Dee Finney's blog
start date July 20, 2011
today's date October 1, 2012
TOPIC EAS EARLY ALERT SYSTEM
WHATS THAT LOUD BEEPING SOUND ON YOUR TV THAT DROWNS OUT EVERYTHING ELSE
YOU ARE TRYING TO LISTEN TO?
Emergency Alert System
Emergency Alert System
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is a
national warning system in the United States put into place on January 1, 1997,
when it superseded the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS), which itself had
superseded the CONELRAD System. In addition to alerting the public of local
weather emergencies such as tornadoes and flash floods, the official EAS is
designed to enable the President of the United States to speak to the United
States within 10 minutes, but the nationwide federal EAS has never been
activated. The EAS regulations and standards are governed by the Public Safety
and Homeland Security Bureau of the FCC. Each state and several territories have
their own EAS plan. EAS has become part of IPAWS - the Integrated Public Alert
and Warning System, a program of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). EAS
is jointly coordinated by FEMA, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and
the National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS). The EAS is used on AM, FM and Land
Mobile Radio Service, as well as VHF, UHF, FiOS (wireline video providers), and
cable television including low-power stations. Digital television and cable
providers, along with Sirius XM satellite radio, IBOC, DAB and digital radio
broadcasters have been required to participate in the EAS since December 31,
2006. DirecTV, Dish Network and all other DBS providers have been required to
participate since May 31, 2007.
The EAS is a national public warning system that requires
broadcasters, cable television systems,
wireless cable systems, satellite digital audio radio service
(SDARS) providers, and direct broadcast satellite (DBS) providers to
provide the communications capability to the President to address the
American public during a national emergency. The system also may be used
by state and local authorities to deliver important emergency
information, such as AMBER alerts and weather information targeted to
The first Nationwide test of the Emergency Alert System will be
carried out on November 9, 2011.
For more information
about the test or access to the participant reporting system, please
The FCC, in conjunction with Federal Emergency Management Agency
(FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's
National Weather Service (NWS), implements the EAS at the federal level.
The President has sole responsibility for determining when the EAS will
be activated at the national level, and has delegated this authority to
the director of FEMA. FEMA is responsible for implementation of the
national-level activation of the EAS, tests, and exercises. The NWS
develops emergency weather information to alert the public about
imminent dangerous weather conditions.
The FCC's role includes prescribing rules that establish technical
standards for the EAS, procedures for EAS participants to follow in the
event The EAS is activated, and EAS testing protocols. Additionally, the
FCC ensures that the EAS state and local plans developed by industry
conform to FCC EAS rules and regulations.
Amendment of Part 97 of the Commission's Rules Regarding Amateur
Radio Service Communications During Government Disaster Drills.
Report and Order:
PSHSB Sets Deadlines for Public Comment on Proposed Rulemaking
Related to Nation's EAS.
Second Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.
FEMA and the FCC Announce
Adoption of Standards for Wireless Carriers to Receive and
Deliver Emergency Alerts Via Mobile Devices.
Public Safety and
Homeland Security Bureau Provides Guidance Regarding "Live Code"
Testing of the Emergency Alert System.
The handbooks listed below contain instructions for following
Emergency Alert procedures in the following categories:
is a national public warning
system that requires TV and radio broadcasters, cable
systems, wireless cable
systems, satellite digital audio radio service
(SDARS) providers, direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service
providers and wireline video service providers to offer to
the President the communications capability to address the
American public during a national
system also may be used by state and local
authorities to deliver important
emergency information such as AMBER (missing
emergency weather information targeted to a specific
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in
conjunction with the Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather
Service (NWS), implement the
EAS at the national level. Only the President
determines when the
EAS will be activated at the national level, and has
delegated the administration of this function to FEMA.
Accordingly, FEMA activates the national
EAS, and directs national
EAS tests and exercises. The NWS uses the
EAS on a local and statewide basis to provide the
alerts and warnings regarding dangerous weather and
The FCC's role includes prescribing rules that
establish technical standards for the
EAS, procedures for
EAS participants to follow in the event the
EAS is activated, and
EAS testing protocols. Additionally, the FCC ensures
that state and local
EAS plans developed by industry conform to the FCC’s
EAS rules and regulations. The FCC’s goal is to make
EAS capable of distributing
emergency information as quickly as possible to as
many people as possible.
EAS allows participating providers to send and
emergency information quickly and automatically, even
if their facilities are unattended. If one link in the
system for spreading
alert information is broken, members of the public
have multiple alternate sources of warning.
EAS equipment also provides a method for automatic
interruption of regular programming, and in certain
instances is able to relay
emergency messages in languages other than English.
Along with its capability of providing an
emergency message to the entire nation
EAS allows authorized state and local authorities to
quickly distribute important local
emergency information. A state
emergency manager can use the
EAS to broadcast a warning from one or more major
radio stations in a particular state.
EAS equipment in other radio and television stations,
as well as in cable television
systems in that state, can automatically monitor and
rebroadcast the warning. Additionally,
EAS equipment can directly monitor the NWS for local
weather and other
alerts, which local broadcast stations, cable
systems, and other
EAS participants can then rebroadcast, providing an
almost immediate relay of local
emergency messages to the public.
Filing a Complaint with the FCC
If you believe
EAS rules and procedures are not being followed, you
can file a complaint with the FCC. There is no charge for
filing a complaint. You can file your complaint using an
online complaint form. You can also file your complaint
with the FCC’s Consumer Center by calling 1-888-CALL-FCC
(1-888-225-5322) voice or 1-888-TELL-FCC (1-888-835-5322)
TTY; faxing 1-866-418-0232; or writing to:
Federal Communications Commission
Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau
Consumer Inquiries and Complaints Division
445 12th Street, SW
Washington, DC 20554.
What to Include in Your Complaint
The best way to provide all the information the FCC needs
to process your complaint is to complete fully the online
complaint form. When you open the online complaint form, you
will be asked a series of questions that will take you to
the particular section of the form you need to complete. If
you do not use the online complaint form, your complaint, at
a minimum, should indicate:
- your name, address, email address and phone number
where you can be reached;
- the name and phone number of the company that you
are complaining about and location (city and state) if
the company is a cable or satellite operator;
- television station call sign (WZUE), TV channel
(13), and location (city and state), if applicable; and
- date, time and description of problem.
For More Information
For more information about
EAS, visit the FCC’s
EAS webpage. For more information
Alerts, see our
consumer guide. Finally, for information about other
telecommunications issues, visit the FCC’s
Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau website, or
contact the FCC’s Consumer Center using the information
provided for filing a complaint.
Emergency Alert System (EAS) is a national warning system in
United States put into place on January 1, 1997, when it
Emergency Broadcast System (EBS), which itself had superseded
CONELRAD System. In addition to alerting the public of
local weather emergencies such as tornadoes and flash floods,
the official EAS is designed to enable the
President of the United States to speak to the United States
within 10 minutes, but the nationwide federal EAS has never been
A national EAS test was conducted on November 9, 2011, at 2 pm
Eastern Standard Time. The EAS regulations and standards are
governed by the Public Safety and
Homeland Security Bureau of the FCC. Each state and several
territories have their own EAS plan.
EAS has become part of
IPAWS - the Integrated Public Alert and Warning System, a
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). EAS is jointly
coordinated by FEMA, the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and the
National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS).
The EAS is used on
Land Mobile Radio Service, as well as
FiOS (wireline video providers), and
television including low-power stations.
Digital television and
cable providers, along with
XM satellite radio,
digital radio broadcasters have been required to
participate in the EAS since December 31, 2006.[citation
Dish Network and all other
DBS providers have been required to participate since May 31,
Messages in the EAS are composed of four parts: a digitally
header, an attention signal, an audio announcement, and a
digitally encoded end-of-message marker.
is the most critical part of the EAS design. It contains information
about who originated the alert (the
President, state or local authorities, the
National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS), or the broadcaster), a
short, general description of the event (tornado, flood, severe
thunderstorm), the areas affected (up to 32 counties or states), the
expected duration of the event (in minutes), the date and time it
was issued (in
UTC), and an identification of the originating station. (See
SAME for a complete breakdown of the header.)
More than thirty
radio stations are designated as National Primary Stations in
the Primary Entry Point (PEP) System to distribute presidential
messages to other broadcast stations and cable systems.
The Emergency Action Notification is the notice to broadcasters that
the President of the United States or his designee will deliver a
message over the EAS via the PEP system.
The FEMA National Radio System (FNARS) "Provides Primary Entry
Point service to the Emergency Alert System," acts as an emergency
presidential link into the EAS, and is capable of phone patches. The
FNARS net control station is located at the
Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center.
the national level EAS would not do
The New York Times article (correction printed January 3,
"No president has ever used the current [EAS] system or its
technical predecessors in the last 50 years, despite the Soviet
missile crisis, a presidential assassination, the
Oklahoma City bombing, major earthquakes and three recent
high-alert terrorist warnings...
Michael K. Powell, the then chairman of the
Federal Communications Commission, which oversees the Emergency
Alert System, pointed to 'the ubiquitous media environment,' arguing
that the system was, in effect, scooped by
Fox News Channel and other channels... [FEMA] activates the
alert system nationally at the behest of the White House on 34
50,000-watt stations that reach 98 percent of Americans... Beyond
that, the current EAS signal is an audio message only—which
pre-empts all programming—so that viewers who were watching color
images of the
trade center on Sept. 11 would have been able to see only a
screen with a generic text message along with a presidential
voice-over, if an emergency message had been activated."
Because the header lacks error detection codes, it is repeated
three times for redundancy. However, the repetition of the data can
itself be considered an error detection and correction code—like any
error detection or correction code, it adds redundant information to
the signal in order to make errors identifiable. EAS decoders
compare the received headers against one another, looking for an
exact match between any two, eliminating most errors which can cause
an activation to fail. The decoder then decides whether to ignore
the message or to relay it on the air if the message applies to the
local area served by the station (following parameters set by the
The SAME header bursts are followed by an
which lasts between eight and 25 seconds, depending on the
originating station. The tone is
NOAA Weather Radio (NOAA/NWS) station, while on commercial
broadcast stations, it consists of a "two tone" combination of 853
Hz and 960 Hz
sine waves and is the same attention signal used by the older
Emergency Broadcast System. The "two tone" system is no longer
required as of 1998 and is to be used only for audio alerts before
Like the EBS, the attention signal is followed by a voice message
describing the details of the alert.
The message ends with three bursts of the
AFSK "EOM", or
End of Message, which is the text NNNN, preceded each
time by the
binary 10101011 calibration.
The White House endorsed the integration of the
Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) in a presidential initiative,
and FEMA is in the process of testing implementation.
The FCC requires all broadcast stations and multichannel video
programming distributors (MVPD) to install and maintain
FCC-certified EAS decoders and encoders at their control points or
headends unless they have been designated a non-participating
station by the FCC. These decoders continuously monitor the signals
from other nearby broadcast stations for EAS messages. For
reliability, at least two source stations must be monitored, one of
which must be a designated local primary. Stations are to
retain the latest version of the EAS handbook.
Stations are required by federal law to keep logs of all received
required monthly test, required weekly test, emergency action
notification, and emergency action termination messages. Logs may be
kept by hand but are usually kept automatically by a small receipt
printer in the encoder/decoder unit. Logs may also be kept
electronically inside the unit as long as there is access to an
external printer or method to transfer them to a
personal computer. While only the four aforementioned events are
required by federal law to be logged, most stations log all received
In addition to the audio messages transmitted by radio stations,
television stations must also transmit a visual message. A text
"crawl" is displayed at the top of the screen that contains all of
the information encoded in the initial SAME header. A color coded
"crawl" system is often used where the color signifies the priority
of the message. Some television stations transmit only the visual
message which is outside of the requirements. A television station
may be used for monitoring by another station and thus the audio is
Participating stations are required by federal law to relay EAN (Emergency
Action Notification) messages immediately (47 CFR Part 11.54).
Stations traditionally have been allowed to opt out of relaying
other alerts such as severe weather, and
child abduction emergencies (AMBER
Alerts) if they so choose.
Non-participating stations do not relay messages. Instead
they transmit a message instructing listeners/viewers to tune to
another station for the information, and they must then suspend
All EAS equipment must be tested weekly. The required weekly test
(RWT) consists, at a minimum, of the header and the end-of-message
SAME bursts. Though a RWT does not need an audio or graphic message
announcing the test, many stations will provide them as a courtesy
to the public. Television stations are not required to transmit a
video message for weekly tests. RWTs are scheduled by the station,
on random days and times, and are generally not relayed.
Required monthly tests (RMTs) are generally originated by the
primary relay station, a state emergency management agency, or by
the National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS) and are then relayed by
broadcast and cable stations. RMTs must be performed between 8:30
a.m. and local sunset during odd numbered months, and local sunset
to 8:30 am for even months. Received monthly tests must be
re-transmitted within 60 minutes from receipt.
Additionally, an RMT should not be scheduled or conducted during an
event of great importance such as a pre-announced Presidential
speech, coverage of a national/local election, major local or
national news coverage outside regularly scheduled newscast hours or
a major national sporting event such as the
Super Bowl or
World Series, with other events such as the
Daytona 500 and
Olympic Games mentioned in individual EAS state plan
A RWT is not required during a calendar week in which an RMT is
scheduled. No testing has to be done at all during a calendar week
in which all parts of the EAS (header burst, attention signal, audio
message, and end of message burst) have been legitimately activated.
Coordinated national tests are planned to be conducted at least once
every year, beginning with the national test that happened on
November 9, 2011, and are very similar to RMTs.
On November 9, 2011, after the national test was attempted,
stations began calling in saying that some of their receivers
weren't able to relay the test, or some just didn't get the test at
DirecTV users reported even hearing
Lady Gaga's "Paparazzi"
throughout the test.
As of November 9, 2011, the FCC is still collecting data, however,
it is clear that not every station in the US received or relayed the
alert. The message, according to some, also lacked the alert code
which would allow the President to speak. Due to a feedback loop in
the PEP system, the test could be heard several times in the
background, and the EOM (end of message) code was sent twice,
violating EAS rules. The test was cut down to 30 seconds rather than
the proposed 3 minutes. A similar test of the National EAS was
carried out in January 2010, but operations were limited to the
That test was carried out flawlessly.
The number of event types in the national system has grown to
eighty. At first, all but three of the events (civil emergency
message, immediate evacuation, and emergency action notification
[national emergency]) were weather-related (such as a
tornado warning). Since then, several classes of non-weather
emergencies have been added, including, in most states, the
AMBER Alert System for child abduction emergencies.
In 2004, the FCC issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking seeking
comment on whether EAS in its present form is the most effective
mechanism for warning the American public of an emergency and, if
not, on how EAS can be improved, such as mandatory text messages to
cellphones, regardless of subscription. As noted above, rules
implemented by the FCC on July 12, 2007 provisionally endorse
incorporating CAP with the SAME protocol.
On February 3, 2011, the FCC announced plans and procedures for
national EAS tests, which will involve all television and radio
stations connected to the EAS system, as well as all cable and
satellite services in the United States. It will not be relayed on
the NOAA Weather Radio (NOAA/NWS) network as it is an
initiation-only network and does not receive messages from the PEP
The national test will transmit and relay an EAS test message from
the White House. This protocol was first used in the first national
test of the EAS, conducted on November 9, 2011 at 2:00 pm EST/11:00
EAS is designed to be useful for the entire public, not just
those with SAME-capable equipment. However, several consumer-level
radios do exist, especially
receivers, which are available to the public through both
Radio Shack and several others. Other specialty receivers for
are available only through mail-order, or in some places from
federal, state, or local
governments, especially where there is a potential hazard nearby
such as a chemical factory. These radios come pre-tuned to a station
in each area that has agreed to provide this service to local
emergency management officials and agencies, often with a direct
link back to the plant's safety system or control room for instant
activation should an evacuation or other emergency arise.
The ability to narrow messages down so that only the actual area
in danger is alerted is extremely helpful in preventing false
warnings, which was previously a major tune-out factor. Instead of
sounding for all warnings within a station's area, SAME-decoder
radios now sound only for the counties they are programmed for. When
the alarm sounds, anyone with the radio knows that the danger
is nearby and protective action should be taken. For this reason,
the goal of the
National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS) is that each home should
have both a
smoke detector and a SAME
- During the
September 11 attacks in 2001, "... the EAS was not activated
nationally or regionally in New York or Washington during the
terrorist attacks on the nation." Richard Rudman, then chairman
of the EAS National Advisory Committee explained that near
immediate coverage in the national media meant that the media
itself provided the warning or alert of what had happened and
what might happen as quickly as the information could be
distributed. "Some events really do serve as their own alerts
and warnings. With the immediate live media coverage, the need
for an EAS warning was lessened." 34 PEP stations were kept on
high alert for use if the President had decided to order an
Emergency Action Notification. "PEP is really a last-ditch
effort to get a message out if the president cannot get to the
- On February 1, 2005, someone activated an EAS message over
radio and television stations in
Connecticut telling residents to evacuate the state
immediately. Officials at the Office of Emergency Management
announced that the activation and broadcast of the Emergency
Alert System was in error due to possibly the wrong button being
pressed. "State police said they received no calls related to
the erroneous alert."
- On June 26, 2007, the EAS in
Illinois was activated at 7:35 am CDT and issued an
Emergency Action Notification Message for the United States.
This was followed by dead air and then
WGN radio (the station designated to simulcast the alert
message) being played on almost every television and radio
station in the
Chicago area and throughout much of Illinois.
The accidental EAN activation was caused when a government
contractor installing a new satellite receiver as part of a new
national delivery path incorrectly left the receiver connected
and wired to the state EOC's EAS transmitter before final closed
circuit testing of the new delivery path had been completed.
- On October 19, 2008
San Clemente, California was scheduled to conduct a Required
Weekly Test; however, it conducted a Required Monthly Test by
mistake, causing all stations and cable systems in the immediate
area to relay the test. In addition, the operator aborted the
test midway through, leading the station to fail to broadcast
the SAME EOM burst to end the test, causing all area outlets to
broadcast KWVE-FM's programming until those stations took their
On September 15, 2009, the
Federal Communications Commission fined its licensee,
Calvary Chapel Costa Mesa, $5,000 for the botched EAS test.
After the fine was levied, various state broadcast associations
in the United States submitted joint letters to the FCC,
protesting against the fine, saying that the FCC could have
handled the matter better.
On November 13, 2009, the FCC rescinded its fine against
KWVE-FM, but had still admonished the station for broadcasting
an unauthorized RMT, as well as omitting the code to end the
- During September 2010, the staff of
Florence, Oregon noticed that their EAS equipment would
repeatedly unmute as if receiving an incoming EAS message
several times a week. During each event, which was relayed from
Springfield, the same commercial advertisement for
gasoline could be heard, along with the words "This test has
been brought to you by ARCO". Further investigation by the
primary station transmitting the commercial revealed that the
spot had been produced using an audio clip of an actual EAS
header which had been modified to lower the header's tone and
presumably prevent it from triggering false positive alert
reactions in EAS equipment. The spot was distributed nationally,
and after it had once been identified as the source of the false
EAS equipment trips, various stations around the country
reported having had similar experiences. After a widespread
notification by the
Society of Broadcast Engineers was issued, ARCO's ad agency
withdrew the commercial from air play.
- On August 9, 2011, the Emergency Alert System was activated
for a Required Weekly Test in
Davidson County, Tennessee. However, due to a bug in the
system, as many as 20 RWTs were sent and received from 3:20 am
to 5:00 am CDT.
- In October 2011, the FCC fined
Highland Park, Michigan $22,000 for numerous violations, one
of which was not having any EAS equipment in use; an employee of
the station pointed out that the station's EAS decoder was
stored in a closet.
- On November 3, 2011, the EAS in
Etowah County, Alabama was activated for a Required Weekly
Test on television. However, due to a bug in the system, as many
as 15 RWTs were sent and received from 2:15 am to 4:30 am CDT.
- On November 9, 2011, the first National EAS Test was
conducted. Many people that were listening to TV or radio
reported barely hearing the audio, not seeing the video, hearing
overlapping audio, or on cable and satellite systems which
redirect to one certain channel slot to launch the test, were
stuck on the EAS channel without routing to the test (such as a
TV Guide Network,
Music Choice audio channel, or in
DirecTV's case, a
Sonic Tap audio channel airing
Paparazzi at the time).
- On March 13, 2012, Just after the broadcast of the
Today Show at 9:56 am,
WDIV-TV accidentally launched the Emergency Alert System
seconds before their local newscast started to air. The
Emergency Alert System froze for 5 seconds, then returning to
their newscast. This is WDIV's shortest- yet glitched EAS
running only for 10 seconds. It's unknown if this was implied to
air before the newscast starts, or the commercials delayed the
EAS from airing.
- On May 21, 2012, the Emergency Alert System in
Tennessee was activated for a Required Weekly Test. However,
a familiar bug in the system caused as many as 9 weekly tests to
be transmitted that night. Later that night, a Required Monthly
Test was transmitted but contained a Flash Flood Warning
message. No explanation has been given for this error.
EAS event codes
In the video game
Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, during a
invasion of the
United States, one of the loading screen videos is simply the
Emergency Alert System. A message scrolls across the screen giving
evacuation instructions for residents of
Prince George's County.
Strangely, the scrolling message says "EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM"
when the tone is actually the EAS tone.
In the 2009 science fiction film
Knowing, when Diana pulls in at the gas station and goes to
the clerk for gasoline, the television in the background is
displaying a 24 hour news broadcast, when suddenly the screen
changes with both the "Emergency Alert System" alert tones and an
alert message stating, "This is an Emergency Broadcast
Transmission!" "This is not a test!" The message repeats again and
you see a portrayal of a fictionalized presidential cabinet alerting
the public of the impending solar flares.
Collins, Glenn (December 21, 2001).
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Plan Unused Even on Sept. 11". The New York Times.
Retrieved September 5, 2009.
"Emergency Alert System". FCC. November 9, 2011.
Retrieved July 16, 2012.
Moore, Linda K.
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS)
and All-Hazard Warnings. p. 6 Congressional Research
Service, Federation of American Scientists. Nov 20, 2006.
"Emergency Alert System 2001 AM & FM Handbook". Emergency
Alert System 2001 AM & FM Handbook. United States:
United States Federal Communications Commission. 2001. pp.
Merlin, Ross Z. (2004).
"Communications Systems for Public Health Contingencies"
(PDF). DHS/FEMA Wireless Program Management Team. Archived
the original on June 25, 2008.
Retrieved April 2, 2008.
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Bush administration). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of
Management and Budget.
Retrieved April 25, 2011.
Common Alerting Protocol, Cybertelecom
"Electronic Code of Federal Regulatiokns". National
Retrieved July 6, 2012.
Part 1 of a two part YouTube video of part of a national
EAS test on Dish Network.
Part 2 of a two part YouTube video of part of a national
EAS test on Dish Network.
Clayton, Mark (November 9, 2011).
"Did the national Emergency Alert System mistakenly play
Christian Science Monitor.
Retrieved July 16, 2012.
"Alaska EAS EAN Test: Success".
Radio. January 6, 2010.
Retrieved July 16, 2012.
FCC Press Release: "FCC ACTION PAVES WAY FOR FIRST-EVER
PRESIDENTIAL ALERT TO BE AIRED ACROSS U.S. ON NATION’S
EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM", February 3, 2011.
FCC Third Report and Order: In the Matter of Review of the
Emergency Alert System, February 3, 2011.
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System" (Press release). FEMA. June 9, 2011.
Retrieved July 16, 2012.
Clayton, Mark (November 9, 2011).
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now". Christian Science Monitor.
Retrieved July 16, 2012.
Stine, Randy J. "Terrorism
Attacks Cue EAS Debate." RWonline, Radio World
Newspaper. Sep 26, 2001. IMAS Publishing (USA) Inc. Apr 7,
"False Alarm, Connecticut Not Being Evacuated".
WestportNow.com. February 1, 2005.
Retrieved April 7, 2007. "State police said they
received no calls related to the erroneous alert."
cbs2chicago.com - Emergency Alert System Activated By
"Inadvertent Activation of the Illinois Emergency Alert
System". FEMA. June 28, 2007.
Retrieved June 30, 2007.
""In the Matter of Calvary Chapel of Costa Mesa, Inc., FM
Radio Station KWVE San Clemente, California: NOTICE OF
APPARENT LIABILITY FOR FORFEITURE", Adopted: September 15,
2009 Released: September 17, 2009". FCC.
Retrieved July 16, 2012.
"State Broadcast Associations Appeal KWVE EAS Fine to FCC".
Radio. October 9, 2009.
Retrieved July 16, 2012.
"FCC Dismisses KWVE EAS Fine". Radio. November
Retrieved July 16, 2012.
"Glitch scrambles Oregon thunderstorm warning". The
Herald. Associated Press (Everett, Washington). May 20,
Retrieved July 16, 2012.
"Arco Oil Radio Ads Include False EAS Header". Radio.
September 9, 2010.
Retrieved July 16, 2012.
"In the Matter of R.J.'S LATE NIGHT ENTERTAINMENT
CORPORATION: NOTICE OF APPARENT LIABILITY FOR FORFEITURE AND
ORDER", FCC, October 21, 2011.
"Mixed Reviews On National EAS Test".
FMQB. November 10, 2011.
Retrieved November 13, 2011.
"Modern Warfare 2 Cutscene - Emergency Broadcast System".
YouTube. November 15, 2009.
Retrieved November 29, 2009.