC

From Greek mousike (techne) the art of the Muses] The music of the Greeks did not signify merely the harmony of sounds, but actually imbodied the idea of inner harmony of the spirit, the becoming at one with the spirit of the Muses, so that the soul responded in harmonic rhythm to the beat of universal harmony. Music with the Greeks, therefore, included, besides vocal and instrumental music, choral dancing, rhythmic motions, and various modes of harmony expressed in action.

Music, in all its various branches is represented as having been taught to man by his divine and divine-human ancestors, such as Isis-Osiris, Thoth, Edris (in the Koran), etc. It is one of the elements of the power known as mantrikasakti. Music was represented as one of four divisions of mathematics, the others being arithmetic, astronomy, and geometry. The music of sound arouses in us a power which needs to be controlled, as it can carry us to heights from which we may fall. If regarded as a sensual indulgence, even though a refined one, its true import is not realized.

MUSIC OF THE SPHERES

Plato declared that rhythmic and melodic complexities were to be avoided because they led to depression and disorder. Music echoes divine harmony; rhythm and melody imitate the movements of heavenly bodies, thus delineating the music of the spheres and reflecting the moral order of the universe. Earthly music, however, is suspect; Plato distrusted its emotional power

An extremely archaic teaching repeated by Pythagoras, who travelled in Babylonia, and therefore in the West commonly associated with his doctrine, for he taught that the world had been called forth out of Chaos by sound or harmony, and that the universe is constructed on harmonic proportions. He further taught that the planets were arranged in relation to each other and to the Sun in the progression of a musical scale

NABU

Hebrew NEBO, major god in the Assyro-Babylonian pantheon. He was patron of the art of writing and a god of vegetation. Nabu's symbols were the clay tablet and the stylus, the instruments held to be proper to him who inscribed the fates assigned to men by the gods. In the Old Testament, the worship of Nebo is denounced by Isaiah (46:1).

Samsuditana, the last king of the 1st dynasty of Babylon (reigned 1625-1595 BC), introduced a statue of Nabu into Esagila, the temple of Marduk, who was the city god of Babylon. Not until the 1st millennium BC, however, did the relationship between Marduk and Nabu and their relative positions in theology and popular devotion become clear. Marduk, the father of Nabu, took precedence over him, at least theoretically, in Babylonia. But in popular devotion it was Nabu, the son, who knows all and sees all, who was chief, especially during the centuries immediately preceding the fall of Babylon. He had a chapel named Ezida in his father's temple Esagila, where at the New Year feast he was installed alongside Marduk. In his own holy city, Borsippa, he was supreme.

Goddesses associated with Nabu were Nana, a Sumerian deity; the Assyrian Nissaba; and the Akkadian Tashmetum, queen of Borsippa, stepdaughter of Marduk, and, as her abstract Akkadian name indicates, Lady of Hearing and of Favour. She was rarely invoked apart from her husband, Nabu, whose name means "speaking." Thus, while Nabu speaks, Nana listens.

NAMMU

Water was so close that the early Babylonians believed that the earth floated on water. In a process of evolution, Nammu split the earth from the heavens. The sky was active and destructive and was called An, the sky god. All life evolves out of the earth and brings forth mountains or Ki. An and Ki in turn produced Enlil or atmosphere the noisy "child" in between. Enlil broke the sky and rain fell.

Nammu's sign was usually written with the sign "en-gur;" the same sign used to denote the abzu: the underground sweet waters which brought life to the land. It was from her ancient waters that Enlil was said, in some traditions, to have been brought forth. She was also said to be the mother of Enki (Ea) (as well as the mother of the 'Great Gods' in general).

NAM-SHUB

NAMTAR (Namtara)

When men grew two numerous and too noisy, at first Enlil had Namtar, the god of death, cause a plague to diminish mankind's numbers, but the wise Atrahasis, at the advice of Enki, had man concentrate all worship and offerings on Namtar. Namtar, embarrassed at hurting people who showed such love and affection for him, stayed his hand.

Namtar was the "decider of fate" vizier(CHIEF MINISTER) of Ereshkigal, demon god of the underworld. God of the plague and other disease and fear, in the land of the dead. She could set loose 60 diseases

NANNAR. The Sumerian moon-god of the city of Ur. Also called Sin (Babylonia) and the son of Ninlil. The moon travels through the sky in a boat.

NANNA-SIN Nanna-Suen

NANNA-DINGIR

(Sumerian) The god of the moon, and the father of Utu and Inanna. Nanna: is another name for the moon god Sin, and was located at Ur.

He is the product of Enlil's rape of Ninlil. Nanna was the tutelary deity of Ur, appointed as king of that city by An and Enlil. He established Ur-Nammu as his mortal representative, establishing the third Ur dynasty. Nanna was married to Ningal and they produced Inanna and Utu. He rests in the Underworld every month, and there decrees the fate of the dead. He averts a flood of his city by visiting Enlil in Nippur on a boat loaded with gifts and pleading with him. He refuses to send aid to Inanna when she is trapped in the underworld.

A third myth built over the motif of journeying to the netherworld is the myth of "The Engendering of the Moongod and his Brothers," which tells how Enlil (Lord Wind), when still a youngster, came upon young Ninlil (goddess of grain) as she--eager to be with child and disobeying her mother--was bathing in a canal where he would see her. He lay with her in spite of her pretending to protest and thus engendered the moon god Suen. For this offense Enlil was banished from Nippur and took the road to the netherworld. Ninlil, carrying his child, followed him. On the way Enlil took the shape first of the Nippur gatekeeper, then of the man of the river of the netherworld, and lastly of the ferryman of the river of the netherworld. In each such disguise Enlil persuaded Ninlil to let him lie with her to engender a son who might take Suen's place in the netherworld and leave him free for the world above. Thus three further deities, all underworld figures, were engendered: Meslamtaea (He Who Comes Out of the Meslam Temple), Ninazu (Water Sprinkler [?]), and Ennugi (the God Who Returns Not). The myth ends with a paean to Enlil as a source of abundance and to his divine word, which always comes true.

Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru

NANSHE

Also spelled NANSE, OR NAZI, in Mesopotamian religion, Sumerian city goddess of Nina (modern Surghul, Iraq) in the southeastern part of the Lagash region of Mesopotamia. According to tradition, Nanshe's father Enki (Akkadian: Ea) organized the universe and placed her in charge of fish and fishing. Nanshe was also described as a divine soothsayer and dream interpreter. Although at times overshadowed by her sister Inanna (Akkadian: Ishtar), Nanshe was, nevertheless, important in her own geographic area, and many rulers of Lagash record that they were chosen by her.

NERGAL

(arrow shooting god of II Kings 17:30), fire-god, identified with Mars or fire-star. a Babylonian god and king of the Underworld "Lord of the great dwelling." When ejected from heaven he invaded the underworld with fourteen demons. His wife was Ereshkigal (possibly Gulu). During the great flood he tore away the mast of the ship in which Utanapishtim (the Babylonian Noah) escaped and was saved along with his family and specimens of all manner of animals. Nergal is also the god of plague with Namtar (evil god, negative aspect of fate, disease bringer), his symbols are a sword and a lion's head. From the contract tablets found by Rassam at Tel-Ibrahim it appears that the ancient name of Cuthah was Gudua or Kuta. Itís ruins were 3,000 feet in circumference and 280 feet high. In it was a sanctuary dedicated to Ibrahim (Abraham). Both the city and its great temple, the later dedicated to Nergal, appear to date back to Sumerian times. Nergal (Heb. nereghal, a Babylonian deity of destruction and disaster, associated with the planet Mars (god of war and agriculture)

Also pronounced Erakal, "Lord of Erkalla (the great city)" Chief god of the Underworld, consort of Ereshkigal (and of Mammetum; see Ninhursag).

NIMROD

(Hebrew) The traditional founder of the kingdom of Babylon, known in Babylonia as Izdubar or Gilgamesh. According to the Bible, the son of Cush; in legend a mighty hunter (Genesis 10:9). The name Nimrod has not been found prior to the period of the Israelites (500 BC).

The only other references to Nimrod in the Old Testament are Mic. 5:6, where Assyria is called the land of Nimrod, and I Chron. 1:10. The beginning of his kingdom is said in Genesis to be Babel, Erech, and Akkad in the land of Shinar. Nimrod is said to have built Nineveh, Calah (modern Nimrud), Rehoboth-Ir, and Resen.

NIBRU

NINAZU

God of Eshnunna. Temple called E-sikil and E-kurmah. Son of Ereshkigal, father of Ningishzida. Replaced by Tishpak as patron of Eshnunna. Babylonian god of magic incantations.

Sumerian deity, the city god of Enegir, which was located on the Euphrates River between Larsa and Ur in the southern orchard region. Ninazu was also the city god of Eshnunna (modern Tall al-Asmar in eastern Iraq). Ninazu, whose name means "water knower," was primarily an underworld deity, although the exact nature of his character or functions is not clear. In Enegir he was considered the son of Ereshkigal, goddess of the netherworld; according to another tradition, however, he was the son of Enlil (Akkadian Bel) and Ninlil (Belit). His spouse was Ningirda, a daughter of Enki (Ea).

NINGAL

Consort of Nanna Sin. She was the mother of Shamash.

The third "song" relates that the goddess Ningal hears the pleas of the people of Ur, but she is not able to dissuade the gods Anu and Enlil from their decision to destroy the city, and the remaining "songs" relate the devastating results of Ur's defeat in battle. The last stanza ends with a plea to Nanna, the husband of Ningal, that the city may once more rise up and that the people of Ur may again present their offerings to him.

NINGIRSU

(Sumerian), also called NININSINA, Akkadian Gula, or Ninkarrak, in Mesopotamian religion, city goddess of Urukug in the Lagash region and, under the name Nininsina, the Queen of Isin, city goddess of Isin, south of Nippur. Bau seems originally to have been goddess of the dog; as Nininsina she was long represented with a dog's head, and the dog was her emblem. Perhaps because the licking of sores by dogs was supposed to have curative value, she became a goddess of healing. She was a daughter of An, king of the gods, and the wife of Pabilsag, a rain god who was also called Ninurta, or Ningirsu.

NINGISHZIDA )

Sumerian deity, city god of Gishbanda, near Ur in the southern orchard region. Although Ningishzida was a power of the netherworld, where he held the office of throne bearer, he seems to have originally been a tree god, for his name apparently means "Lord Productive Tree." In particular, he probably was god of the winding tree roots, since he originally was represented in serpent shape. When pictured in human form, two serpent heads grow from his shoulders in addition to the human head, and he rides on a dragon. He was a son of Ninazu and Ningirda and was the husband of Ninazimua ("Lady Flawlessly Grown Branch").Along with Tammuz, a guard of the gate to Heaven.

NINHAR

Also NINGUBLA, in Mesopotamian religion, Sumerian deity, city god of Kiabrig, near Ur in the southern herding region. Ninhar was god of the thunder and rainstorms that made the desert green with pasturage in the spring; as such he was represented in the form of a roaring bull. He was the son of Nanna (Akkadian Sin) and Ningal and the husband of Ninigara ("Lady of Butter and Cream"), goddess of the dairy.

NINHURSAG See Ki.

Also spelled NINHURSAGA (Sumerian), Akkadian Belit-ili, in Mesopotamian religion, city goddess of Adab and of Kish in the northern herding regions; she was the goddess of the stony, rocky ground, the hursag. In particular, she had the power in the foothills and desert to produce wildlife. Especially prominent among her offspring were the onagers (wild asses) of the western desert. As the sorrowing mother animal she appears in a lament for her son, a young colt, but as goddess of birth she is not only the goddess of animal birth but the Mother of All Children, a mother-goddess figure. Her other names include: Dingirmakh ("Exalted Deity"), Ninmakh ("Exalted Lady"), Aruru ("Dropper," i.e., the one who "loosens" the scion in birth), and Nintur ("Lady Birth Giver"). Her husband is the god Shulpae, and among their children were the sons Mululil and Ashshirgi and the daughter Egime. Mululil seems to have been a dying god, like Dumuzi, whose death was lamented in yearly rites.

(Mammu, Aruru):"Mountain-lady" also known as Ninmah "supreme lady" Nintu "birth lady?" Mamma, Mammi, Mammitum "Mommy", Belet-Ili "mistress of the gods" Aruru (meaning unknown) Epithets: sassuru, "womb-goddess"; tabsut ili " midwife of the gods"; qurqurrat ili "smelter of the gods" "mother of the gods" and "mother of all children" Spouse of Shulpae and then of Nergal. Shrine at Kesh in central Mesopotamia, still not identified. A goddess in Sumerian and Mesopotamian mythology, the earth-mother. She was the wife of the water-god Enki.

Also known as Ninmah, she was given the title Ninhursag - "Lady of the Hursag (The stoney foothills)" by her son Ninurta in the myth Lugal-e. She was an ancient Sumerian form of the mother-goddess, known as 'mother of the gods,' and 'mother of all children.' It was

Ninhursag who was said to have been midwife to Nammu at the creation of man. She represents the innert procreative power of the mother which, though powerful, requires the union of the male force to be brought to its full potential. This was not to diminish her role, but simply a recognition that neither the female nor the male alone was a fully procreative force. Her major cult center was probably at Kish.

NINIB

(Babylonian) A Chaldean deity originally with solar attributes, especially prominent at Shirgulla, where he was closely associated with Bel and regarded as his son. In hymns he is described as a healing god who releases men from illness. But he was also classed as a god of war, and represented as armed for the chase. The aspect stressed was the sun at the morning and the springtime season, showering beneficence upon mankind. In theogony, Ninib was regent of the planet Saturn, and the animal symbol connected with him was the swine.

NINKASA Beer

NINLIL

(Akkadian Belit) Enlil's wife. This Goddess followed Enlil to the underworld after he had been banished there by the Anunnaki for raping her. At this point she was pregnant with Nanna (from the rape). In the underworld she gave birth to the Three Underworld Deities and gave birth to Nanna after she made it back out.

The Sumerian goddess of sailors. She was seduced by the sky-god Enlil, who was condemned by the gods for this sin to live in Hades. However, Ninlil loved him and insisted on following him to the underworld. The gods decided that she had to postpone her departure until she had given birth because her child must not be born under the earth, as it was to be Nanna the moon-god. When Nanna was born and rose into the sky, Ninlil descended to join her husband and had three more children by him. Ninlil is sometimes identified with the goddess Ishtar, (Babylonian Mullitu, Mylitta)

NINMAH SEE NINHURSAG

NINSUN

Sumerian city goddess of Kullab in the southern herding region. As Ninsun's name, "Lady Wild Cow," indicates, she was originally represented in cow form and was considered the divine power behind, as well as the embodiment of, all the qualities the herdsman wished for in his cows: she was the "flawless cow" and a "mother of good offspring that loves the offspring." She was, however, also represented in human form and could give birth to human offspring. She is also goddess of the city of Uruk, mother of Gilgamesh.

The Wild Bull Dumuzi (as distinct from Dumuzi the Shepherd) was traditionally her son, whom she lamented in the yearly ritual marking his death. In her role as a mother figure, her other Sumerian counterparts include Ninhursag (Akkadian: Belit-ili) and Ninlil (Belit). Ninsun's husband was the legendary hero Lugalbanda.

NINURTA

Ninurta was the son of Enlil (Akkadian: Bel) and Ninlil (Belit) and was married to Bau, in Nippur called Ninnibru, Queen of Nippur. A major festival of his, the Gudsisu Festival, marked in Nippur the beginning of the plowing season.

Hero of the Gods. God of the Stormy South Winds. Possible pre-cursur to Marduk. This god owned a weapon that was alive. This weapon, Sharur, for some reason, convenced Nunurta to destroy Asag. This he did. However, once Asag was gone, the Waters rose up and engulfed the Earth. Nothing could grow. So, Nunurta built a stone wall over Asag's body that stopped and held back the Waters. Then he took the Waters that had already engulfed the land and dumped them into the Euphrates. This caused the overflow of the Euphrates, and the land became abundant

Also called Ningirsu, in Mesopotamian religion, city god of Girsu (Tal'ah, or Telloh) in the Lagash region. Ninurta was the farmer's version of the god of the thunder and rainstorms of the spring. He was also the power in the floods of spring and was god of the plow and of plowing. Ninurta's earliest name was Imdugud (now also read as Anzu), which means "rain cloud," and his earliest form was that of the thundercloud envisaged as an enormous black bird floating on outstretched wings roaring its thunder cry from a lion's head. With the growing tendency toward anthropomorphism, the old form and name were gradually disassociated from the god as merely his emblems; enmity toward the older inacceptable shape eventually made it evil, an ancient enemy of the god.

Ninurta (Nergal, Orion) in the Epic of Gilgamesh helps to flood the earth by throwing down the dykes and breaking dams. Here Gula helped breathe life into mankind. Ninurta and Gulu's wedding feast was celebrated on New Year's day. The goddess Gulu, (the earth-goddess, mother goddess; also Ninmah, goddess of the underworld) sits below ground with her dog, where the cosmic serpent begins to rise. She is the patroness of herbs, healing, life, as her flowered garment shows. Hands lifted in prayer, she sits with her dog, defender of homes, while before her a Scorpion Archer mounts guard at the uttermost bound of the earth (cosmic sea), to defend against demonic powers and protect the rising and setting sun.

NINUS

In Greek mythology, king of Assyria and the eponymous founder of the city of Nineveh, which itself is sometimes called Ninus. He was said to have been the son of Belos, or Bel, and to have conquered in 17 years all of western Asia with the help of Ariaeus, king of Arabia. During the siege of Bactra he met Semiramis, the wife of one of his officers, Onnes; he then took her from Onnes and married her. The fruit of the marriage was Ninyas--i.e., the Ninevite.

NIPPUR

In Sumerian mythology Nippur was the home of Enlil, the storm god and representation of force and the god who carried out the decrees of the assembly of gods that met at Nippur. Enlil, according to one account, created man at Nippur. Although a king's armies might subjugate the country, the transference to that king of Enlil's divine power to rule had to be sought and sanctioned. Ur-Nammu (reigned 2112-2095 Bc), first king of the 3rd dynasty of Ur, laid out Enlil's sanctuary, the Ekur, in its present form. A ziggurat and a temple were built in an open courtyard surrounded by walls.

NUSKU

A fire god invoked, with two others, against black magic. God of light Mesopotamian religion, Sumero-Akkadian god of light and fire. His father was Sin (Sumerian: Nanna), the moon god. He figures much in incantations and rituals as the fire. He is Ellil's servant.

OANNES

Mesopotamian amphibious being who taught mankind wisdom. Oannes, as described by the Babylonian priest Berosus, had the form of a fish but with the head of a man under his fish's head and under his fish's tail the feet of a man. In the daytime he came up to the seashore of the Persian Gulf and instructed mankind in writing, the arts, and the sciences. Oannes was probably the emissary of Ea, god of the freshwater deep and of wisdom.

Ea or Hea was the god of the sea and Wisdom, and the sea serpent was one of his emblems, his priests being 'serpents' or Initiates Oannes and the other Annedoti are grouped with the ancient 'adepts' or 'water dragons' -- Nagas.

The Indian "Naga" is similar to that of many ancient nations. Click for some pictures and collected quotations. Serpent worship was and is popular among more primitive people. Click for an index of articles and pictures.

Berossus describes Oannes as follows: "At Babylon there was (in these times) a great resort of people of various nations, who inhabited Chaldaea, and lived in a lawless manner like the beasts of the field. In the first year there appeared, from that part of the Erythraean sea which borders upon Babylonia, and animal destitute of reason [sic] by name Oannes. His voice was articulate.

Apollodorus referred to Oannes and the Annedoti as "Musarus." The word "musarus" means "an abomination" in Greek just as "annedoti" means "the repulsive ones." The founders were revered as "repulsive abominations."

PABILSAG

God of Larak, a city of importance before the flood. Bau seems originally to have been goddess of the dog; as Nininsina she was long represented with a dog's head, and the dog was her emblem. Perhaps because the licking of sores by dogs was supposed to have curative value, she became a goddess of healing. She was a daughter of An, king of the gods, and the wife of Pabilsag, a rain god who was also called Ninurta, or Ningirsu.

PAPSUKKEL

The chief minister of the Sumerian gods of heaven, especially of Ea, and messenger of the gods.

PHILO

PUKKU AND MIKKU

After Gilgamesh made a dangerous journey (Tablets IX and X) in search of Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Babylonian flood, in order to learn from him how to escape death. He finally reached Utnapishtim, who told him the story of the flood and showed him where to find a plant that would renew youth (Tablet XI). But after Gilgamesh obtained the plant, it was seized by a serpent, and Gilgamesh unhappily returned to Uruk. An appendage to the epic, Tablet XII, related the loss of objects called pukku and mikku (perhaps "drum" and "drumstick") given to Gilgamesh by Ishtar. The epic ends with the return of the spirit of Enkidu, who promised to recover the objects and then gave a grim report on the underworld. .

QINGU or Kingu

A form of this motif is found in Enuma elish, in which Enki (Ea) alone fashioned man out of the blood of the slain rebel leader Kingu.

Qingu was Tiamat's chosen battle leader. Holder of the Tablet of Destinies. She gave him the Tablets of Destiny, and set him as the leader of the "demonic" army of ugly monsters she had created for the purpose of attacking Ea and the other younger gods to avenge the death of Apsu. After Marduk won the battle, he enslaved the rebel gods for a time, until he finally took pity on their cries of burden. The gods readily handed Kingu over to Marduk. Kingu was slain, and his blood was used by Enki (Ea) to make man as "a labor saving device."

RIMMON

"Earth-shaker," fierce, severe, name of Adad. See Hadad Above (Zechariah 12:11)

RESHEP

Syrian War-god, with the head of a gazelle. (from Hebrew reshef, "the burner," or "the ravager"), ancient West Semitic god of the plague and of the underworld, the companion of Anath, and the equivalent of the Babylonian god Nergal. He was also a war god and was thus represented as a bearded man, brandishing an ax, holding a shield, and wearing a tall, pointed headdress with a goat's or gazelle's head on his forehead. He was usually believed to be related to Mot or a form of the god Baal.

SABBATH

SAMMU-RAMAT

Greek SEMIRAMIS, Assyrian queen who became a legendary heroine.

Sammu-ramat was the mother of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari III (reigned 810-783 BC). Her stela (memorial stone shaft) has been found at Ashur, while an inscription at Calah (Nimrud) shows her to have been dominant there after the death of her husband, Shamshi-Adad V (823-811 BC). She captivated the king Ninus by her beauty and valour and became his wife.

SARPANITUM: Marduk's consort.

SARGON

23rd century BC byname SARGON OF AKKAD (Agade), ancient Mesopotamian ruler (reigned c. 2334-2279 BC), one of the earliest of the world's great empire builders.

SERPENT

The mythological predecessor of the Serpent is the Sumerian god Enki, "Lord Earth," the Babylonian Ea, the god who rules the Earth and with it the lives of all creatures. The ancient Semites associated the serpent with the Moon-god, perhaps for its power to rejuvenate itself.

Circular motion, compounding itself into spirals, helixes, and vortices, is the builder of worlds, bringing together the scattered elements of chaos; motion per se is essential cosmic intelligence. This circular motion, returning upon itself like a serpent swallowing its tail, represents the cycles of time. This conscious energy in spirals whirls through all the planes of cosmos as fohat and his innumerable sons -- the cosmic energies and forces, fundamentally intelligent, operating in every scale or grade of matter. The caduceus of Hermes, twin serpents wound about a staff, represents cosmically the mighty drama of evolution, in its twin aspects, the staff or tree standing for the structural aspect, the serpent for the fohatic forces that animate the structure. (vortex)

Hermes, Mercury, intelligence, may represent a sage or a thief; the serpentine wisdom. The perverse will of man may turn natural forces to evil purposes, and thus we speak of the good serpent and the bad, of Agathodaemon and Kakodaemon, of Ophis and Ophiomorphos. A serpent can be a sage or a sorcerer.

The dragon is the eternally vigilant one, guardian of the sacred treasures; but he is the ruthless destroyer of him who attempts to gain by force the riches to which he has not won a title. To gain knowledge, we must know how to tame the serpent which rules the nether worlds, as the Christ refuses to make obeisance to Satan.

See Oannes for some links

SHAMASH

(Akkadian), Sumerian (Utu) Hebrew Shemesh, in Mesopotamian religion, the god of the sun, who, with the moon god, Sin (Sumerian: Nanna), and Ishtar (Sumerian: Inanna), the goddess of Venus, was part of an astral triad of divinities. Shamash was the son of Sin and Ningal.

The wandering planets of Enoch

SHULGI

Shulgi, the son of Ur-Nammu, the founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur, is one of the more renowned kings of Sumer, whose reign endured for almost half a century. He was military commander, temple builder, patron of the arts and athlete

Shulgi, too, called himself king of the four quarters of the earth. Although he resided in Ur, another important centre was in Nippur, whence--according to the prevailing ideology-- Enlil, the chief god in the Sumerian state pantheon, had bestowed on Shulgi the royal dignity. Shulgi and his successors enjoyed divine honours, as Naram-Sin of Akkad had before them; by now, however, the process of deification had taken on clearer outlines in that sacrifices were offered and chapels built to the king and his throne, while the royal determinative turned up in personal names. Along with an Utu-hegal ("The Sun God Is Exuberance") there appears a Shulgi-hegal ("Shulgi Is Exuberance"),

SHULPAE

Major Sumerian god with demonic and many other powers. Consort of Ninhursag. Identified with planet Jupiter. Husband of Ninhursag, and among their children were the sons Mululil and Ashshirgi and the daughter Egime. Mululil seems to have been a dying god, like Dumuzi, whose death was lamented in yearly rites.

SHURUPPAK

In Sumerian legend as the place of the flood, which destroyed all humanity except one survivor, Ziusudra. He had been commanded by a protecting god to build an ark, in which he rode out the disaster, afterward re-creating man and living things upon the earth, and was himself endowed with eternal life. Ziusudra corresponds with Utnapishtim in the Gilgamesh epic and with the biblical Noah.

SIDURI

In the Gilgamesh epic, the aging folk hero, haunted by the prospect of his own death, sets off to visit Utnapishtim, who, with his wife alone became immortal. He meets Siduri, the wine maiden, who exhorts him to make the most of the present for "the life which thou seekest thou wilt not find." There was no judgment after death just appalling grimness, unrelieved by any hope of salvation through human effort or divine compassion. The dead were, in fact, among the most dreaded beings in early Mesopotamian demonology. In a myth called "The Descent of Ishtar to the Underworld," the fertility goddess decides to visit kur-nu-gi-a ("the land of no return"), where the dead "live in darkness, eat clay, and are clothed like birds with wings."

SIN

Moon God. Born of Enlil and Ninlil. S=Nanna.

(Akkadian), Sumerian Nanna [worshipped at Ur], in Mesopotamian religion, the god of the moon. Sin was the father of the sun god, Shamash (Sumerian: Utu), and, in some myths, of Ishtar (Sumerian: Inanna), goddess of Venus, and with them formed an astral triad of deities.

His consort, Ningal, was a reed goddess. Each spring, Nanna's worshipers reenacted his mythological visit to his father, Enlil, at Nippur with a ritual journey, carrying with them the first dairy products of the year.

SINUHE

Middle Kingdom Egyptian official of the 12th dynasty (1938-1756 BC) who fled Egypt to settle in Syria. His biography yields information about political and social conditions of the time.

Sinuhe was an official of the harem maintained for Amenemhet I by his queen. While on an expedition to Libya he learned of the king's assassination (1908 BC) and fled, either from fright or because of his complicity. He intended to travel southward but was blown to the north while crossing the Nile, and he passed into Palestine. After much wandering in Palestine and Lebanon, he was invited to settle with a chieftain of southern Syria, who adopted him and married him to his eldest daughter. In that land Sinuhe raised a family and became a veritable patriarch.

The pharaoh Sesostris I invited Sinuhe to return to Egypt, and Sinuhe eagerly accepted. T

SIPPAR

TAMMUZ () get bible ezekiel 8:14

Akkadian Dumuzi, god of fertility embodying the powers for new life in nature in the spring. The name Tammuz seems to have been derived from the Akkadian form Tammuzi, based on early Sumerian Damuzid, The Flawless Young. The later standard Sumerian form, Dumu-zid, in turn became Dumuzi in Akkadian. The earliest known mention of Tammuz is in texts dating to the early part of the Early Dynastic III period (c. 2600-c. 2334 BC), but his cult probably was much older.

His father Enki is rarely mentioned, and his mother, the goddess Duttur, was a personification of the ewe.

The cult of Tammuz centred around two yearly festivals, one celebrating his marriage to the goddess Inanna, the other lamenting his death at the hands of demons from the netherworld. During the 3rd dynasty of Ur (c. 2112-c. 2004 BC) in the city of Umma (modern Tell Jokha), the marriage of the god was dramatically celebrated in February-March, Umma's Month of the Festival of Tammuz. During the Isin-Larsa period (c. 2004-c. 1792 BC), the texts relate that in the marriage rite the king actually took on the identity of the god and thus, by consummating the marriage with a priestess incarnating the goddess, magically fertilized and fecundated all of nature for the year.

TAMMUZ Tamaz (Dumuzi) [tä´muz]

The Jews took over the name of the deity and in the Old Testament we find: "Behold there sat women weeping for Tammuz" (Ezek 8:14) -- in Hebrew tammuz. "The women of Israel held annual lamentations over Adonis (that beautiful youth being identical with Tammuz).

The feast held in his honour was solstitial, and began with the new moon, in the month of Tammuz (July), taking place chiefly at Byblos in Phoenicia; but it was also celebrated as late as the fourth century of our era at Bethlehem, . . . Indeed, in the Mysteries of Tammuz or Adonis a whole week was spent in lamentations and mourning. The funereal processions were succeeded by a fast, and later by rejoicings; for after the fast Adoni-Tammuz was regarded as raised from the dead, and wild orgies of joy, of eating and drinking, as now in Easter week, went on uninterruptedly for several days"

All the great ancient initiations comprised a purification or preparation (katharsis) (BM), a trance followed by a dying, and a later resurrection of the initiant or neophyte as a fully born initiate, adept, or new man.

THE CULT OF TAMMUZ

Centred around two yearly festivals, one celebrating his marriage to the goddess