Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini


Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20, 2011

Today's date:  January 9, 2012

page 104




`1-9-12 - DREAM - I  was moving from one apartment to another on the same floor, but it was a larger apartment and worth the move.

I had been given a large golden key to open the door, and when I did, the other people had not quite left yet, but they did and I and my grandchildren, nieces and nephews all working hard, we made the move down the hall.

On the second day, all that remained was all my personal things, and I had told the girls that nobody was getting anything on the second day because I had already given them things to keep on the first day.  However,,  Dr. Dorian Lord was there, and I suggested that she let the girls choose from among my many umbrellas if they wished.

At that moment, I could see various large pieces of luggage into which had to be packed all my many bottles of perfume, makeup, fingernail polish, etc. all in loud dark and bright red colors. all that had to be packed and carried over, so I allowed one of the older boys to do that chore because it would be heavy.

When we got finished mailing what seemed like dozens of trips, I had much energy all the way, it was time to have a party for everyone who worked and while we waited for pizza to be delivered,  One of the men who was holding fort at the end of a huge hall which was in my own apartment, decided to put on a show. 

He was sitting with several women, and he took what looked like a square fish bowl that had red colored water in it and smeared it on his head and began singing Puccine himself, quite loudly, and set about scaring the women that he was going to put this red stuff in their hair just like he ad.

When he got closer to me, he grabbed hold of really fat man  (the singer was hugely fat as well)  and ripped off his clothes, and I was afraid I was going to see something I shouldn't see and the singer was choking the other fat man until he turned bright red all over his body.

I forced myself to wake up.

DREAM 2.  I was starting a new job in a large office building.  I was replacing a woman who wore what looked like a gamblers hat with a large green bill over her eyes to keep the light glare down. 

While I was interviewing for the job, I told them the Puccini scene from my moving experience, and one of the men who was black and partially bald, demonstrated that he could, at the drop of hat, make soap bubbled comes out of the top of his head and run down his face, at which we laughed uproariously.

After she left, I had to move all my things into her office, and set it up, while the men all went to other rooms and closed the door to take a nap or whatever. 

Meanwhile I had to go downstairs to the main lobby and get some supplies, and other woman had left books on the stairs.

I also wore electric roller skates on my feet which seemed magnetized and even on the stairs I was steady on my feet and able to move quickly at the same time.  I was told by the quality control man (who was in a previous dream)  that one skate (the left) was female) and the right skate was male, which is why they worked so well together.  (Just the opposite of our brain which is male (logic) on the left, and female (intuitive) on the right)

I stacked up the books on the stairs on the way down, but before I went back up from the lobby, someone had already taken the books and just left a pile of folders and telephone directories for me to use, so I took all those upstairs with me.

when  I got back up to my office, I found that my boss had hand written a letter that still had to be typed and I planned to do it so I would look like a good worker, and I saw that it was all written in red and was about an airlines, which right on top, the boss noted that he had misspelled the name,  which I don't recall what it was.  (I have a feeling it is Virgin Airlines)

I still had not moved to my new office, and when I got there, the desk was gone, but all the folders and journals, and address books and things were all on the floor, so I still had to move all that so nobody would steal them and put them in m office.

I woke up still planning to do that.   All that was now mine.




  1. Four other librettists were then involved with the opera, due mainly to Puccini constantly changing his mind about the structure of the piece.
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giacomo_Puccini - Cached
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  2. Turandot is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, set to a libretto in Italian by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni. Though Puccini's first interest in the ...
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turandot_(Puccini) - Cached
  3. www.Puccini.com Honoring the most-beloved Operatic Composer The great Italian Operatic composer Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) is beloved among opera-goers above all others.
  4. Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini Born: Lucca, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 22 Dec. 1858 Died: Brussels, Belgium, 29 Nov. 1924
    opera.stanford.edu/Puccini - Cached
  5. Hello and welcome to PucciniOpera.com. This is your one stop destination for Puccini Opera you've been looking for. Available in all styles, including Puccini Boheme ...
    www.pucciniopera.com - Cached
  6. Needless to say, it became a race to see who could complete their opera first. Puccini, in league with his librettists, Illica and Giacosa, won; ...
    www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/puccini.php - Cached

Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒaːkomo putˈtʃiːni]; 22 December 1858 – 29 November 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly, and Turandot, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire.[1][2] Some of his arias, such as "O mio babbino caro" from Gianni Schicchi, "Che gelida manina" from La bohème, and "Nessun dorma" from Turandot, have become part of popular culture.

Described by Encyclopædia Britannica Online as "one of the greatest exponents of operatic realism",[3] he is regarded as one of the last major Italian opera composers.[4][5] His repertoire is essentially rooted in verismo,[6] or a post-Romantic operatic tradition and literary style. Whilst his work is essentially based on traditional late-19th century Italian opera, his music shows some influences from then-contemporary composers and movements such as Igor Stravinsky and Impressionism.[7] Common themes within his operas

Puccini was born in Lucca in Tuscany, into a family with five generations of musical history behind them, including composer Domenico Puccini. His father died when Giacomo was five years old, and he was sent to study with his uncle Fortunato Magi, who considered him to be a poor and undisciplined student. Magi may have been prejudiced against his nephew because his contract as choir master stipulated that he would hand over the position to Puccini "as soon as the said Signore Giacomo be old enough to discharge such duties." Puccini never took the position of church organist and choir master in Lucca. When he was 17, he saw a performance of Verdi's Aida and became inspired to be an opera composer. He and his brother, Michele, walked 18.5 mi (30 km) to see the performance in Pisa.

In 1880, with the help of a relative and a grant, Puccini enrolled in the Milan Conservatory to study composition with Stefano Ronchetti-Monteviti, Amilcare Ponchielli, and Antonio Bazzini. In the same year, at the age of 21, he composed the Messa, which marks the culmination of his family's long association with church music in his native Lucca. Although Puccini himself correctly titled the work a Messa, referring to a setting of the Ordinary of the Catholic Mass, today the work is popularly known as his Messa di Gloria, a name that technically refers to a setting of only the first two prayers of the Ordinary, the Kyrie and the Gloria, while omitting the Credo, the Sanctus, and the Agnus Dei.

The work anticipates Puccini's career as an operatic composer by offering glimpses of the dramatic power that he would soon bring forth onto the stage; the powerful "arias" for tenor and bass soloists are certainly more operatic than is usual in church music and, in its orchestration and dramatic power, the Messa compares interestingly with Verdi's Requiem.

While studying at the Conservatory, Puccini obtained a libretto from Ferdinando Fontana and entered a competition for a one-act opera in 1882. Although he did not win, Le Villi was later staged in 1884 at the Teatro Dal Verme and it caught the attention of Giulio Ricordi, head of G. Ricordi & Co. music publishers, who commissioned a second opera, Edgar, in 1889. Edgar failed: it was a bad story and Fontana's libretto was poor. This may have had an effect on Puccini's thinking because when he began his next opera, Manon Lescaut, he announced that he would write his own libretto so that "no fool of a librettist"[10] could spoil it. Ricordi persuaded him to accept Leoncavallo as his librettist, but Puccini soon asked Ricordi to remove him from the project. Four other librettists were then involved with the opera, due mainly to Puccini constantly changing his mind about the structure of the piece. It was almost by accident that the final two, Illica and Giacosa, came together to complete the opera. They remained with Puccini for his next three operas and probably his greatest successes: La bohème, Tosca and Madama Butterfly.

It may well have been the failure of Edgar that made Puccini so apt to change his mind. Edgar nearly cost him his career. Puccini had eloped with the married Elvira Gemignani and Ricordi's associates were willing to turn a blind eye to his life style as long as he was successful. When Edgar failed, they suggested to Ricordi that he should drop Puccini, but Ricordi said that he would stay with him and made him an allowance from his own pocket until his next opera. Manon Lescaut was a great success and Puccini went on to become the leading operatic composer of his day.

[edit] Puccini at Torre del Lago

Puccini at Torre del Lago

From 1891 onwards, Puccini spent most of his time at Torre del Lago, a small community about fifteen miles from Lucca situated between the Ligurian Sea and Lake Massaciuccoli, just south of Viareggio. While renting a house there, he spent time hunting, but regularly visited Lucca

By 1900, he had acquired land and built a villa on the lake, now known as the "Villa Museo Puccini." He lived there until 1921, when pollution produced by peat works on the lake forced him to move to Viareggio, a few kilometres north. After his death, a mausoleum was created in the Villa Puccini and the composer is buried there in the chapel, along with his wife and son who died later.

The Villa Museo Puccini is presently owned by his granddaughter, Simonetta Puccini, and is open to the public.

[edit] Operas written at Torre del Lago

After 1904, compositions were less frequent. Following his passion for driving fast cars, Puccini was nearly killed in a major accident in 1903. In 1906 Giacosa died and, in 1909, there was scandal after Puccini's wife, Elvira, falsely accused their maid Doria Manfredi of having an affair with Puccini. The maid then committed suicide. Elvira was successfully sued by the Manfredis, and Giacomo had to pay damages. Finally, in 1912, the death of Giulio Ricordi, Puccini's editor and publisher, ended a productive period of his career.

However, Puccini completed La fanciulla del West in 1910 and finished the score of La rondine in 1916.

In 1918, Il trittico premiered in New York. This work is composed of three one-act operas: a horrific episode (Il tabarro), in the style of the Parisian Grand Guignol, a sentimental tragedy (Suor Angelica), and a comedy (Gianni Schicchi). Of the three, Gianni Schicchi has remained the most popular, containing the popular aria "O mio babbino caro".

A chain smoker of Toscano cigars and cigarettes, Puccini began to complain of chronic sore throats towards the end of 1923. A diagnosis of throat cancer led his doctors to recommend a new and experimental radiation therapy treatment, which was being offered in Brussels. Puccini and his wife never knew how serious the cancer was, as the news was only revealed to his son.

Puccini died there on 29 November 1924, from complications after the treatment; uncontrolled bleeding led to a heart attack the day after surgery. News of his death reached Rome during a performance of La bohème. The opera was immediately stopped, and the orchestra played Chopin's Funeral March for the stunned audience. He was buried in Milan, in Toscanini's family tomb, but that was always intended as a temporary measure. In 1926 his son arranged for the transfer of his father's remains to a specially created chapel inside the Puccini villa at Torre del Lago.

Turandot, his final opera, was left unfinished, and the last two scenes were completed by Franco Alfano based on the composer's sketches. Some dispute whether Alfano followed the sketches or not, since the sketches were said to be indecipherable, but he is believed to have done so, since, together with the autographs, he was given (still existing) transcriptions from Guido Zuccoli who was accustomed to interpreting Puccini's handiwork.

When Arturo Toscanini conducted the premiere performance in April 1926 (in front of a sold-out crowd, with every prominent Italian except for Benito Mussolini in attendance), he chose not to perform Alfano's portion of the score. The performance reached the point where Puccini had completed the score, at which time Toscanini stopped the orchestra. The conductor turned to the audience and said: "Here the opera finishes, because at this point the Maestro died." (Some record that he said, more poetically, "Here the Maestro laid down his pen.") (Some record that then Toscanini picked up the baton, turned to the audience, and announced, "But his disciples finished his work." At which time the opera closed to thunderous applause.)

Toscanini's laying down the baton has been misinterpreted by some journalists as a gesture of disapproval of Alfano's contribution. In 2009 William Hartson in the Daily Express told his readers with great authority that "Toscanini never conducted Turandot again." In fact, he conducted it again on the two following nights – including Alfano's ending – a total of three performances.



Toscanini edited Alfano's suggested completion ('Alfano I'), to produce a version now known as 'Alfano II', and this is the version usually used in performance. However, some musicians[11] consider Alfano I to be a more dramatically complete version.

In 2002, an official new ending was composed by Luciano Berio from original sketches, but this finale has, to date, been performed only infrequent

Unlike Verdi and Wagner, Puccini did not appear to be active in the politics of his day. However, Mussolini, Fascist dictator of Italy at the time, claimed that Puccini applied for admission to the National Fascist Party. While it has been proven that Puccini was indeed among the early supporters of the Fascist party at the time of the election campaign of 1919 (in which the Fascist candidates were utterly defeated, earning a meagre 4,000 votes), there appear to be no records or proof of any application given to the party by Puccini.

This notwithstanding, Fascist propaganda appropriated Puccini's figure, and one of the most widely played marches during Fascist street parades and public ceremonies was the "Inno a Roma" (Hymn to Rome), composed in 1919 by Puccini to lyrics by Fausto Salvatori, based on these verses from Horace's Carmen saeculare:

Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui / Promis et celas alius que et idem / Nasceris, possis nihil urbe Roma / Visere maius. (O Sun, that unchanged, yet ever new, / Lead'st out the day and bring'st it home, / May nothing be present to thy view / Greater than Rome!)

Puccini clearly occupies a place in the popular tradition of Verdi, his style of orchestration showing the strong influence of Richard Wagner, matching specific orchestral configurations and timbres to different dramatic moments. Whilst at its heart, Puccini's music is based on the traditional diatonic melodies of Italian opera in the time, influences can be heard of "contemporary developments" including the music of Igor Stravinsky and Impressionism. He has been described by Encyclopædia Britannica Online as "In many ways a typical fin de siècle artist".[12]

The structures of Puccini's works are also noteworthy. While it is to an extent possible to divide his operas into arias or numbers (like Verdi's), his scores are generally through-composed presenting a very strong sense of continuous flow and connectivity, perhaps another sign of Wagner's influence. Like Wagner, Puccini used leitmotifs to connote characters and sentiments (or combinations thereof). This is most apparent in Tosca, where the three chords which signal the beginning of the opera are used throughout to announce Scarpia; the descending brass motive (Vivacissimo con violenza) is connected to the repressive regime which ruled Rome at the setting of the opera and most clearly to Angelotti, one of the regime's victims; the harp arpeggio figure which appears at Tosca's entrance and the aria Vissi d'arte symbolizing Tosca's religious fervor; the clarinet ascending-descending scale indicating Mario's suffering and his doomed love for Tosca. Several motifs are also linked to Mimi and the bohemians in La bohème and to Cio-Cio San's eventual suicide in Butterfly. Unlike Wagner, Puccini's motifs are in some cases static; they are intended to direct the audience's attention to a particular idea. However, throughout his operas, for example the love motifs in La bohème, there are examples of his melodies developing to signal a change in a character.

Another distinctive quality in Puccini's works is the use of the voice in the style of speech i.e. canto parlando; characters sing short phrases one after another as if they were in conversation. Puccini is also celebrated for his melodic gift and many of his melodies are both memorable and enduringly popular. At their simplest these melodies are made of sequences from the scale, e.g. Quando me'n vo' (Musetta's Waltz) from La bohème and E lucevan le stelle from Act III of Tosca.

Puccini's operas additionally included several themes; one of the most common include that of heroines, who are "devoted body and soul to their lovers";[13] a tragic end often waits for them due to their guilt.[14] Examples of leading women who die in his operas include Cio-Cio San in Madama Butterfly, Mimì in La bohème or Tosca in Tosca. According to Encyclopædia Britannica Online, with such themes Puccini "combines compassion and pity for his heroines with a strong streak of sadism".[15] Additionally, unusually for operas written by Italian composers up until that time, many of Puccini’s operas are set outside Italy—in exotic places such as Japan (Madama Butterfly), gold-mining country in California (La fanciulla del West), Paris and the Riviera (La rondine), and China (Turandot). A composer within the realm of verismo, this can be seen through his operas, where the usage of common people in everyday, "familiar" situations[16] (once seen unfit for artistic portrayal) are included, such as in La bohème.[17]

Pulitzer Prize-winning music critic Lloyd Schwartz summarized Puccini thus: "Is it possible for a work of art to seem both completely sincere in its intentions and at the same time counterfeit and manipulative? Puccini built a major career on these contradictions. But people care about him, even admire him, because he did it both so shamelessly and so skillfully. How can you complain about a composer whose music is so relentlessly memorable, even — maybe especially — at its most saccharine?"[18]

In his work on Puccini, noted Verdi scholar Julian Budden describes Puccini as a gifted and original composer, noting the vibrant innovation hidden in the popularity of works such as "Che gelida manina". He describes the aria in musical terms (the signature embedded in the harmony for example), and points out that its structure was rather unheard of at the time, having three distinct musical paragraphs that nonetheless form a complete and coherent whole. This gumption in musical experimentation was the essence of Puccini's style, as evidenced in his diverse settings and use of the motif to express ideas beyond those in the story and text.

[edit] Music

Although Puccini is mainly known for his operas, he also wrote some other orchestral pieces, sacred music, chamber music and songs for voice and piano.

[edit] Operas

[edit] Other works and versions

(with dates of premieres and locations)

[edit] Centres for Puccini Studies

Founded in 1996 in Lucca, the Centro Studi Giacomo Puccini embraces a wide range of approaches to the study of Puccini's work.

In the USA, the American Center for Puccini Studies specializes in the presentation of unusual performing editions of composer's works and introduces many neglected or unknown Puccini pieces to the music loving public. It was founded in 2004 by leading Puccini artist and scholar, Dr. Harry Dunstan.

Detailed information about both organizations exists on their websites.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Quick Opera Facts 2007". OPERA America. 2007. Archived from the original on 14 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070914040155/http://www.operaamerica.org/pressroom/quickfacts2006.html. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
  2. ^ Alain P. Dornic (1995). "An Operatic Survey". Opera Glass. http://opera.stanford.edu/misc/Dornic_survey.html. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
  3. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/482661/Giacomo-Puccini
  4. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/482661/Giacomo-Puccini
  5. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/artist/giacomo-puccini-p1332
  6. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO/butterfly/timeline.html
  7. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/artist/giacomo-puccini-p1332
  8. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/artist/giacomo-puccini-p1332
  9. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO/butterfly/timeline.html
  10. ^ Carner, Puccini: A Critical Biography, p. ??
  11. ^ Ashbrook & Powers, p. ??
  12. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/482661/Giacomo-Puccini
  13. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/482661/Giacomo-Puccini
  14. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/482661/Giacomo-Puccini
  15. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/482661/Giacomo-Puccini
  16. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO/butterfly/timeline.html
  17. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO/butterfly/timeline.html
  18. ^ "Lorca without Lorca". The Phoenix. 30 October 2007. http://thephoenix.com/article_ektid50274.aspx. Retrieved 18 November 2007.

[edit] External links





It is the responsibility of
intellectuals to speak the
truth and to expose lies.'

"The time has come for a
call to action to people of
conscience. We are past
the point where silence is
passive consent — when
a crime reaches these
proportions, silence is

— Noam Chomsky,
"A Call to Action in
Sanctions and the U.S.
War against the People
of Iraq in 1999"

"For those who stubbornly seek freedom, there can be
no more urgent task than to come to understand the
mechanisms and practices of indoctrination. These
are easy to perceive in the totalitarian societies,
much less so in the system of 'brainwashing under
freedom' to which we are subjected and which
all too often we sere as willing or unwitting

"There are no magic answers, no miraculous methods to
overcome the problems we face, just the familiar ones:
honest search for understanding, education, organization,
action that raises the cost of state violence for its
perpetrators or that lays the basis for institutional change
-and the kind of commitment that will persist despite the
temptations of disillusionment, despite many failures and
only limited successes, inspired by the hope of a brighter

The Washington Connection
and Third World Fascism

by Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman

published by South End Press, 1979

Freedom, Aggression and Human Rights

The common view that internal freedom makes for humane and moral international behavior is supported neither by historical evidence nor by reason. The United States itself has a long history of imposing oppressive and terrorist regimes in regions of the world within the reach of its power, such as the Caribbean and Central American sugar and banana republics (Trujillo in the Dominican Republic and the Somozas in Nicaragua were long-lived progeny of U.S. intervention and selection). Since World War II. with the great extension of U.S. power, it has borne a heavy responsibility for the spread of a plague of neofascism, state terrorism, torture and repression throughout large parts of the underdeveloped world. The United States has globalized the "banana republic." This has occurred despite some modest ideological strain because these developments serve the needs of powerful and dominant interests, state and private, within the United States itself.

The Vietnam War experience is often cited to prove the importance of freedom and dissent in constraining state violence. This assessment seriously misreads the facts of the case. Peace movement activism, growing from and contributing to the popular movements for equality, freedom and social change within the United States, did succeed in raising the domestic costs of the U.S. assault, thus helping to limit in some degree its scope and severity and contributing to the eventual decision that the game was not worth the candle. It did so, of course, mainly by employing modalities that were outside the framework of existing institutions: demonstrations, nonviolent resistance, grass roots organizing, and wide-ranging educational efforts needed to counter the deep commitment of existing institutions to the protection and furthering of the interests of state and private power. The established "free" institutions supported the war, for the most part enthusiastically and uncritically, occasionally with minor and qualifying reservations. The principled opposition, based on grounds other than cost-ineffectiveness, functioned outside the major institutional structures. It is, of course, an important fact that a movement was allowed to organize with relatively modest state harassment and violence, and that this movement could make some impact on the course of events. Such developments and the costs of overcoming these and other forms of resistance that impede the actions of national elites are also problems in totalitarian societies, though the toll imposed on protectors in Iran, Argentina, and the Soviet Union is often far more severe. The value of being allowed to protest relatively unmolested is certainly real, but it should not lead to a disregard of the fact that established institutions, with overwhelmingly dominant power, tend to line up in goose-step fashion in support of any state foreign venture, no matter how immoral (until the cost becomes too high).

The peace movement frightened Western elites. The response of the U.S. (indeed Free World) leadership to the politicization of large parts of the population during the 1960s provides a revealing indication of their concept of "democracy" and of the role of the public in the "democratic process." In 1975, the Trilateral Commission, representing the more liberal elements of ruling groups in the industrial democracies, published a study entitled The Crisis of Democracy which interprets public participation in decision-making as a threat to democracy, one that must be contained if elite domination is to persist unhindered by popular demand. The population must be reduced to apathy and conformism if "democracy" as interpreted by this liberal contingent, is to be kept workable and allowed to survive.

The most crucial fact relating freedom to the Vietnam War experience is that, despite its free institutions, for over two decades (1949-1975) the United States attempted to subjugate Vietnam by force and subversion, in the process violating the UN Charter, the Geneva Accords of 1954 the Nuremberg Code the Hague Convention, the Geneva Protocol of 1925, and finally the Paris agreements of 19733. For almost a decade the peasants of Indochina served as experimental animals for an evolving military technology-cluster bombs, rockets designed to enter caves where people hid to escape saturation bombing, a fiendish array of anti-personnal weapons; new versions of the long-outlawed "dummy" bullet were among the more modest weapons employed. The population was driven into urban slums by bombing, artillery, and ground attacks that often degenerated into mass murder, in an expanding effort to destroy the social structures m which resistance was rooted. Defenseless peasant societies in Laos and Cambodia were savagely bombed in "secret"-the "secrecy" resulting from the refusal of the mass media to make public facts For which they had ample evidence. Freedom was consistent not only with this expanding savagery, but also with interventions explicitly designed to preserve non-freedom from the threat of freedom (e.g., the invasion of the Dominican Republic in 1965) and to displace democratic with totalitarian regimes (e.g., the open subversion of Guatemala in 1954: the slightly more sub rosa subversion of democracy in Brazil in 1964 and Chile in 1973). Free institutions were able to accept, indeed quietly approve of huge massacres in the name of "freedom," as in Indonesia in 1965-1966 by U. S. liberals as evidence for the farsightedness of U.S. intervention in Vietnam. Massive atrocities committed by U.S. client regimes against their own populations or against foreign populations they hope to subdue (e.g., the Indonesian massacres in East Timor) have also proven compatible with freedom and are regularly disguised or ignored by the Free Press.

Whatever the attitudes of the U.S. leadership toward freedom at home ... systematic policies towards Third World countries ... make it evident that the alleged commitment to democracy and human rights is mere rhetoric, directly contrary to actual policy. The operative principle has been and remains economic freedom-meaning freedom for U.S. business to invest, sell, and repatriate profits-and its two basic requisites, a favorable investment climate and a specific form of stability. Since these primary values are disturbed by unruly students, democratic processes, peasant organizations, a free press, and free labor unions, "economic freedom" has often required political servitude. Respect for the rights of the individual, also alleged to be one of the cardinal values of the West, has had little place in the operating procedures applied to the Third World. Since a favorable investment climate and stability quite often require repression, the United States has supplied the tools and training for interrogation and torture and is thoroughly implicated in the vast expansion of torture during the Past decade. When Dan Mitrione came to Uruguay in a police advisory function, the police were torturing with an obsolete electric needle:

Mitrione arranged for the police to get newer electric needles of varying thickness. Some needles were so thin they could be slipped between the teeth. Benitez [a Uruguayan police official] understood that this equipment came to Montevideo inside the U.S. embassy's diplomatic pouch.

Within the United States itself, the intelligence services were "running torture camps," as were their Brazilian associates, who "set up a camp modeled after that of the boinas verdes, the Green Berets." And there is evidence that U.S. advisors took an active part in torture, not contenting themselves with supplying training and material means. During the Vietnam War, the United States. employed on a massive scale improved napalm, phosphorus and fragmentation bombs, and a wide range of other "anti-personnel" weapons that had a devastating effect on civilians. The steady development of weaponry and methods of "interrogation" that inflict enormous pain on the human body and spirit, and the expansion of use of this technology in U.S.-sponsored counterinsurgency warfare and "stabilization" throughout the U.S. sphere of influence, is further evidence that the "sacredness of the individual" is hardly a primary value in the West, at least in its application beyond an elite in-group.

The rationale given for the U.S.-buildup of Third World police and military establishments and regular "tilt" toward repressive regimes, is the demands of "security". This is a wonderfully elastic concept with a virtuous ring that can validate open-ended arms expenditures as well as support for neo-fascism. When it is said that we must oppose Goulart in Brazil or the NLF in South Vietnam for reasons of security, this obviously does not mean that they threaten our survival; it means that their success would be disadvantageous to U.S. interests, and not primarily military interests. It is possible that "security" for a great power and its client government corresponds to heightened insecurity for large numbers within the dominated "secure" state. This seems to be very much the case for the majorities in Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay, for example.

As Jan Black points out:

"The delimitation of what must be secured expands to accommodate what a nation, class, institution, or other social entity has, or thinks it should have. It follows, then, that it is often the nations, groups, or individuals whose wealth and power would appear to make them the most secure who are, in fact, most paranoid,..." a comment that applies with striking accuracy to the United States after World War II. In the specific case of the United States, she notes that the concept of security is "all-encompassing, involving economic and political hegemony as well as strictly military considerations...." This flows from the fact of inordinate power and is the propaganda counterpart of the imperial leader's assumption of the natural right to intervene to keep its subordinates in line. It has the great public relations advantage, also, of built-in self justification. Who could object to the pitiful giant's efforts to protect its own security?


The Shift in the Balance of Terror to the Free World

Over the past 25 years at least, not only has official terror been responsible for torture and killing on a vastly greater scale than its retail counterpart, but, furthermore, the balance of terror appears to have shifted to the West and its clients, with the United States setting the pace as sponsor and supplier. The old colonial world was shattered during World War II, and the resultant nationalist radical upsurge threatened traditional Western hegemony and the economic interests of Western business. To contain this threat the United States has aligned itself with elite and military elements in the Third World whose function has been to contain the tides of change. This role was played by Diem and Thieu in South Vietnam and is currently served by allies such as Mobutu in Zaire, Pinochet in Chile, and Suharto in Indonesia. Under frequent U S sponsorship the neo-fascist National Security State and other forms of authoritarian- rule have become the dominant mode of government in the Third World. Heavily armed by the West (mainly the United States) and selected for amenability to foreign domination and zealous anti-Communism, counterrevolutionary regimes have been highly torture- and bloodshed-prone.

In the Soviet sphere of influence, torture appears to have been on the decline since the death of Stalin. In its 1974 Report on Torture, Amnesty International (AI) notes:

"Though prison conditions and the rights of the prisoners detained on political charges in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union may still be in many cases unsatisfactory, torture as a government-sanctioned, Stalinist practice has ceased. With a few exceptions no reports on the use of torture in Eastern Europe have been reaching the outside world in the past decade."

In sharp contrast, torture, which "for the last two or three hundred years has been no more than a historical curiosity has suddenly developed a life of its own and become a social cancer." Since it has declined in the Soviet sphere since the death of Stalin, it would appear that this cancerous growth is largely a Free World phenomenon: The frontispiece describes its distribution within the sphere of influence. It has shown phenomenal growth in where, as AI points out:

" There is a marked difference between traditional brutality, stemming from historical conditions, and the systemic torture which has spread to many Latin American countries within the past decade."

Amnesty International also notes that in some of the Latin American countries "the institutional violence and high incidence of political assassinations has tended to overshadow the problem of torture. The numbers involved in these official (wholesale) murders have been large: for example, AI estimates 15,000 death squad victims in the small country of Guatemala between 1970 and `. a thousand in Argentina in 1975 before the military coup and unleashing of a true reign of terror.

The AI Annual Report for 1975-1976 also notes that "more 80% of the urgent appeals and actions for victims of human torture have been coming from Latin America. One reason for urgency of these appeals is the nature of this expanding empire of violence. which bears comparison with some of the worst excrescences of European fascism. Hideous torture has become standard practice in the U.S. client fascist states. In the new Chile, to savor the results of the narrow escape of that country from Communist tyranny:

Many people were tortured to death [after the military coup of 1973] by means of endless whipping as well as beating with fists, feet and rifle butts. Prisoners were beaten on all parts of the body, including the head and sexual organs. The bodies of prisoners were found in the Rio Mapocho, sometimes disfigured beyond recognition. Two well-known cases in Santiago are those of Litre Quiroga, the ax-director of prisons under the Allende government, and Victor Jara, Chile's most popular folk singer. Both were detained in the Estadio Chile and died as a result of the torture received there. According to a recurrent report, the body of Victor Jara was found outside the Estadio Chile, his hands broken and his body badly mutilated. Litre Quiroga had been kicked and beaten in front of other prisoners for approximately 40 hours before he was removed to a special interrogation room where he met his death under unknown circumstances.

Such horrendous details could be repeated for many thousands of human beings in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay Guatemala, Nicaragua, U.S.-occupied South Vietnam up to 1975, Iran, and in quite a few other U.S. client states. They clearly reflect state policy over a wide segment of the U. S. sphere of influence. As already noted, much of the electronic and other torture gear is U.S. supplied, and great numbers of client state police and military interrogators are U.S.-trained.

Latin America has also become the locus of a major diaspora, with hundreds of thousands of academics, journalists, scientists, and other professionals, as well as liberals and radicals of all social classes, driven into exile. This has been a deliberate policy of the military juntas, which one distinguished Latin America journalist calls a "lobotomization" of intellect and the "cultural genocide of our time," with the purpose of removing any source of social criticism or intellectual or leadership base for the general population. Another aspect of the same strategy is, of course, the widespread use of torture and political assassinations to create "a climate of fear and uncertainty to discourage any form of opposition to the ruling elite." To find comparable flights into exile on a continental scale, one would have to go back to the experience of fascist Europe, 1933-1940 ... which provides numerous parallels.


Individual Morality and Human Rights Policy

Several moral issues arise in protests concerning atroci and violations of human rights. If the purpose of such protest self-aggrandizement, service to one's state, establishing credent with one's compatriots or deity, or other self-serving motives, tl it is clear how to proceed; join the chorus of protests organized the government or the media with regard to the iniquity of current enemies of the state. Such protest may be directed towa genuine abuses of human rights, but it is at the moral level protest for pay. We understand this very well in the case of official enemies. Suppose that some Russian intellectual condemns U behavior in Chile or Vietnam. What he says may be quite true, I we do not admire his courage or moral integrity. Similar remarks apply here, and for the very same reasons.

Suppose that the purpose of protest is to relieve hum suffering or defend human rights. Then more complex considerations arise. One must consider the plausible consequences for the victims of oppression. It is for this reason, for example, that organization such as Amnesty International's polite letters the most miserable tyrant. In some cases, public protest may positively harmful, a fact familiar to people seriously concerned with human rights. Recently Jiri Hajeok, formerly foreign minister in the Dubcek government and now a leading Czech dissident "criticized President Carter for an 'over-tough' approach which he said, will hinder the struggle for greater political latitude in the East bloc." If the purpose of the "human rights crusade" is restore U.S. prestige after the battering it has taken in the p. decades, then such considerations are irrelevant. In fact, Washington had already made its position clear on the matter: "The Carter Administration issued a pointed warning yesterday that it will not be dissuaded from its public campaign for human rights around the world [sic] by the harassment of individual dissidents in foreign countries." But people with a genuine concern for human rights would react quite differently, and give serious consideration to the likely effects on the victims. Such calculations are not always easy ones but the issue will not be lightly dismissed by people who engage in protest for other than self-serving or strategic motives.

Such persons will also consider how their finite energies can be distributed most efficaciously. It is a cheap and cynical evasion to plead that "we must raise our voices" whenever human rights are violated. Even a saint could not meet this demand. A serious person will try to concentrate protest efforts where they are most likely to ameliorate conditions for the victims of oppression. The emphasis should, in general, be close to home: on violations of human rights that have their roots in the policies of one's own state or its client regimes, or domestic economic institutions (as e.g. in the case of U.S. investment in South Africa), and in general, on policies that protest may be able to influence. This consideration is particularly relevant in a democracy, where public opinion can sometimes be aroused if circumstances allow a sufficient breach in the conformism of the ideological institutions (the media and academic scholarship), but it applies as well in totalitarian states that rely in part on popular consent, as most do. It is for this reason that we honor a Medvedev or Grigorenko who denounce the crimes of the Russian state and its satellites, at great personal risk. If, as in these cases, they also condemn the criminal acts of the United States, that is well and good, but far less significant. In the case of Solzhenitsyn, who comes to the United States to call for a holy war against Communism and criticizes us for not resorting to still greater violence against our enemies, the most generous reaction must be pity-and distress at the fact that the Soviet state has reduced so many of its most courageous dissidents to such blindly destructive hostility.

For privileged Western intellectuals, the proper focus for their protest is at home. The primary responsibility of U.S. citizens ~ -concerned with human rights today is on the Continuing crimes of the United States: the support for terror and oppression in large parts of the world. the refusal to offer reparations or aid to the recent victims of U.S. violence. Similar considerations apply elsewhere. French intellectuals may, if they choose, devote their energies to joining the chorus of protest against Cambodian atrocities that has been conducted by the international press (including the New York Times, the Soviet Press, indeed virtually every articulate segment of opinion in the industrial societies). As long as such protest is honest and accurate-often it is not, as we shall see-it is legitimate, though further questions may be raised about its impact. This small increment to the international barrage on Cambodia had little if any effect in mitigating harsh practices there, though it had a powerful effect on ideological renewal in the West and helped prepare the ground for the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in January 1979. These effects were predictable, and predicted. French intellectuals interested in doing something to alleviate suffering in Southeast Asia where their impact might be positive would have been better advised to expend their efforts in protesting the announcement by their government that it proposes to join in the glorious massacre in East Timor by supplying arms, setting up an arms industry and providing diplomatic cover for Indonesia. If victims of oppression in Russia, Uganda, or Cambodia can be helped by public protest. then it is justified; otherwise, it is empty rhetoric, or worse, The ultimate vulgarity, perhaps, is the spectacle to which we are now being treated in the U.S. (indeed, Western) media, where many people who supported U.S. savagery in Indochina or perhaps finally turned against the war on pragmatic grounds"-the United States could not reach its goals at reasonable cost-now feign outrage and indignation over oppressive or murderous acts that are in large part a consequence of the U.S. violence that they tolerated or supported. What they say may in fact be true-although it often is not-but it reeks of hypocrisy and opportunism. We would react no differently if some German intellectual who tolerated or supported Hitler expressed his indignation over the atrocities committed by the French resistance after liberation.

Even those who took part in protest or resistance against the U.S. war in Vietnam cannot escape these questions. Should they, for example, protest-atrocities in Indochina in the pages of the New York Times, in a context of continuing distortions on atrocities (and on all facets of the war) and a very effective, ongoing official and media propaganda campaign, which has direct and very harmful consequences for the victims of U.S. barbarism in Indochina? Again, individuals seriously concerned with human rights and human dignity will carefully consider the potential human consequences of their acts. Will particular forms of protest help to alleviate the condition of those who suffer, including victims of earlier violence? Or will they contribute to rebuilding the ideological foundations for new violence and depredations? The future victims of counterrevolutionary violence will not thank even honest protectors who thoughtlessly contribute to these ends. These questions are not easy to answer and honest people may reach differing conclusions concerning them, but they deserve serious thought, far more than has been publicly expressed during the postwar period of ideological reconstruction.

Washington Connection and Third World Fascism

Fascism page

Who Are They? Who Runs the World?

By Michael Tivana

The short list of who runs the world.

This list is compiled for people that want to know who the “they” are when we are talking about who runs our world. This is a partial list but many of the key players are here. Study them more deeply, (go to the Bilderberger watch web site) then send them a message, let them know what you think about their plan for the world. It is not enough to know who they are but we must expand our knowledge as to how they think and what their agenda for the world is. The agenda is put forth quite clearly in the Bush Doctrine which stems from the National Security Strategy for A New American Century.

Their agenda is also clearly stated by Brzezinski in his book, "The Chessboard Strategy" where he lays out the plan for the United States to take over Eastern Europe and Asia for the sole purpose of maintaing stability in the world. This is an admirable quest until you see their stability is the New World Order, a Fascist World Government. If you don't know what Fascism is look it up in any dictionary - it is NOT freedom.

Fascism - Etymology|Definitions|Origins and development|Core tenets Fascism is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek rejuvenatation of their nation based on commitment to an organic national community ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism

Their agenda determines how you live your life, and how your children will live their lives. If you do not enjoy living in a constricted censored corporate state (the definition of Fascism) geared toward profit above people then speak out and join the peace movement. If you are one of the barons of power in this New World Order or if you work for one of the barons and you do not mind living in a merciless society with little class mobility, then a Fascist system may suit you. For now, here are some names to continue your research into knowing who “they” are.

The companies

The short list

Some of the world's wealthiest transnational corporations:

  • Bayer - from the ex-Nazi company IG Farben
  • BASF - from the ex-Nazi company IG Farben
  • Hoechst - from the ex-Nazi company IG Farben
  • British Petroleum
  • Dow Chemical
  • General Motors
  • Hyundai
  • Nestlé - still makes choclate from dairy grazing around the Three Mile Island radioactive zone
  • Novartis
  • Shell
  • Toshiba
  • Zeneca
  • Alcoa- sold all their aluminum to Nazi Germany during the war
  • Halliburton
  • Bechtel
  • Monsanto - controls the world's farms through plant patenting
  • Shell
  • Exxon
  • Texaco
  • TRW

    They and other multi-nationals form the ICC – THE INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE

    The International Bureau of Chambers of Commerce (IBCC)

    And the WTO – World Trade Organization

    They set the rules for international business that:

  • have made it so state courts will have no jurisdiction in this area of law
  • allow corporations to sue governments in an international court or tribunal (not public)
  • a complete rejection of environmental and labor standards
  • preferential most-favored nation (business) treatment
  • investment protection
  • and binding investor-state arbitration

    Individuals closely involved with one or more organizations

    Lord Peter A.R. Carrington – Chair of Bilderberg Members Steering Committee; member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; former secretary general of NATO; Chairman of the Board, Christie's PLC; Chancellor, University of Reading; member, House of Lords.

    Jim Callaghan – Thought to be current president of Bilderberg; Member of the House of Lords.

    Peter D Sutherland (Irish) – Chairman, British Petroleum PLC; Chairman, Allied Irish Bank PLC; Chairman and Managing director, Goldman Sachs International; Former member, Commission of the European Communities; former Director-General, World Trade Organisation.

    Shirley Brittain Williams - member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; Member House of Lords; Public Service Professor of Electoral Politics, Harvard University.

    Lord Roll of Ipsden – Member Bilderberg Advisory Group; President S.G. Warburg Group PLC; Member House of Lords. Andrew Knight - Member Bilderberg Steering Committee; Chairman News International PLC

    David Simon (Lord Simon of Highbury) – Former member, European Roundtable of Industrialists; UK Minister for Competitiveness in Europe; Ex-chairman of BP.

    Joseph T Gorman (USA) – Member of Bilderberg, Trilateral Commission, Council on Foreign Relations, Business Council, Council on Competitiveness and others. Chairman of the Buiness Roundtable International Trade and Investment task force. CEO TRW Inc; Director Procter and Gamble Company and Aluminium Company of America.

    David Rockefeller (USA) – President of the Trilateral Commission; President of Chase Manhattan Bank; member of Bilderberg Advisory Group.

    Renato Ruggieri (Italy) – Member Bilderberg Steering Committee; member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; Director World Trade Organisation (WTO); Former Italian Minister of Foreign Trade; member of the board, Fiat Spa 90-95; Attendee at Davos Meeting.

    Giovanni Agnelli (Italy) – member of Bilderberg Advisory Group; member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; World Economic Forum Global Leader for Tomorrow; Honorary Chairman, Fiat SpA; Director, Instituto Finanziario Industriale (IFI - The Agnelli family holding company). Giovanni's brother, Umberto, is Chairman of IFI and a founder of the European Roundtable of Industrialists.

    Conrad M Black (Canada) – member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; Chairman and CEO Argus Corporation Ltd; Chairman Hollinger International Inc; Chairman Telegraph Group Ltd.

    Gro Harlem Bruntland (Norway) - member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; Attendee at Davos Meeting.

    Percy N Barnevik (Sweden) - Member Bilderberg Steering Committee; member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; member, European Roundtable of Industrialists; member, World Business Council on Sustainable Development; President and CEO, ABB Brown Boveri Ltd.

    Donald J Johnston – Secretary General, OECD; Attendee at Davos Meeting.

    James D Wolfensohn (USA) – Member of Bilderberg advisory group; member, World Business Council on Sustainable Development; Attendee at Davos Meeting; President World Bank.

    Juan March Delgado (Spain), Chairman, Juan March Foundation; member, World Business Council on Sustainable Development; member, international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations.

    Members of Bilderberg Advisory Group

    § Canada:
    Anthony G. S. Griffin - Director of companies.

    § Germany:
    Otto Wolff von Amerongen - Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Otto Wolff Industrieberatung und Beteiligungen GmbH.

    § International:
    Max Kohnstamm - Former Secretary-General, Action Committee for Europe; Former President, European University Institute.

    § Italy:
    Giovanni Agnelli - Chairman, Fiat SpA.

    § Netherlands:
    Ernst H. van der Beugel - Emeritus Professor of International Relations, Leiden University; Former Honorary Secretary-General of Bilderberg Meetings for Europe and Canada.

    § United Kingdom:
    Lord Roll of Ipsden-President, S. G. Warburg Group plc.

    § United States of America:
    George W. Ball -Former Under-Secretary of State.
    William P. Bundy -Former Editor, Foreign Affairs.
    David Rockefeller -Chairman, Chase Manhattan Bank International Advisory Committee.

    The Steering Committee for the Bilderburgs

    § Chairman:
    Peter, Lord Carrington, Chairman of the Board, Christie's International plc; Former Secretary-General NATO.

    § Secretary-General for Europe and Canada:
    Victor Halberstadt, Professor of Public Economics, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

    § Secretary General for USA:
    Theodore L. Elliot, Jr-Dean Emeritus, The Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy; Former US Ambassador.

    § Treasurer:
    Pieter Korteweg, President and Chief Executive Officer, Robeco Group.

    § Austria:
    Peter Jankowitsch-Member of Parliament, Former Foreign Minister.

    § Belgium:
    Etienne Davignon-Chairman, Société Générale de Belgique; Former Vice Chairman of the Commission of the European Communities.

    § Finland:
    Jaakko Iloniemi-Managing Director, Centre for Finnish Business and Policy Studies; Former Ambassador to the USA.

    § France:
    Marc Lardreit de Lacharrère -Chairman, Fimalac.
    Thierry de Montbrial -Director, French Institute of International Relations; Professor of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique.

    § Germany:
    Christoph Bertram - Diplomatic Correspondent, Die Zeit. § Hilmar Kopper-Spokesman of the Board of Managing Directors, Deutsche Bank AG.

    § Greece:
    Costa Carras -Director of companies.

    § Ireland:
    Peter D. Sutherland -Chairman, Allied Irish Bank plc; Former Member, Commission of the European Communities.

    § Italy:
    Mario Monti -Rector and Professor of Economics, Bocconi University, Milan.

    § Renato Ruggiero, Member of the Board, Fiat SpA; Former Minister of Foreign Trade; Director of the World Trade Organisation.

    § Norway:
    Westye Hoegh, Ship Owner, Leif Hoegh & Co AS.

    § Portugal:
    Francisco Pinto Balsemao -Professor of Mass Communication, New University of Lisbon; Chairman, Sojornal sarl; Former Prime Minister.

    § Spain:
    Jamie Carvajal Urquijo -Chairman and General Manager, Iberfomento.

    § Sweden:
    Percy Barnevik -President and CEO, ABB Asea Brown Boveri Ltd.

    § Switzerland:
    David de Pury -Chairman, BBC Brown Boveri Ltd; Co-Chairman, ABB Asea Brown Boveri Group.

    § Turkey:
    Selahattin Beyazit -Director of companies.

    § United Kingdom:
    Andrew Knight -Executive Chairman, News International plc.

    § United States of America:
    Kenneth W. Dam -Max Pam Professor of American and Foreign Law, University of Chicago Law School; Former Deputy Secretary of State.
    Vernon E. Jordan, Jr-Partner, Akin, Gump, Hauer & Field, Attorneys-at-Law; Former President, National Urban League.

    Henry A. Kissinger - Former Secretary of State; Chairman, Kissinger Associates, Inc.

    Charles Mathias - Partner, Jones, Day, Reavis & Poue; Former US Senator (Republican, Maryland).

    Rozanne C. Whitehead - Former Deputy Secretary of State.
    Lynn R. Williams -International President, United Steel- Workers of America.
    Cassimir A. Yost -Executive Director, The Asia Foundation's Center for Asian-Pacific Affairs.

    § United States of America/International:
    James D. Wolfensohn -President, World Bank; President, James D. Wolfensohn, Inc.

    Bilderberg Conference 2002 - Chantilly, Virginia, U.S.A., 30 May-2 June partial list of over 200 attendees

    USA Rumsfeld, Donald H. - Secretary of Defense

    D Schulz, Ekkehard - Chairman, ThyssenKrupp AG

    USA Siegman, Henry - Council on Foreign Relations

    INT Wolfensohn, James D. - President, The World Bank

    USA Allaire, Paul A. - Former Chairman and CEO, Xerox Corporation

    CDN Baillie, A. Charles - Chairman and CEO, TD Bank Financial Group

    GB Balls, Edward - Chief Economic Advisor to the Treasury

    P Balsemão, Francisco Pinto - Professor of Communication Science, New University, Lisbon; Chairman of IMPRESA, S.G.P.S.

    F Belot, Jean de - Editor-in-Chief, Le Figaro

    USA Bergsten, C. Fred - Director, Institute for International Economics

    N Bernander, John G. - Director General, Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation

    CDN Black, Conrad M. - Chairman, Telegraph Group Ltd.

    INT Bolkestein, Frits - Commissioner, European Commission

    USA Soros, George - Chairman, Soros Fund Management

    USA Rose, Charlie - Producer, Rose Communications

    P Borges, António - Vice Chairman and Managing Director, Goldman Sachs

    USA Boyd, Charles G. - President and CEO, Business Executives for National Security

    F Castries, Henri de - Chairman of the Board, AXA


    § Mariclaire Acosta Urquidi (Mexico), President, Mexican Commission for the Defense and Promotion of Human Rights.

    § Giovanni Agnelli (Italy), Chairman, Instituto Finanziario Industriale; Honorary Chairman, Fiat S.p.A.

    § Khalid Ali Alturki (Saudi Arabia), Chairman, TRADCO

    § Moshe Arens (Israel), Former Deputy Chairman of the Board, Israel Corporation Ltd.; former Ambassador of Israel to the United States

    § Hanan Ashrawi (West Bank), Member, Palestinian National Council; Founder, Palestinian Independent Commission for Citizens' Rights.

    § Percy N. Barnevik (Sweden), Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, ABB Asea Brown Boveri Ltd.

    § Conrad M. Black (Canada), Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Argus Corporation Limited; Chairman, Hollinger International Inc.; Chairman, Telegraph Group Limited

    § Gro Harlem Brundtland (Norway), Member of Parliament; former Prime Minister of Norway

    § Peter A. R. Carrington (Great Britain), Chancellor, University of Reading; former Secretary-General, NATO

    § Gustavo A. Cisneros (Venezuela), Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Cisneros Group of Companies

    § Alejandro Foxley (Chile), President, Christian Democratic Party; former Minister of Finance of Chile

    § Toyoo Gyohten (Japan), President, Institute for International Monetary Affairs; Senior Adviser, The Bank ofTokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd.

    § Abdlatif Y. Al-Hamad (Kuwait), Director General and Chairman of the Board of Directors, Arab Fund for Economic andSocial Development

    § Abid Hussain (India), Vice Chairman, Rajiv Gandhi Institute for Contemporary Studies; former Ambassador of India to the United States

    § Sergei A. Karaganov (Russia), Deputy Director, Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences; Chairman of the Board, Council on Foreign and Defence Policy

    § Kyung-Won Kim (Republic of Korea), President, Institute of Social Sciences; former Ambassador of Korea to the United States

    § Yotaro Kobayashi (Japan), Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.

    § Otto Graf Lambsdorff (Germany), Memberof the Bundestag; former Federal Minister of Economics

    § Graca Machel (Mozambique), President, Mozambique Community Development Foundation

    § Juan March Delgado (Spain), Chairman, Juan March Foundation

    § Maria Rosa Martini (Argentina), Cofounder and President, Social Sector Forum; Vice President, Civitas; Cofounder, CONCIENCIA Argentina

    § Barbara McDougall (Canada), Former Secretary of State for External Affairs; former Minister of State for Finance and Privatization

    § Rigoberta Menchu Tum (Guatemala), Founder, Rigoberta Menchu Tum Foundation; 1992 Nobel Peace Prize recipient

    § Adam Michnik (Poland), Editor-in-Chief, Gazeta Wyborcza

    § Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria), Chairman, Africa Leadership Forum; former Head of State of Nigeria

    § Anand Panyarachun (Thailand), Chairman, Saha-Union Public Company Limited; Former Prime Minister of Thailand

    § Moeen A. Qureshi (Pakistan), Chairman, Emerging Markets Partnership; former Prime Minister of Pakistan

    § Edzard Reuter (Germany), Former Chairman, Daimler-Benz

    § AG Michel Rocard (France), President, Commission of Development, European Parliament; former Prime Minister of France

    § Khehla Shubane (Republic of South Africa), Research Officer, Centre for Policy Studies

    § Peter D. Sutherland (Ireland), Chairman and Managing Director, Goldman Sachs International; Chairman, British Petroleum Company plc; former Director-General, World Trade Organization

    § Washington SyCip (Philippines), Chairman and Founder, The SGV Group

    § Shirley V. T. Brittain Williams (Great Britain), Member, British House of Lords; Public Service Professor of Electoral Politics, Harvard University

    § Muhammad Yunus (Bangladesh), Founder, Managing Director and Chief ExecutiveOfficer, Grameen Bank

    Individuals closely involved with one or more groups

    Joseph T Gorman (USA) – Member of Bilderberg, Trilateral Commission, Council on Foreign Relations, Business Council, Council on Competitiveness and others. Chairman of the Buiness Roundtable International Trade and Investment task force. CEO TRW Inc; Director Procter and Gamble Company and Aluminium Company of America.

    David Rockefeller (USA) – President of the Trilateral Commission; President of Chase Manhattan Bank; member of Bilderberg Advisory Group.

    Renato Ruggieri (Italy) – Member Bilderberg Steering Committee; member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; Director World Trade Organisation 95 - ; Former Italian Minister of Foreign Trad; member of the board, Fiat Spa 90-95; Attendee at Davos Meeting.

    Giovanni Agnelli (Italy) – member of Bilderberg Advisory Group; member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; World Economic Forum Global Leader for Tomorrow; Honorary Chairman, Fiat SpA; Director, Instituto Finanziario Industriale (IFI - The Agnelli family holding company). Giovanni's brother, Umberto, is Chairman of IFI and a founder of the European Roundtable of Industrialists.

    Conrad M Black (Canada) – member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; Chairman and CEO Argus Corporation Ltd; Chairman Hollinger International Inc; Chairman Telegraph Group Ltd.

    Gro Harlem Bruntland (Norway) - member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; Attendee at Davos Meeting.

    Percy N Barnevik (Sweden) - Member Bilderberg Steering Committee; member international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations; member, European Roundtable of Industrialists; member, World Business Council on Sustainable Development; President and CEO, ABB Brown Boveri Ltd.

    Donald J Johnston – Secretary General, OECD; Attendee at Davos Meeting.

    James D Wolfensohn (USA) – Member of Bilderberg advisory group; member, World Business Council on Sustainable Development; Attendee at Davos Meeting; President World Bank.

    Juan March Delgado (Spain), Chairman, Juan March Foundation; member, World Business Council on Sustainable Development; member, international advisory board of Council on Foreign Relations.

    There are over 5,000 key players that run our world, this list is to give incite as to some of the key members of the global elite. I encourage the reader to study as many of these people as you can. With the Internet a person can use the name as keywords then hit enter and voila --- hundreds of pages of info on the person and the subject. You determine for yourself what their intention is for our world.

    Then I ask the reader to decide if that is their vision for the world as well. If perpetual war and an economy that enslaves rather than frees the people is what you desire then go ahead and support these people and their vision for a World Government founded on feudalism. If not, then join the Peace and Justice movement who are bringing good things to our lives like a livable wage, paid vacations, healthcare that actually heals your body, a life supporting environment. Come, join the fight for our common wealth and be a part of the revolution to change the world for the better.

    ****FROM: http://www.tribalmessenger.org/columns/blogs/tivana/who-are-they.htm

    How City of London (British Crown) Runs the World

    Conspiracy theorists like myself believe modern history reflects a
    long-term conspiracy by an international financial elite to enslave

    Like blind men examining an elephant, we attribute this conspiracy to
    Jews, Illuminati, Vatican, Jesuits, Freemasons, Black Nobility, and
    Bildersbergs etc.

    The real villains are at the heart of our economic and cultural life. They are the dynastic families who own the Bank of England, the US
    Federal Reserve and associated cartels. They also control the World
    Bank and IMF. Their identity is kept secret, but Rothschild is certainly one of them.

    England is in fact a financial oligarchy run by the "British Crown" which refers to the "City of London," not the Queen. The City is run by the Bank of England, a "private" corporation. The City is a sovereign state located in the heart of greater London. Considered the "Vatican of the financial world," the City is not subject to British law.

    FROM: http://www.conspiracyplanet.com/channel.cfm?channelid=126&contentid=1281


    By Carolyn Baker
    Monday, 01 October 2007

    A review of The True Story Of The Bilderberg Group, by Daniel Estulin

    It is difficult to re-educate people who have been brought up on nationalism to the idea of relinquishing part of their sovereignty to a supra-national body.
    —Bilderberg Group founder, Prince Bernhard—

    As a rhetorical question, can someone please explain to me how it is that progressive liberals such as John Edwards and Hillary Clinton, as well as do-gooder humanitarians with multiple social projects ongoing such as the Rockefellers and every Royal House in Europe, can perennially attend Bilderberg meetings apparently knowing that the final objective of this despicable group of hoodlums is a fascist One World Empire?
    —Daniel Estulin (P.318)—

    Daniel Estulin is a Madrid-based journalist and an investigative reporter who took on the daunting and dangerous taskImage of researching the Bildeberg Group, and who offers his findings in The True Story Of The Bilderberg Group, recently published by Trine Day. Equally intriguing as his harrowing tales of being followed and nearly killed on a couple of occasions while working on the book, is the manner in which Estulin connects the dots between the Bilderberg Group, world events, notable politicians and corporate tycoons and the two other secretive monsters of the ruling elite, the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) and the Trilateral Commission (TC). The project lasted fifteen years and was motivated by Estulin's curiosity about how it is that the mainstream media has never covered in depth the meetings of the Bilderberg Group whose combined wealth exceeds the combined wealth of all U.S. citizens.

    What Estulin's book makes clear is that the group, along with the CFR and TC, has become a shadow government whose top priority is to erase the sovereignty of all nation-states and supplant them with global corporate control of their economies under the surveillance of "an electronic global police state."

    The author emphasizes that not all members of the group are "bad" people, and he implies that membership is structured somewhat like concentric circles in a target scheme with in inner core and various levels of relationship between that core and the outer circles of membership. Almost every famous player in politics and finance in the world is a member of one of the three organizations mentioned above, and their political affiliations range from liberal to conservative, for example, George W. Bush, George Soros, Gerald Ford, George McGovern, Jimmy Carter. Of this private club, Estulin says:

    This parallel world remains unseen in the daily struggles of most of humanity, but, believe me, it is there: a cesspool of duplicity and lies and double-speak and innuendo and blackmail and bribery. It is a surreal world of double and triple agents, of changing loyalties, of professional psychotic assassins, brainwashed black ops agents, soldiers of fortune and mercenaries, whose primary sources of income are the dirtiest and most despicable government-run subversive missions-the kind that can never be exposed.

    This world, according to Estulin, is so perverse and evil that "it has left an indelible mark on my soul". (16) How not? Because the Bilderberg Group and its two other triplets, the CFR and the TC have set about to loot the entire planet. Their members run the central banks of the world and are poised to control discount rates, money-supply, interest rates, gold prices, and which countries receive or do not receive loans. Membership is by invitation only, many of the earliest members being handpicked, not from right-wing groups but from among none other than the Fabian Socialists who ultimately supported global government.

    Another chilling quote Estulin includes is from William Shannon:

    The Bilderbergers are searching for the age of post-nationalism: when we won't have countries, but rather regions of the Earth surrounded by Universal values. That is to say, a global economy; one World government (selected rather than elected) and a universal religion. To assure themselves of reaching these objectives, the Bilderbergers focus on a ‘greater technical approach' and less awareness on behalf of the general public.


    In 1991 Bill Clinton attended the Bilderberg Conference in Baden-Baden where Estulin asserts that he was "anointed" to the U.S. presidency, and shortly thereafter he took an unexpected, unannounced trip to Moscow. It appears, says Estulin, that he was sent there to get his KGB student-era, anti-Vietnam war files "buried" before he announced his candidacy for president which happened some two-and-a-half months later. Today, Clinton is a member of all three groups: Bilderberg, CFR, and TC. Hillary Clinton is a member of the Bilderberg Group.

    Estulin points out that "almost all of the presidential candidates for both parties have belonged to at least one of these organizations, many of the U.S. congressmen and senators, most major policy-making positions, especially in the field of foreign relations, much of the press, most of the leadership of the CIA, FBI, IRS, and many of the remaining governmental organizations in Washington. CFR members occupy nearly all White House cabinet positions."(80) When one considers that most prominent members of mainstream media are also members of what Edith Kermit Roosevelt, granddaughter of Theodore Roosevelt called "this legitimate Mafia", how can we assert that Americans obtain their news from independent sources?

    For example, The News Hour with Jim Leher is the cornerstone of PBS's programming. Leher is a CFR member, and when one examines the funding of the news hour by: Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) whose chairman Dwayne Andreas was a member of the Trilateral Commission; Pepsico, whose CEO Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi is a Bilderberger and TC Executive Committee member; and Smith Barney which is interlocked with Citigroup, a global financial services company that is a member of the Bilderberg Group, the CFR, and the TC, what kind of "news" should one expect from Leher's News Hour? Consider also that many of the journalists on the News Hour: Paul Gigot, David Gergen, William Kristol, and William Safire are members of one or more of the three groups.

    Likewise, when we consider the membership in one or more of these groups of almost every American president since the inception of these organizations, we can no longer pretend that any Democratic or Republican presidential candidate offers the American people an alternative to ruling elite global hegemony.

    In fact, Estulin's research reveals that "the Council on Foreign Relations creates and delivers psycho-political operations by manipulating people's reality through a ‘tactic of deception', placing Council members on both sides of an issue. The deception is complete when the public is led to believe that its own best interests are being served while the CFR policy is being carried out."

    And what happens if the "anointed ones" become too autonomous? One chapter in the book, "The Watergate Con-Game", answers that question. In it Estulin suggests that Richard Nixon was set up by the Council on Foreign Relations of which he was a member because of his insubordination and unwillingness to submit to the shadow government. Presumably, Nixon's demise was carefully crafted to demonstrate to subsequent Chief Executives the price they would pay for disregarding the agenda of those who anointed them.


    In the book's final pages, Estulin's research waxes increasingly relevant to the present moment in history. He asks: "Why would David Rockefeller and other U.S. Trilateralists, Bilderbergers and the CFR members want to dismantle the industrial might of the United States?" (184). He then launches into a summary of the economic history of the twentieth century and makes one of the most powerful statements of the entire book: "What we have witnessed from this ‘cabal' is the gradual collapsing of the U.S. economy that began in the 1980s."

    In case you haven't noticed, this "gradual collapse of the U.S. economy" is no longer gradual, and what Estulin is asserting confirms a great deal of the assertions made by Catherine Austin Fitts that the current housing bubble explosion/credit crunch/mortgage meltdown has its roots in the 1980s. James Howard Kunstler has also written recently in his blog entitled "Shock and Awe" that the great American yard sale has begun. In other words, as an engineered economic meltdown drives hundreds of thousands and eventually millions of businesses and individuals into bankruptcy, key players in the Big Three ruling elite organizations can buy up the train wreck left behind for pennies on the dollar-a brilliant fast-track strategy for owning the world.

    In the final months of 2007 we are witnessing the stupendous success of the Big Three's strategy for planetary economic hegemony as the cacophony of their carefully engineered global economic cataclysm reverberates across America and around the world. It was never about buyers who didn't read the fine print when taking out liar loans. It was always about silver-tongued, ruling elite politicians and central bankers, anointed by the shadow government, who ultimately and skillfully stole and continue to steal governments from people and replace them with transnational corporations.

    No one could have said it better than David Rockefeller, founder of the Trilateral Commission, a Bilderberg member and board member of the Council On Foreign Relations in his Memoirs:

    Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as ‘internationalists' and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure-one world, if you will. If that's the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it.

    If you want to know who really runs the world and the lengths to which they will go to establish their globalist hegemony, you must read Estulin's well-documented The True Story of The Bilderberg Group.





    tTHE RITHCHILDS VIDEO http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXVJzXsraX4&feature=related

    THE WORL;S RICHEST PEOPLE - 2006 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mqGwUVCjb-g&feature=related

    FORBE'S RICHEST 2010 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z-YtrcaYGFE&feature=related

    WORLD'S MOST CORRUPY LEADERS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7tavo6h5Qk&feature=related


    [edit] Politics

    [edit] United States

    [edit] Presidents

    [edit] Senators

    [edit] Governors

    [edit] United Kingdom

    [edit] Prime Ministers

    [edit] Belgium

    [edit] Bulgaria

    [edit] Netherlands

    [edit] France

    [edit] Portugal

    [edit] Norway

    [edit] Finland

    [edit] Iceland

    [edit] Ireland

    [edit] Germany

    [edit] Poland

    [edit] Canada

    [edit] Sweden

    [edit] Austria

    [edit] EU Commissioners

    European Union Commissioners who have attended include:

    [edit] Military

    [edit] Financial institutions

    [edit] Major corporations

    [edit] University, institute and other academic

    [edit] Media

    [edit] References

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    4. ^ a b c d Welcome to ActivePaper
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    63. ^ a b c d ""Van Quem?" é o favorito na corrida a presidente do Conselho Europeu". i (Grupo Lena). 2009-11-18. http://www.ionline.pt/conteudo/33495-van-quem-e-o-favorito-na-corrida-presidente-do-conselho-europeu. Retrieved 2010-09-24. (Portuguese)
    64. ^ a b c d e f g "Club Bilderberg reúne-se em Sitges". Diário de Notícias. 2010-06-02. http://dn.sapo.pt/inicio/economia/interior.aspx?content_id=1584431. Retrieved 2010-09-24. (Portuguese)
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    73. ^ a b Prime Minister Vanhanen and Minister of Finance Katainen to attend Bilderberg Conference. Finnish Government.
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    75. ^ Borgarskjalasafn Reykjavíkur - Vefur Bjarna Benediktssonar
    76. ^ a b Björn Bjarnason 13.9.2001
    77. ^ Samtíðarmenn 2003
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    95. ^ Charlie Skelton (May 18, 2009). "Our man at Bilderberg: I should be ashamed". Guardian. "He shows me another: a long-range shot of two happy globalists in an inflatable doughnut ring and Speedos, skidding about behind a powerboat. If only the image was sharper we might see Peter Mandelson snatching a chat with Jean-Claude Trichet, the president of the European Central Bank. "So how do we sell ... splooosh! ... wooo! ... the abolition of the pound to the ... sploosh! ... electorate? Again! Again! Once more round the bay!""
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    100. ^ "Bilderberg Group Meets In Georgia In Secrecy 120 Of Elite Make Up Informal Think Tank". St. Louis Post-Dispatch DATE: June 13, 1997 SECTION: NEWS ^Goddard, Jacqui (February 15, 2004). "Prufrock: Rulers of the world prepare to expel Black". London: The Sunday Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article3478590.ece. Retrieved 2010-05-08. "The final straw came this month when Black said he would sue Henry Kissinger and Richard Perle, both directors of Hollinger and fellow Bilderbergers. Now he is going to be pressed to leave the group."^"Leaders' meeting exclusive, secret: Chance for relaxed discussions". Hamilton Spectator (Ontario, Canada). June 1, 1996.
      EDITION: THREE STAR PAGE: 11D WORD COUNT: 348 ID#: 9706130353
      What do Henry Kissinger, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, Colin Powell, David Rockefeller and IBM Chairman Louis Gerstner have in common?They are among 120 dignitaries from Europe and the United States meeting at a secluded resort in Georgia as part of an organization called the Bilderberg Group.For four days that began Thursday, the group's influential guests are part of an informal think tank on world issues.The Bilderberg Group was formed in the

    SEE THE LIST OF THE BILDERBER GROUP ON TIS PAGE :    http://www.greatdreams.com/who-runs-the-world.html



    Magnetism is a property of materials that respond at an atomic or subatomic level to an applied magnetic field. Ferromagnetism is the strongest and most familiar type of magnetism. It is responsible for the behavior of permanent magnets, which produce their own persistent magnetic fields, as well as the materials that are attracted to them. However, all materials are influenced to a greater or lesser degree by the presence of a magnetic field. Some are attracted to a magnetic field (paramagnetism); others are repulsed by a magnetic field (diamagnetism); others have a much more complex relationship with an applied magnetic field (spin glass behavior and antiferromagnetism). Substances that are negligibly affected by magnetic fields are known as non-magnetic substances. They include copper, aluminium, gases, and plastic.

    The magnetic state (or phase) of a material depends on temperature (and other variables such as pressure and applied magnetic field) so that a material may exhibit more than one form of magnetism depending on its temperature, etc.

    Sources of magnetism

    Magnetism, at its root, arises from two sources:

    1. Electric currents or more generally, moving electric charges create magnetic fields (see Maxwell's Equations).
    2. Many particles have nonzero "intrinsic" (or "spin") magnetic moments. Just as each particle, by its nature, has a certain mass and charge, each has a certain magnetic moment, possibly zero.

    In magnetic materials, sources of magnetization are the electrons' orbital angular motion around the nucleus, and the electrons' intrinsic magnetic moment (see electron magnetic dipole moment). The other sources of magnetism are the nuclear magnetic moments of the nuclei in the material which are typically thousands of times smaller than the electrons' magnetic moments, so they are negligible in the context of the magnetization of materials. Nuclear magnetic moments are important in other contexts, particularly in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Ordinarily, the enormous number of electrons in a material are arranged such that their magnetic moments (both orbital and intrinsic) cancel out. This is due, to some extent, to electrons combining into pairs with opposite intrinsic magnetic moments as a result of the Pauli exclusion principle (see electron configuration), or combining into filled subshells with zero net orbital motion. In both cases, the electron arrangement is so as to exactly cancel the magnetic moments from each electron. Moreover, even when the electron configuration is such that there are unpaired electrons and/or non-filled subshells, it is often the case that the various electrons in the solid will contribute magnetic moments that point in different, random directions, so that the material will not be magnetic.

    However, sometimes — either spontaneously, or owing to an applied external magnetic field — each of the electron magnetic moments will be, on average, lined up. Then the material can produce a net total magnetic field, which can potentially be quite strong.

    The magnetic behavior of a material depends on its structure, particularly its electron configuration, for the reasons mentioned above, and also on the temperature. At high temperatures, random thermal motion makes it more difficult for the electrons to maintain alignment.


    Diamagnetism appears in all materials, and is the tendency of a material to oppose an applied magnetic field, and therefore, to be repelled by a magnetic field. However, in a material with paramagnetic properties (that is, with a tendency to enhance an external magnetic field), the paramagnetic behavior dominates.[8] Thus, despite its universal occurrence, diamagnetic behavior is observed only in a purely diamagnetic material. In a diamagnetic material, there are no unpaired electrons, so the intrinsic electron magnetic moments cannot produce any bulk effect. In these cases, the magnetization arises from the electrons' orbital motions, which can be understood classically as follows:

    When a material is put in a magnetic field, the electrons circling the nucleus will experience, in addition to their Coulomb attraction to the nucleus, a Lorentz force from the magnetic field. Depending on which direction the electron is orbiting, this force may increase the centripetal force on the electrons, pulling them in towards the nucleus, or it may decrease the force, pulling them away from the nucleus. This effect systematically increases the orbital magnetic moments that were aligned opposite the field, and decreases the ones aligned parallel to the field (in accordance with Lenz's law). This results in a small bulk magnetic moment, with an opposite direction to the applied field.

    Note that this description is meant only as an heuristic; a proper understanding requires a quantum-mechanical description.

    Note that all materials undergo this orbital response. However, in paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances, the diamagnetic effect is overwhelmed by the much stronger effects caused by the unpaired electrons.

    [edit] Paramagnetism

    In a paramagnetic material there are unpaired electrons, i.e. atomic or molecular orbitals with exactly one electron in them. While paired electrons are required by the Pauli exclusion principle to have their intrinsic ('spin') magnetic moments pointing in opposite directions, causing their magnetic fields to cancel out, an unpaired electron is free to align its magnetic moment in any direction. When an external magnetic field is applied, these magnetic moments will tend to align themselves in the same direction as the applied field, thus reinforcing it.


    A ferromagnet, like a paramagnetic substance, has unpaired electrons. However, in addition to the electrons' intrinsic magnetic moment's tendency to be parallel to an applied field, there is also in these materials a tendency for these magnetic moments to orient parallel to each other to maintain a lowered-energy state. Thus, even when the applied field is removed, the electrons in the material maintain a parallel orientation.

    Every ferromagnetic substance has its own individual temperature, called the Curie temperature, or Curie point, above which it loses its ferromagnetic properties. This is because the thermal tendency to disorder overwhelms the energy-lowering due to ferromagnetic order.

    Some well-known ferromagnetic materials that exhibit easily detectable magnetic properties (to form magnets) are nickel, iron, cobalt, gadolinium and their alloys.

    gnetic domains in ferromagnetic material.

    The magnetic moment of atoms in a ferromagnetic material cause them to behave something like tiny permanent magnets. They stick together and align themselves into small regions of more or less uniform alignment called magnetic domains or Weiss domains. Magnetic domains can be observed with a magnetic force microscope to reveal magnetic domain boundaries that resemble white lines in the sketch. There are many scientific experiments that can physically show magnetic fields.

    When a domain contains too many molecules, it becomes unstable and divides into two domains aligned in opposite directions so that they stick together more stably as shown at the right.

    When exposed to a magnetic field, the domain boundaries move so that the domains aligned with the magnetic field grow and dominate the structure as shown at the left. When the magnetizing field is removed, the domains may not return to an unmagnetized state. This results in the ferromagnetic material's being magnetized, forming a permanent magnet.

    When magnetized strongly enough that the prevailing domain overruns all others to result in only one single domain, the material is magnetically saturated. When a magnetized ferromagnetic material is heated to the Curie point temperature, the molecules are agitated to the point that the magnetic domains lose the organization and the magnetic properties they cause cease. When the material is cooled, this domain alignment structure spontaneously returns, in a manner roughly analogous to how a liquid can freeze into a crystalline solid.











    In an antiferromagnet, unlike a ferromagnet, there is a tendency for the intrinsic magnetic moments of neighboring valence electrons to point in opposite directions. When all atoms are arranged in a substance so that each neighbor is 'anti-aligned', the substance is antiferromagnetic. Antiferromagnets have a zero net magnetic moment, meaning no field is produced by them. Antiferromagnets are less common compared to the other types of behaviors, and are mostly observed at low temperatures. In varying temperatures, antiferromagnets can be seen to exhibit diamagnetic and ferrimagnetic properties.

    In some materials, neighboring electrons want to point in opposite directions, but there is no geometrical arrangement in which each pair of neighbors is anti-aligned. This is called a spin glass, and is an example of geometrical frustration.


    Like ferromagnetism, ferrimagnets retain their magnetization in the absence of a field. However, like antiferromagnets, neighboring pairs of electron spins like to point in opposite directions. These two properties are not contradictory, because in the optimal geometrical arrangement, there is more magnetic moment from the sublattice of electrons that point in one direction, than from the sublattice that points in the opposite direction.

    The first discovered magnetic substance, magnetite, was originally believed to be a ferromagnet; Louis Néel disproved this, however, with the discovery of ferrimagnetism.

    [edit] Superparamagnetism

    When a ferromagnet or ferrimagnet is sufficiently small, it acts like a single magnetic spin that is subject to Brownian motion. Its response to a magnetic field is qualitatively similar to the response of a paramagnet, but much larger.

    [edit] Electromagnet

    An electromagnet is a type of magnet whose magnetism is produced by the flow of electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current ceases.

    [edit] Magnetism, electricity, and special relativity

    As a consequence of Einstein's theory of special relativity, electricity and magnetism are fundamentally interlinked. Both magnetism lacking electricity, and electricity without magnetism, are inconsistent with special relativity, due to such effects as length contraction, time dilation, and the fact that the magnetic force is velocity-dependent. However, when both electricity and magnetism are taken into account, the resulting theory (electromagnetism) is fully consistent with special relativity.[6][9] In particular, a phenomenon that appears purely electric to one observer may be purely magnetic to another, or more generally the relative contributions of electricity and magnetism are dependent on the frame of reference. Thus, special relativity "mixes" electricity and magnetism into a single, inseparable phenomenon called electromagnetism, analogous to how relativity "mixes" space and time into spacetime.

    [edit] Magnetic fields in a material

    In a vacuum,

    \mathbf{B} \ = \ \mu_0\mathbf{H},

    where μ0 is the vacuum permeability.