Dee Finney['s blog

start date July 20, 2011

Today's date April 18, 2012

page 202




4-18-12 -  last night Joe and I watched a rather satirical documentary about the Mormon History
which most people didn't know about. It was all rather negative.   I then fell asleep and had a dream
 about the Mormons, which was like reading a book about the Mormons.  The dogs woke me up
barking like crazy and I lost the dream completely as far as knowing what it was about.

After I fell  asleep again, I went into another dream in which I was living in an apartment building,
 and my door had a window in it.  My attention was drawn to the hallway and I went out there and a
short, petite dark-haired woman was out there and said that another woman the hall had been looking
for me, but she stood there waiting for the woman to come down the hall and she never came, so I went
 back into the apartment, and woke up.

While awake, I started to hear a woman's voice - very sensual it sounded and the woman said, "We
wanted to tell you about the Golden Apples of Nauvoo Country and their nutrition.

I'd never forget that voice -  it was so unusual - almost angelic. iT MOST LIKELY WAS AN ANGEL.




IF YOU WANT TO READ MORE THAN THIS GO HERE:  http://www.google.com/#q=golden+apples+of+nauvoo+county&hl=en&prmd=imvns&ei=FJGOT4nABeWKiAKQ7MXpAg&start=20&sa=N&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=27fff1a56866873a&biw=1280&bih=816




Hancock County, Carthage, Nauvoo, Warsaw and Quincy, for the Maintenance of Peace
Following the Martyrdom: List of the Names of Those Who Were in the Mob Assembled to Slay the Prophet

"Saturday, June 29th, 1844.—About noon, General H. Swazey, of Iowa, called at Nauvoo and offered
assistance to the people.

The following article from Governor Ford, was published in the Times and Seasons:—

o the People of the State of Illinois

'I desire to make a brief, but true statement of the recent disgraceful affair at Carthage, in regard to the
Smiths, so far as circumstances have come to my knowledge.

The Smiths, Joseph and Hyrum, have been assassinated in jail, by whom it is not known, but will be ascertained.
I pledged myself for their safety, and upon the assurance of that pledge they surrendered as prisoners. The Mormons
 surrendered the public arms in their possession, and the Nauvoo Legion submitted to the command of Captain
Singleton, of Brown county, deputed for that purpose by me.

All these things were required to satisfy the old citizens of Hancock that the Mormons were peaceably disposed,
 and to allay jealousy and excitement in their minds.

It appears, however, that the compliance of the Mormons with every requisition made upon them, failed of that
purpose. The pledge of security to the Smiths was not given upon my individual responsibility. Before I gave it,
 I obtained a pledge of honor by a unanimous vote from the officers and men under my command, to sustain me
in performing it. If the assassination of the Smiths was committed by any portion of these, they have added treachery
to murder, and have done all they could to disgrace the state, and sully the public honor.

On the morning of the day the deed was committed, we had proposed to march the army under my command into
Nauvoo. I had, however, discovered on the evening before, that nothing but utter destruction of the city would
satisfy a portion of the troops; and that if we marched into the city, pretexts would not be wanting for commencing
 hostilities. The Mormons had done everything required, or which ought to have been required of them. Offensive
operations on our part would have been as unjust and disgraceful as they would have been impolitic in the present
critical season of the year, the harvest and the crops. For these reasons I decided, in a council of officers to disband
the army, except three companies, two of which were reserved as a guard for the jail.


With the other company I marched into Nauvoo, to address the inhabitants there, and tell them what they might expect
in case they designedly or imprudently provoked a war. I performed this duty as I think plainly and emphatically, and
 then set out to return to Carthage.

When I had marched about three miles, a messenger informed me of the occurrences at Carthage. I hastened on to that
place. The guard, it is said, did their duty, but were overpowered. Many of the inhabitants of Carthage had fled with
 their families. Others were preparing to go. I apprehended danger to the settlements from the sudden fury and passion
 of the Mormons, and sanctioned their movements in this respect.

General Deming volunteered to remain with a few troops to observe the progress of events, to defend property against
 small numbers, and with orders to retreat if menaced by a superior force. I decided to proceed immediately to Quincy,
 to prepare a force sufficient to suppress disorders, in case it should ensue from the foregoing transactions, or from any
other cause. I have hopes that the Mormons will make no further difficulties. In this I may be mistaken. The other party
 may not be satisfied. They may recommence aggression.

I am determined to preserve the peace against all breakers of the same, at all hazards. I think present circumstances
warrant the precaution of having a competent force at my disposal, in readiness to march at a moment's warning. My
 position at Quincy will enable me to get the earliest intelligence, and to communicate orders with great celerity.

I have decided to issue the following general orders:

Governor Ford's General Orders to the Militia in the Western Counties of Illinois

'Headquarters, Quincy,

June 29, 1844.

It is ordered that the commandants of regiments in the counties of Adams, Marquette, Pike, Brown, Schuyler, Morgan,
 Scott, Cass, Fulton and McDonough, and the regiments composing General Stapp's brigade, will call their respective
 regiments and battalions together immediately upon the receipt of this order, and proceed by voluntary enlistment to
enroll as many men as can be armed in their respective regiments. They will make arrangements for a campaign of
twelve days, and will provide themselves with arms, ammunition and provisions accordingly, and hold themselves in
readiness immediately to march upon the receipt of further orders.

The independent companies of riflemen, infantry, cavalry, and artillery in the above-named counties, and in the county
 of Sangamon will hold themselves in readiness in like manner.

[Signed] Thomas Ford,

Governor and Commander-in-Chief.'

Movement of Quincy Troops to Warsaw.

Saturday, 29, 1 p.m.—Mayor Wood and ex-Mayor Conyers, from Quincy, arrived from the governor's headquarters, and
said 244 troops from Quincy had arrived in Warsaw to protect the innocent, and they had come to ascertain the feelings of
 the people, and adopt measures to allay excitement.

We copy the following letter from Sheriff J. B. Backenstos:—

Roll of Carthage Greys and Officers June 27th, A. D, 1844.

Robert F. Smith, Captain.
F. A. Worrell,
S. O. Williams, Lieutenants.
M. Barnes, Jun.,

Guard at the Jail, June 27, 1844.
F. A. Worrell, officer of the guard. Joseph Hawley, lives in Carthage, Illinois.
Franklin Rhodes. Anthony Barkman, lives in Carthage, Illinois.
William Baldwin.
Levi Street, lives near Mendon, Adams county, Illinois. Clabourn Wilson, lives in Carthage, Illinois.

Balance of [Company of] Greys.

Edwin Baldwin, lives near Carthage, Ill.
James D. Barnes, " "
Frederick Loring, in "
Leyrand Doolittle, " "
Marvin Hamilton, lives in Carthage, Ill.
Ebenezer Rand, " "
John W. Maith, " "
Thomas Griffith, " "
Lewis C. Stevenson, " "
Noah M. Reckard, " "
Eli H. Williams, " "
H. T. Wilson, " "
Albert Thompson, " "
Walter Bagby, left the country, gone to Louisiana, and died.
George C. Waggoner, lives 2 1/2 miles north of Carthage.
Crocket Wilson, lives 8 miles east of Carthage.
Thomas J. Dale, 5 " "
Richard Dale, 5 " "

The Carthage Greys never numbered more than about thirty, rank and file; during the June mob war, several joined for
the time only, who reside at other places, and whose names are unknown to me. The Carthage Greys were nearly to a
man parties in the June massacre.

Green Plains.

Captain Weir's company of about sixty men.


Captain J. C. Davis' company of about sixty men.

Captain Wm. N. Grover's company of about sixty men.

Captain Mark Aldrich's company of about sixty men, comprising the entire settlement in and about Warsaw and
 Green Plains, with the exception of the Walkers, Gillhams, Paytons, Bledsors, Gallahers, Byrrs, Kimballs, Worthens,
 Summervilles, and Bedells, and the Mormon families who resided in that part of the county at that time.

Those active in the massacre at Carthage—supplied by Sheriff J. B. Backenstos

The leaders of the Hancock mob, and those who took an active part in the massacre of Joseph and Hyrum Smith are—

Thomas C. Sharp, Warsaw Signal, Illinois, editor.

Colonel Levi Williams, Green Plains, Illinois, farmer.

William N. Grover, Warsaw, Illinois, lawyer.

Jacob C. Davis, Warsaw, Illinois, lawyer.

Mark Aldrich, Warsaw, Illinois, no business.

Henry Stephens, Warsaw, Illinois, lawyer.

George Rockwell, Warsaw, Illinois, druggist.

James H. Wood, Warsaw, Illinois, blacksmith.

Calvin Cole, Warsaw, Illinois, tavernkeeper.

William B. Chipley, Warsaw, Illinois, doctor.

————Hays, Warsaw, Illinois, doctor.

J. D. Mellen, Warsaw, Illinois, merchant.

E. W. Gould, Warsaw, Illinois, merchant.

Samuel Fleming, Warsaw, Illinois, constable.

John Montague, Warsaw, Illinois, no business.

Jas. Gregg, Warsaw, Illinois, no business.

J. C. Elliot, Warsaw, Illinois, no business.

Lyman Prentiss, Warsaw, Illinois, no business.

D. W. Matthews, now St. Louis, Missouri, merchant.

J. B. Matthews, now St. Louis, Missouri, merchant.

Trueman Hosford, Warsaw, Illinois, farmer.

Four of the Chittendens, Warsaw, Illinois, different occupations.

J. W. Athey, Warsaw, Illinois, no business.

Onias C. Skinner, now of Quincy, Illinois, lawyer.

Calvin A. Warren, Quincy, Illinois, lawyer.

George W. Thatcher, Carthage, Illinois, county clerk.

James W. Brattle, Carthage, Illinois, land shark.

Alexander Sympson, Carthage, Illinois, land shark.

Jason H. Sherman, Carthage, Illinois, lawyer.

Michael Reckard, one-half mile west of Carthage, Illinois, farmer.

Thomas Morrison, Carthage, Illinois, lawyer.

E. S. Freeman, Carthage, Illinois, blacksmith.

Thomas L. Barnes, Carthage, Illinois, quack doctor.

John Wilson, Carthage, Illinois, tavernkeeper.

Edward Jones, 5 miles north of Carthage, farmer.

Captain James E. Dunn, Augusta, Illinois, tavernkeeper.

Joel Catlin, Augusta, Illinois, farmer, etc.

William D. Abernethy, Augusta, Illinois, farmer, etc.

Erastus Austin, constable, etc.

—————Austin, loafer.

Reuben Graves, St. Mary's, Illinois, farmer.

Henry Garnett, St. Mary's, Illinois, farmer.

F. J. Bartlett, St. Mary's, Illinois, miller.

Valentine Wilson, St. Mary's, Illinois, farmer.

Sylvester M. Bartlett, editor of the Quincy Whig.

Major W. B. Warren, a damned villain.

Colonel————Gettis, Fountain Green, Illinois, farmer.

Matthews McClaughny, Fountain Green, Illinois, farmer.

Nickerson Wright, Fountain Green, Illinois, farmer.

John McAuley, Camp Creek Precinct, Illinois, one of the worst men in Hancock.

William H. Rollason, Pontusuc, Illinois.

John M. Finch, Pontusuc, Illinois.

Francis M. Higbee, Pontusuc, Illinois.

————Douglass, Pontusuc, Illinois, schoolmaster.

George Backman, one of the Durfee murderers. 1

————Moss or Morse, one of the Durfee murderers.

Jacob Beck, one of the Durfee murderers.

Backman lives in Carthage, Moss or Morse, and Jacob Beck have left the country, but expect to return.

The foregoing is a pretty large list; there are others of the smaller fry which I deem unworthy of notice, inasmuch as
they were led on through the influence of the leaders, and whiskey. I most cheerfully give you any information in my
 power in reference to this matter; the only thing that I regret about is, that these things I am fearful will be put off so
long that I will not live to see or hear of the awful vengeance which will in the end overtake the Hancock assassins.
I have long been of the opinion that forbearance is no longer a virtue, let the guilty be made to answer for their crimes.
Let justice be done, and all will be well.

The bloodhounds are still determined on taking my life; I can hear from them every once in a while. I will have to
be exceedingly careful this summer, or they will have my scalp. They still act upon the principle that had it not been
 for me in September last, Worrell and McBradney would not have been killed, and the city of Nauvoo burned to the
 ground. They want to hold me responsible for everything that was done to put them down in their mob doings last year.

In reference to my correspondence with the governor, I will say that I received but two letters from him during the
difficulty, neither of which were received until after the arrival of General Hardin and the [state] government troops.

In my communications to Governor Ford, in relation to the riots in Hancock county, I made but one request of him, and
that was, that no troops ought to be brought into Hancock county; that I had sufficient power within the limits of the
 county to suppress any further riots, and prevent any more burning.

I am certain that the letters which I received from the governor were either left in your hands, or in the hands of some
one in your office at Nauvoo; at least I have not got them now. I recollect that you desired to get them for future use, and
am sorry that I cannot forward them to you. You will find in my Proclamations 2 the historical part of the last mob war
in Hancock.'

The following list is from the pen of Dr. Willard Richards:—

List of the Mob at Carthage According to Willard Richards

'William Law, Wm. A. Rollason,
Wilson Law, Wm. H. J. Marr,
Robert D. Foster, S. M. Marr,
Charles A. Foster, Sylvester Emmons,
Francis M. Higbee, Alexander Sympson,
Chauncey L. Higbee, John Eagle,
Joseph H. Jackson, Henry O. Norton,
John M. Finch, Augustine Spencer.

The foregoing have been aided and abetted by—Charles Ivins and family, P. T. Rolfe, N. J. Higbee.

William Cook, and Sarah, his wife, formerly Sarah Crooks, of Manchester.'

Sunday, 30.—The governor wrote to General Deming, as follows:—

Communication of Governor Ford to General Deming

'Headquarters. Quincy, June 30, 1844.

Sir.—It is my present opinion that the Mormons will not commit any outbreak, and that no further alarm need be
apprehended. I regret to learn that the party in Hancock, who are in favor of violent measures have circulated a
thousand false rumors of danger, for the purpose of getting men together without my authority, hoping that when
 assembled, they may be ready to join in their violent councils. This is a fraud upon the country, and must not be

I am afraid that the people of Hancock are fast depriving themselves of the sympathy of their fellow citizens, and
of the world. I strictly order and enjoin on you that you permit no attack on Nauvoo or any of the people there
without my authority. I think it would be best to disband your forces, unless it should be necessary to retain them to
suppress violence on either side: of this you must be the judge at present.

I direct that you immediately order all persons from Missouri and Iowa to leave the camp and return to their
respective homes without delay.

I direct, also, that you cause all mutinous persons, and all persons who advise tumultuous proceedings to be arrested;
 and that you take energetic measures to stop the practice of spreading false reports put in circulation to inflame the
 public mind.

[Signed] Thomas Ford, Commander-in-Chief.

To Brigadier-General Deming, Carthage, Ill.'

A few of the brethren met in council, and agreed to send Brother George J. Adams to bear the news of the massacre
 to the Twelve.

Elder Willard Richards wrote the following, and sent it by George J. Adams:—

Willard Richards to Brigham Young—Nauvoo Affairs, Including the Martyrdom

'Nauvoo, Sunday, June 30, 1844,

6 p.m.

Beloved Brother Brigham Young,—For the first moment we have had the opportunity, by request of such brethren of
 the council as we could call, we write to inform you of the situation of affairs in Nauvoo and elsewhere.

On the 24th inst., Joseph, Hyrum, and thirteen others went to Carthage, and gave themselves up to Robert F. Smith, a
justice of the peace, on charge of riot, for destroying the Nauvoo Expositor press and apparatus.

25th. Were exhibited by Governor Ford to the troops assembled, like elephants,—gave bonds for appearance at court
, were arrested on charge of treason, and committed to jail without examination.

26th. Brought out to the courthouse contrary to law, for examination,—returned to jail till witnesses could be procured.

27th. A little before 6 p.m. the jail was forced by an armed, disguised mob, of from 150 to 200; the guard was frustrated,
Hyrum shot in the nose and throat and two other places, only saying, 'I am a dead man'. Elder Taylor received four balls
in left leg and left wrist and hand. Joseph received four bullets, one in right collar bone, one in right breast, and two others
 in his back, he leaped from the east window of the front room, and was dead in an instant. I remained unharmed. The bodies
 were removed to Nauvoo on the 28th, and buried on the 29th. Elder Taylor remains at Hamilton's Tavern yet; we heard today
he is better.

Elder George J. Adams is deputed to convey this to you, together with today's Extra Nauvoo Neighbor, and other papers
giving particulars which you may rely on.

The effect of this hellish butchery was like the bursting of a tornado on Carthage and Warsaw; those villages were without
inhabitants, as in an instant they ran for their lives, lest the Mormons should burn and kill them suddenly—'the wicked flee
when no man pursueth'.

The excitement has been great, but the indignation more terrible: a reaction is taking place, and men of influence are
coming from abroad to learn the facts, and going away satisfied that the Mormons are not the aggressors.

You now know our situation, and the request of the council is, that the Twelve return to Nauvoo. The lives of twelve
more are threatened with deadly threats. It has been suggested by the council, that if the Twelve approved, President
Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, George A. Smith, Wilford Woodruff and Orson Pratt return immediately; and
William Smith, whose life is threatened, with all the Smiths, John E. Page, Lyman Wight, Parley P. Pratt and Orson
 Hyde spend a little time in publishing the news in the eastern cities, and getting as many in the church as possible.
This is for you to decide.

The saints have borne this trial with great fortitude and forbearance. They must keep cool at present. We have pledged
 our faith not to prosecute the murderers at present, but leave it to Governor Ford; if he fails, time enough for us by and
 by; vengeance is in the heavens. We have been in close quarters some time,—money and provisions are scarce. Will
the eastern brethren contribute to our relief?

Governor Ford has taken away the state arms from the Legion. Your families are well, for aught I know. Sister Hyde
 has gone to Kirtland, I suppose. I have not been able to get any means for myself or anybody else.

The council consider it best for all the traveling elders to stop preaching politics—preach the gospel with double energy,
 and bring as many to the knowledge of the truth as possible.

The great event of 1844, so long anticipated, has arrived, without a parallel since the birth of Adam.

Jackson [W. H.] and his gang will try to waylay you coming up the river, if not before: look out for yourselves.

A little while since Parley wrote to Hyrum about Elder George J. Adams' proceedings and teachings in Boston. I heard
 Joseph tell Hyrum to let Adams alone, let Adams go back there and make all things right, that Parley had misapprehended
some things, and acted in the matter rather injudiciously.

The saints have entered into covenants of peace with the governor and government officers, not to avenge the blood of
 the martyrs, but leave it with the executive, who had pledged the faith of the state for their safe-keeping. The elders
cannot be too careful in all the world, to keep from saying anything to irritate and vex the governor, etc., for at present
 we must conciliate: it is for our salvation. The governor has appeared to act with honest intentions; we bring no charge
 against him—will wait patiently his proceedings in the matter. Let the elders keep cool, vengeance rests in heaven.—
Yours as ever,

Willard Richards'.

Peace Council at Nauvoo.

A council was held by the brethren, at which Messrs. Wood and Conyers from Quincy were present, also Colonel
Richardson, lawyer, from Rushville. The council again expressed their determination to preserve the peace in the city,
and requested those gentlemen to use their influence to allay the excitement abroad, which they promised to do.

Colonel Richardson agreed to use all his influence to stay all illegal writs, and all writs for the present.

General Dunham requested a guard might be sent to Golden's Point, to protect the people there from the mob.

Father John Smith was present, and spoke of the destruction of crops by the McDonough troops.

We extract from Elder Woodruff's Journal:—

Excerpts from Wilford Woodruff's Journal—The Twelve in Boston

'The Boston branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and many elders from various parts, met in
conference in Franklin Hall, Boston, on the 29th day of June, 1844.

Present: a majority of the Quorum of the Twelve, viz., President Brigham Young, presiding; Elders Heber C.
 Kimball, Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, William Smith, Wilford Woodruff, and Lyman Wight.

Conference opened by prayer.

Elder Orson Hyde occupied the forenoon in an interesting manner.

Elders Young, Kimball, and Wight severally addressed the meeting in the afternoon, much to the edification of the people.

Resolved that James H. Glines and Wm. Henderson be ordained elders: they were ordained under the hands of Elders
Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball.

Conference adjourned till Sunday morning.

The Twelve met in council in the evening.

30th. 10 a.m. Conference met pursuant to adjournment.

Elder Orson Pratt addressed the meeting, and ably removed the objections generally urged against new revelation.

In the afternoon, Elder Lyman Wight preached on the immortality of the body and the spirit, and also the principle of
charity, connecting it with baptism for the dead.

In the evening, Elder Wilford Woodruff preached from the words of Jesus: 'Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I
 command you.'

The house was full through the day and evening, and much instruction was given during the conference by those who

A. Jonas and Col. Fellows at Nauvoo—Their Instructions.

Monday, July 1.—A. Jonas and Colonel Fellows arrived in Nauvoo, with a message from the governor to the city
council. We copy their instructions:—

The Governor's Instructions

'Colonel Fellows and Captain Jones are requested to proceed by the first boat to Nauvoo, and ascertain what is the
feeling, disposition, and determination of the people there, in reference to the late disturbances; ascertain whether any
 of them propose in any manner to avenge themselves, whether any threats have been used, and what is proposed
generally to be done by them.

They are also requested to return to Warsaw and make similar inquiries there; ascertain how far false rumors have
 been put afloat for the purpose of raising forces; what is the purpose of the militia assembled, whether any attack
 is intended on Nauvoo.

                                 Ascertain also, whether any person from Missouri or Iowa intends to take part in the matter,
 and in my name forbid any such interference, without my request, on pain of being demanded for punishment.

[Signed] Thomas Ford.

June 30th, 1844.'

They wrote as follows:—

Commissioners' Note to the Nauvoo City Council

'Nauvoo, July 1, 1844.

To the City Council of Nauvoo:

Gentlemen,—With this you will receive a copy of instructions from Governor Ford to us. You will understand from
 them what we desire from you in action on your part, as the only authorities of your city now known to the country, of
 such a character as will pacify the public mind and satisfy the governor of your determination to sustain the supremacy
 of the laws, which will, we are sure, be gratifying to him, and as much so to

Yours respectfully,

[Signed] Hart Fellows,

A. Jonas.'

We copy from the Times and Seasons:—

Resolutions of the City Council of Nauvoo

'At a meeting of the city council, held in the council room, in the city of Nauvoo, on the first day of July, 1844, having
 received instructions from Governor Ford, through the agency of A. Jonas, Esq., and Colonel Fellows, it was

Resolved, For the purpose of insuring peace, and promoting the welfare of the county of Hancock and surrounding country,
 that we will rigidly sustain the laws and the governor of the state, so long as they, and he, sustain us in all our constitutional

Resolved, secondly, That to carry the foregoing resolutions into complete effect, that inasmuch as the governor has taken
from us the public arms, that we solicit of him to do the same with all the rest of the public arms of the state.

Resolved, thirdly, To further secure the peace, friendship and happiness of the people, and allay the excitement that now
exists, we will reprobate private revenge on the assassinators of General Joseph Smith and General Hyrum Smith by any
 of the Latter-day Saints. That instead of 'an appeal to arms', we appeal to the majesty of the law, and will be content with
whatever judgment it shall award and should the law fail, we leave the matter with God.

Resolved, unanimously, That this city council pledge themselves for the city of Nauvoo, that no aggressions by the citizens
of said city shall be made on the citizens of the surrounding country, but we invite them, as friends and neighbors, to use the
Savior's golden rule, and 'do unto others as they would have others do unto them,' and we will do likewise.

Resolved, lastly, That we highly approve of the present public pacific course of the governor to allay excitement and restore
 peace among the citizens of the country; and while he does so, and will use his influence to stop all vexatious proceedings in
 law, until confidence is restored, so that the citizens of Nauvoo can go to Carthage, or any other place, for trial, without
exposing themselves to the violence of assassins, we will uphold him, and the law, by all honorable means.

[Signed] George W. Harris, President pro tem.

Willard Richards, Recorder."

'A Jonas. Esq., and Colonel Fellows:—

Messrs.,—In reply to your communication to the city council of the city of Nauvoo, on behalf of His Excellency Governor
Ford, I have been instructed by the council to communicate the foregoing resolutions which I respectfully solicit for your
consideration, and at the same time would inform you that a public meeting of our citizens will take place at the stand,
east of the Temple, at 4 p.m., and solicit your attendance.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

[Signed] W. Richards.'

Action of the City Council—Expressions of Appreciation

'At a meeting of a large portion of the citizens of Nauvoo, convened at the stand, in the afternoon of July 1, 1844, after
hearing the above instructions and resolutions of the city council read, and being addressed by A. Jonas, Esq., and others,
 the meeting responded to the same with a hearty Amen!

The citizens then passed a vote of thanks to the governor's agents for their kindly interference in favor of peace among
 the citizens of Hancock county and elsewhere around us.

They also passed a vote of thanks to Messrs. Woods and Reid, the counsel for the Generals Smith, for their great exertions
to have even-handed justice meted to the Latter-day Saints, and they also passed a vote of thanks to Messrs. Chambers and
Field, the former one of the editors of the Missouri Republican, and the latter, one of the editors of the Reveille, of St. Louis,
for their honorable course of coming to Nauvoo for facts, instead of spreading rumors concerning the Latter-day Saints.

Mr. Chambers made a very appropriate speech, containing innuendos for the benefit of our citizens, that appeared as the
wise man said, 'like apples of gold in pictures of silver'.

They also passed a vote of thanks to Messrs. Wood and Conyers, mayor and ex-mayor of Quincy, for their friendly
 disposition in establishing peace in this region, and we are happy to say that all appears to be peace at Nauvoo.'

Address to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints—A Word of Consolation

'Deeply impressed for the welfare of all, while mourning the great loss of President Joseph Smith, our 'Prophet and Seer',
 and President Hyrum Smith, our 'Patriarch', we have considered the occasion demanded of us a word of consolation.

As has been the case in all ages, these saints have fallen martyrs for the truth's sake, and their escape from the persecution
 of a wicked world, in blood to bliss, only strengthens our faith, and confirms our religion as pure and holy.

We, therefore, as servants of the Most High God, having the Bible, Book of Mormon, and the Book of Doctrine and
together with thousands of witnesses, for Jesus Christ, would beseech the Latter-day Saints, in Nauvoo and
 elsewhere, to hold fast to the faith that has been delivered to them in the last days, abiding in the perfect law of the gospel.

Be peaceable, quiet citizens, doing the works of righteousness, and as soon as the Twelve and other authorities can
assemble, or a majority of them, the onward course to the great gathering of Israel, and the final consummation of the
dispensation of the fullness of times will be pointed out, so that the murder of Abel, the assassination of hundreds, the
 righteous blood of all the holy Prophets, from Abel to Joseph, sprinkled with the best blood of the Son of God, as the
 crimson sign of remission, only carries conviction to the bosoms of all intelligent beings, that the cause is just and will
 continue; and blessed are they that hold out faithful to the end, while apostates, consenting to the shedding of innocent
blood, have no forgiveness in this world nor in the world to come.

Union is peace, brethren, and eternal life is the greatest gift of God. Rejoice, then, that you are found worthy to live and
 die for God. Men may kill the body, but they cannot hurt the soul, and wisdom shall be justified of her children. Amen.

[Signed] W. W. Phelps,
Willard Richards,
John Taylor.
July 1, 1844'."
r 12.

1. The Durfee murder occurred at Green Plains in Hancock county, Illinois, during the renewal of mob violence in the latter part of 1845 (See Jenson's Chronology, November, 1845 also Comprehensive History of the Church, Century 1, vol. 2, ch. 67). B. H. R.

2. These Proclamations are five in number. and will be found in extenso in the Comprehensive History of the Church, Century 1, vol. 2, pp. 490-503. B. H. R.


Our Heritage: A Brief History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Sacrifice and                                                     

Chapter Five: Sacrifice and Blessings in Nauvoo,” Our Heritage: A Brief History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 55


The Latter-day Saints who made their way to Illinois received a warm welcome from generous citizens in the town of Quincy. Following the return of the Prophet Joseph Smith from his confinement in Liberty Jail, the Saints moved north up the Mississippi River about 35 miles. There they drained the large swamps in the area and began to build the city of Nauvoo beside a bend in the river. The city was soon a bustle of activity and commerce as Saints gathered there from all parts of the United States, Canada, and England. Within four years, Nauvoo had become one of the largest cities in Illinois.

Church members lived in relative peace, secure in the fact that a prophet walked and labored among them. Hundreds of missionaries called by the Prophet left Nauvoo to proclaim the gospel. A temple was constructed, the temple endowment was received, wards were created for the first time, stakes were established, the Relief Society was organized, the book of Abraham was published, and significant revelations were received. For more than six years, the Saints displayed a remarkable degree of unity, faith, and happiness as their city became a beacon of industry and truth.

Sacrifices of Nauvoo Missionaries

As the Saints began to construct homes and plant crops, many of them became ill with the ague, an infectious disease that included fever and chills. The sick included most of the Twelve and Joseph Smith himself. On 22 July 1839 the Prophet arose from his bed of sickness with the power of God resting upon him. Using the power of the priesthood, he healed himself and the sick in his own house, then commanded those camping in tents in his dooryard to be made whole. Many people were healed. The Prophet went from tent to tent and from house to house, blessing everyone. It was one of the great days of faith and healing in Church history.

During this period, the Prophet called the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles to go to England on missions. Elder Orson Hyde, a member of the Quorum of the Twelve, was sent to Jerusalem to dedicate Palestine for the gathering of the Jewish people and other children of Abraham. Missionaries were sent to preach throughout the United States and eastern Canada, and Addison Pratt and others received calls to go to the Pacific Islands.

These brethren made great sacrifices as they left their homes and families to respond to their calls to serve the Lord. Many members of the Twelve were struck with the ague as they prepared to depart for England. Wilford Woodruff, who was very ill, left his wife, Phoebe, almost without food and the necessities of life. George A. Smith, the youngest Apostle, was so sick that he had to be carried to the wagon, and a man who saw him asked the driver if they had been robbing the graveyard. Only Parley P. Pratt, who took his wife and children with him, his brother Orson Pratt, and John Taylor were free from disease as they left Nauvoo, although Elder Taylor later became terribly ill and almost died as they traveled to New York City.

Brigham Young was so ill that he was unable to walk even a short distance without assistance, and his companion, Heber C. Kimball, was no better. Their wives and families, too, lay suffering. When the Apostles reached the crest of a hill a short distance from their homes, both lying in a wagon, they felt as though they could not endure leaving their families in so pitiful a condition. At Heber’s suggestion, they struggled to their feet, waved their hats over their heads, and shouted three times, “Hurrah, Hurrah, for Israel.” Their wives, Mary Ann and Vilate, gained strength enough to stand and, leaning against the door frame, they cried out, “Good-bye, God bless you.” The two men returned to their wagon beds with a spirit of joy and satisfaction at seeing their wives standing instead of lying sick in bed.

The families remaining behind demonstrated their faith as they sacrificed to support those who had accepted mission calls. When Addison Pratt was called to a mission in the Sandwich Islands, his wife, Louisa Barnes Pratt, explained: “My four children had to be schooled and clothed, and no money would be left with me. … My heart felt weak at the first, but I determined to trust in the Lord, and stand bravely before the ills of life, and rejoice that my husband was counted worthy to preach the gospel.”

Louisa and her children went to the dock to bid farewell to their husband and father. After they returned home, Louisa reported that “sadness took possession of our minds. It was not long till loud thunders began to roar. A family, living across the street, had a leaky house; frail and uncertain. Soon they all came over for safety through the storm. Thankful we were to see them come in; they talked comforting to us, sang hymns, and the brother prayed with us, and stayed till the storm was over.” 1

Not long after Addison’s departure, his young daughter contracted smallpox. The disease was so contagious that there was real danger to any priesthood brother who might come to the Pratts, so Louisa prayed with faith and “rebuked the fever.” Eleven little pimples came out on her daughter’s body, but the disease never developed. In a few days the fever was gone. Louisa wrote, “I showed the child to one acquainted with that disease; he said it was an attack; that I had conquered it by faith.” 2

Those missionaries who left Nauvoo at such sacrifice brought thousands into the Church. Many of those who were converted also displayed remarkable faith and courage. Mary Ann Weston lived in England with the William Jenkins family while learning dressmaking. Brother Jenkins was converted to the gospel, and Wilford Woodruff came to the house to visit the family. Only Mary Ann was home at the time. Wilford sat by the fire and sang, “Shall I for fear of feeble man, the Spirit’s course in me restrain.” Mary Ann watched him as he sang and remembered that “he looked so peaceful and happy, I thought he must be a good man, and the Gospel he preached must be true.” 3

Through her association with Church members, Mary Ann was soon converted and baptized—the only member of her family to respond to the message of the restored gospel. She married a member of the Church, who died four months later, due in part to a beating he received at the hands of a mob intent on disrupting a Church gathering. All alone, she boarded a ship filled with other Latter-day Saints bound for Nauvoo, leaving her home, her friends, and her unbelieving parents. She never saw her family again.

Her courage and commitment eventually blessed the lives of many people. She married Peter Maughan, a widower, who settled Cache Valley in northern Utah. There she raised a large, faithful family, who honored both the Church and her name.

The Standard Works

During the Nauvoo period, some of the writings that later became the Pearl of Great Price were published. This book contains selections from the book of Moses, the book of Abraham, an extract from the testimony of Matthew, excerpts from Joseph Smith’s history, and the Articles of Faith. These documents were written or translated by Joseph Smith under the direction of the Lord.

The Saints now had the scriptures that would become the standard works of the Church: the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. These books are of inestimable value to the children of God, for they teach the fundamental truths of the gospel and bring the honest seeker to the knowledge of God the Father and his Son, Jesus Christ. Additional revelations have been added to the modern-day scriptures as directed by the Lord through his prophets.

The Nauvoo Temple

Only 15 months after founding Nauvoo, the First Presidency, obedient to revelation, announced that the time had now come “to erect a house of prayer, a house of order, a house for the worship of our God, where the ordinances can be attended to agreeable to His divine will.” 4 Though poor and struggling to provide for their own families, Latter-day Saints responded to their leaders’ call and began donating time and means toward constructing a temple. More than 1,000 men donated every tenth day in labor. Louisa Decker, a young girl, was impressed that her mother sold her china dishes and a fine bed quilt as her temple contribution. 5 Other Latter-day Saints gave horses, wagons, cows, pork, and grain to aid in the temple’s construction. The women of Nauvoo were asked to contribute their dimes and pennies for the temple fund.

Caroline Butler had no pennies or dimes to contribute, but she wanted very much to give something. One day while going to the city in a wagon, she saw two dead buffalo. Suddenly she knew what her temple gift could be. She and her children pulled the long hair from the buffaloes’ manes and took it home with them. They washed and carded the hair and spun it into coarse yarn, then knitted eight pairs of heavy mittens that were given to the rock cutters working on the temple in the bitter winter cold. 6

Mary Fielding Smith, wife of Hyrum Smith, wrote to Latter-day Saint women in England, who within a year gathered 50,000 pennies, weighing 434 pounds, that were shipped to Nauvoo. Farmers donated teams and wagons; others sold some of their land and donated the money to the building committee. Many watches and guns were contributed. The Saints in Norway, Illinois, sent 100 sheep to Nauvoo to be used by the temple committee.

Brigham Young remembered: “We did much hard labor on the Nauvoo temple, during which time it was difficult to get bread and other provisions for the workmen to eat.” Still, President Young counseled those in charge of temple funds to give out all the flour they had, confident that the Lord would provide. Within a short time Joseph Toronto, a recent convert to the Church from Sicily, arrived in Nauvoo, bringing with him $2,500 in gold, which he laid at the feet of the Brethren. 7 These life savings of Brother Toronto were used to replenish the flour and to purchase other much needed supplies.

Shortly after the Saints arrived in Nauvoo, the Lord revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith that baptisms could be performed for dead ancestors who had not heard the gospel (see D&C 124:29–39). Many Saints took great comfort in the promise that the dead might have the same blessings as those who accept the gospel here on earth.

The Prophet also received an important revelation concerning the teachings, covenants, and blessings that are now called the temple endowment. This sacred ordinance was to enable the Saints “to secure the fullness of those blessings” that would prepare them to “come up and abide in the presence of … Eloheim in the eternal worlds.” 8 After receiving the endowment, husbands and wives could be sealed together by the power of the priesthood for time and all eternity. Joseph Smith realized that his time on earth was short, so while the temple was still under construction, he began giving the endowment to selected faithful followers in the upstairs room of his red brick store.

Even after the murder of the Prophet Joseph Smith, when the Saints realized they must shortly leave Nauvoo, they increased their commitment to completing the temple. The attic of the unfinished temple was dedicated as a part of the structure where the endowment would be administered. The Saints were so anxious to receive this sacred ordinance that Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and others of the Twelve Apostles remained in the temple both day and night, sleeping no more than about four hours a night. Mercy Fielding Thompson had charge of the washing and ironing of temple clothes, as well as overseeing the cooking. She too lived in the temple, sometimes working throughout the night to have everything ready for the next day. Other members were just as devoted.

Why would these Saints work so hard to complete a building they would soon leave behind? Almost 6,000 Latter-day Saints received their endowments before leaving Nauvoo. As they turned their eyes toward their western migration, they were bolstered in faith and secure in the knowledge that their families were eternally sealed together. Tear-stained faces, ready to move on after burying a child or spouse on America’s vast prairie, were resolute largely because of the assurances contained in the ordinances they had received in the temple.

The Relief Society

While the Nauvoo Temple was under construction, Sarah Granger Kimball, wife of Hiram Kimball, one of the city’s wealthiest citizens, hired a seamstress named Margaret A. Cooke. Desiring to further the Lord’s work, Sarah donated cloth to make shirts for the men working on the temple, and Margaret agreed to do the sewing. Shortly thereafter, some of Sarah’s neighbors also desired to participate in the shirt making. The sisters met in the Kimball parlor and decided to formally organize. Eliza R. Snow was asked to write a constitution and bylaws for the new society.

Eliza presented the completed document to the Prophet Joseph Smith, who declared it was the best constitution he had seen. But he felt impressed to enlarge the vision of the women concerning what they could accomplish. He asked the women to attend another meeting, where he organized them into the Nauvoo Female Relief Society. Emma Smith, the Prophet’s wife, became the society’s first president.

Joseph told the sisters that they would receive “instruction through the order which God has established through the medium of those appointed to lead—and I now turn the key to you in the name of God and this Society shall rejoice and knowledge and intelligence shall flow down from this time—this is the beginning of better days to this Society.” 9

Soon after the society came into existence, a committee visited all of Nauvoo’s poor, assessed their needs, and solicited donations to help them. Cash donations and proceeds from the sale of food and bedding provided schooling for needy children. Flax, wool, yarn, shingles, soap, candles, tinware, jewelry, baskets, quilts, blankets, onions, apples, flour, bread, crackers, and meat were donated to help those in need.

Besides helping the poor, Relief Society sisters worshiped together. Eliza R. Snow reported that in one meeting “nearly all present arose and spoke, and the spirit of the Lord like a purifying stream, refreshed every heart.” 10 These sisters prayed for each other, strengthened each other’s faith, and consecrated their lives and resources to help further the cause of Zion.

The Martyrdom

While the years in Nauvoo provided many happy times for the Saints, persecution soon began again, culminating in the murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. This was a dark and mournful time never to be forgotten. Recording her feelings upon hearing of the martyrdom, Louisa Barnes Pratt wrote: “It was a still night, and the moon was at the full. A night of death it seemed, and everything conspired to make it solemn! The voices of the officers were heard calling the men together and coming in the distance made it fall on the heart like a funeral knell. The women were assembled in groups, weeping and praying, some wishing terrible punishment on the murderers, others acknowledging the hand of God in the event.” 11

Like Louisa Barnes Pratt, many Latter-day Saints remembered the events of 27 June 1844 as a time of tears and broken hearts. The martyrdom was the most tragic event in the Church’s early history. However, it was not unexpected.

On at least 19 different occasions, beginning as early as 1829, Joseph Smith told the Saints that he would probably not leave this life peacefully. 12 While he felt that his enemies would one day take his life, he did not know when. As the spring of 1844 became summer, enemies both within and without the Church worked toward Joseph’s destruction. Thomas Sharp, editor of a nearby newspaper and a leader in Hancock County’s anti-Mormon political party, openly called for the Prophet’s murder. Citizens’ groups, apostates, and civic leaders conspired to destroy the Church by destroying its prophet.

The governor of Illinois, Thomas Ford, wrote to Joseph Smith, insisting that the city council members stand trial before a non-Mormon jury on a charge of causing a civil disturbance. He said that only such a trial would satisfy the people. He promised the men complete protection, although the Prophet did not believe he could fulfill his pledge. When it appeared that there were no other alternatives, the Prophet, his brother Hyrum, John Taylor, and others submitted to arrest, fully aware that they were guilty of no crimes.

As the Prophet prepared to leave Nauvoo for the county seat of Carthage, about 20 miles away, he knew that he was seeing his family and friends for the last time. He prophesied, “I am going like a lamb to the slaughter, but I am calm as a summer’s morning.” 13

As the Prophet started out, B. Rogers, who had worked on Joseph’s farm for more than three years, and two other boys hiked across the fields and sat on the rail fence waiting for their friend and leader to pass by. Joseph stopped his horse beside the boys and said to the militiamen who were with him: “Gentlemen, this is my farm and these are my boys. They like me, and I like them.” After shaking each boy’s hand, he mounted his horse and rode on to his rendezvous with death. 14

Dan Jones, a Welsh convert, joined the Prophet in the Carthage Jail. On 26 June 1844, the last night of his life, Joseph heard a gun fire, left the bed, and lay on the floor near Jones. The Prophet whispered, “Are you afraid to die?” “Engaged in such a cause I do not think that death would have many terrors,” Jones replied. “You will yet see Wales and fulfill the mission appointed you before you die,” Joseph prophesied. 15 Thousands of faithful Latter-day Saints enjoy the blessings of the Church today because Dan Jones later served an honorable and successful mission to Wales.

Shortly after five o’clock in the afternoon of 27 June 1844, a mob of about 200 men with painted faces stormed the Carthage Jail, shot and killed Joseph and his brother Hyrum, and seriously wounded John Taylor. Only Willard Richards remained unharmed. Upon hearing shouts of “the Mormons are coming,” the mob fled, as did most of Carthage’s residents. Willard Richards cared for the wounded John Taylor, both of them mourning their slain leaders. Hyrum’s body was inside the jail, while Joseph, who had fallen from a window, lay beside the outside well.

One of the first Latter-day Saints to arrive on the scene was the dead martyrs’ brother Samuel. He and others helped Willard Richards prepare the bodies for the long, sorrowful journey back to Nauvoo.

Meanwhile, in Warsaw, Illinois, the James Cowley family, who were members of the Church, prepared for their evening meal. Fourteen-year-old Matthias heard about some unusual excitement in town and joined a gathering crowd. The principal speaker saw young Cowley and ordered him to go home to his mother. Boys who were not Church members followed, pelting him with rubbish before he escaped by running through a neighbor’s yard.

Believing that things had quieted down, Matthias started for the river to get a pail of water. Members of the mob spotted him and paid a drunken tailor to throw him into the river. When Matthias stopped to dip the water, the tailor caught him by the back of his neck and said, “You … little Mormon, I’ll drown you.” Matthias said, “I asked him why he would drown me, and if I ever did any harm to him? No, says he, ‘I won’t drown you. … You’re a good boy, you may go home.’ ” That night mobsters unsuccessfully attempted three times to set fire to the Cowley home, but through faith and prayers the family was protected. 16 Matthias Cowley grew and remained faithful in the Church; his son Matthias and grandson Matthew later served in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.

Illinois Governor Thomas Ford wrote of the martyrdom: “The murder of the Smiths, instead of putting an end to … the Mormons and dispersing them, as many believed it would, only bound them together closer than ever, gave them new confidence in their faith.” 17 Ford also wrote, “Some gifted man like Paul, some splendid orator who will be able by his eloquence to attract crowds of the thousands, … may succeed in breathing a new life into [the Mormon church] and make the name of the martyred Joseph ring … loud and stir the souls of men.” Ford lived with a fear that this would happen and that his own name would, like the names of Pilate and Herod, be “dragged down to posterity.” 18 Ford’s fear came true.

President John Taylor recovered from his wounds and later wrote a tribute to the slain leaders that is now section 135 of the Doctrine and Covenants. He said: “Joseph Smith, the Prophet and Seer of the Lord, has done more, save Jesus only, for the salvation of men in this world, than any other man that ever lived in it. … He lived great, and he died great in the eyes of God and his people; and like most of the Lord’s anointed in ancient times, has sealed his mission and his works with his own blood; and so has his brother Hyrum. In life they were not divided, and in death they were not separated! … They lived for glory; they died for glory; and glory is their eternal reward” (D&C 135:3, 6).

Succession in the Presidency

When the Prophet Joseph and Hyrum Smith were murdered in Carthage Jail, many of the Quorum of the Twelve and other Church leaders were serving missions and were absent from Nauvoo. Several days passed before these men learned of the deaths. When Brigham Young heard the news, he knew that the keys of priesthood leadership were still with the Church, for these keys had been given to the Quorum of the Twelve. However, not all Church members understood who would replace Joseph Smith as the Lord’s prophet, seer, and revelator.

Sidney Rigdon, First Counselor in the First Presidency, arrived from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on 3 August 1844. In the year before this time, he had begun taking a course contrary to the counsel of the Prophet Joseph Smith and had become estranged from the Church. He refused to meet with the three members of the Twelve already in Nauvoo and instead spoke to a large group of the Saints assembled for their Sunday worship service. He told them of a vision he had received in which he had learned that no one could replace Joseph Smith. He said that a guardian to the Church should be appointed and that guardian should be Sidney Rigdon. Few Saints supported him.

Brigham Young, President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, did not return to Nauvoo until 6 August 1844. He declared that he wanted only to know “what God says” about who should lead the Church. 19 The Twelve called a meeting for Thursday, 8 August 1844. Sidney Rigdon spoke in the morning session for more than one hour. He won few if any adherents to his position.

Brigham Young then spoke briefly, comforting the hearts of the Saints. As Brigham spoke, George Q. Cannon remembered, “it was the voice of Joseph himself,” and “it seemed in the eyes of the people as if it were the very person of Joseph which stood before them.” 20 William C. Staines testified that Brigham Young spoke like the voice of the Prophet Joseph. “I thought it was he,” Staines said, “and so did thousands who heard it.” 21 Wilford Woodruff also recalled that wonderful moment and wrote, “If I had not seen him with my own eyes, there is no one that could have convinced me that it was not Joseph Smith, and anyone can testify to this who was acquainted with these two men.” 22 This miraculous manifestation, seen by many, made clear to the Saints that the Lord had chosen Brigham Young to succeed Joseph Smith as leader of the Church.

In the afternoon session, Brigham Young again spoke, testifying that the Prophet Joseph had ordained the Apostles to hold the keys of the kingdom of God in all the world. He prophesied that those who did not follow the Twelve would not prosper and that only the Apostles would be victorious in building up the kingdom of God.

Following his talk, President Young asked Sidney Rigdon to talk, but he chose not to. Following remarks by William W. Phelps and Parley P. Pratt, Brigham Young spoke again. He talked of completing the Nauvoo Temple, obtaining the endowment before going into the wilderness, and the importance of the scriptures. He spoke of his love for Joseph Smith and his affection for the Prophet’s family. The Saints then voted unanimously in favor of the Twelve Apostles as leaders of the Church.

While a few others would claim a right to the Presidency of the Church, for most Latter-day Saints the succession crisis was over. Brigham Young, the senior Apostle and President of the Quorum of the Twelve, was the man God had chosen to lead his people, and the people had united to sustain him.

The Saints built the beautiful city of Nauvoo along the banks of the Mississippi River. The Nauvoo Temple overlooked the city.

The scene of the martyrdom at Carthage Jail. Hyrum Smith, lying in the center of the floor, was killed instantly; John Taylor, at the bottom left, was severely wounded; Joseph Smith was shot and killed as he ran toward the window; and Willard Richards, by the fireplace, remained unharmed.


1. “Journal of Louisa Barnes Pratt,” Heart Throbs of the West, comp. Kate B. Carter, 12 vols. (1939–51), 8:229.

2. “Journal of Louisa Barnes Pratt,” 8:233.

3. “Journal of Mary Ann Weston Maughan,” Our Pioneer Heritage, comp. Kate B. Carter, 9 vols. (1958–66), 2:353–54.

4. History of the Church, 4:186.

5. Louisa Decker, “Reminiscences of Nauvoo,” Woman’s Exponent, Mar. 1909, 41.

6. “The Mormons and Indians,” Heart Throbs of the West, 7:385.

7. B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of the Church, 2:472.

8. History of the Church, 5:2.

9. Minutes of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo, 28 Apr. 1842, 40.

10. Minutes of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo, 28 Apr. 1842, 33.

11. “Journal of Louisa Barnes Pratt,” 8:231.

12. History of the Church, 4:587, 604; 6:558.

13. History of the Church, 6:555.

14. Kenneth W. Godfrey, “A Time, a Season, When Murder Was in the Air,” Mormon Heritage, July/Aug. 1994, 35–36.

15. History of the Church, 6:601.

16. Matthias Cowley, “Reminiscences” (1856), 3; in LDS Church Archives.

17. Thomas Ford, A History of Illinois, ed. Milo Milton Quaife, 2 vols. (1946), 2:217.

18. Thomas Ford, A History of Illinois, 2:221–23.

19. History of the Church, 7:230.

20. Quoted in History of the Church, 7:236.

21. Quoted in History of the Church, 7:236.

22. Quoted in History of the Church, 7:236.

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(Newspapers of Missouri)

Saint Louis, Missouri

Missouri Republican
1843-1844 Articles

A View of St. Louis Waterfront -- late 1840s

1833-35 | 1836-38 | 1839-40 | 1841-42 | 1843-44 | 1845-49 | 1850-99

Mar 17 '43
May 05 '43 | May 31 '43 | Jun 23 '43 | Jun 30 '43 | Jun 31 '43 | Aug 02 '43
Jan 06 '44 | Feb ?? '44 | Apr 22 '44 | May ?? '44 | Jun ?? '44 | Jun 14 '44
Jun ?? '44 | Jun 17 '44 | Jun 18 '44 | Jun ?? '44 | Jun 20 '44 | Jun 21 '44
Jun 22 '44 | Jun 25 '44 | Jul 03 '44 | Jul 04 '44 | Jul 5? '44 | Jul 16 '44
Jul 22 '44 | Jul 31 '44 | Sep 12 '44 | Sep 28 '44 | Sep 30 '44 | Oct 01 '44
Oct 02 '44 | Oct 04 '44 | Oct 09 '44 | Oct 25 '44 | Nov ?? '44 | Dec 04 '44
Dec 30 '44

Articles Index | 1840-50s St. Louis Newspapers

(this page under construction -- please e-mail 1843-44 articles for inclusion here)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Friday, March 17, 1843. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


Our readers will recollect that Ex-Gov. Boggs, of this State, was shot at, last fall at his residence in Jackson county. Fortunately the ball did not produce death, but the assassins escaped undetected. Governor Reynolds having obtained information, which induced the belief that it was the work of Orrin Porter Rockwell, of Nauvoo, offered a large reward for his apprehension. Joe Smith was also supposed to instigate the affair -- Rockwell being the instrument employed by Smith to effect his diabolical purposes. The officers of justice have kept a sharp look out for Rockwell since the Proclamation was made, but all efforts for his apprehension have proven unavailing until Sunday last, when he was taken in this city. Sufficient proof[s] of his identity were made, and he has been taken to Jefferson City to be delivered to the State authorities. He will, no doubt, be dealt with as he deserves, if his guilt is sufficiently established. His trial will take place, we suppose, in Jackson county, the place where the attempted assassination was made. We hear that he has been paying a flying visit to the Eastern States since a reward has been offered for him. If he be guilty, too much praise cannot be bestowed upon those who have been instrumental in apprehending him and bringing him to a just and well deserved punishment.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Tuesday, May 5, 1843. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


FROM NAUVOO. -- Joseph Smith, (the prophet,) Mayor of the city of Nauvoo, has published a proclamation in the Nauvoo Wasp, addressed to the citizens of the holy city, stating that there exists, up and down the Mississippi, and round about the city of Nauvoo, a band of desperadoes bound by oaths of secrecy, under severe penalties and that he understands some of the members, who have, through falsehood and deceit, been drawn into their snares, are through fear of the execution of said penalties on their persons, prevented from divulging their secret plans and depredations; the prophet mayor, therefore, grants and ensures protection against all personal violence to each and every citizen of the holy city, who will freely and voluntarily come forward and truly make known the names of all such abominable characters. The invitation will doubtless be generally responded to by the pious Nauvooans.

Note: The above article appeared in the Republican during the first part of May, 1843 -- exact date not yet determined.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Wed., May 31, 1843. [Vol. XXII - No. 3008.

AN ESCAPE. -- Jas. Waton, who was arrested a short time since as a participator in stealing the treasury notes from the customs house in N. O., and O. P. Rockwell, the Mormon, who has been committed as the person who attempted to assassinate Gov. Boggs, made their escape about six days ago from the jail at Independence. The jailer visited them and when inside the room, they ran out, locking the door upon him. They had to pass the room where the jailer's wife was, and she gave the alarm. They succeeded in getting but a short distance before they were taken and brought back.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Fri., June 23, 1843. [Vol. XXII - No. ?

... Joe Smith was lately indicted in some of the upper counties in Missouri, for treason and murder, growing out of the Mormon war. Immediately thereafter a writ was issued and a messenger despatched to Springfield, Ill., with a requisition from the Governor of Missouri on the Governor of Illinois for the arrest and delivery of Smith. It was intended to keep the whole proceedings a secret, to secure Joe's arrest; but in some way or another the Mormons at Springfield got wind of what was going on, and despatched a messenger to Smith at Nauvoo. Smith has left for parts unknown, or at least keeps himself so concealed that he cannot be arrested. It is reported that Rockwell, who is in jail at Independence for the attempted assassination of Governor Boggs, has signified a willingness to turn State's evidence and reveal the whole plot and actors. If this be true, it probably furnishes an additional motive for Smith to keep out of the clutches of the law...

Note 1: The exact title and text of this report remain uncertain. The above wording was taken from a reprint in the Pittsburgh Daily Morning Post of July 10, 1843.

Note 2: In a letter dated Aug. 14, 1843, Thomas Ford, the Governor of Illinois, summarized the matter in these words: " an indictment was found at a special term of the Davies Circuit Court, Missouri, held on the 5th day of June last, against Smith for treason. Upon this indictment the Governor of Missouri issued a requisition to the Governor of this State, demanding the arrest and delivery of Smith. A writ was thereupon duly issued by me for the apprehension and delivery of Smith as demanded. This writ was put into the hands of an officer of this state to be executed. The officer to whom it was directed immediately arrested Smith, and delivered him to Joseph H. Reynolds, the agent of Missouri, appointed to receive him. The writ has been returned to me as having been fully executed."

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Fri., June 30, 1843. [Vol. XXII - No. 3034.

FOURTH OF JULY -- The Nauvoo Legion. -- The elegant steamer Annawon, Capt. Whitney, will make a pleasure trip to Nauvoo on the 4th, leaving this city at 12 o'clock on Monday, and will arrive at Nauvoo on the morning of the 4th in time to witness the parade of the famous Nauvoo Legion, composed of 1500 men, which will be reviewed on that day by the prophet "Joe." -- [This offers] a delightful opportunity to those of our citizens who have [not seen] the wonder of the West -- the city of Nauvoo, and many no doubt will embrace it. The Annawan is spacious, airy, and perfectly safe, and we know that nothing will be wanting, that her officers can provide, in the way of refreshments, music, attention, &c., which will contribute to the pleasure of the company and to make the trip delightful

News was bro't last evening by the steamer Osprey, that Joe Smith, the Mormon Prophet, has been arrested and placed in jail at Ottawa, and further, that when the intelligence reached Nauvoo, 200 horsemen of the legion started immediately for Ottawa, with the intention of liberating him. The steamboat Iowa has also been chartered at Nauvoo by the Mormons, and is at present ascending the Illinois river, with 150 men, to second the attack of the horsemen on Ottawa. Ottawa is situated up the Illinois, and is distant about 300 miles from this city. We believe Smith has been traveling in the Northern part of the State, for the purpose of keeping from the arrest made under the requisition of the Governor of this State, which accounts for his being lodged in jail at Ottawa.

Note: The second news item above, telling of the arrest of Joseph Smith, may have actually appeared in the Republican of Saturday, July 1st -- the text is taken from a reprint published in the Pittsburgh Morning Chronicle of July 8, 1843. Probably the secheduled pleasure cruise was cancelled, once the apprehension of Smith in Illinois became common knowledge in St. Louis.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Saturday, June 31, 1843. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


... Joe Smith, the Mormon Prophet, who was indicted a short time ago in some of the upper counties of Missouri for treason and murder, growing out of the Mormon war, has been arrested and placed in jail at Ottawa, Illinois, whither he had fled as soon as he obtained knowledge of a requisition having been made by the authorities of Missouri for his person.

The news of Smith's arrest was brought to St. Louis on the 29th ultimo by the steamboat Osprey, the passengers on which further report, that when the intelligence of his apprehension reached Nauvoo, two hundred horsemen of the Legion started immediately for Ottawa with the intention of liberating him, and that the steamboat Iowa had been chartered at Nauvoo by the Mormons to ascend the Illinois river with one hundred and fifty armed men in order to second the attack of the horsemen on Ottawa. Ottawa is situated up the Illinois, and is distant about three hundred miles from St. Louis...

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Wednesday, August 2, 1843. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


A VISITOR. -- Gov. Ford, of Illinois has been in town for several days past, and departs, as we are informed, this morning. He says he has decided on not furnishing the agent of Missouri with a detachment of militia to arrest Joe Smith. We could not ascertain that the Governor was on any more important mission here than the purchase of a few lottery tickets.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, January 6, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


...It is quite evident that law has lost all its obligations in the county in which the Mormons are principally located, and an embittered and hostile feeling is taking possession of the minds of both parties.... (under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, February ?, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(under construction -- exact text uncertain)

MORMON DIFFICULTIES IN ILLINOIS. -- The Quincy Herald of the 9th instant states that four wagons passed through that place on Tuesday previous, on their way to the State arsonal at Alton, for the purpose of procuring arms to be used against the Mormons. The difficulties and the prospect of an immediate breach between the citizens and the Mormons has been brought to the knowledge of Governor Ford, and he has been earnestly appealed to, to maintain the peace and to protect the innocent. The state of exasperation between the Mormons and citizens is such that we will not be surprised to hear of actual histilities at any time, quite as violent as formerly existed between them and a portion of our own citizens.

Note: This article was probably published on February 11 or 12, 1844. The text has not yet been located for confimation.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Monday, April 22, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(under construction -- exact text uncertain)

We see it stated, that the Mormon Prophet Jo Smith has turned his wife out of doors for being in conversation with a gentleman of the sect, which she hesitated or refused to disclose. It was understood yesterday, that she had arrived in this city.

Note: The text of the above report is taken from a reprint published in the Fort Madison Lee Co. Democrat of Apr. 27, 1844. The essentials of the "turning out of doors" account were first reported in the columns of the Warsaw Signal, on Apr. 17th, two days before she departed Nauvoo on a steamboat down the river. Some sources refer to this incident as Emma's "shopping trip" to St. Louis, but her temporary relocation in that city appears to have been the outcome, rather than the reason for leaving her husband. See the last two paragraphs of William Law's letter of Jan. 7, 1887 for some possible hints concerning marital discord within the Smith family during the early spring of 1844.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, May ?, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(under construction -- exact text uncertain)

JOE SMITH -- DISSENTION AMONG THE MORMONS AT NAUVOO. -- We have good reasons for placing reliance in the details of a letter, the contents of which hereafter stated, giving an account of an ememte at the chief city of the Mormons, Nauvoo. The occurrences took place on the 26th. On that day -- says the writer -- a fracas of an alarming and important character occurred in Nauvoo, threatening with impending destruction the Mormon government and even the life of the Prophet himself. It originated under the following circumstances: Joe Smith, Prophet and Mayor elect, having ordered his police to arrest a man by the name of Spencer, for an insult on his brother in his own house -- the residence of his mother also -- the accused refused to become a prisoner, alleging it was illegal to arrest without a writ from the Mayor. -- All the parties, however, collected round the Masonic Hall, or court-house. Joe Smith, Mayor, being present, ordered the police and the people to take said Spencer into custody. The constable having placed hands on him, Spencer put himself in a fighting position, and was assisted by Dr. Foster and his brother, younger Foster, and also James Higby -- who said they would not submit to the authority of the Prophet. Joe Smith put hands too, to assist in taking him, when the younger Foster took out a pistol, presented it, and said he would shoot the Prophet. At this moment I came up, and saw the struggle. The Prophet got hold of the pistol, and held firmly round the bretch until, by the assistance of Rockwell, a second, the Prophet succeeded in getting the pistol from Foster. The Dr. and Lasner at this time took up stands, and vociferated they would kill the Prophet -- said he was a villian and an impostor, and that he knew it; that they would be doing a meritorious act to rid the world of such a villian, an impostor and tyrant. Higden said he would certainly shoot him -- at any rate told him he remembered by-gone times -- knew of blood being shed on the island opposite; that he, the Prophet, was the right man. He (Rigby) belonged to his band -- had sustained him by money and force; he knew the Mormon Prophet, Joe Smith, was the author of murders, and it was high time he should die, and he would kill him. The Prophet got his hand cut and his nervous system shook. Finally, the authorities succeeded in bringing up three traversers before the court, It would be too long to write all the trial. -- Let the following suffice: The traversers manifested no disposition to withdraw their threats -- on the contrary, demanded their pistol from the Mayor, who gave it to them -- said he was always lenient, and would tyranize over no man. Foster took the pistol, and took another from his breast, examined to see all was properly loaded, and betrayed much wickedness and desperation. The court having heard the evidence, the Prophet made many observations about his clemency -- adverted to the threats, and denied ever having been privy to any murders on the island -- said he would maintain his authority and the law, should it cost life, and then fined the traversers -- Spencer for assaulting his brother, a cripple, in %100; and said Spencer, Dr. Foster and his brother young Foster, each $100 for resisting civil authorities. Appeals were taken in all the suits. The case is, at present, undergoing a second trial before a Squire in the upper part of the city, where the mother, a brother of Spencer, and his two daughters are called on to give evidence before a jury. The verdict is not yet returned. Spencer, in the pleadings, when the Elder Brother objected to his mother's evidence, on the ground of age and forgetfulness, called on his brother's daughters, who were present, and whose memories, he assured the court, were as bright as their faces (and they are undoubtedly handsome.) The court, however, overruled his motion.

Joe Smith has a number of enemies and his influence is beginning to decline, but I think his doctrine is on the increase.

There are about fifty masons and stonecutters about the Temple. It will be the most extraordinary building on the American Continent. We have a regular theatre, got up by the Mormons themselves Last night the play of Pizarro went off in good style to a large audience, of which about one hundred were ladies. I was astonished to see such an array of beauty in the New Jerusalem.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Missouri, June ??, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

Life in Nauvoo.

Nauvoo, Hancock. Co., Ill. April 25th, 1844.
Messrs. Editors: Here am I in the holy city of the Mormons, especially set apart and dedicated to the use of that peculiar people by their great High Priest, Gen. Joseph Smith, Esq. L. L. D. and H. O. A. X. What the Juggernaut is to a crowd of Hindoo devotees -- what Jerusalem was to the Crusaders, who poured out their blood to rescue the holy sepulchre from profanation -- what Mecca is to the troop of pilgrims who yearly throng the shrine of the 'False Prophet' -- so and such is Nauvoo to some of the weavers in Lancashire, the miners in Cornwall, and the cord-wainers who thump the lapstone near the former abode of the witches, which have given Salem immortality. Thither they have flocked: the cry being 'still they come,' until a prairie and river bottom which five years ago was a desert, is enlivened by the hum sent up by fifteen thousand human souls -- besides much cattle. How powerful is superstition! How sincere are those who yield themselves, body and soul, to its fatal embraces! Can any believer in the Trinity, or Predestination, or Apostolic succession -- or baptism by emersion -- or Purgatory, or the Virgin Mary, be more earnest, more devout, or more faithful than he, who thinks the everlasting Gospels were written on plates -- now deposited at Nauvoo, in Joe Smith's holy of holies -- but formerly dug out of a side hill of clay or gravel in the Western part of the State of New-York? -- The Mussulman cries out 'God is God and Mahomet is his Prophet' -- the Mormon varies it, with 'God is God and Joe Smith is his Prophet.' In many respects, Joe has the advantage over his illustrious predecessor: he, Joe, is not only Prophet, but is also Mormon King, and in his triune function of Prophet, Priest and King, he lords it over God's heritage with such a strict eye to the Lord's treasury, that he will by and by be enabled to present the world with a faint imitation of the outward glories of Solomon's temple.

Of course, neither you nor your readers expect me to trouble them with the history of Mormonism -- of it, as a form of superstition -- as a manifestation of that phrenzy to which men are sometimes subjected, of credulity and fanaticism. For 1800 years, to go back no further, there have, from time to time, started up some gloomy or hairbrained enthusiasts who were convinced that, shortly after the preaching of their belief, the sun would rise for the last time, and the things of time and sense be no longer. The Millerites are the latest example of this superstition -- not to mention others equally absurd and fanatical. These were the Anabaptists of Munster, the Fifth Monarchy men -- the followers of Joanna Southcote, and of Ann Lee. The face of society has been, and is now so speckled over with these eruptions of fanaticism and folly, that the remark may not be far from the truth: that the sane man is the exception, the madman the rule. But a truce to speculation, and now a few words about Nauvoo.

The 'town site' of Nauvoo is most beautiful; probably no situation on the Mississippi above St. Louis, can compare with it for beauty of location. Rising gradually from the river to a slight elevation, it extends out in a bread and level plain, nearly a mile, then rather more abruptly to a still higher elevation, on the highest point of which, the Temple is (to be) situated, the first story of which is now completed. -- Stone masons and other workmen, to the number of near a hundred, are busily at work upon it; all other public improvements are at present suspended, so that the faithful may concentrate their means; for the purpose of completing it without delay. If it is ever finished, (and the prospect seems now favorable,) it will be the most remarkable public building of modern times. It is to be built of stone, 127 feet, long, 88 feet broad, 26 feet high, with a tower 150 feet high from the ground, These are the general outside dimensions; the interior plan is yet undecided upon; or rather, the Prophet has not received a revelation in regard to the interior arrangements, the Lord having revealed to him thus far only, how the baptismal font must be constructed. This is quite finished. -- It is a large vessel built of wood -- oblong in shape -- about six feet deep, capable of containing twelve or fifteen hogsheads of water, and resting upon twelve oxen, carved out of wood; the beasts are as large as life, and about 'three times as natural.' -- Although especially revealed to Joe in these latter days, yet the idea is evidently borrowed from scripture, as may be found in 1st Kings, 7th chapter.

There are two public houses -- the 'Nauvoo Mansion' and the 'Masonic Hall.' The former is kept by the Prophet. Another hotel, three stories high, built of brick, situated near the Temple, is nearly completed. The Nauvoo House, when finished according to the present design, will be an elegant and commodious hotel -- fronting on two streets 127 feet; the foundation is already laid. The city is laid off into lots of one acre each -- the streets all intersect each other at right angles. It is impossible to estimate correctly the number of buildings by a general observation: there are many substantial brick buildings, stores and private dwellings, dotted over a space of near three thousand acres, comprising the limit of the city. The appearance of every thing here is flourishing.

In reference to Joseph Smith, and the Mormon religion, I presume there can be but one opinion out of the Church; but Joe and his religion have been the subject of gross and unfounded misrepresentations. That his followers are laboring under most unaccountable delusion, admits of little doubt -- the majority, however, are honest and sincere in their belief. Joe has, doubtless, become somewhat arrogant, not to say tyrannical. He has attempted to force measures of public policy, as well as articles of religious belief, which many of the better part of his people resist, causing at the present time some little trouble. In the end, such division will doubtless bring the whole system to an end; it is idle to think they can be put down by any other means. I cannot understand why it is that persons, having opportunity to judge correctly, will persist in misrepresenting these people and their leader. A story was recently put in circulation that Joe and his wife had quarreled &c. This story like a hundred others of similar character, is not only false, but without the shadow of foundation. So long as these people are misrepresented or persecuted, so long will they grow and flourish; so long as they have a pressure from without to resist, they will be united as one man.

The country in the immediate vicinity of Nauvoo is really beautiful, the land being of the best quality, with an abundance of timber, &c. To a great extent it is under cultivation; many of the Mormons being farmers, have settled on these lands and opened fine farms, giving support and employment to a great number of laborers.

You have seen it announced that Joseph Smith is a candidate for the Presidency of the United Stales. Many think this is a hoax -- not so with Joe and the Mormons. It is the design of these people to have candidates for electors in every State of the Union; a convention is to be held in Baltimore, probably next month. The leaders here are busy in organizing their plans -- over a hundred persons leave in a few days for different States, to carry them out as far as possible. I mention these facts only to show that Joe is really in earnest. He indignantly spurns the proposition to run for the second office on the same ticket with Mr. Van Buren: he thinks his chance would be much better alone than to be associated with the sage of Lindenwald; doubtless, it is equally as good. The true reason for this movement is, to prevent his followers in this country from becoming divided even upon political questions.

There are many thoughts suggested to the mind by a visit to this place; but I have neither the space nor present inclination to follow them out.

In conclusion, I would say, let no man sneer at these people, or deem them as of of little consequence, either for good or for evil. They are becoming of potent influence to the people of the State of Illinois. It is a serious question: What will be the end of these things?

When it is considered that four years since this place was a desert -- that but four families existed here, numbering scarcely twenty souls in all; and that now the population undoubtedly exceeds fifteen thousand, of hardy, persevering and enthusiastic people, surely it will strike the mind of the most ordinary observer that these people, whatever else may be thought of them, cannot with any degree of propriety be sneered at or deemed beneath notice. W.

Note: The date of this article is uncertain -- probably it was published between June 1st and June 3rd. The text was copied from a reprint in the New York Weekly Tribune of June 8, 1844.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, June 14, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


Warsaw, (Ill.,) June 13 - 8 A. M.
After the destruction of the printing office in Nauvoo, threats of summary vengeance were also made against the office of the Signal, in this place, and the life of its editor was to pay the forfeit of his publishing any thing farther concerning the Mormons or Joe Smith. During the evening of Tuesday last, and after this news had been received, a meeting of the citizens was called to take measures of self-defence; and after considerable discussion, the meeting adjourned until yesterday at 2 o'clock. -- At the hour appointed, a large number of citizens met, and a preamble and resolutions were passed, setting forth the grievances of the old citizens of the county, and resolving to arm themselves forthwith, and commence a course which will result in the riddance of the county of the Mormons, even to their utter extermination, if other means fail. Co-operation of the counties adjoining is also asked to aid in carrying out the objects of the meeting. A committee of vigilance was appointed for the purpose of ordering out of the township all the Mormons who still adhere to Joe Smith, and of inspecting all persons who may be suspected of acting as his spies.

While I write, this resolution is being carried into effect with regard to some of the most obnoxious Mormons in the town, and a number of suspicious individuals have been ordered to leave. Although this may appear to persons at a distance a harsh proceeding, yet here it is rendered absolutely necessary; for, with the threats that have been made, both against the lives and property of the citizens, and with a large body of Mormons in our midst, who make the implicit obedience of Joe's commands part of their religion, no other course could possibly have been adopted that would have secured us against the midnight torch and the unerring rifle of these Latter Day Saints.

Today, Capt. Glover, of the Warsaw Cadets, leaves for Quincy, for the purpose of getting a stand of arms now out of use in that city; and when he returns, every citizen who is capable of bearing arms, will enroll himself.

A county convention is to be held today at Carthage, for the purpose of having concert of action throughout the county. I shall advise you of its doings as soon as made public.

Whatever may be the result of these proceedings, a few days will determine; but of one thing you may rest assured, the Mormons will be compelled to leave, if strong arms and still stronger determinations can effect that object; and the old citizens of the county are as willing that it should commence now as at any other time.

As for the Mormons at Nauvoo, they seem as equally bent upon destruction; they appear mad, and evince no spirit of concession or conciliation, but wildly rush on from one act of aggression to another, until the law-abiding citizens of the county are lost in amazement at their daring acts of villainy.

Note: This article may have actually been printed in the Republican on June 15th.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, June ?, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(under construction -- exact text uncertain)

[officers were despatched to Nauvoo to arrest destroyers of the Expositor] ...but this, we venture to say, will not be done. The law is powerless for good in that region. A rumor prevailed at Warsaw that Joe Smith was arresting every man at Nauvoo, who was opposed to, or who would not justify his proceedings.

Note: This article may have been printed in the Republican on June 15th or 16th.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Monday, June 17, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


Our intelligence from the seat of the disturbances at Nauvoo, is down to Friday night last. We learn by the Die Vernon, that great excitement existed in all the counties on both sides of the river, and that a resort to arms was inevitable. The Die Vernon, on her last trip, took about sixty stand of arms from Quincy to Warsaw, and efforts were making to get arms from other quarters. A week or two will determine the result of this movement. Some three hundred of the Mormons, it is understood, had left Nauvoo, but Joe Smith had put a stop to this migrating disposition by anathematizing all persons who had expressed any intention of quitting the city."

[proceedings of a meeting held at Carthage, on the 13th] ...the destruction of the Newspaper press at Nauvoo... -- the threat to destroy the press at Warsaw and to take the life of its editor, by Hiram Smith -- the tendency of the proceedings at Nauvoo to subvert all law -- redress for injuries cannot be obtained by legal means... [the meeting declared that they were] ready to join fellow citizens of other counties and those of Iowa and Missouri, "to exterminate, utterly exterminate, the wicked and abominable Mormon leaders, the authors of their troubles."

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, June 18, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


Warsaw, June 16, P. M.
Nothing of any importance has transpired since my last, in relation to the Mormon difficulties. -- Yesterday the constable of this township summoned the entire force of the township to hold themselves in readiness to assist the officers who have the writs for the capture of the Mormons engaged in the destruction of the printing office. They will rendezvous here to-morrow (Monday) for the purpose of drill, and will be joined by the posse of two townships below this -- part of the force will be armed with muskets and part with their own trusty rifles; they will probably move to Carthage on Tuesday or Wednesday to co-operate with the balance of the County.

We have no intercourse at all with Nauvoo at present, but learn that numbers of the Mormons are leaving; an ordinance has been passed by the City Council preventing persons from going out of the city, by which means several merchants who designed leaving, have been prevented.

Note: This article may have actually been printed in the Republican on June 19th.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, June ?, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


A new aspect is given to the proceedings of Joe Smith and his adherents at Nauvoo, in the destruction of the printing press of the "Nauvoo Expositor." of which we give an account to-day. If the corporate authorities of Nauvoo, of which Joe Smith is the head, can compass their lawless ends by such means as were adopted on this occasion, then similar measures may serve to rid them of all persons who may become obnoxious to them. Neither person nor property can be safe where such a control is exercised by reckless men, and in the present state of affairs there, it is not improbable that violence will be resorted to, to put down all opposition. If the authorities of Illinois had any respect for themselves -- any regard for the law -- any desire to protect the person and property of citizens from outrage and destruction, they would at once adopt measures to put an end to these arbitrary acts; but we have little hope of seeing this done so long as Joe Smith controls so many thousands of votes, and purchases an immunity from punishment by casting them for the Locofocos.

LATEST FROM THE MORMONS. -- By the last accounts from Nauvoo we learn that Joe Smith had issued a proclamation declaring martial law. The greatest excitement prevailed in the neighborhood, and the whole upper country was under arms. The streets of Warsaw were patrolled by armed men, and sanguinary results were anticipated.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Thursday, June 20, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


Matters at Nauvoo remain as stated in another column, although considerable excitement existed upon the subject of an invasion. Yesterday was the day fixed upon for the contemplated attack on the 'saintly city,' yet we do not apprehend that an actual issue had occurred, or will for the present, as the Mormon army is four thousand strong, fully equipped, and all the effective force that had been raised by the surrounding country, at our last advices, amounted to only fifteen hundred men, and those hardly armed.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Friday, June 21, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


[the Carthage constable was unable to arrest Smith, and] the local non-Mormons were very angry, saying]... Joe has tried the game too often.... (under construction -- exact text uncertain)

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Saturday, June 22, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


THE MORMON AFFAIR. -- The steamboat Waverly left Nauvoo on Thursday afternoon, and Warsaw in the night. She la at Nauvoo some time, and ascertained that Gen. Jo. Smith had 2,300 men under arms, and ready for defensive operations. At Warsaw and Carthage, it was understood about 3,000 citizens were under arms, but were awaiting an additional force of a thousand men, before they directed an attempt to serve the writs in the hands of the officer. Of course, they would be ready to sustain the constituted authority, if necessary, to the extremity of making war upon Smith and his men.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Tuesday, June 25, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


In his address to the Mayor and City Council of Nauvoo, after reciting the facts, the Governor uses the following deprecatory, expostulating and threatening language:

I now express to you my opinion, that your conduct in destroying the press was a very gross outrage upon the laws and liberties of the people. It may have been full of libels, but this did not authorise you to destroy it. There are many newspapers in this State which have been wrongfully abusing me for more than a year; and yet such is my regard for the liberties of the press, and the rights of a free people, in a republican government, that I would shed the last drop of my blood to protect those presses from any illegal violence. You have violated the constitution in at least four particulars. You have violated that part of it which declares that the printing presses shall be free, being responsible for the abuse thereof, and thus the truth may be given in evidence. This article of the constitution contemplates that the proprietors of a libellous press may be sued for private damage, or may be indicted criminally, and that upon trial they should have a right to give the truth in evidence. In this case the proprietors have no notice of the proceeding.

* * * * * *

You have also assumed to yourselves more power than you are entitled to in relation to writs of habeas corpus under your charter. I know that you have been told by lawyers, for the purpose of gaining your favor. that you have this power to any extent. In this they have deceived you for their own base purposes. Your charter supposes that you may pass ordinances, a breach of which will result in the imprisonment of the offender. -- For the purpose of giving more speedy relief to such persons, it was given to the Municipal Court of Nauvoo to issue writ of habeas corpus in all cases arising under the ordinances of the city. It was never supposed by the legislature, -- nor can the language of your charter be tortured to mean that a jurisdiction was intended to be conferred, which should apply to all cases of imprisonment under the general laws of the State, or of the United States, as well as the city ordinances.

It has also been reserved to you to make the discovery that a newspaper charged to be scurrillous or libellous may be legally abated or removed, as a nuisance. In no other State, county, city, town or territory in the United States, has ever such a thing been thought of before. -- Such an act, at this day, would not be tolerated even in England.

The result of my deliberations on this subject is, that I will have to require you and all persons in Nauvoo, accused or sued, to submit in all cases implicitly to the process of the Courts, and to interpose no obstacles to an arrest, either by warrant or habeas corpus or otherwise; and that all the people of the city of Nauvoo shall make and continue the most complete submission to the laws of the State, and the precepts of the Courts and Justices of the Peace.

In the particular case now under consideration, I require any and all of you who are or shall be accused, to submit yourselves to be arrested by the same constable, by virtue of the same warrant, and be tried before the same magistrate, whose authority has heretofore been resisted. Nothing short of this can vindicate the dignity of violated law, and allay the just excitement of the people.

* * * * * *

You know the excitement of the public mind -- do not tempt it too far. A very little matter may do a very great injury, and if you are disposed to continue the causes of excitement, and render force necessary to cause submission, I would say, that your city was built, as it were, upon kegs of powder, which a very little spark may explode.

It is my intention to do all I can to preserve the peace, and even if obligated to call the militia, to prosecute the war so as not to involve the innocent, and comprehend all in the same punishment. But excitement is a matter which grows very fast upon men when assembled. [These] affairs, I much fear, may assume a revolutionary character, and the men may disregard the authority of their officers.

I tell you plainly, that if ever such submission is not made, as I have indicated, I will be obliged to call out the militia, and if a few thousands will not be sufficient, many thousands will be.

* * * * * *

If the individuals accused cannot be found when required by the Constable, it will be considered by me as equivalent to a refusal to be arrested, and the militia will be ordered accordingly.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Tues., July 3, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


All our information tends to fix on the people concerned in the death of the Smiths, the odium of perfidious, black-hearted, cowardly murder -- so wanton as to be without any justification -- so inhuman and treacherous as to find no parallel in savage life, under any circumstances. Governor Ford declares his intention to seek out the murderers; and he owes it to his own honor and to that of the state, whose faith was most grossly violated, never to cease his exertions for this purpose. The Mormons, it will be seen, were quiet, and not disposed to commit any acts of aggression; their enemies, on the other hand, were evidently disposed to push them to extremities, and to force them to leave the State. This feeling may be checked by the alacrity with which Gov. Ford's orders were being executed, but it will be some time before peace and order can be restored -- the disgrace of past acts cannot be wiped out.

Troops were stationed at Warsaw and Carthage, as late as June 30, and great excitement prevailed. A descent on Nauvoo was feared. Gov. Ford established his headquarters at Quincy because he was afraid to trust either the troops or the citizens around Carthage and Warsaw.

The Governor has deputed a comission to visit the Mormons at Nauvoo, to inquire particularly into their situation, and give them such instructions or orders as they may deem necessary.

Gov. Ford is praised, even by political opponents for his manly course; but his failure to protect the Smiths has impaired confidence in his efficiency. The Mormons are thoroughly subdued.

The address of the Governor is generally liked by the Mormons, who in meeting assembled, passed resolutions declaring their determination to adhere rigidly to the laws of the State and that instead of an "appeal to arms," they should appeal to the majesty of the law. Their moderation and course are just and commendable and will do them more good than opposite measures.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, July 4, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(under construction -- exact text uncertain)

[The Mormons at Nauvoo] They have built up a considerable town in a very brief period. They claim a population in the city of about 15,000, and we suppose they have at least 10,000. The buildings are scattered over a wide space, extending along the river bank five or six miles, and back into the country three and four miles. With the exception of the growth of the city, there are but few other evidences of industry or enterprise among them. They appear to have but few workshops or manufactories of any kind, and a stranger is puzzled to determine how they obtain the means of subsistence. There is at this time a great scarcity of provisions among them, and the surrounding country is but little if any better provided. These difficulties add greatly to the pressure of their condition. Their usual employments in many instances are suspended, and if the excitement continues long there must inevitably be a great amount of individual suffering.

Note: The above excerpt is from a reprint published in the Washington, D. C. Daily National Intelligencer of July 17, 1844.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, July 5?, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

Head Quarters.
Quincy, June 29, 1844.
To the People of Illinois:

I desire to make a brief but true statement of the recent disgraceful affair at Carthage, in regard to the Smiths, so far as circumstances have come to my knowledge. The Smiths, Joseph and Hiram, have been assassinated in jail, by whom it is not known, but will be ascertained. I pledged myself for their safety, and upon the assurance of that pledge, they surrendered as prisoners. The Mormons surrendered the public arms in their possession, and the Nauvoo Legion submitted to the command of Capt. Singleton, of Brown county, deputed for that purpose by me.

All these things were required to satisfy the old citizens of Hancock, that the Mormons were peaceably disposed; and to allay jealousy and excitement in their minds. It appears, however, that the compliance of the Mormons with every requisition made upon them failed of that purpose. -- The pledge of security to the Smiths, was not given upon my individual responsibility. Before I gave it, I obtained a pledge of honor by a unanimous vote from the officers and men under my command, to sustain me in performing it. If the assassination of the Smiths was committed by any portion of these, they have added treachery to murder, and have done all they could to disgrace the state, and sully public honor.

On the morning of the day the deed was committed, we had proposed to march the army under my command into Nauvoo. -- I had however discovered on the evening before, that nothing but utter destruction of the city would satisfy a portion of the troops; and that if we marched into the city, pretext would not be wanting for commencing hostilities. The Mormons had done every thing required * * * of them. -- Offensive operations on our part would have been as unjust and disgraceful, as they would have been impolitic, in the present critical season of the year, the harvest and the crops. For these reasons I decided in a council of officers, to disband the army, except three companies, two of which were retained as a guard for the jail.

With the other company I marched into Nauvoo, to address the inhabitants there, and tell them what they might expect in case they designedly or imprudently provoked a war. I performed this duty as I think plainly and emphatically, and then set out to return to Carthage. When I had marched about three miles, a messenger informed me of the occurrences at Carthage. I hastened on to that place. -- The guard, it is said, did their duty but were overpowered. Many of the inhabitants of Carthage had fled with their families. Others were preparing to go. I apprehended danger in the settlements from the sudden fury and passion of the Mormons and sanctioned their movements in this respect.

General Deming volunteered to remain with a few troops, to observe the progress of events, to defend property against small numbers, and with orders to retreat if menaced by a superior force. I decided to proceed immediately to Quincy, to prepare a force, sufficient to suppress disorder, in case it should ensue from the foregoing transactions or from any other cause. I have hopes that the Mormons will make no further difficulties. In this I may be mistaken. The other party may not be satisfied. They may recommence aggression. I am determined to preserve the peace against all breakers of the same, at all hazards. I think present circumstances warrant the precaution, of having a competent force at my disposal, in readiness to march at a moment's warning. -- My position at Quincy will enable me to get the earliest intelligence, and to communicate orders with the greatest celerity.


At Nauvoo, on the 24, all was orderly and quiet. Messrs. Jones [sic - Jonas?] and Fellows, deputation from Gov. Ford returned to Quincy on the Osprey, reporting every thing quiet. The boat waited at Warsaw for these gentleman to address the people, where great manifestation of excited feeling still prevails, the inhabitants seeming bent upon the point that either themselves or the Mormons must leave the country. -- The editors of the Republican and Reveille left the Osprey at Quincy, to wait upon Gov. Ford, and to communicate with the committee from Warsaw.

The extra from the Mormon organ indulges in many lamentations for the death of the Prophet and his brother, and narrates how the deed was accomplished. The murder was committed about six o'clock in the evening, by an armed mob, of 150 to 200 men, painted red, black and yellow, who surrounded the jail, forced it, and poured a shower of bullets into the room where the men were confined. Each of the victims received four balls in his body, and John Taylor, editor of the Nauvoo Neighbor, was shot in four places, but not seriously injured. About three o'clock the next day, the bodies of "the noble martyrs" were received at Nauvoo. They were met, the paper says --

By a great assemblage of people, east of the Temple on Mulholland street, under the direction of the city marshall, followed by Samuel H. Smith, brother of the deceased, Dr. Richards and Mr. Hamilton, of Carthage. The wagons were guarded by eight men. The procession that followed in Nauvoo, was the City Council, the lieutenant general's staff, the major general and staff, the brigadier and staff, commanders and officers of the Legion, and citizens generally, numbering about several thousands, amid the most solemn lamentations and wailings that ever ascended into the ears of the Lord of hosts to be avenged of our enemies!

When the procession arrived the bodies were both taken into the "Nauvoo Mansion." The scene at the Mansion cannot be described: the audience was addressed by Dr. Richards, Judge Phelps, Wood and Reed of Iowa, and Col. Markham. It was a vast assemblage of some 8 or 10,000 persons, and with one united voice resolved to trust to the law for a remedy of such a high handed assassination, and when that failed to call upon God to avenge us of our wrongs.

We copy from the Neighbor the following statement of facts which occurred prior to the tragedy at the jail. It is from a member of the bar at Fort Madison, Iowa Territory, retained as counsel for the Smiths, and bears internal evidence of its correctness.


At the request of many persons who wish that the truth may go forth to the world in relation to the late murder of Joseph and Hiram Smith, by a band of lawless assassins. I have consented to make a statement of the facts so far as they have come to my knowledge, in an authentic shape, as one of the attorneys employed to defend the said Smiths against the charges brought against them, and other persons at Carthage, in the State of Illinois.

On Monday the 24th inst., at the request of Gen. Joseph Smith I left for Fort Madison in the Territory of Iowa, and arrived at Carthage where I expected to meet the general, his brother Hiram and the other persons implicated with them -- They arrived at Carthage late at night, and next morning voluntarily surrendered themselves to the constable, Mr. Bettisworth, who held the writ against them, on a charge of riot for destroying the press, type and fixtures of the Nauvoo Expositor, the property of William and Wilson Law, and other dissenters, charged to have been destroyed on the 10th inst.

Great excitement prevailed in the county of Hancock, and had extended to many of the surrounding counties. A large number of the militia of several counties were under arms at Carthage, the Head Quarters of the commanding Gen. Deming, and many other troops were under arms at Warsaw and other places in the neighborhood. The governor was at head quarters in person, for the purpose of seeing that the laws of the land were executed and had pledged his own faith and the faith of the state of Illinois that the Smiths and the other persons concerned with them should be protected from personal violence, if they would surrender themselves to be dealt with according to law. -- During the two succeeding days, his excellency repeatedly expressed to the legal counsellors of the Smiths his determination to protect the prisoners and to see that they should have a fair and impartial examination so far as depended on the Executive of the State. On Tuesday morning soon after the surrender of the prisoners on the charge of riot, General Joseph Smith and his brother Hiram were both arrested on a charge of treason against the state of Illinois. The affidavits upon which the writs were issued were made by Henry Norton and Augustine Spencer.

On Tuesday afternoon the two Smiths and other persons on the charge of riot, appeared before R. F. Smith, a justice of the peace, residing at Carthage, and by advice of counsel, in order to prevent if possible, any increase of excitement, voluntarily entered into recognizance in the sum of five hundred dollars each with unexceptionable security, for their appearance at the next term of the circuit court for said county. The whole number of persons recognized is fifteen, most if not all of them, leading men in the Mormon church.

Making out the bonds and justifying bail necessarily consumed considerable time, and when this was done it was near night, and the justice adjourned his court over without calling the Smiths to answer to the charge of treason, or even intimating to their counsel or the prisoners, that they were expected to enter into the examination that night. In less than an hour after the adjournment of the court, constable Bettisworth, who had arrested the prisoners in the morning appeared at Hamilton's Hotel, at the lodgings of the prisoners and their counsel and insisted that the Smiths should go to jail. Mr. Woods of Burlington, Iowa, and myself, as counsel for the prisoners, insisted that they were entitled to be brought before the justice for examination before they could be sent to jail. The constable, to our surprise, thereupon exhibited a mittimus from said justice as follows:

Hancock County.}

The people of the State of Illinois to the keeper of the jail of the said county, greeting:

Whereas, Joseph Smith and Hiram Smith of the county aforesaid have been arrested upon the oath of Augustine Spencer and Henry O. Norton, for the crime of treason, and have been brought before me as a justice of the peace in and for said county, for trial at the seat of Justice there of, which trial has been necessarily postponed by reason of the absence of material witnesses, to wit: Francis M. Higbee and others; therefore I command you in the name of the people to receive the said Joseph Smith and Hiram Smith into your custody in the jail of the county aforesaid, there to remain until discharged by due course of law.

Given under my hand and seal this 25th day of June, A. D. 1844.
R. P. SMITH, J. P. {L. S.}

His excellency did not think it within the sphere of his duty to interfere, and the prisoners were removed from their lodgings to jail. The recitals of the mittimus, so far as they relate to the prisoners having been brought before the justice for trial, and it there appearing that the necessary witnesses of the prosecution were absent, is wholly untrue, unless the prisoners could have appeared before the justice without being present in person or by counsel; nor is there any law of Illinois within my knowledge which permits a justice to commit persons charged with crimes, to jail without examination as to the probability of their guilt.

On Wednesday forenoon the governor in company with one of his friends visited the prisoners at the jail, and again assured them that they should be protected from violence, and told them if the troops marched the next morning to Nauvoo as his excellency then expected they should be taken along, in order to insure their personal safety.

On the same morning, some one or more of the counsel for the prosecution, expressed their wish to me, that the prisoners should be brought out of jail for examination; they were answered that the prisoners had already been examined, and that the justice and constable had no further control of the prisoners and that if the prosecutors wished the prisoners brought out of jail, they should bring them out on a writ of habeas corpus, or some other due course of law. The constable after this conversation, went to the jail with the following order to the jailer:

State of Illinois,
Hancock County. ss.

To David Bettisworth, constable of said county:

You are commanded to bring the bodies of Joseph Smith and Hiram Smith from the jail of said county, forthwith before me at my office for an examination on the charge of treason; they having been committed for safe keeping until trial could be had on such examination, and the state now being ready for such examination.

Given under my hand and seal this 26th day of June 1844.
R. P. SMITH, J. P. {L. S.}

And demanded the prisoners, but as the jailer could find no law authorizing a justice of the peace to demand prisoners committed to his charge, he refused to give them up, until discharged from his custody by due course of law. Upon the refusal to give up the prisoners, the company of Carthage Greys marched to the jail, by whose orders I know not -- and compelled the jailer against his will and conviction of duty, to deliver the prisoners to the constable, who, forthwith, took them before Justice Smith, the Captain of the Carthage Greys. The counsel for prisoners then appeared, and asked for subpoenas for witnesses on the part of the prisoners, and expressed their wish to go into the examination [soon], as witnesses could be brought from Nauvoo to Carthage; the justice thereupon fixed the examination for 12 o'clock, on Thursday the 27th inst.; whereupon, the prisoners were remanded to prison. Soon after a council of the military officers was called by the governor, and was determined to march the next morning, the 27th inst. to Nauvoo, with all the troops except one company, which was to be selected by the governor from the troops whose fidelity was more to be relied on to guard the prisoners, whom it was determined should be left at Carthage.

On Thursday morning, another consultation of officers took place, and the former orders for marching to Nauvoo with the whole army, were countermanded. -- One company were ordered to accompany the governor, to Nauvoo, the Carthage Greys, who had but two days before, been under arrest for insulting the commanding general, and whose conduct had been more hostile to the prisoners, and the other troops including those rendezvoused at Golden's Point, from Warsaw, and who had been promised that they should be marched to Nauvoo were disbanded. A guard of only eight men were stationed at the jail, whilst the rest of the Greys were in camp at a quarter of a mile's distance, and whilst his excellency was haranguing the peaceable citizens of Nauvoo, and asking them to give up all their own arms, the assassins were murdering the prisoners in jail, whom the governor had pledged himself and the state to protect.


At a meeting of the city council, held in the council room, in the city of Nauvoo, on the first day of July, 1844, having received instructions from Gov. Ford, through the agency of A. Jonas, Esq., and Col. Fellows, it was unanimously

Resolved, For the purpose of ensuring peace, and promoting the welfare of the county of Hancock, and surrounding country, that we will rightly sustain the laws and the Governor of the State, so long as they, and he, sustain us in all our constitutional rights.

Resolved, That to carry the foregoing resolution into complete effect, inasmuch as the governor has taken from us the public arms, that we solicit of him to do the same with all the rest of the public arms of the state.

Resolved, That to further secure the peace, friendship and happiness of the people, and allay the excitement which now exists, we will reprobate private revenge on the assassinators of General Joseph Smith, and General Hiram Smith, by any of the Latter Day Saints. That instead of "an appeal to arms," we appeal to the majesty of the law, and will be content with whatever judgment it shall award; and, should the law fail, we leave the matter with God.

Resolved unanimously, That this city council pledge themselves for the city of Nauvoo, that no aggressions by the citizens of said city shall be made on the citizens of the surrounding country; but we invite them, as friends, and neighbors, to use the Savior's golden rule, and "do unto others as they would have others do unto them," and we will do likewise.


At a meeting of a large portion of the citizens of Nauvoo, convened at the stand in the afternoon of July 1, 1844: after hearing the above instructions and resolutions of the city council read, and being addressed by A. Jonas, Esq., and others, the meeting responded to the same with a hearty Amen! The citizens then passed a vote of thanks to the governor's agents for their kindly interference in favor of peace among the citizens of Hancock county and elsewhere around us. -- Messrs. Wood and Reid, the counsel for the Gen. Smiths, for their great exertions to have even handed justice meted to the Latter Day Saints; and they also passed a vote of thanks to Messrs. Chambers and Field -- the forme, one of the editors of the "Missouri Republican," and the latter, one of the editors of the Reveille, of St. Louis, for their honorable course of coming to Nauvoo for facts, instead of spreading rumors concerning the Latter Day Saints.

Mr. Chambers made a very appropriate speech, containing innuendos for the benefit of our citizens, that appeared, as the wise man said, "like apples of gold in pictures of silver." They also passed a vote of thanks to Messrs. Wood and Convers, Mayor and ex-Mayor of Quincy, for their friendly disposition in establishing peace in the region, and we are happy to say that all appears to be peace at Nauvoo.

Note: The title and full content of the above article has not yet been determined. It may have appeared in the Republican on July 4th or July 6th. The text is taken from a reprint published in the Ohio Sandusky Clarion of July 20, 1844.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Tuesday, July 16, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


... Gov. Ford has made a requisition on the U. S. Government for 500 men, to be stationed in Hancock county, in order to keep the peace between the Mormons and the Anti-Mormons....

... a man was shot just back of Warsaw, Ill. on Friday previous. The Guard stationed there saw three men, supposed to be horse thieves, fired on them and one fell, He was a Mormon and they were retreating at the time. This looks a little like shooting too fast. It shows the feeling toward Mormons in that quarter.

Note: The original Republican issue has not yet been consulted, to confirm the text of the above two article fragments.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Monday, July 22, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(article on Joseph Smith -- under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Wednesday, July 31, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(July 27th letter from Carthage saying, after the coming August election
the Mormons will control the county -- under construction)

Note: The editor mentions "Jack Mormons" as being "a class of men who adhere to the Mormons for the sake of votes and lucre -- a class more to be despised and feared than the Mormons themselves." This odd term had hitherto circulated mostly in Hancock county, Illinois.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Thursday, Sept. 12, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


Mormonism. -- Sidney Rigdon and Elder Hyde arrived in this city on yesterday evening. We learn that Rigdon, who professed to have had a revelation, and returned a few weeks since from Pittsburgh, to be the successor of Smith, has been regularly unchurched by the Twelve Apostles. He returns to Pittsburgh to establish a paper. His views of Mormonism remain unchanged, although they will not have him to rule over them. The administration of the affairs of the church for the present is to remain in the hands of the Twelve Apostles.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Saturday, Sept. 28, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


We learn [by] the officers and passengers of the steamer Osprey that Governor Ford and his troops have reached Carthage. The purpose of the Governor in ordering out the troops seems to be a determination to bring the murderers of Joe and Hiram Smith to trial. The troops are under the command of General J. J. Hardin, subject, of course, to the direction of the Governor. The reason assigned by the Governor's friends for ordering out the troops in the first instance was a "wolf hunt," advertized by a portion of the people of Hancock county to come off on the 26th and 27th instant. This hunt, it was believed by the Governor, was a pretext to get the people assembled, aroused, and then to make an attack on the Mormons at Nauvoo, or some other Mormon settlement. From all we can learn, we suppose that the wolf hunt was abandoned after the orders of the Governor were issued.

The Governor was at Carthage. Writs were issued and placed in the hands of the Sheriff, for the arrest of Thomas C. Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal, and for Col. Williams, of the same place, both charged with participating in the murder of the Smiths. The Sheriff came to Warsaw and attempted to arrest Sharp, but he refused to surrender himself, and in this resolution was sustained by the people of Warsaw. The Sheriff returned and reported his inability to arrest him, when three hundred of the troops were ordered to march to Warsaw. The troops had not arrived at Warsaw before the Osprey left, but Sharp and Williams had escaped to the Missouri side of the river, and, we presume, will not be taken. A gentleman has furnished the following in manuscript, which appears to be a copy of an address from Sharp, intended for his paper. His admission for participating, so far as to exasperate others to the commission of the murder, are explicit; and, it seems to us, would at least make him an accessory. He also seems to admit that he was with the crowd. The Gov. will have to move very promptly if he expects to capture any of the participators in that affair.

Just as our paper was going to press this morning, a man came into our office, and said that he had a writ for me. Well, sir, let me see it. He produced the paper, which proved to be a warrant for the murder of Joe and Hyrum Smith, issued by Aaron Johnson, Justice of the Peace in Nauvoo. After reading, I told the officer that if my friends said go, I would go, if not, I would stand fast. Accordingly I went out, and conversed with the citizens, and unanimously they said don't go. I then told the officer that he could return and report progress, but I could not go with him, for I was not to be singled out as the sole object of Mormon vengeance. Now, gentle reader, I did not help to kill Joe Smith, for I did not go to the jail, with those who killed him. If my influence helped to produce the state of feeling that resulted in his death, why I am in common with some hundred others, guilty -- not of murder, but of an extra judicial execution. I have the most satisfactory proof that Joe Smith threatened my life, and sought to take it; if I had, therefore, killed him I should only have acted in self-defence. The writ only included Col. Williams and myself. Thus it will appear that it is not the guilty, but those most obnoxious to the Latter Day Saints, who are to be selected as victims. The officer, who is deputy Sheriff, says that his orders are to arrest and return the prisoners to the Sheriff, in Carthage, from thence I suppose I am to be taken to Nauvoo; but I will not go to Nauvoo unless my fellow citizens say so. I did not resist the officer, but my friends advised me not to go, and the officer did not call on any of the citizens to aid him in taking me. After I told him I would not go, he troubled me no further.

Fellow-citizens, shall we submit?

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Monday, Sept. 30, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(Gov. Ford & the Mormons --

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Tuesday, Oct. 1, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


Mormon Difficulties -- The officers of the steamer Monona from the Upper Mississippi report, that it was said at Warsaw that Governor Ford was encamped in the vicinity of Nauvoo, with about 1500 men. All things were quiet at Nauvoo and Warsaw, but it was thought that if the Governor attempted to forcibly arrest any of the persons suspected to be concerned in the murder of the Smiths a conflict would ensue. -- The Governor had sent a message to Quincy, the purport of which was not known.

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Wednesday, Oct. 2, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


MORMON AFFAIRS. -- Thomas Sharp, the editor of the Warsaw Signal, and Col. Williams, are prisoners in the hands of Gov. Ford. Whether they have given themselves up or have been seized at Warsaw, iss not known. One of the Springfield cadets, named Norris, was instantly killed, while the guard at the camp of the Governor was being relieved, on the night of the 28th; he was shot in consequence of a false alarm purposely given to try the men. Ford's troops were scattered about in the neighborhood of Warsaw. Many of the persons who were apprehensive of arrest, had crossed the river to Churchville. It was said that seventy writs had been issued against individuals.

The Boreas arrived yesterday afternoon from the upper Mississippi. At the time she passed Warsaw, all was quiet, and nobody seemed to know any thing about Governor Ford's movements or intentions.

Our informants were told at Quincy, that Sharp, the editor of the Signal, and Col. Williams were prisoners, in the hands of the Governor; whether they had hgiven themselves up or had been taken to Warsaw we could not with certainty learn.

Note: The above text is uncertain. It was taken from a reprint in the New York Herald of Oct. 13, 1844. When the original article has been located, the corrected text will be posted here.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, October 4, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


END OF THE THIRD MORMON WAR. -- The war is ended and the troops are en route for home. To-day the Governor held a treaty with the individuals against whom the writs had been issued for being engaged in the killing of the Smiths, and after some considerable negotiation, the matter was finally settled to the satisfaction of all concerned. Col. Williams and Thos. C. Sharpe, Esq., agreed to surrender if they could be taken to Quincy for their examination. -- This was agreed to on the part of the Governor. Further, they were to have an escort to protect them while in the custody of the officer. Insufficient evidence was adduced to warrant the judge to commit for trial, the prisoners were to give moderate bail for their appearance at court. If an indictment is then found, are to have a continuance and a change of venue. This all might have been accomplished without calling out twenty five hundred militia, if the Governor had taken the proper steps in the first instance...

Note: The above article appeared in the Republican during the first week of October -- probably on Oct. 4th.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Wed., Oct. 9, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


GOV. FORD appears to be determined to keep up the [ressentment?] between the citizens of Hancock county and the Mormons, and if a collision [---- ---- -------], it will certainly not be his fault. By the officers of the steamer Osprey, which left Nauvoo on Saturday evening last, we learn that a part of the Nauvoo Legion were being armed, and were to march to Carthage, in compliance with an order from the Governor -- but for what purpose was not positively known, but was supposed to [circumstances] growing out of the trial of Sharpe and others, which is now progressing at that place. In a day or two we shall know the particulars. --

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, Wed., October 25, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(rumor of Mormon attack -- under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, November ?, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.


MORMON DIFFICULTIES. -- We understand that the late grand jury of Hancock county, Illinois,
 assembled at Carthage, found indictments for the murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, against
Sharp, Williams and ten others, making in all twelve indictments. -- It is believed some curious
and probable strange developments of the political maneuvering and management of some of the
political managers in Illinois will me made in the course of these trials. We are told that nearly
 every one indicted has caused subpoenas to be issued for Governor Ford; and boast of what they
can prove in justification or extenuations by the Governor, Time will show how far these
 expectations are to be realized.

Note: The above article appeared in the Republican during the first week of November.

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, December 4, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(Sheriff Minor Deming, etc. -- under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)

By Charless & Pasehall.] St. Louis, December 30, 1844. [Vol. ? - No. ?.

(Sheriff Deming arrests Jacob C. Davis. -- under construction)

Notes: (forthcoming)

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last updated: April 2, 2012

Sarah Elizabeth Conover Weaver 1834-1913

Sarah Elizabeth Conover Weaver

Born: June 30, 1834 at Golden Point, Hancock Coutny, Illinois
Died: November 1913 at Bennington, Idaho


(This sketch was in Geneva Wright Stephens' file box with Conover' s history that he wrote for his mother Loella Weaver. It was preserved by Conover and passed on to Geneva after the death of his wife Lenore. The author and date are unknown.)

"My grandmother, Sarah Elizabeth Conover Weaver, was born June 30th, 1834 at Golden Point, Hancock County, Illinois. She was the daughter of Peter Wilson Conover [1807-1892] and Evelyn E. Golden [1808-1847], who were married [February 14,] 1827. They were the parents of ten children, Sarah was the fourth child. Her parents were among the first to join the unpopular religion known as the Mormons.

In early infancy Sarah was stricken with an illness, Spinal, leaving her eyes in a weakened condition; Although they were operated on, they were never very strong and she was not permited to attend school very long. However, she learned to read and write.

Her parents were with the saints who settled in Nauvoo, which was situated on a very attractive location in the bend of the Mississippi River. Sarah saw Nauvoo grow to be a beautiful city. The eleventh anniversary of the organization of the church was an occasion in Nauvoo never to be forgotten. On April 6th, 1841 approximately 10,000 people from Nauvoo and surrounding sections saw the laying of the four corner stones of the Nauvoo Temple. Sarah saw the Temple during its construction and saw its completion when the capstone was laid May 24th, 1845 by Brigham Young.

She tells that the Prophet Joseph Smith visited their home often, (her father being one of his body guards). She often told how thrilled she was when the Prophet stroked her hair and told her she was a beautiful and good little girl, and when the news reached them that he had been killed, she threw herself on the bed and cried brokenhearted and exclaimed, "What will become of us now?"

The Mormons in Nauvoo had only a short time of peace from their enemies; persecution was again becoming severe on every side and Sarah's parents were among the saints who were driven from their homes there, crossing the Mississippi on a bridge of ice.

The winter of 1847 was spent at winter quarters. Chills and fever took many of the saints and her mother nursed untiringly from one to another until sickness entered their home. Her husband lay between life and death for weeks, but gradually regained his strength. One evening as she sat mending a coat. Sarah noticed the fevered brow and the distress upon her mother's face. She said, "Mother. I'll finish mending the coat, you look so sick you must go to bed". In a few days she passed away and they made her a coffin from the sides of a wagon box. She was buried in a crude grave, leaving her husband and ten children. Sarah was the oldest girl, but thirteen years of age. She seemed to change from a girl to a woman, and assumed the responsibility of the family.

The saints were kind and often came in to help. She tells of one girl in particular whom she trusted and loved, who helped her put away her mothers beautiful hand woven linens, table cloths, pillowcases, and exquisitely embroidered baby dresses that she had saved for years, spinning the flax, weaving the cloth and preparing for their hopes for a home in the west. The work was that of an artist, never forgotten by those who saw it. Some weeks later their tent house caught fire and burned to the ground and Sarah's frantic efforts to save the linen chest was of no avail.

In May 1848, they left winter quarters in the Heber C. Kimball company. There was six hundred sixty two souls, two hundred twenty six wagons in the company. They experienced many hardships. joys, laughter, and tears; Buffalo stampedes, Indian raids, etc. At the end of their days journey, they would sit around the camp fire and sign and tell stories, each having a turn to take part in their own way. Sarah was a gifted dancer and brought entertainment with her nimble feet. She could clog, tap, or do any dance she had ever seen, and the crowd would clap as her feet kept time with the accordian or mouth organ. They reached the Salt Lake Valley about Sept. 25th 1848.

Her Father was among the first to settle in Provo, Utah. When he was away helping others who were coming to the valley, Sarah was left to care for her brothers and sisters. Sometimes they would get out of food and would dig sego's to eat. Sarah would gather wild berries which she would exchange for flour. She would clean wheat and crush it in a large wooden bowl with a maul and make her own flour; this mixed with sour milk and soda baked in a bake oven over hot coals, made delicious bread.

After a few years, her Father married Jane Correll, and she was relieved of the responsibility of the home and family. She went to Salt Lake and worked in the homes of several prominent families, first at Heber C. Kimball's (whose wife was her cousin); also Daniel H. Wells arid others. While in Salt Lake she had several propose to her in marriage.

At one time at a large gathering in the Salt Lake Theatre Brigham Young cleared the dance floor and called for Sarah Conover and Mary Clark to waltz around the hall believing them to be the most perfect in grace and smoothness. A cup of water was placed on their heads, and they waltzed around the hall without spilling a drop.

While working as nurse and maid in one of the homes in Salt Lake she recognized her mothers beautiful linen baby dresses that she had thought were destroyed when their tent burned at winter quarters. She trembled with excitement as she took the dresses from the ironing board, and asked her mistress where she had gotten it. "I bought it from so and so" she said. It was the same girl who had helped her tuck the linen away when back in winter quarters. She was stunned and was about to tell the truth, when she thought of the works of Shakespeare. "He that steals my purse, steals trash, but he that steals my good name robs me of that which not enriches him, and makes me poor indeed." So she just said, "Aren't they beautiful" and left the room with a sob in her throat, and the words unspoken.

Time passed, she returned to Provo, and became interested in a dark eyed, fine looking twenty year old man by the name of Gilbert "Gib" Edward Weaver, whose bravery and good nature won her

 admiration. He was also a graceful dancer and the two were leaders in the ballroom and entertainments. They were married in Salt Lake July 14th, 1855 by Brigham Young.

Gilbert Weaver 1835-1910
Gilbert Weaver 1835-1910

[Gilbert Weaver was born March 2, 1835 in Croford, Pennsylvania. He was the son of Edward Weaver [1799-1842] and Mary Raymer Weaver [ ]. Gib's parents were early converts to the Mormon Church when he was a young boy. In 1846, his two older brothers, Miles Weaver and Franklin Weaver, joined the Mormon Battalion. He was left with Ebenezer Brown and in 1848, he accompanied Brown to Utah.]

Their early married years [1855-1861] were spent in Provo, three children were born there; two sons and a daughter; but the daughter died in infancy. Her husband, Gilbert with his two brothers, started north in search of land. In 1861 they settled in a beautiful spot in Cache Valley at a place called Millville, Utah. They homesteaded 160 acres and also took a preemption right of many acres. This they owned until President Brigham Young told them to divide their land with others who were coming to make their homes in Millville. It was divided into ten acre lots. Their home there
was a three room log house, which is still standing in Millville.

They lived only a short time in Millville. Their leader Brigham

 Young called for sturdy pioneers to colonize Bear Lake Valley, and in the fall of 1863 they answered the call and moved on to Bear Lake Valley; where Paris, Idaho is now located. They encountered many hardships that winter, there was no railroad, telephone, or mail. The snow was very deep and the only way they could get in touch with other places was to go over the mountains to Franklin and Logan, Utah on snow shoes.

The next spring, in May 1864, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and Chancy West made a trip to the valley to see how the saints had gotten along during the winter. Sarah prepared supper for them over a fireplace. They insisted that she give them entertainment for the night, but she told them that would be impossible; the next day when they called they could hardly believe their eyes, for a baby girl had been born during the night; the first girl to be born in Paris. They blessed the baby and named her Sarah Jeannetta Weaver. Brigham Young released those who desired to go back to their homes in Utah. Grandmother Sarah and family moved back to Millville.

In Millville there were four Sarahs all living in the same block. One was light complected, one was dark, and one was a great talker. In order to distinguish which one was being talked about they were known as "White Sarah", "Black Sarah", "Sarah Gib", and "Sarah Gab".

Each fall Gib made as many trips as possible to Utah to bring back fruit to sell. It has been said that he gave more apples away to the fruit hungry children than he sold.

Some years later, Gilbert homesteaded two and a half miles north of Montpelier. He built a two room log home that stands until this day (1966). They returned to Bear Lake in 1883 and stayed until 1903 when they moved to Whitney, Idaho. Gilbert was a farmer and at one time served as sheriff of Franklin County. He was a kind man and was very highly respected.

She had a refinement, grace and poise of a lady, and this influence was felt wherever she went. She always wore a dainty white linen or lace collar. She was a marvelous cook; she had the art of seasoning her food that would rival any French chef. If friends or neighbors dropped in unexpectedly for a meal, and she wondered sometimes what to prepare, they would suggest that she make sour cream biscuits. She was always called on to help prepare church banquets. Her home was kept clean, she never could excuse dirt or ragged clothes. She would say "There "is plenty of water and always a needle and thread." Her kitchen chairs and floors were scrubbed white, and if there wasn't soap to be had she would use sand and no one could walk on the floor until it was dry.

She spun wool to make yarn for stockings, and she kept the needles merrily clicking every spare moment. She molded candles, made soap, starch, also lye by putting maple ashes in a barrel filled with water, and the water of the ashes was used for lye.

She and her husband led in the beautiful old time dances and marches. They knew the French four, Highland fling, Comin Through the Rye, Minuet, and many others. Often the dance floor was cleared for her to step dance and her husband would join her, shouts came from the audience for her to lift her skirts a little higher so they could see her nimble feet, but in those days, the ankle was all that was permissible.

In 1883 they turned their faces again toward Bear Lake Valley and started a new home three miles north of Montpelier. In 1888 the spirit of Temple work urged her to leave for the Manti Temple, her sister Katherine being one of the workers. She stayed there four months doing work for her kindred dead.

Though she and her family lived many years in Bear Lake, they could never stop longing for the beautiful Cache Valley where they had lived their early married life. The opportunity came in 1903, and they moved to the northern part of Cache Valley, where their oldest son Gilbert was living. They bought a home adjoining their sons in Whitney, Idaho. Had an orchard of apples, plums and small fruit of many kinds. They spent many happy years there and celebrated their Golden wedding and all their children were present to do them honor.

Sarah was the mother of twelve children, who were among the leading citizens in all activities and entertainments given for church and state. They all lived to maturity and married except Christina. Though she fought reverses, poverty and disappointments, she stood firm to her ideals with a testimony that Joseph Smith was indeed a true prophet of the latter day.

Children of Sarah Conover Weaver and Gilbert Weaver:
Gilbert Edward Weaver
b. April 24, 1857; md. Mary Ann Gamble on January 1, 1877.
2-- Peter Wilson Weaver b. November 15, 1858; md. Mary Jane Davis on December 3, 1884;
3-- Christina Weaver b. September 22, 1860; d. young.
4-- Zerelda Eveline Weaver b. November 16, 1861; md. Frank Kite on August 18, 1878;
5-- Sarah Jennette Weaver b. May 22, 1864; md. Liberty Hunt on October 11, 1883.
6-- Alice America Weaver b. April 22, 1866; md. Witt Stoddard on May 6, 1885;
7-- Martha Lowella Weaver b. July 8, 1867; md. Amos Wright on May 6, 1885;
8-- Dora Mae Weaver b. July 1, 1870; md. Daniel Davis on October 29, 1890;
9-- Catharine Ann Weaver b. January 24, 1873; md. Morris Holmes on September 4, 1889;
10-- Alpheus Weaver b. November 3, 1874; md. Olive Clark on October 29, 1896;
11-- Rachel Ida Weaver b. November 28, 1876; md. John Frederic Haycock on October 29, 1896;
1hton Weaver b. September 22, 1879; md. Minerva Richardson January 25, 1907;

Sarah's husband Gilbert Weaver was an active church worker, a veteran of the Indian wars, and sheriff of Cache County, Utah for several years. Gilbert died in March 13, 1910 in Whitney, Idaho and Sarah spent the remaining three years of her life with her married daughters. She passed away in November 6, 1913 at the home of her daughter Lowella (spelling preserved) Wright, at Bennington, Bear Lake County, Idaho. Her remains were taken to Whitney, Franklin County, Idaho and laid to rest near to her husband. Flowers are kept growing on their graves by many grandchildren, who keep their memories fresh.

Submitted by JoAnn Farnsworth


PAF - Archer files = Captain James Brown + (1) Martha Stephens > Moroni Brown + (1) Eveline Cindralla Conover was a sister of Sarah Elizabeth Conover Weaver.
PAF - Archer files = Captain James Brown + (7) Phoebe Abigail Abbott > Orson Pratt Brown

PAF - Archer Files = Gilbert Weaver + Sarah Elizabeth Conover < (1) Edward Weaver + Martha Raymer : Martha Raymer + (2) William Draper Jr. > Almon Draper + Amy Hansen > Erastus Carmon Draper + Linnie Adell Seguine > Ila May Draper + Glenn Eugene Murphy > Michael Leo Murphy + Lucy Brown > Michael Glenn Murphy.inent Men of Utah, Page 1234. Gilbert Weaver; Gilbert Edward Weaver; Franklin Weaver, Franklin Edward Weaver; Miles Franklin Weaver.

Copyright 2001 www.orsonprattbrown.com



Early Mormonism Collection 2

Nauvoo Expositor (part 2)
First and only issue: June 7, 1844
(Published by William Law)

Historical Note: This was the newspaper published by dissident Mormons which was declared a "public nuisance" by the Nauvoo City Council on June 8, 1844. By authority of the Council's order the Expositor press was destroyed that same day and the newspaper was immediately shut down. It never resumed publication.

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Expositor thumbnail

Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844, page 3

or expect, the publication of the "Expositor" to prove a matter of pecuniary profit, neither do we believe the public will suffer it to prove a loss. It is a subject in which we are all interested, more particularly the citizens of this county, and surrounding country; the case has assumed a formidable and fearful aspect, it is not the destiny of a few that is involved in case of commotion, but that of thousands, wherein necessarily the innocent and helpless would be confounded with the criminal and guilty. We have anxiously desired, and strenuously advocated a peaceable redress of the injuries that have repeatedly been inflicted upon us, and we have now the means in our hands, through which we can peaceably and honorably effect our object. For ourselves, we are firmly resolved not to quit the field, till our efforts shall be crowned with success. And we now call upon all, who prize the liberty of speech, the liberty of the press, the right of conscience, and the sacred rights of American citizenship, to assist us in this undertaking. Let us stand up and boldly and fearlessly oppose ourselves to any and every encroachment, in whatever form it may appear, whether shaped in superstitious domination or civil usurpation. The public abroad have not been informed in relation to facts as they really existed in our midst, many have supposed that all was rumor, and having no organ through which to speak, our silence has been to them sufficient proof.
The facts have been far otherwise, we have watched with painful emotion the progress of events in this city, for some time past, until we were sick with the sight; injury upon injury has been repeated, insult has been added to insult till forbearance has ceased to be virtuous, and we now have the proud privilege, we have long wished for, of defending ourselves against their foul aggressions and aspersions and of informing the public of things as they really are. We intend to tell the whole tale and by all honorable means to bring to light and justice, those who have long fed and fattened upon the purse, the property, and the character of injured innocence; -- yes, we will speak, and that too in thunder tones, to the ears of those who have thus ravaged and laid waste fond hopes, bright prospects, and virtuous principles, to gratify an unhallowed ambition. We are aware of the critical position we occupy, in view of our immediate location; but we entertain no fears, our purpose is fixed and our arm is nerved for the conflict, we stand upon our rights, and we will maintain those rights, whatever may be the consequence; let no man or set of men assail us at the peril of their lives, and we hereby give notice to all parties, that we are the last in attack, but the first and foremost in defence. We would be among the last to provoke the spirit of the public abroad unnecessarily, but we have abundant assurance in case of emergency, that we shall all be there.

An individual, bearing the cognomen of Jeremiah Smith, who has evaded the officers for some time, has taken refuge in the city of Nauvoo. It appears he is a fugitive from justice for the offence of procuring four thousand dollars from the United States Treasury at the city of Washington, under false pretences. A bill of indictment was found in the District of Columbia against him, and a warrant issued for his arrest. The Marshal of Iowa Territory got intelligence of his being in this place, and procuring the necessary papers for his arrest, proceeded to this place in search of him, about three weeks ago. After making inquiry, and becoming satisfied that he was secreted in Nauvoo, under the immediate protection of the Prophet, he said to him (the Prophet,) that he was authorised to arrest the said J. Smith, for an offence committed by him against the United States government, and wished to know where he was -- to which the Prophet replied, that he know nothing about him. The Marshal said he know he was secreted in the city, and was determined to have him; and, unless he was given up, he would have the aid of the Dragoons to find and arrest him. Joseph Smith then replied, that was not necessary; but, if the Marshal would pledge his word and honor that he should have the benefit of a city writ of Habeas Corpus, and be tried before him, he would produce the fugitive in half an hour. After some hesitancy, the Marshal agreed to do so, when the prisoner was produced in the time specified. A writ of Habeas Corpus was issued, and the prisoner taken from the Marshal and brought before the Municipal court of Nauvoo for trial. The court adjourned until Thursday, the 30th ult., when he was tried, and discharged, as a matter of course. In the interval, however, application had been made to Judge Pope, of the District court of the United States for the State of Illinois, who issued his warrant, directed to the United States

Marshal, who sent his deputy to make a second arrest, in case the other officer did not succeed in taking him from the city. Smith was found by the Illinois Marshal and arrested, when it became necessary for the high corporate powers of the city again to interpose their authority. The potent writ was again issued--the prisoner taken from the Marshal--a trial had, during which, the attorneys for Smith relieved themselves of an insupportable burthen of legal knowledge, which completely overwhelmed the learned court, and resulted in the triumphant acquittal of the prisoner, with a judgment for costs against the U. States.
Now we ask if the executive and judicial authorities of Illinois deem it politic to submit to such a state of things in similar cases? Can, and will the constituted authorities of the federal government be quiescent under such circumstances, and allow the paramount laws of the Union to be set at defiance, and rendered nugatory by the action of a court, having no more than co-ordinate powers, with a common justice of the peace? If such an order of things is allowed to exist, there is every reason to believe that Nauvoo will become a sink of refuge for every offender who can carry in spoils enough to buy protection. The people of the State of Illinois will, consequently, see the necessity of repealing the charter of Nauvoo, when such abuses are practised under it; and by virtue of said chartered authority, the right of Habeas Corpus in all cases arising under the city ordinance, to give full scope to the desired jurisdiction. The city council have passed ordinances, giving the Municipal court authority to issue the writ of Habeas Corpus in all cases when the prisoner is held in custody in Nauvoo, no matter whether the offender is committed in the State of Maine, or on the continent of Europe, the prisoner being in the city under arrest. It is gravely contended by the legal luminaries of Nauvoo, that the ordinances gives them jurisdiction, not only jurisdiction to try the validity of the writ, but to enquire into the merits of the case, and allow the prisoner to swear himself clear of the charges. If his own oath is not considered sufficient to satisfy the adverse party, plenty of witnesses are ready to swear that he is to be believed on oath, and that is to be considered sufficient by the court to put the quietus on all foreign testimony and the discharge of the prisoner follows, as a necessary consequence.


We find in the Nauvoo Neighbor of May 29th, a lengthy letter from Joseph Smith a candidate for the Presidency on his own hook, to Henry Clay, the Whig candidate for the same office. It appears to be a new rule of tactics for two rival candidates to enter into a discussion of their respective claims to that high office, just preceding an election. Smith charges Clay with shrinking from the responsibility of promising to grant whatever the Mormons might ask, if elected to the Presidency. Smith has not been troubled with any inquiries of committees as to what measures he will recommend if elected; nevertheless he has come out boldly and volunteered his views of certain measures which he is in favor of having adopted. One is for the General Government to purchase the slaves of the south and set them free, that we can understand. Another is to pass a general uniform land law, that certainly requires the spirit of interpretation to show its meaning as no explanation accompanies it. Another which no doubt will be very congenial to the candidate's nervous system, is to open all the prison doors in the country, and set the captive free. These with some other suggestions equally as enlightened, ought to be sufficient to satisfy any man that Joseph Smith is willing that his principles shall be publicly known. If however any individual voter, who has a perfect right to know a candidates principles, should not be satisfied, he may further aid his inquiries, by a reference to the record of the grand inquest of Hancock County.
Martin Van Buren is charged with non-commitalism; Henry Clay has not been the man to answer frankly

the question whether he would restore to the Mormons their lands in Missouri. Joseph Smith is the only candidate now before the people whose principles are fully known; let it be remembered there are documents the highest degree of evidence before the people; a committee of twenty-four, under the solemnity of their oaths, have inquired into and reported upon his claims in due form of law. Shades of Washington and Jefferson--Henry Clay the candidate of a powerful party, is now under bonds to keep the peace; Joseph Smith, the candidate of another "powerful" party has two indictments against him, one for fornication and adultery, another for perjury. Our readers can make their own comments.

We have received the last number of the "Warsaw Signal;" it is rich with anti-Mormon matter, both editorial and communicated. Among other things it contains a lengthy letter from J.H. Jackson, giving some items in relation to his connection with the "Mormon Prophet," as also his reasons for the same. It will be perceived that many of the most dark and damnable crimes that ever darkened human character, which have hitherto been to the public, a matter of rumor and suspicion, are now reduced to indisputable facts. We have reason to believe, from our acquaintance with Mr. Jackson, and our own observation, that the statements he makes are true; and in view of these facts, we ask, in the name of heaven, where is the safety of our lives and liberties, when placed at the disposal of such heaven daring, hell deserving, God forsaken villains. Our blood boils while we refer to these blood thirsty and murderous propensities of men, or rather demons in human shape, who, not satisfied with practising their dupes upon a credulous and superstitious people, must wreak their vengeance upon any who may dare to come in contact with them. We deplore the desperate state of things to which we are necessarily brought, but, we say to our friends, "keep cool," and the whole tale will be told. We fully believe in bringing these iniquities and enormities to light, and let the majesty of violated law, and the voice of injured innocence and contemned public opinion, speak in tones of thunder to these miscreants; but in behalf of hundreds and thousands of unoffending citizens, whose only fault is religious enthusiasm, and for the honor of our own names and reputation, let us not follow their desperado measures, and thereby dishonor ourselves in revenging our own wrongs. Let our motto be, "Last in attack, but first in defence;" and the result cannot prove otherwise than honorable and satisfactory.


In consequence of a press of other duties in preparing our first number for the press, we have not had time to examine several communications that have been forwarded for publication. We respect the motives of our friends in the interest they manifest in carrying forward the work of reform; but we wish it to be distinctly understood, that we cannot depart from the conditions set forth in the Prospectus; that is the chart by which we intend to navigate the "Expositor," carefully avoiding any thing and every thing that may tend to diminish the interest, or tarnish the character of its columns. We already feel that we occupy an unenviable position in view of the variety of opinions that exist, but, we stand committed as to our course, and having faithfully and fearlessly adhered to those terms, without partiality to friends, or personality to foes, we shall consider ourselves honorably discharged of duty.

We offer an apology to our readers for the want of arrangement and taste in our first number on account of our materials and press not being in order; the short time we have had to get a press and materials has precluded the possibility of getting the first number out according to our wishes, and the absence of the Editor for several days preceding our first issue, renders this apology necessary. In our subsequent numbers we intend to make good the insufficiency by giving to our readers a good selection of miscellany, and an editorial of rich and interesting matter.


The May Term of the Circuit Court of this county closed on the 30th ult. after a session of ten days. We understand a large number of cases were disposed of, none, however of a very important character. The cases wherein Joseph Smith was a party, were transferred by a change of venue, to other courts; that of A. Sympson vs. J. Smith, for false imprisonment, to Adams County; that of F.M. Higbee vs. Joseph Smith, for slander and that of C.B. Foster vs. Joseph Smith, and J.W. Coolidge for false imprisonment, and that of A. Davis vs. Joseph Smith, and J.P. Green, for trespass, were all transferred to the County of McDonough. The Grand Jury found two bills against Smith, one for perjury, and another for fornication and adultery; on the first of which Smith delivered himself up for trial, but the State not being ready, material witnesses being absent, the case was deferred t the October term.

The regular session of the Municipal Court of this City came off on Monday last. The cases of R.D. Foster, C.L. Higbee, and C.A. Foster, on appeals from the Mayor's Court, wherein they had each been fined in the sum of one hundred dollars, (for the very enormous offence of refusing to assist the notorious O.P. Rockwell, and his "dignity' John P. Green, in arresting a respectable and peaceable citizen, without the regular process of papers) and of A. Spencer, wherein he was fined in the same sum on a charge of assault and battery, were all taken up and gravely discussed; after the most mature deliberation, with the assistance of the ex-tinguished City Attorney, this honorable body concluded to dismiss the suit and issue a procedendo to the lower court, which was accordingly done.
The cases referred to above, afford abundant reason both for complaint and comment. We intend as soon as our time will allow, to express our views fully and freely upon this feature of Mormon usurpation; first, enact a string of ordinances contrary to reason and common sense, and then inflict the severest penalties for not observing them.

We see that our friend the Neighbor, advocates the claims of Gen. Joseph Smith for the Presidency; we also see from the records of the grand Jury of Hancock Co. at their recent term, that the general is a candidate to represent the branch of the state government at Alton. We would respectfully suggest to the Neighbor, whether the two offices are not incompatible with each other.

NAUVOO, June 5th, 1844.
It is well known to all of you that the August election is fast approaching, and with it comes the great and terrible conflict. It is destined to be a day pregnant with big events; for it will be the index to the future.--Should we be defeated upon that occasion, our die is cast, and our fate is sealed; but if successful, alike may Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, and their devoted followers, as well as their enemies, expect that justice will be meted out. The present is portentous of the great effort that is to be made upon that occasion, by Joseph for power; Hiram Smith is already in the field as a candidate for the legislature, but will you support him, that same Hyrum Smith the devoted follower and brother of Joe, who feigned a revelation from God, directing the citizens of Hancock County to vote for J.P. Hoge, in preference to Cyrus Walker, and by so doing blaspheming the name of God? Will you, gentlemen of Hancock County, support a man like that, who claims to move in a different sphere, a sphere entirely above you; one who will trifle with the things of God, and feign converse with the Divinity, for the sake of carrying an election? I will unhesitatingly assume to myself the responsibility of answering in the negative. I flatter myself you are not so depraved, and so blinded to your own interests, as to support a man totally ignorant of the laws of your country, and in every respect alienated from you and your interests.
In supporting Hyrum Smith, you, Citizens of Hancock County, are supporting Joseph Smith, for whom he (Hyrum) goes teeth and toe nails, for President of the United States. The question may arise here, in voting for Joseph Smith, for whom am I voting? You are voting for a man who contends all governments are

to be put down and the one established upon its ruins. You are voting for an enemy to your government, hear Phelps to Joe in his affidavit before Judge King of Missouri:--"Have you come to the point to resist all law?" "I have," says Joe. You are voting for a sycophant, whose attempt for power find no parallel in history. You are voting for a man who refuses to suffer criminals to be brought to justice, but in the stead thereof, rescues them from the just demands of the law, by Habeas Corpus. You are voting for a man who stands indicted, and who is now held to bail, for the crimes of adultery and perjury; two of the graves crimes known to our laws. Query not then for whom you are voting, it is for one of the blackest and basest scoundrels that has appeared upon the stage of human existence since the days of Nero, and Caligula.
In supporting Hyrum Smith, then are you not supporting Joseph Smith most assuredly; pause then my countrymen, and consider coolly, calmly and deliberately, what you do? Support not that man who is spreading death, devastation and ruin throughout your happy country like a tornado. Infinite are the gradations which mark this man's attempts for power, which if not checked soon, must not only shed a deleterious influence on the face of this county, but on the face of the adjoining counties. He is already proudly boasting that he is beyond your reach; and I regret to think I am under the painful necessity of admitting the fact. Is it not a shame and a disgrace, to think we have a man in our midst, who will defy the laws of our country; the laws which shed so gentle and nourishing an influence upon our fathers, which fostered and protected them in their old age from insult and aggression; shall we their sons, lie still and suffer Joseph Smith to light up the lamp of tyranny and oppression in our midst? God forbid, lest the departed spirits of our fathers, cry from the ground against us. Let us arise in the majesty of our strength and sweep the influence of tyrants and miscreants from the face of the land, as with the breath of heaven. The eagle that is now proudly borne to earth's remotest regions by every gale, will perch himself in the solitude of mid-night if we do not arouse from our lethargy.
It is the worst of absurdities for any individual to say their is a man in our midst who is above the reach of violated law, and not lend a helping hand; all talk and nothing more will not accomplish that for your country and your God, which the acts of Washington did. Then gentlemen organize yourselves and prepare for the dreadful conflict in August; we go with you heart and hand, in the attempt to suppress this contaminating influence which is prostrating our fairest prospects, and spreading desolation throughout our vale. Call into the field your best men under the solemn pledge to go for the unconditional repeal of the Nauvoo Charter, and you have our support; whether they be Whig or Democrat we care not; when a friend presents us with a draught of cool water, we do not stop to inquire whether it is contained in a silver vase, a golden urn or a long handled gourd. We want no base seducer, liar and perjured representative, to represent us in Springfield, but while Murrill represents Tennessee in Nashville, Munroe Edwards, New York, in Sing Sing, Br. Joseph may have the extreme goodness to represent Illinois in Alton, if his lawyers do not succeed in quashing the indictments found against him by the Grand Jurors of Hancock County, at the May term 1844.
At the earnest request of a number of friends, I am induced to offer myself as a candidate for the office of Sheriff, at the ensuing August election. Should I be elected I pledge myself to perform the duties incident to the office with independence and fidelity.
Nauvoo, June 7th, 1844.

MR. EDITOR, As I have taken some little interest in the affairs of the "Nauvoo Theatre;" I wish to announce through the medium of your paper, that the establishment, which left this place a few weeks since to travel , has again arrived in this city. What success, the concern met with while absent I am unable to learn; the only think of interest which I have been able to discover, is, that the Rev. G. J. Adams was hissed from the stage in Burlington, while telling the "woodchuck story." I understand that the establishment has closed for the present, in consequence of Mr. Adams being under the necessity of 'going a preaching;' probably the Rev. Gentleman thinks by this time that he is better fitted for the desk than the stage.
I am Sir,

PENMANSHIP. -- We invite the attention of our readers to the advertisement of Mr. A. R. Dunton, found in another column of to day's paper. We have examined several specimens of this Gentleman's handiwork, in the execution of his various style of penmanship, and we cheerfully award to him the merit of excelling any thing of the kind in this department. Mr. Dunton brings with him testimonials of the highest character, from the most respectable sources; having borne off the palm of victory in several of our eastern cities;--but, aside from our own opinion, or the opinion of others, Mr. Dunton presents the best evidence, in his off hand efforts, which he executes with a neatness and dispatch that dispels all doubt, and wins for him the wreath of merited fame. -- ED.

MARRIED: -- At Carthage, on the 23d ult., by E. A. BEDELL, ESQ. MR. CHARLES ROSS of St. Louis, to MISS SABRA A. MORRISON, of this city.
We tender our congratulations to the above parties upon their union of heart and hand, and express our warmest wishes for their future happiness.
One Cent Reward.
WHEREAS my husband, the Rt. Rev. W. H. Harrison Sagers, Esq., has left my bed and board without cause or provocation, this is to notify the public not to harbor or trust him on my account, as I will pay no debts of his contracting. More anon.
LUCINDA SAGERS. June 7, 1844. -- 1tf.
Administrator's Sale.
ON the 20th of June, A.D. 1844, will be offered at public sale at the New Brick Store of S. M. Marr, on Knight Street, east of the Temple in the City of Nauvoo, the following described property, to wit: Household and kitchen furniture, consisting of beds and bedding, wearing apparel, cotton cloth, &c.
Nauvoo, June 7th, 1844. -- 1tf.
The Subscribers wish to inform all those who through sickness; or other misfortunes, are much limited in their means of procuring bread for their families, that we have allotted Thursday of every week, to grind TOLL FREE for them, till grain becomes plentiful after harvest.
P.S. Elder Cowles, or Bishop Ivins, will attend at our mill on those days set apart, and will judge very benevolently, in all cases where the above indulgence is claimed.
W. & W. LAW.
Nauvoo, June 7th, 1844. -- tf
Those wishing to improve the present very favorable opportunity for taking Lessons in Penmanship, and Stylographic Card Marking, are informed that the above branches will be taught by Mr. A. R. DUNTON in a manner that cannot fail to prove satisfactory to all. The system he teaches has no superior, either in acquisition, facility of execution, or elegance and uniformity of the letters Mr. D. would beg leave to refer the Ladies and Gentlemen of this City and its vicinity, to the fact that he has borne off the FIRST PREMIUM for the best Specimens of Penmanship from all competitors, at the late Mechanics' Fair held in Boston.
MR. DUNTON proposes to award the following premiums, viz:
The person who shall make the best improvement in writing, shall be entitled to a specimen of penmanship worth from five to ten dollars. And if any person will produce a specimen superior to what Mr. D. will execute, the person producing it shall be entitled to fifty dollars.
For the best improvement in Stylographic Card Marking, the person shall be entitled to their tuition.
N.B. The above Premiums are to be awarded by a committee mutually chosen.
Those who have been disappointed by attending the Schools of incompetent teachers, are warranted perfect satisfaction at Mr. D's. School, or their money will be refunded.
Writing Masters fitted for the profession. Teachers, Professional, and Business men, and all good or bad writers, who wish to become complete masters of the art, are particularly invited to attend.
Writing rooms at the new Masonic Hall Main st. Terms of tuition only $1.50 for 12 lessons. Classes will be formed on Monday evening next at 7 P.M.
June 7th, 1844.

Attorney and Counsellor at Law, and Solicitor in Chancery.
Deeds, bonds and all legal instruments drawn to order. Lands for sale or exchange. Office over S. M. Marr's brick Store, Knight St. east of the Temple.
The Subscriber has several brick and frame houses, situated in different parts of the city, which he offers for sale, or rent on good terms.
NAUVOO, June 7th, 1844. tf

Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844, page 4

S O N G.

The lads -- I wonder how they guessed it,
I'm sure I never tell.
And if I love, I ne'er confess it --
How can they guess so well?
I'm sure 'twas no I told my laddie --
I would not love -- not I;
He says 'twas yes, the saucy laddie!,
He saw yes in my eye.

My mother says 'tis naughty -- very!
For I am scarce fifteen;
I vowed, to please the dame so chary,
My love should ne'er be seen.
And still 'twas no I told my laddie,
And still -- I wonder why?
He kissed me -- ah, the saucy laddie!
He saw love in my eye.

The love, I bade him tarry,
Asleep, within my breast,
But when he heard my gentle, Harry,
The rebel would not rest.
And while I thought the boy was sleeping,
Alack, he is so sly!
I found the rogue at Harry peeping,
Ay, peeping through my eye.

[From the Philadelphia Times.]


The Riots in Kensington -- The Irish and the Native Americans.

The late riots in Kensington between the Native Americans and the Irish Roman Catholics -- for the feud is now a religious one entirely, conceal the fact as we may -- have filled our city with excitement, and every thoughtful mind with deep reflection. What are we coming to? Are the people forgetting at once the elements of Republicanism, viz: tolerance of opinion, freedom of thought and action, and obedience to the laws, or can any man enraged in these disgraceful broils believe that he is aiding by such conduct, however provoked, in carrying out the principles of civil and religious liberty?

As a Protestant, and a Native born citizen, we protest against this unnatural admixture of religion and politics. In the whole history of the human race, we find the bloodiest pages those in which are recorded the contest of the Church; are we willing to introduce this firebrand of destruction and desolation into the midst of our peaceful and happy country? Have we a mind to rival Europe in our chronicles of inhuman massacre and slaughter, or shall we bathe our hearth-stones in blood, and make our homes charnel-houses, be cause of differences of opinion, the entertainment of which is guaranteed to every American citizen, whether Native-born or Naturalized by our glorious Constitution?

We are opposed to the political sentiments of the Native Americans, but we respect their sincerity, and would be the last to stand silently by and see them insulted; to see their peaceable assemblies broken up by an infuriated multitude, and see them or any other set of men, whether right or wrong in their views, way-laid and assaulted for promulgating their political notions. We are too much of a Republican, and have too much genuine American feeling for this; but, we are equally opposed to the introduction of religious abuse into political orations; we entertain a very contemptuous opinion of the wisdom, the law and order-loving disposition, and the real Christianity of those demagogues who do it to accomplish, by the fearful public orgasm which must follow, their own selfish ends.

We give up to no man in our respect for the Bible, and our zeal for its dissemination. We give up to no man in our love for our beloved country, its unparalleled institutions, its mighty and intelligent people, and above all its freedom from that curse of Europe, an union of Church and State. But, in tenaciously reserving for ourselves and our children the right to peruse the Bible, we should be among the first to denounce any attempt at such dominance contemplated by the members of our own.
These are the dictates of patriotism; nay more, they are the dictates of Christianity. Without pretending to take any side in this unfortunate controversy -- without pretending that the Roman Catholics are right or wrong, or that the Native Americans are right or wrong, for we conceive both to have committed a grievous error in appealing under any circumstances to physical force or to arms, -- let us ask, is such conduct characteristic of either freemen or Christians? Is it the part of a true republican to thrust his opinions upon others, and to picture all those who differ from him as fit subjects for immolation; or did the great prototype of the Christian church when on the earth set his followers such a belligerent example? Was not the language of the later always "peace! peace?" Was not his course exemplary pacific? Did he turn even on his revilers and persecutors? Did he

not take every occasion to teach his disciples forbearance, and radically subdue in them the slightest impulse towards retaliation?
If so, we are bound to follow the example as [told] as the advice of the head of the universal Christian church! And in doing so, we at once carry out the principles of good government, for republicanism and christianity are identical, and the very spirit of the one, is incorporated into and animates the other. Let us have peace then. Cease these wicked contentions. And in order that they may cease, stop at once this mingling together of religion and politics. Away with it. It is an unhallowed, an iniquitous, and incestuous union. The issue must be a monster, misshapen and deplorable, inimical to liberty, repulsive to tranquil government, and ever associated with [b----- ----sh], discord, murder, and [--------].

The Papacy and the
Great Powers.

The Tablet, a Catholic newspaper, takes a gloomy view of the present state of the Papal dominions, and the dangers which threaten them from several quarter[s]. Amongst the most dangerous of these enemies is said to be Russia, whose Emperor is denounced as "the great Anti-christ of the north," and from whose rule, when once it includes Italy, is predicted "a hideous persecution and calamity, such as the Church has never yet hardly witnessed." The other enemies of the Papal see, besides its own insurgent subjects, are said to be England and France, and the following is a summary account of its alleged position at the present moment: -- "Besides, then, the local and social convulsions of Italy, we have hanging over the Holy See -- first, the armed Protectorate of Austria; secondly, the efforts of Russia to gain, at least, so much influence in Rome as shall prevent the publication of unpleasant documents; thirdly, the endeavors of England to cajole the Pope into putting the screw (spiritual) upon his too ardent subjects in Ireland; and fourthly, the endeavors of France to secure the same advantage against the Catholic subjects of that kingdom. The Pope, unable to uphold his temporal domination without Austrian bayonets, and the three most powerful cabinets of Europe applying all their craft and force to compel his Holiness to abuse his spiritual power to the common injury of Christendom! Luckily, the hand of God has carried the Church through as great dangers as the present, and has promised to carry her through all dangers; otherwise we would say that this was no very pleasant prospect."


We last week gave some account of the dissensions and divisions which have sprung up in the holy city of Nauvoo -- growing out of the arbitrary conduct of "the Prophet." -- Since then, the breach has become still wider between the head of the church and his followers. The citizens have procured a press, and will soon commence a paper, for the purpose of exposing Smith on his own ground and among his own people. Last week, individuals of the Mormon faith, (Messrs. Blakesley and Higbee,) representing the dissenters, addressed a large number of our citizens, in reference to the "flare up," at Nauvoo. We were not present, but have it from others who were, that the dissenters, made out that Joe Smith was pretty much a rough customer, especially in relation to the "spiritual wife" doctrine. Their whole aim was principally against the church -- of which they still claimed to be members. They painted Smith, as any thing but the saint he claims to be -- and as a man, to the last degree, corrupt in his morals and religion. On Wednesday night, Mr. John P. Green, a Mormon elder, addressed a crowded house in defence of "the Prophet." The principal portion of the worthy elder's speech, while we were in the house, was taken up, in an apology for addressing the meeting, and when he did come to the substance of his address, he could only disprove the statements made by the dissenters, from his own knowledge -- he said he had been a Mormon for the last twelve years -- and had always been intimate with Smith, and that such doctrines as were ascribed to Smith by his enemies, had never been taught to him. He further said that Smith was like a diamond, the more he was rubbed, the brighter he appeared -- and he strongly insinuated, that the characters of the individuals, who had assailed Smith on the second evening previous, were none the best, &c.
We think these Mormon missionaries are laboring under a mistake in one particular. It is not so much the particular doctrines, which Smith upholds and practices, however abominable they may be in themselves, that our citizens care about -- as it is the anti-republican nature of the organization, over which he has almost supreme control -- and which is

trained and disciplined to act in accordance with his selfish will. The spectacle presented in Smith's case of a civil, ecclesiastical and military leader, united in one and the same person, with power over life and liberty, can never find favor in the minds of sound and thinking Republicans. The day has gone by when the precepts of Divine Truth, could be propagated at the point of the sword -- or the Bible made the medium of corrupt men to gratify their lustful appetites and sordid desires --
[Quincy Whig.

We have received from Nauvoo a Prospectus for a new paper, to be entitled the "Nauvoo Expositor." It is intended to be the organ of the Reformed Mormon Church, which has lately been organized in that place, and to oppose the power of 'the self-constituted Monarch,' who has assumed the government of the Holy City. We care no more about the New Church than the Old one, as a church; for we regard both with indifference. But if it can be a means of humbling the haughty miscreant who rules in that city, and exposing his rank villainies, then we shall wish both Church and Paper a hearty Good speed! The gentlemen who have the paper in charge, have the reputation of being men of character and talent; and have commenced the work in which they are engaged, in real earnest. We hope the public will encourage their effort --
Upper Mississippian.

The Jews in Russia. -- A letter from St. Petersburgh, dated March 21, says, that to check the emigration of the Jews over the frontiers, the following, sanctioned by the Emperor, had been made law; -- "Jews who without legal licenses, or with legal licenses which have expired, go over the frontier, when they have before been recognized as actual Russian subjects, and as such been brought back into the empire, shall be given up to the local government authorities, who shall deal with them according to the laws relating to deserters and vagrants, even when the former places of residence and the parishes to which they belong are known. According to these laws, they shall be employed in the military service; in case they are unfit for it, be placed in what are called the penal companies, without the right of being given up to their parishes, if the latter shall desire it. If they are not fit for hard labor in the public works, they shall be sent with their wives to settle in Siberia."

Anecdote of the Mayor of Tiverton.
-- During the time when Wesley and Whitfield were gaining so many converts in many parts of England, the former came one day to preach at Tiverton. This created considerable excitement in town, and the Mayor, fearing some riot might ensue, issued his proclamation, commanding Wesley to desist, as it was dangerous to the peace and good order. On being remonstrated with, he made the following laconic reply: "I don't see what occasion there can be for any new religion in Tiverton! Why do we want another way of going to heaven when there is so many already? Why, sir, there's the old church and the new church; that's one religion: there's Parson Kiddell's at the Pitt meeting; that's two: Parson Wescott;s, in Peter street that's three: and old Parson Tarry's in Newport street; that's four. Four ways of going to heaven! If they won't go to heaven by one or the other of these ways, by ---- they shan't go to heaven at all from Tiverton, while I'm Mayor of the town.

The American Press, and the Rev. Sydney Smith. -- The following letter from the pen of the Rev. Sydney Smith, has made its appearance in the Morning Chronicle: --
To the Editor of the Chronicle: --
Sir -- The loco-foco papers in America are, I observe, full of abuse of Mr. Everett, their minister for spending a month with me at Christmas, in Somersetshire. That month was neither lunar nor calendar, but consisted of forty-eight hours -- a few minutes more or less.
"I never heard of a wiser or more judicious defence than he made to me and others, of the American insolvency -- not denying the injustice of it, speaking of it on the contrary, with the deepest feeling, but urging with great argumentative eloquence every topic that could be pleaded in extenuation. He made upon us the same impression he appears to make universally in this country; we thought him (a character which the English always receive with affectionate regard,) an amiable American republican, without ostentation. 'If I had known that gentleman five years ago, (said one of my guests,) I should have been deep in the American funds; and as it is, I think at times that I see nineteen shillings in the pound of his face.'
"However this may be, I am sure we owe to the Americans a debt of gratitude for sending to us such an excellent specimen of their productions. In diplomacy, a far more important object than falsehood, is, to keep two nations in friendship. In this point, no nation has ever been better served than America has been served by Mr. Edward Everett.
"I am, sir, your ob't ser't,

From "Gen. Smiths Views."

"The people may have faults but they never should be trifled with. I think Mr. Pitt's quotation in the British Parliament of Mr. PriorÕs couplet for the husband and wife, to apply to the course which the king and ministry of England should pursue to the then colonies, of the now United States, might be a genuine rule of action for some of the breath made men in high places, to use towards the posterity of that noble daring people:
"Be to her faults a little blind;
Be to her virtues very kind."
"We have had democratic presidents; whig presidents; a pseudo democratic whig president; and now it is time to have a president of the United States; and let the people of the whole union, like the inflexible Romans, whenever they find a promise made by a candidate, that is not practiced as an officer, hurl the miserable sycophant from his exaltation, as God did Nebuchadnezzar, to crop the grass of the field, with a beastÕs heart among the cattle.
"Mr. Van Buren said in his inaugural address, that he went 'into the presidential chair the inflexible and uncompromising opponent of Congress, to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia, against the wishes of the slave holding states; and also with a determination equally decided to resist the slightest interference with it in the states where it exists.' Poor little Matty made his rhapsodical sweep with the fact before his eyes, that the state of New-York, his native state, had abolished slavery, without a struggle or a groan. Great God, how independent! From henceforth, slavery is tolerated when it exists: constitution or no constitution; people or no people; right or wrong; vox Matti; vox Diaboli: 'the voice of Matty' --" the voice of the devil;' and peradventure his great 'Sub-Treasury' scheme was a piece of the same mind: but the man and his measures have such a striking resemblance to the anecdote of the Welchman and his cart-tongue, that, when the constitution was so long that it allowed slavery at the capitol of a free people, is could not be cut off; but when it was short that it needed a Sub-Treasury, to save funds of the nation, it could be spliced! Oh, granny what a long tail our puss has got! As a Greek might say, hysteron proteron; the cart before the horse; but his mighty whisk through the great national fire, for the presidential chesnuts burnt the locks of his glory with the blaze of his folly!

The above we extract from the celebrated state paper, entitled, "Gen. Smith's views of the powers and policy of the Government of the United States," as a specimen of the original matter it contains. -- With such astute penetrating views, such exalted and dignified sentiments, emanating from a candidate for the Presidency, Father Miller must be pronounced a humbug and the people of the nineteenth century may look for the dawn of a glorious era to burst upon their astonished vision in the fall of eighteen hundred and forty-four, an era in which a Prophet only can tell whether granny's cat has a long tail or not; or whether the Greek's cart will be before the horse or otherwise; the constitution we presume will be as long as the Welchman's cart tongue, "peradventure" a little longer.

A Witty Reply. -- When Mark Antony gave orders for doubling the taxes in Asia, an intimate friend of his told him, he should "first order the land to yield a double harvest."

A Queer Change. -- The old spirit stirring appeal to fight for your hearths, has become obsolete. It is now, "fight for your stoves and heaters!"

Not so Bad. -- I wish you had been Eve," said an urchin, to an old maid who was proverbial for her meanness.
"Why so?"
"Because, said he, "you would have eaten all the apple instead of dividing with Adam!"

Domestic Order. -- We observe in the works of Madam Necker, what must be considered a good hint to housewives: "Domestic order, like theatrical machinery, produces the greatest pleasures when the strings are concealed."

Precious but Fragile. -- The two most precious things on this side of the grave are reputation and life. -- But it is to be lamented that the most contemptible whisper may deprive us of the one, and the weakest weapon may deprive us of the other.

Father, what does the printer live on? Why child? You said you had not paid him for two or three years, and yet you have his paper every week?
Wife, put this child under the floor, he is too personal in his remarks.



The undersigned propose publishing a Journal of the above title, which will appear on Friday of each week, on an Imperial sheet, with a new Press, and materials of the best quality, and rendered worthy of the patronage of a discerning and an enlightened public.
The Expositor will be devoted to a general diffusion of useful knowledge, and its columns open for the admission of all courteous communications of a Religious, Moral, Social, Literary, or Political character, without taking a decided stand in favor of either of the great Political parties of the country. A part of its columns will be devoted to a few primary objects, which the Publishers deem of vital importance to the public welfare. Their particular locality gives them a knowledge of the many gross abuses exercised under the pretended authorities of the Nauvoo City Charter, by the legislative authorities of said city; and the insupportable of the Ministerial

powers in carrying out the unjust, illegal, and unconstitutional ordinances of the same. The publishers, therefore, deem it a sacred duty they owe to their country and their fellow citizens, to advocate, through the columns of the Expositor, the UNCONDITIONAL REPEAL OF THE NAUVOO CITY CHARTER, to restrain and correct the abuses of the Unit Power; to ward off the Iron Rod which is held over the devoted heads of the citizens of Nauvoo and the surrounding country; to advocate unmitigated and to censure and decry gross moral imperfections wherever found, either in the Plebeian, Patrician, or self-constituted MONARCH; to advocate the pure principles of morality, the pure principles of truth; designed not to destroy, but strengthen the main-spring of God's moral government; to advocate, and exercise, the freedom of speech in Nauvoo, independent of the ordinances abridging the same; to give free toleration to every man's religious sentiments, and sustain all in worshipping God according to the monitors of their consciences, as guarantied by the Constitution of our country; and to oppose, with uncompromising hostility, any Union of Church and State, or any preliminary step tending to the same; to sustain all, however humble, in their equal and constitutional rights, and oppose the sacrifice of Liberty, the Property, and the Happiness of the many, to the pride and ambition of the few. In a word, to give a full, candid, and succinct statement of facts, as they exist in the city of Nauvoo, fearless of whose particular case they may apply, being governed by the laws of Editorial courtesy, and the inherent dignity which is inseparable from honorable minds; at the same time exercising their own judgment in cases of flagrant abuses, or moral delinquencies; to use such terms and names as they deem proper, when the object is of such high importance that the end will justify the means. We confidently look to an enlightened public for aid in this great and indispensable effort.
The columns of the Expositor will be open to the discussion of all matters of public interest, the productions of all correspondents being subject to the decision of the Editor alone, who shall receive or reject at his option. National questions will be in place, but no preference given to either of the political parties. The Editorial department will contain the political news of the day, proceedings of Congress, election returns, &c., &c. Room will be given for articles on Agriculture, the Mechanic Arts, Commercial transactions, &c.
The publishers bind themselves to issue the paper weekly for one year, and forward fifty-two copies to each subscriber during the year. Orders should be forwarded as soon as possible, that the publishers may know what number of copies to issue.
The publishers take pleasure in announcing to the public, that they have engaged the services of Slyvester Emmons, Esq., who will have entire charge and supervision of the editorial department. From an acquaintance with the dignity of character, and literary qualifications of this gentleman, they feel assured that the Nauvoo Expositor must and will sustain a high and honorable reputation.

Two Dollars per annum in advance,
Two Dollars and Fifty cents at the expiration of six months,
Three Dollars at the end of the year.
Six copies will be forwarded to one address for Ten Dollars in advance; Thirteen copies for Twenty Dollars, &c.
Advertising and Job Work in all their variation, done on short notice, and upon the most satisfactory terms. All letters and communications must be addressed to "Charles A. Foster, Nauvoo, Illinois," post paid, in order to insure attention.
William Law,
Wilson Law,
Charles Ivins,
Francis M. Higbee,
Chauncey L. Higbee,
Robert D. Foster,
Charles A. Foster.

WAREROOMS -- Nos. 29 and 31 Gold street, New York, April, 1844. -- Price Greatly Reduced -- The "HOE," PRINTING PRESS, MACHINE AND SAW MANUFACTORY, in consequence of the addition of new and improved machinery to their works and the reduction of the cost of materials and labor, are enabled greatly to reduce the prices of their presses and Printers and binders materials generally, as will be seen by their newly printed circular, to which they beg leave to refer.
This establishment is still under the personal superintendence of RICHARD M. HOE and ROBERT HOE, and they assure their friends that notwithstanding the great reduction in prices all articles manufactured by this establishment shall retain the high reputation which they have hitherto sustained -- It will also be their constant endeavor to improve the quality of them in every particular. They flatter themselves also, that their old friends will not only continue their favors, but that printers generally will appreciate their endeavors to furnish the very best articles at barely remunerating prices.
Orders from any part of the country for all articles by Printers and Binders, including Type, Ink, Paper, etc., will be executed with the greatest care and promptitude, and on the best terms.
Jobbing work and repairing will be done at the lowest possible prices, with every attention and expedition.
N. B. -- All articles manufactured by this establishment will be stampt R. HOE & CO., so that persons from abroad may not be imposed upon with spurious articles made in imitation of theirs.
Printers of Newspapers who publish this advertisement with this note three times before the first of July next, and send one of their papers to us, will be entitled to payment on their bill on buying four times the amount of it.

Every number embellished with an original and exquisite design on steel.


Illustrated by J. C. Chapman, who is engaged exclusively for the work. Terms -- Three Dollars per annum. Single numbers 6 1-4 cents.
In the course of a few weeks the undersigned will commence, on his own account, the publication of a new series of the NEW YORK MIRROR, in the octavo form, on an entirely novel and original plan, with a steel engraving in every number and at the reduced price of three dollars per anum, or six and a quarter cents per copy.
THE NEW MIRROR will appear with many striking and attractive features distinguishing it from every other periodical. It will be published with new type, on fine paper, and each number will contain a beautiful original engraving on steel, designed and etched by CHAPMAN, illustrating the letterpress which it accompanies, and which it will invest with peculiar interest. Besides the contributions of all our extensive corps of correspondents -- which embraces most of the talent of this country -- we have made arrangements for fresh and early translations from some of the best writers in France and England. With such materials, and with such able fellow laborers in the literary vineyard, we hope to present to the American reader a weekly journal of great value and unusual excellence. The parade of mere names will be sedulously avoided. The Mirror will be remarkable, we hope, rather for good articles without names, than for poor articles with distinguished names. It will embrace in its scope every department of elegant literature, comprising tales of romance, sketches of society and manners, sentiment, and every day life, piquant essays, domestic and foreign correspondence, literary intelligence, wit and humor, fashion and gossip, poetry, the fine arts, and literary, musical and dramatic criticisms. Its reviews of new works will be careful, discriminating and impartial. It will aim to foster a literature suited to the taste and desires of the age and country. Its tendency will be cheerful and enlivening as well as improving. It will seek to gratify every refined taste, but never to offend the most fastidious; and it will ever feel its duty to be, to "turn the sunny side of things to human eyes."
The work will be published every Saturday, in numbers of sixteen large octavo super royal pages, with double columns, and enclosed in a neat ornamental cover. It will form at the end of the year two superb volumes, each of four hundred and sixteen pages, filled with the gems of literature and the fine arts.
The very low price at which it will be issued readers is the cheapest periodical in this or any other country.

Weekly Dollar Message.

It is now nearly one year since the undersigned commenced the publication of the Weekly Dollar Message, a paper made up from the contents of the Daily Morning Message, which has been in existence nearly two years enjoying the best reputation of any paper in the Queen City for the early dissemination of intelligence and variety of interesting matter -- comprising Literature, Poetry, Miscellany, the Current News of the day, Foreign and Domestic; carefully avoiding, however the least partizan bias in politics. It is equal in size and execution to any weekly in this city, containing [a] much larger amount of reading matter, and at the same time afforded at one half the price of the cheapest of them. It combines more completely than [any] of its Eastern rivals the distinguishing characteristics of a literary journal with those of a regular and systematic chronicle of passing events.
Nut the unparalleled patronage from every section of the country, is the best evidence of its approval. The Weekly already has a circulation of over two thousand copies, and is increasing at the rate of from 50 to 100 per week.
For the best original Tale, not exceeding in length 30 pages of common foolscap manuscript,
And for the best original Poem, not exceeding 100 lines nor less than 50.
center> THIRTY DOLLARS, The Prize Tale and Poem to be published in the first No. of the 2nd vol., which will be issued on the 15th day of July next, at which time the prizes will be placed in the hands of the committee, subject to the orders of those to whom they may be awarded.
The following literary gentlemen have been appointed a committee, to whom the productions of all competitors for the above prizes will be submitted for decision, and from whose high standing in society, the most strict impartiality may be relied on:
Elam P. Langdon, Jas. H. Perkins, C, Nichols, Geo. S. Bennett, Joseph McClure.

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revision 0a (12-06-99)

Recovery Board : RfM

Recovery from Mormonism (RfM) discussion forum.
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Nauvoo True Confessions: Joseph Smith Admits that the Book of Mormon Isn't True
 or Worth Further Effort (*subsequently hijacked by posts about snakes & Satan's children) . . .

Time, once again, to rock the wacky-religious world of the TBM faithful who secretly lurk here:

The Book of Mormon was so problematic for Joseph Smith that he wanted to dump it early on and, in fact, did--literally.

--Joseph Smith Buries the Book of Mormon

Smith, when helping to lay a cornerstone for the Nauvoo House on 2 October 1841, approved the placement of an original
Book of Mormon manuscript (composed mostly in the handwriting of Oliver Cowdery and appropriately written on foolscap
paper) into the Nauvoo House cornerstone with the following send-off comment (made a short time earlier by Smith to
another prominent Mormon leader):

"I have had trouble enough with this thing."

Amen, brother.

(see Ernest H. Taves, "Trouble Enough: Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon"
[Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1984], p. 160)

Indeed, William Alexander Linn, in his book, "The Story of the Mormons: From the Date of Their Origin to the Year 1901" ,
sets the stage for Smith's deep-sixing of this supposed "sacred scripture":

"[P]roof [that] . . . a second [manuscript] copy [of the Book of Mormon] did exist [is found in the account of Ebenezer
 Robinson]. . . . Robinson, who was a leading man in the [Mormon] church from the time of its establishment in Ohio until
Smith's death, says in his recollections that, when the people assembled on October 2, 1841, to lay the cornerstone of
[the] Nauvoo House, Smith said he had a document to put into the cornerstone, and Robinson went with him to his house
 to procure it. Robinson's tory proceeds as follows:

"'He got a manuscript copy of the Book of Mormon and brought it into the room where we were standing and said,
"I will examine to see if it is all here;" and as he did so I stood near him, at his left side, and saw distinctly the writing
as he turned up the pages until he hastily went through the book and satisfied himself that it was all there, when he said,
 "I have had trouble enough with this thing;" which remark struck me with amazement, as I looked upon it as a sacred

(William Alexander Linn, "The Story of the Mormons: From the Date of Their Origin to the Year 1901"
[New York, New York: The MacMillan Company, 1902], p. 44; original text at: "Google Books" link to the page at: http://books.google.com/books?id=QDdAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&dq=ebenezer+robinson+book+of+mormon+trouble+enough&source=bl&ots=H_Lur4vQE7&sig=NDY_hZzw7NSVqNMzIECTct11R-w&hl=en&ei=Sd1STvPVNOSDsgKbwtzwBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ebenezer%20robinson%20book%20of%20mormon%20trouble%20enough&f=false)

--Joseph Smith Admits He Made It All Up--

One shouldn't be surprised by Smith's abandonment of the so-called "keystone" of the Mormon religion; nor should
 one be surprised by Smith's utter disdain for what he regarded as the simple-minded stupidity of those who actually
bought into his lies.

To be sure, Smith had a habit (about which he privately boasted to his friends) of making up stories about imaginary
 "golden Bibles," then playing it out even further for his incredulous associates when Smith discovered that they actually
 swallowed his tall tales hook, line and sinker.

Case in point, as one of Smith's close acquaintances, Peter Ingersoll, testified in an affidavit certified by a local judge:

"One day he [Joseph Smith] came and greeted me with a joyful countenance. Upon asking the cause of his unusual happiness,
he replied in the following language, 'As I was passing, yesterday, across the woods, after a heavy shower of rain, I found,
 in a hollow, some beautiful white sand, that had been washed up by the water. I took off my frock, and tied up several
quarts of it, and then went home.

"'On my entering the house, I found the family at the table eating dinner. They were all anxious to know the contents of
 my frock. At that moment, I happened to think of what I had heard about a history found in Canada, called the golden
Bible; so I very gravely told them it was the golden Bible.

"'To my surprise, they were credulous enough to believe what I said. Accordingly I told them that I had received a commandment
 to let no one see it, for, says I, no man can see it with the naked eye and live. However, I offered to take out the book and show
 it to them, but they refuse to see it, and left the room.'

"Now, said Joe, 'I have got the damned fools fixed, and will carry out the fun.' Notwithstanding, he told me he had no such book
 and believed there never was any such book, yet, he told me that he actually went to Willard Chase, to get him to make a chest,
 in which he might deposit his golden Bible. But, as Chase would not do it, he made a box himself, of clapboards, and put it into
 a pillow case, and allowed people only to lift it, and feel of it through the case."

("Peter Ingersoll Statement on Joseph Smith, Jr.," sworn affidavit, Palymra, Wayne County, New York, 2 December 1833, affirmed
 as being truthful by Ingersoll under oath and in a personal appearance before Thomas P. Baldwin, Judge of Wayne County Court,
9 December 1833; for Ingersoll's entire affidavit, see: http://www.truthandgrace.com/StatementIngersoll1.htm)


Joseph Smith was not a believer in the Book of Mormon that he peddled as being divine. Pure and simple, he was a fraud and a
conman. In his quieter moments, out of earshot of the blindly faithful, he admitted that faithless fact.

Edited 4 time(s). Last edit at 01/23/2012 04:57PM by steve benson.

Posted by:paylayale ( )
Date: January 23, 2012 08:23AM
Re: Nauvoo True Confessions: Joseph Smith Admits that the Book of Mormon Isn't True or Worth
Further Effort . . .

Steve I have always enjoyed your commentary because you are so informed. If you would comment of on the following our
readers might appreciate it.


The most imprtant verse in the bible is Genesis 3:15 which is mirrored exactly in Moses 4:21. Both talk about the seed of Satan.
 What actually hapened is that Satan seduced Eve in the Garden and had children. Christ refers to Satan's children in John 8:44.
There are other confirming verses. Cain was Satan's child and this is confirmed in I John 3:10-12. A & E covered their private parts
 for a reason. If they had eaten an apple they would have covered their mouths.

Nowhere in the Temple ceremony is this concept mentioned. I wonder why? I've never dredged up an old topic like this before,
but I read something in Lucy Mack's biography yesterday that reminded me of this thread.

Mopologists like to find fault with "Mormonism Unvailed," which contains the Peter Ingersoll quote in the orignal post above.
They then use this fault, along with arguments like "Hurlebut had an axe to grind" to justify the argument that Peter Ingersoll's
testimony can't be trusted.

I think it's safe to say that Lucy's work is a sufficiently indepedent source from Mormonism Unvailed as to eliminate the possibility
 of bias or conspiracy. Also, Lucy moved out of the vicinity of Peter Ingersoll in 1830, 3-4 years before Mormonism Unvailed came
 out. If Lucy confirms any of Peter's testimony, that would be significant.

Speaking of the court hearing of 1929, where Martin Harris' wife gathered Smith neighbors to bring charges against Joseph Smith
of defrauding her husband, Lucy Mack says:

"The 1st Witness testified that Joseph Smith told him that the box which he had contained nothing but sand and he only said it
was gold plates to deceive the people."

Now granted, we don't know for a fact that this first witness was Peter Ingersoll, but I think we have a pretty good idea. She
 then lists 2 other witnesses who claimed Joseph Smith admitted his fraud to them, though with different details. If I were Joseph,
 at this point I'd be saying "I'll never spill the beans again." And he didn't.

Some comments: Genesis 3:15 is about the snake, not Satan. There is no place in the Bible were the snake in Genesis is
 identified with Satan. In John 8:44 Jesus does not mean to say that the Jews he is talking to are literally children of Satan.

Primary sources/Thomas Kane/The decline of Nauvoo

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A few years ago ascending the Upper Mississippi, in the autumn, when its waters were low, I was compelled to travel
 by land past the region of the Rapids. My road lay through the Half-breed Tract, a fine section of Iowa, which the
unsettled state of its land-titles had appropriated as a sanctuary for coiners, horse thieves, and other outlaws. I had left
my steamer at Keokuk, at the foot of the Lower Fall, to hire a carriage, and to contend for some fragments of a dirty meal
with the swarming flies, the only scavengers of the locality.

"From this place to where the deep water of the river returns, my eye wearied to see everywhere sordid, vagabond,
and idle settlers, and a country marred, without being improved, by their careless hands. I was descending the last
hill-side upon my journey, when a landscape in delightful contrast broke upon my view. Half encircled by a bend of the
 river, a beautiful city lay glittering in the fresh morning sun; its bright new dwellings, set in cool green gardens, ranging
up around a stately dome-shaped hill, which was crowned by a noble edifice, whose high tapering spire was radiant
with white and gold. The city appeared to cover several miles, and beyond it, in the background, there rolled off a fair
country, chequered by the careful lines of fruitful husbandry. The un-mistakeable marks of industry, enterprise, and
educated wealth everywhere, made the scene one of singular and most striking beauty. It was a natural impulse to visit
this inviting region. I procured a skiff, and rowing across the river, landed at the chief wharf of the city. No one met me
 there. I looked, and saw no one. I could hear no one move, though the quiet everywhere was such that I heard the flies
 buzz, and the water-ripples break against the shallow of the beach. I walked through the solitary street. The town lay as
 in a dream, under some deadening spell of loneliness, from which I almost feared to wake it, for plainly it had not slept
 long. There was no grass growing up in the paved ways; rains had not entirely washed away the prints of dusty footsteps.

"Yet I went about unchecked. I went into empty workshops, rope-walks and smithies. The spinner's wheel was idle; the
carpenter had gone from his work-bench and shavings, his unfinished sash and casing. Fresh bark was in the tanner's vat,
 and the fresh-chopped lightwood stood piled against the baker's oven. The blacksmith's shop was cold; but his coal heap
 and lading pool, and crooked water horn were all there, as if he had just gone off for a holiday. No work-people anywhere
 looked to know my errand.

"If I went into the gardens, clinking the wicket-latch loudly after me, to pull the marigolds, heartsease, and lady-slippers,
and draw a drink with the water-sodden well-bucket and its noisy chain; or, knocking off with my stick the tall, heavy-
headed dahlias and sunflowers, hunted over the beds for cucumbers and love-apples—no one called out to me from any
opened window, or dog sprang forward to bark an alarm.

"I could have supposed the people hidden in the houses, but the doors were unfastened; and when at last I timidly entered
them, I found dead ashes white upon the hearths, and had to tread a tip-toe, as if walking down the aisle of a country church
, to avoid rousing irreverent echoes from the naked floors. On the outskirts of the town was the city graveyard; but there
was no record of plague there, nor did it in anywise differ much from other Protestant American cemeteries. Some of the
mounds were not long sodded; some of the stones were newly set, their dates recent, and their black inscriptions glossy in
 the mason's hardly dried lettering ink. Beyond the graveyard, out in the fields, I saw, in one spot hard by where the fruited
 boughs of a young orchard had been roughly torn down, the still smouldering remains of a barbecue fire, that had been
constructed of rails from the fencing around it. It was the latest sign of life there. Fields upon fields of heavy-headed yellow
grain lay rotting un-gathered upon the ground. No one was there to take in their rich harvest.

"As far as the eye could reach they stretched away—they sleeping, too, in the hazy air of autumn. Only two portions of the
city seemed to suggest the import of this mysterious solitude. On the southern suburb, the houses looking out upon the country
 showed, by their splintered wood-work and walls battered to the foundation, that they had lately been the mark of a
 destructive cannonade. And in and around the splendid Temple, which had been the chief object of my admiration, armed
 men were barracked, surrounded by their stacks of musketry and pieces of heavy ordnance. These challenged me to render
 an account of myself, and why I had had the temerity to cross the water without written permit from a leader of their band.

"Though these men were generally more or less under the influence of ardent spirits, after I had explained myself as a
 passing stranger, they seemed anxious to gain my good opinion. They told the story of the Dead City; that it had been a
notable manufacturing and commercial mart, sheltering over twenty thousand persons; that they had waged war with its
inhabitants for several years, and had been finally successful only a few days before my visit, in an action fought in front
 of the ruined suburb; after which they had driven them forth at the point of the sword. The defence, they said, had been
obstinate, but gave way on the third day's bombardment. They boasted greatly of their prowess, especially in this battle,
 as they called it; but I discovered they were not of one mind as to certain of the exploits that had distinguished it, one of
which, as I remember, was, that they had slain a father and his son, a boy of fifteen, not long residents of the fated city,
whom they admitted to have borne a character without reproach.

"They also conducted me inside the massive sculptured walls of the curious Temple, in which they said the banished
 inhabitants were accustomed to celebrate the mystic rites of an unhallowed worship. They particularly pointed out to
me certain features of the building which, having been the peculiar objects of a former superstitious regard, they had, as
 a matter of duty, sedulously defiled and defaced. The reputed sites of certain shrines they had thus particularly noticed;
and various sheltered chambers, in one of which was a deep well, constructed, they believed, with a dreadful design.

Beside these, they led me to see a large and deep chiselled marble vase or basin, supported upon twelve oxen, also of
 marble, and of the size of life, of which they told some romantic stories. They said the deluded persons, most of whom
 were emigrants from a great distance, believed their Deity countenanced their reception here of a baptism of
 regeneration, as proxies for whomsoever they held in warm affection in the countries from which they had come.

That here parents 'went into the water' for their lost children, children for their parents, widows for their spouses, and
 young persons for their lovers; that thus the Great Vase came to be for them associated with all dear and distant
memories, and was therefore the object, of all others in the building, to which they attached the greatest degree of
 idolatrous affection. On this account, the victors had so diligently desecrated it, as to render the apartment in which
it was contained too noisome to abide in.

"They permitted me also to ascend into the steeple, to see where it had been lightning-struck the Sabbath before; and
to look out, east and south, on wasted farms like those I had seen near the city, extending till they were lost in the
distance. Here, in the face of the pure day, close to the scar of the divine wrath left by the thunderbolt, were fragments
 of food, cruises of liquor, and broken drinking vessels, with a bass drum and a steamboat signal bell, of which I
afterwards learned the use with pain.

"It was after nightfall when I was ready to cross the river on my return. The wind had freshened since the sunset, and
the water beating roughly into my little boat, I edged higher up the stream than the point I had left in the morning, and
 landed where a faint glimmering light invited me to steer.

"Here, among the dock and rushes, sheltered only by the darkness, without roof between them and the sky, I came
 upon a crowd of several hundred human beings, whom my movements roused from uneasy slumber on the ground.

"Passing these on my way to the light, I found it came from a tallow candle in a paper funnel shade, such as is used
by street vendors of apples and peanuts, and which, flaming and guttering away in the bleak air off the water, shone
flickeringly on the emaciated features of a man in the last stage of a billious remittent fever. They had done their best
 for him. Over his head was something like a tent, made of a sheet or two, and he rested on a partially ripped open old
straw mattress, with a hair sofa cushion under his head for a pillow. His gaping jaw and glazing eye told how short a
 time he would monopolize these luxuries; though a seemingly bewildered and excited person, who might have been
his wife, seemed to find hope in occasionally forcing him to swallow, awkwardly, sips of the tepid river water, from
 a burned and battered bitter-smelling tin coffee-pot. Those who knew better had furnished the apothecary he needed;
 a toothless old bald-head, whose manner had the repulsive dullness of a man familiar with death scenes. He, so long
as I remained, mumbled in his patient's ear a monotonous and melancholy prayer, between the pauses of which I heard
 the hiccup and sobbing of two little girls, who were sitting upon a piece of drift wood outside.

"Dreadful, indeed, was the suffering of these forsaken beings; bowed and cramped with cold and sunburn, alternating as
 each weary day and night dragged on, they were, almost all of them, the crippled victims of disease. They were there
because they had no homes, nor hospital, nor poor-house, nor friends to offer them any. They could not satisfy the feeble
cravings of their sick; they had not bread to quiet the fractious hunger-cries of their children. Mothers and babes,
daughters and grand-parents, all of them alike, were bivouacked in tatters, wanting even covering to comfort those whom
 the sick shiver of fever was searching to the marrow.

"These were Mormons, in Lee county, Iowa, in the fourth week of the month of September, in the year of our Lord 1846.
The city—it was Nauvoo, Ill. The Mormons were the owners of that city, and the smiling country around. And those who
had stopped their ploughs, who had silenced their hammers, their axes, their shuttles, and their workshop wheels; those
 who had put out their fires, who had eaten their food, spoiled their orchards, and trampled under foot their thousands of
acres of un-harvested bread; these were the keepers of their dwellings, the carousers in their Temple, whose drunken riot
 insulted the ears of the dying.

"I think it was as I turned from the wretched night-watch of which I have spoken, that I first listened to the sounds of revel
of a party of the guard within the city. Above the distant hum of the voices of many, occasionally rose distinct the loud
oath-tainted exclamation, and the falsely intonated scrap of vulgar song; but lest this requiem should go unheeded, every
 now and then, when their boisterous orgies strove to attain a sort of ecstatic elimax, a cruel spirit of insulting frolic
carried some of them up into the high belfry of the Temple steeple, and there, with the wicked childishness of inebriates
, they whooped, and shrieked, and beat the drum that I had seen, and rang in charivaric unison their loud-tongued steam-
boat bell.

They were, all told, not more than six hundred and forty persons who were thus lying on the river fiats. But the Mormons

in Nauvoo and its dependencies had been numbered the year before at over twenty thousand. Where were they? They had

last been seen carrying in mournful train their sick and wounded, halt and blind, to disappear behind the western horizon,
pursuing the phantom of another home. Hardly anything else was known of them; and people asked with curiosity, 'What
had been their fate—what their fortunes?'"



-Quoted in George A. Smith, "Historical Address," (8 and 9 October 1868) Journal of Discourses 13:115-118.

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"Ask the Apologist"

Nightfall at Nauvoo

Brief synopsis of a book based on early LDS,
 Mormon, history

(Samuel W. Taylor, author)

For the chronology of Nightfall At Nauvoo, click here

For information and background on the author

Note: Six copies of this book are available at Brigham Young University. An interlibrary book loan can often be
arranged to pick up a copy.

Introduction to this summary:

The LDS, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, (or Mormon Church) has long suppressed historical data relating
to the early history of the LDS Church.

Many historical books documenting early Mormonism are classified by the LDS Church as "Anti-Mormon." An
"approved" Mormon book puts low priority toward essential truth and a high priority toward "uplifting spiritual"
 content. Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon church, himself, "...was not primarily interested in facts so much as
in establishing a mythology of his church."

Suppression about many aspects on the early history of the church has been long known. The early Mormons made bad
 neighbors -- secret polygamist living generated a major problem to the surrounding communities. Worst, firm denial by
 the Mormon hierarchy of this practice and its ensuing coverup generated even more friction. Things only grew from
bad to worse. One lie led to two... two to four. Even a secret society of the militant "Danites" was formed for the
purpose of supporting and upholding the Mormon hierarchy. These men were sworn by oath to secrecy. The Danite
clan was used to act as a strong deterrent to those who would not follow "the prophet's" dictates... and even kill those
 who were firmly against the prophet whether they be members, believers or not.

Additionally, the Mormons were involved with stealing, counterfeiting, and controlling of the voting. With these
undercurrents, Mormons were literally chased out of town after town. In every case, they caused such irritation to the
community that the governors of both Missouri and Illinois finally had to take action. The Mormons called it "persecution."
The community called it, more correctly, lawlessness. In the case of Nauvoo, Illinois, the final town settled in the east by
the Mormons, it earned the very unsavory reputation as the "cesspool of inequity."

Unfortunately many books, including a number published by Samuel Taylor, one of which -- "Nightfall at Nauvoo," is one,
are labeled by the LDS Church as "Anti-Mormon." Sadly, much of the true history has remained unread, particularly by the
Mormon membership. Mormons are "admonished not to read these books lest they lose their testimony."

While "Nightfall at Nauvoo" reads like a novel, it is based upon an enormous pool of documented fact.

The Book:

Sam Taylor notes at the end of the book that he has written the book as a writer. "The historian is concerned with fact
 -- who, what, where, when, how." In contrast, "... the writer has to know why." Mr. Taylor adds, "My research was
 not for proof or for fact, but for essential truth."

At the cornerstone of Mormonism is Joseph Smith. He was the self-proclaimed prophet who claimed to have received
ancient golden plates from which the Book Of Mormon was translated. A very charismatic character of tall stature,
blond hair, blue eyes and strong build, Joseph Smith easily captured the audience. "Joe Smith had size, vitality,
magnetism, a powerful and persuasive manner, and was expert from long practice in extemporaneous debate." Thomas
 Ford, the governor of Illinois wrote of him, "He could as occasion required be exceedingly meek in his deportment;
and then again rough and boisterous as a highway robber.... he was full of levity, even to boyish romping; dressed like
 a dandy, and at times drank like a sailor and swore like a pirate."

Joseph Smith had a slight limp, and after breaking off a tooth when tarred and feathered in Missouri, had been left with
a noticeable sibilant whistle to his speech -- particularly when emotionally worked up during a sermon.

Shortly after the founding of the LDS, Mormon religion, rumors surfaced that Joseph and a few of the hierarchy were
 practicing "celestial marriage," a disguised term for plural wives ... or polygamy.

Joseph's first wife, Emma was opposed to polygamy from the beginning, and started up a women's group to help fight
the practice. Polygamy was secretly practiced by Joseph Smith and several of the hierarchy for ten years before their
 settling of Nauvoo. All during this time, the practice was always openly and firmly denied from the pulpit, with even
 most of the saints not knowing of this deep held celestial secret beyond just being "a rumor." In fact in the original
 "Doctrine and Convenants," (doctrinal word of God) the practice was forbidden. All through these initial ten years,
no written religious doctrine existed condoning the practice. Only upon prompting by John C. Bennett, a key player
in early Mormon history, was the doctrine finally changed in printed form; .... but, then, still only given to a select few
in the higher ranks of the LDS Church.

All through this time, Emma fought against Joseph's many affairs with new "wives." Many of these wives were not even
 known to Emma. Several clashes occurred between Emma and Joseph over his "celestial marriage," plural wives,
practice. The practice soon was so out of hand that even wives of other men were fair game both as "earthly" and
"celestial" plural wives.

All three of the original witnesses to the Book of Mormon were not convinced of the ethical practice of polygamy. Two
 of those first high ranking members of the Mormon church feelt that Joseph Smith was a "fallen prophet," and left the
 church. The other, Sidney Rigdon, tenaciously fought the idea of polygamy, but steadfastly remained a member -- perhaps
 because he was next in command to Joseph over the many years, and perhaps his ill health put fear into his heart should
 the religion just happen to be true.

Mormon missionaries were constantly being sent to Great Britain to bring new members from overseas. Hundreds of new
 members emigrated to Nauvoo with the promise of owning land and gaining riches in the new world. Nauvoo soon found
it's existence hinged not upon natural economic factors at work, but instead, a false economy that was driven by the money
 of the scores of incoming immigrants. Hundreds of skilled workers came to Nauvoo with no work to be found in their
specialized skill. They soon found that farming was their only means of existence, and failed crops made this even tentative.

To add to the complication of polygamy, a John C. Bennett found Mormonism to fit his liking. "Bennett rose quickly in the
church, soon becoming assistant to the President, next to Joseph. He was both a doctor of medicine and doctor of laws. His
past consisted of involvement in the founding of four universities, and acting as president for one of them. At this time he
was accused of selling medical degrees to anyone who could raise $10". But Bennett shrugged off this charge because back
 in the 1830's with or without a degree; "being a doctor was akin to being a preacher -- one got the 'call'." Bennett, before
coming to Nauvoo had left his wife.

"He had written a number of articles for medical journals, and had been employed to raise funds and to organize a medical
faculty at Willoughby University of Lake Erie. He was at Willoughby only a few months, then moved on, as he had moved on
 from other ventures. It seemed that he was forever running away from something. Through ability, quick wit, good looks,
charm, and a gift for flattery, he found it easy to open doors to opportunity. But he never stayed long."

He quickly found favor from Joseph Smith and was escalated quickly into the hierarchy of the Mormon church within only
months of joining. Joseph was attracted to Bennett's bold, wide gesture speaking style, and even copied it for his sermons.
Bennett not only ended up second in command to Joseph, but was additionally put in charge of the Nauvoo Legion, turning
it into a "crack city militia." "His legal and political experience would, he assured Joseph, get the Saints everything they
 wanted -- and more...."

Unfortunately, Sidney Rigdon's daughter put a monkey wrench in the overall workings. Nancy was a very beautiful girl.
 Nancy Rigdon became the apple of Bennett's eye -- "sparkling eyes, bewitching smile, tiny waist, and swelling bodice...."
 With the God ordained secret practice of polygamy -- "celestial marriage" --- for the chosen few, Nancy became a girl
 that Bennett aimed to conquer.

At first, Joseph was "delighted by his eager new convert," Bennett, and "was the first man he'd ever found who would do
exactly what he wanted done, and do it at once."

"The Saints were exhorted to gather together, to come to Nauvoo, to leave the world of sin and come to their own island
in the sea of iniquity. They were constantly told that while they lived in the world, they must keep apart from it, be not of it.
Their own world, being the kingdom of God on earth, was perfect; the outside world was of the Devil. A Mormon had no
faults; a Gentile (non Mormon) could have no virtues."

Bennett also had some good common sense. It was Bennett's realization that the Saints must be pulled down from their too
 lofty position to a more realistic one in agreement with the law of the land. Yet, Joseph insisted on independent control
and rule. Bennett, reluctantly, took the bill fashioned by Joseph Smith to the legislature in Springfield and walked it through.
 "At Springfield he said little about the provisions of the charters, but bore down heavily on persecutions of the Saints." The
 bill would grant a charter to the city of Nauvoo, to the Nauvoo Legion, and to the University of the City of Nauvoo.

The following section is taken directly from the book,

Bennett returned in triumph, "with a law embracing three charters with the most liberal provisions ever granted by a
 legislative assembly." But now, Bennett warned, the Saints must be "worthy of the favors bestowed," for if the state's
trust was betrayed, "the curse must fall upon our own heads." He declared, "I have said that we are a law abiding people,
 and we must show it."

But the happy Saints paid little heed to his warning. The Times and Seasonsderided a paragraph in the Illinois Democrat
that made a cloud in their sky no larger than a man's hand:

"THE DELUDED and INFATUATED MORMONS WERE MUSTERED LIKE somany regularsoldiers," to the polls, it
said, "by that INFAMOUS IMPOSTER JOE SMITH." The Saints paid no heed to the tract written by William Harris and
 published in Tom Sharp's Warsaw Signal, accusing Mormons of voting as their leaders dictated. It was a free county,
wasn't it-a man could follow counsel if lie wished, couldn't he? The Quincy Whig was indignant that Lincoln's name had
 been scratched. Well, that was politics, wasn't it?

At one o'clock on the afternoon of Saturday, January 2, 1841, citizens gathered at the store of William and Wilson Law,
near the river on Water Street, where Dr. John C. Bennett addressed them "in relation to the municipal election." At this
 time candidates were put in nomination for the mayor, aldermen, and city council. The slate listed only one candidate for
 each position; the subsequent vote would merely sustain the ticket. John C. Bennett, nominated for mayor of the newly
incorporated city, automatically would be elected.

The energetic and debonair doctor had indeed made progress within a short period of four months.

After elections, Nancy Rigdon listened raptly to the new mayor's inaugural address, thrilled at his grasp of local problems
and his masterful presentation of solutions. But when she spoke enthusiastically of it on the way home, her father brought
her up short. She wasn't gettinginterested in Bennett, was she? Face burning, she denied interest in a married man. But she
 pointed out they had an obligation to the doctor for the improvement in Sidney's health. Granted, Rigdon said; but they
 must maintain reserve toward a man with an inherent character defect. When Nancy asked what he meant, Sidney refused
 further comment.

AT SUNRISE, cannons boomed in Nauvoo. It was April 6, 1841, the great day in Israel. For the past week wagons had
been arriving, setting up camp on the plains surrounding the city. Ferries had been transporting visitors from up, down,
and across the river. Now there were some12,000people gathered from far and near for the laying of the cornerstone of
the Nauvoo temple, and the commencement of the eleventh annual conference of the church.

- And of all this throng, perhaps the most exalted was Joseph Bates Noble, bishop of the Nauvoo Fifth Ward. In his bosom,
burning with incredible joy, was the greatest secret of the new and everlasting covenant. He had been the instrument through
which the practice of celestial marriage had been restored as in the days of Abraham. Only four people knew of this event,
and Bishop Noble was humble to have been chosen to officiate.

As he shaved at the washbasin on the back porch, guiding the razor over the firm upper lip and carefully outlining the granite
chin while leaving the fan of whiskers below, Bishop Noble met the reflection of his clear eyes in the mirror with humble
serenity. He had tried hard to deserve the prophet's trust, but hadn't dreamed of being singled out for such a blessing and honor.

Joseph Noble was thirty-one years old, with a high forehead surmounted by a heavy thatch of wavy hair. Eight years ago he
had been running a flouring mill at Penfield, New York, when three Mormon Elders stopped to preach at the neighboring town
of Avon. Attending the meeting where Brigham Young, his brother John, and Heber C. Kimball spoke, Noble felt the spirit of
God poured out in great measure; the young miller realized that he'd found the true gospel. To the consternation of his family,
he left his mill to join the Saints.

Since then, he had been through the troubles at Jackson County, Missouri, at Kirtland, at Far West; he had twice been cured
from what seemed fatal sickness by the laying on of hands; he had witnessed the visitations by celestial beings at the dedication
 of the Kirtland temple; he had gone on a mission for the church; and he had married Mary Beman, whose father, Alva, had
 actually handled the golden plates of the Book of Mormon, in helping Joseph hide them from a mob.

All this seemed preparation for an autumn day when Joseph, hiding from Missouri sheriffs as a result of the Tully affair,
dropped in unannounced at Montrose and stayed for supper with the Nobles, filling the kitchen with his vitality and good humor.
 Noble was awed and thrilled by the presence of the prophet at his table, and noted how his wife, Mary, and her younger sister,
Louisa, who was staying with them, were rapt, stars in their eyes, so overwhelmed that they scarcely paid attention to their plates.

Later, Joseph helped with the chores, and after bringing the milk in for Louisa to strain and put into pans, he turned abruptly and
suggested to Noble that they take a walk.

It was a walk that Noble never forgot. The hardwood forest was ablaze with autumn colors, and as they strolled over the carpet
 of falling leaves the prophet talked about the restoration of the gospel of ancient times, the new and everlasting covenant. He
 talked of restoration of the priesthood; of organizing the church in this day according to how it was in the time of Jesus; of the
opening of the heavens, with God speaking again to his chosen people, as of old; and of the fullness of the gospel as in the days
of Abraham.

They had walked and talked for an hour or more, before Noble realized that the prophet was laying the groundwork for
something so astonishing that an iron band seemed to constrict Noble's chest. Since he had first joined the church, there had
been rumors of polygamy among the Saints, and Joseph had furiously denounced it time and time again, rooting out and cutting
 off sinners engaged in such hellish practices. And yet now, as he and the prophet walked through the woods in their autumn
glory, Joseph was saying that if one believed the gospel of Abraham, one must do the works of Abraham, that the prophets of
Abraham's time had many wives, and that the prophets of the restored gospel, to receive their fullest blessings, must do likewise.

Noble was appalled. He broke into the prophet's discourse, crying that this must be of the Devil. Then, grasping at a straw,
he suggested that Joseph was merely putting him to the test, saying the most outrageous thing the mind could comprehend, to see
 if his faith was sufficient to accept whatever came from the lips of the prophet.

Joseph declared solemnly that he never had been more serious. He himself had refused to believe the Lord's word, until an angel
with drawn sword had appeared, who had told him the gospel could not progress one single step farther until this commandment
was accepted.

Accepted? Noble clutched at the word. Accepted in principle, but not practiced in this world. Perhaps in the hereafter ...

No, Joseph said, practiced here and now, practiced at Nauvoo in the nineteenth century. Then he asked Noble if there could be
anything, anything at all, that was harder to accept as a religious practice, in modern America. No, Noble admitted, there couldn't
 be. This, Joseph pointed out, was proof of its divine origin as a test of faith. Confronted by the test, the weak would fall away by
 the thousands, leaving only those purified by the fire. Yet, having accepted the new and everlasting covenant, was there anything
more difficult to live correctly than the principle of the plurality of wives? What would be required of him, if Noble were to tell
Mary of the principle, and prepare her to accept another wife into the family?

Noble cringed at the prospect. He could never do this to Mary. Of course it was human for a man to look at a pretty girl with
appreciation and desire, just as he might look at a fine horse he never could hope to own. It was conceivable that any man,
regardless of his beliefs and moral code, could, if circumstances were right and temptation great enough, fall in love with
another woman and commit adultery. But, to tell Mary he was bringing another wife into the household.... No; please no.

Then Noble found himself arguing furiously with the prophet, something he'd never dreamed could happen. Such a practice was
unthinkable in this modern age. it would wreck the church, destroy it. Joseph admitted that it might. For this reason he had
revealed it only to a few special souls. Yet regardless of the dangers, it was not for him to question the Lord's purposes, not for
him to weasel and to obey only that which was easy. It was a test for him, and a test for all who wished to attain the higher glories.

Then the prophet portrayed the dazzling rewards for obedience to this principle. Jehovah was once a man, just as we are, a man
who magnified his calling and progressed through eternity unto his present exalted state of perfection. This was within the reach
of all men who obeyed the higher law. There was no end to progression in the hereafter; he, Joseph Bates Noble, could magnify
and grow, with his wives remaining fruitful and his children becoming as numberless as the stars of the heavens or the sands of
the seashore. He might attain the stature of a god of his own worlds, peopled by his own children.

Noble was awed by this concept, a goal that might be attained by any man faithful to the Lord's comm
andments. Joseph reminded
 him again that this was a test and a trial only for the worthy. Go to the Lord, he advised, and ask for a testimony on the matter.

Noble fasted and prayed for three days. He was haggard, redeyed, near collapse, when at last peace came to his torn soul. Then
 he knew, and slept the clock around.

It became obvious, as Joseph visited during the winter,

 that he came not only because of his friendship for Noble or because of admiration of Mary's excellent cooking. There was the
magnet of the high-breasted and lovely Louisa. With a woman's perception of such things, Mary was aware of the situation, and
she spoke to her husband about it one night. Certainly the prophet couldn't be interested in a young girl. It was unthinkable, for a
man of his position. Yet, should they send Louisa away for awhile?

Noble talked with Joseph about it, and the prophet had a private talk with Mary. Then she became haggard and red-eyed through
fasting and prayer, before a difficult peace was achieved. Next it was the turn of Louisa, disturbed by the little attentions of the
 prophet, and by the unhallowed arousal of her own feelings toward a married man. Joseph talked with the girl about the principle
of the new and everlasting covenant of marriage, and she went through the purifying furnace seeking an answer. Serenity had come
 to the household when Joseph asked Noble to move from Montrose to Nauvoo. Noble complied, as he always did to the prophet's
 wishes. He had been a bishop's counselor at Montrose; at Nauvoo he was ordained bishop, spiritual leader of the congregation
 of the Fifth Ward.

He understood now that Joseph had known of the new and everlasting covenant, including the plurality of wives, since the early
 days of the church, possibly as far back as ten years ago, when the church was yet but a year old. The rumors, then, had been true.
There had been polygamy sanctioned in the decade since. The cutting off of men for the practice, the furious denunciation of it, had
 been part of a desperate attempt to keep this most sacred and secret principle unknown to the outside world, which never could
be expected to understand its holy nature. What the practice had been during this past decade, Noble didn't know; but now he
understood that it had not been entirely vicious gossip that had connected the prophet's name with various women. Some of the
early stalwarts, even such as Oliver Cowdery, had broken from the church largely on this account, claiming Joseph a fallen prophet.
 The principle was so extremely difficult to accept. It was so easy to think of it as from the Devil. Noble could understand the
inability of former stalwarts to believe that the Lord would command, insist on, under pain of damnation for Joseph and his entire
church, a doctrine that must be practiced in secret, and whose sacred nature could never be understood by the great body of the
Saints themselves, let alone the outside world.

But now that he knew the truth, Noble was filled with welling joy. It was a challenge he would himself meet, when the time came.
 It was a test which would, he knew, try his soul to the utmost, but which would purify it for the higher glory reserved for the faithful.

And then, just a week ago, Joseph had told him that as an Elder in Israel and bishop of the church, he, Joseph Bates Noble, -would
be accorded the honor of performing the first recorded plural marriage of the new dispensation. Noble didn't know what had been
 done previously, with marriages of so secret a nature that they never were recorded; it was not his place to ask.

Then yesterday, with Mary standing as witness, he had united Joseph Smith, Jr., and Louisa Beman, in the bonds of celestial
marriage under the new and everlasting covenant, for time and all eternity.

Finished shaving, Noble rinsed his face of lather, then combed his hair and beard and went in to breakfast. Today was the great day
of Israel, when the cornerstones of the temple would be laid. After its dedication, the marriage he had performed would be sealed

So, now understanding the "God ordaining" of polygamy by Joseph, the fabric of the iniquity was in place, but the background of
enormous trouble it would generate was yet to be realized.

Bennett's attention toward Nancy Rigdon was the chapter that unleashed a wrath from Joseph. Joseph, too, had focused strong
attention upon Nancy as a plural "celestial wife." The book continues,

"Then Sidney had been thunderstruck to learn that Joseph had met Nancy in private, telling her that plural marriage -- celestial
marriage, as he called it -- was sanctioned by God. Bennett, learning of Joseph's act, had confronted the prophet. There was a
quarrel between the two, with Joseph declaring, 'You are my enemy!'"

From this time on, John Bennett and Joseph Smith would hardly talk to each other. Bennett, too, had not been in favor with many
others of the church hierarchy..... Joseph had installed John Bennett next in command in the hierarchy in preference to his
established "Council of the Twelve" who normally would be next in line to be bestowed this office according to seniority.
Further, Joseph's own brother was even ignored when Bennett was installed as second in command.

It wasn't hard, then, with the hierarchy's distrust in Bennett, for Joseph to use Bennett as an example of iniquity -- an adulterer
, polygamist, and scoundrel. Bennett was dismissed from his position at the top and excommunicated from Joseph's church. The
 tide had turned. Bennett, in retaliation, wrote in papers and lectured openly about the secret Mormon practices of polygamy and
 other inequities practiced by Joseph Smith and others within the church. He openly exposed Joseph's plural wives and the secret
"celestial marriages."

Once Bennett was gone, the Nauvoo Legion, which Bennett built into a powerful military force while under his direction, soon
 deteriorated to only a parade and show unit, no longer effective as a strong military force for Smith.

Worse, Bennett made a strong effort to help Missouri Governor Boggs push for the extradition of Joseph for his crimes in Missouri
and the attempted murder of Governor Boggs. Simultaneously, Governor Ford of Illinois, while at first sympathetic with the
Mormons, now found the Mormon group now a serious and threatening menace to Illinois. He put up only slight opposition to
extraditing Joseph to Missouri.

Joseph was captured and was ready to be sent to Missouri. Because Nauvoo had it's own charter and wrote its own laws, the
 extradition failed when a Writ of Habeas Corpus was issued by the Nauvoo Court. Again, Joseph was released. But the noose was
ever tightening.

In the meantime, Joseph had long admired Eliza Snow who was living under the same roof as Joseph and Emma, teaching the
children in the Smith household. Emma was unaware of the secret marriage ceremony of Eliza to Joseph. ... anyway, not until
 she and Joseph were caught by Emma. Emma put up such objection that Joseph set Eliza up in another home. Eliza was pregnant
with Joseph's baby when another later confrontation with Emma resulted in Eliza falling down a staircase which in turn caused
her to lose the baby. In the meantime, Joseph had secretly married two other girls (sisters) who had been living in the Smith
household, Emily and Eliza Partridge.... Emily nineteen and Eliza twenty-three.

"The clash between Joseph and Emma during this period became bitter as two strong wills refused to bend. ... Eliza Snow feared
 that the marriage might break up, that Emma might seek divorce. Certainly if this happened, if the secret story of plural marriage
became court testimony by the wife of the prophet, John C. Bennett's expose' would be nothing by comparison."

(CONTINUE to PART 2 of Nightfall at Nauvoo)

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Nauvoo, Illinois

"This is the loveliest place and the best people under the heavens." -Joseph Smith

The Nauvoo period started immediately with a dreadful challenge: a form of malaria caused by the Anopheles mosquito, which
 bred profusely in the swampland along the Mississippi. Almost everyone was affected by it. Joseph himself became ill. On
July 22, 1839, the prophet, filled with the Spirit, rose from his bed and pronounced healing blessings on many of the saints.

Life was busy in Nauvoo through the rest of 1839 and 1840 as the saints drained the swamp and prepared to build their city. On
December 6, 1840, the state of Illinois granted the Nauvoo Charter, which was similar to charters that had been recently granted
in Chicago and Springfield. The charter granted the right to establish a militia, a municipal court, and a university. For the first
time in a decade, the saints felt some security. The prophet was safe and well and leading the Church. The apostles could go on
their missions to Great Britain. Peace abounded and the opportunities to extend the gospel seemed readily available. Consider just
some of the events of this period:

As had happened before, success and peace led to jealousy and animosity. On June 1, 1844, the Nauvoo Expositor, and anti-
Mormon paper, attempted to rally enemies against the Church. The Church leaders met and decided to destroy the press to curtail
such writings. This was the final straw that led to incarceration for Joseph and Hyrum in Carthage. On June 27, 1844, they were

In February 1846, the saints, for the final time, left their homes behind and headed west. For fifteen years they had been driven
from place to place and endured incredible hardship. Their greatest trials were yet to come, as one of the most remarkable
migrations in the history of Western civilization was about to begin.

Nauvoo Temple Milestones

May of 1845- When Joseph died, the temple was only one story high. Only eleven months later, a people eager for their temple
ordinances and bound to show themselves that truth would prevail were ready to place the capstone. As persecutions grew
around Nauvoo, work on the temple intensified. In what must have been a poignant scene, in the fall of 1845, two kinds of
 building projects dominated Nauvoo - the building of the magnificent white and gold temple and the constructing of wagons,
which they would use to roll away and abandon it.

October 5, 1845- General Conference was held in the temple. Brigham Young dedicated the partially completed temple "as a
monument of the Saints." The Church leaders announced that because of continued persecution, the saints would soon vacate the
 city, nevertheless construction would continue on the temple. The saints were counseled to pay their tithing to raise desperately
needed funds. Heber C. Kimball proclaimed: "I would rather go into the wilderness with a pack on my back...and have the temple
 finished than to go with my wagon loaded down with gold and the temple not finished."

December 19, 1845- Why work so hard on a temple they would leave behind and never see again? The temple, with its inscription
"Holiness to the Lord," was the symbol of their faith and sacrifice. When the rooms opened they flocked to the temple for the sacred
ordinances. In January, Brigham Young wrote, "Such has been the anxiety manifested by the saints to receive the ordinances, and
 such the anxiety on our part to administer to them, that I have given myself up entirely to the work of the Lord in the Temple
 night and day, not taking more than four hours sleep upon an average per day, and going home buy once a week."
Though some
 had received their endowments in the top floor of the Red Brick Store, not until the Nauvoo temple was opened were the ordinances
available to the great group of Latter-day Saints. It was through their covenants that the saints had the power to make the journey west
and stay intact. With the Nauvoo temple, Latter-day Saints began to make the saving ordinances the center of their lives.

January 2, 1846- In the Celestial Room of the Nauvoo Temple, Brigham Young uttered these prophetic words: "We can't stay in this
 (temple) but a little while. We have got to build another house. It will be a larger house than this, and a more glorious one. And we
shall build many houses. We shall come back here and we shall go to Kirtland, and build houses all over the continent of North
 America. (From Heber C. Kimball Journal, An Intimate Chronicle, 252)

February 7, 1846- This was the final day for ordinances in the Nauvoo Temple. Work had been performed around the clock for two
days. About 600 people received their ordinances on the final day. In all, 5,615 would receive their endowments before they shut the
temple doors behind them and turned their faces west.

March 15, 1846- The temple was still not complete, but many saints in the city experienced a spiritual "Day of Pentecost," or rather
a "Night of Pentecost." In the evening, a small group of saints gathered in the temple to partake of the sacrament. As they were
 overcome by the Spirit, some of the brethren spoke in tongues and prophesied. While one brother described a vision, a light was
seen over his head. The face of another brother shined with great brightness. Two heavenly beings were seen in the northeast corner
 of the room and the Holy Ghost was felt by all present. This spiritual meeting continued until midnight. Thomas Bullock said, "It was
 the most profitable, happy, and glorious meeting I had ever attended in my life." While this sacred meeting was taking place in the
temple, Chester Loveland was called out of bed by his mother-in-law, who cried out with alarm that the Temple was again on fire!
 He dressed as quick as lightning and ran outside, seeing the temple all in a blaze. He studied it for a few seconds and realized that
the flames were not consuming the temple. He also didn't see anyone else running to the rescue and concluded that it was the glory of
God. He returned to bed. Another brother saw the belfry on fire at 9:45 p.m. He ran as fast as he could, but when he reached the
temple he found it dark, secure, and unharmed. At about this time, Sister Almira Lamb, with others in her room, saw a vision of her
 dead child. It appeared to her in great glory and filled the room with light. Others dreamed inspired dreams that night. It was truly
a night of spiritual feast.

April 6, 1846- The remaining saints in Nauvoo held General Conference in the basement of the Nauvoo Temple where the baptismal
 font was located. They could not meet in the upper levels because the workmen were painting. They could not meet in the grove
near the temple because of rainy weather. Elder Orson Hyde offered prayer but the conference was quickly adjourned until the
 following day because of their cramped conditions.

April 29, 1846- The temple was finally completed! Meanwhile, many miles to the west, Brigham Young and hundreds of pioneer
saints were camped in Garden Grove, Iowa. A group of temple construction workers met with their wives in the attic of the temple
 and had a feast of cakes, pies, and other items to celebrate the event. They enjoyed themselves in prayer, preaching, and blessing
children until midnight.

Joseph gives Endowments in the Upper Room of the Red Brick Store

Wednesday, May 4, 1842

"I spent the day in the upper part of the store, that is in my private office (so called because in that room I keep my sacred
writings, translate ancient records, and receive revelations) and in my general business office, or lodge room (that is where
 the Masonic fraternity meet occasionally for want a better place) in council with General James Adams, of Springfield,
Patriarch Hyrum Smith, Bishops Newel K. Whitney and George Miller, and President Brigham Young and Elders Heber
 C. Kimball and Willard Richards, instructing them in the principles and order of the Priesthood, attending to washings,
anointings, endowments and the communication of keys pertaining to the Aaronic Priesthood, and so on to the highest order
 of the Melchizedek Priesthood, setting forth the order pertaining to the Ancient of Days, and all those plans and principles
 by which any one is enabled to secure the fullness of those blessings which have been prepared for the Church of the
Firstborn, and come up and abide in the presence of the Eloheim in the eternal worlds.

In this council was instituted the ancient order of things for the first time in these last days. And the communications I made to
this council were of things spiritual, and to be received only by the spiritual minded: and there was nothing made known to
these men but what will be made known to all the Saints of the last days, so soon as they are prepared to receive, and a proper
place is prepared to communicate them, even to the weakest of the Saints; therefore let the Saints be diligent in building the
Temple, and all houses which they have been, or shall hereafter be, commanded of God to build; and wait their time with
patience in all meekness, faith, perseverance unto the end, knowing assuredly that all these things referred to in this council
are always governed by the principle of revelation.

Joseph Smith, D.H.C., vol. V, pps. 1-2

Nauvoo Cemetery Journal Excerpts

Tombstone of Joel Scovil,
Old Nauvoo Burial Grounds

"I must mention a circumstance that took place a short time previous to finishing the Nauvoo Temple. I was going home when my wife met me at the door and began crying. Said she could stand anything but this (that was the children crying for bread and she had none to give them). I replied, why do you not go and ask the Lord to send you some; why not you go with me? We went into our bedroom and fastened ourselves in and there made our request. In about an hour after, Brother Lucious Scovil came and after some little talk said he would like me to make a gravestone to mark the place where his son was buried. I told him I would do it. He said he was in no hurry but wanted it done. I told him I had a family depending on me. He said he did not have anything to pay with, but in a while told me he could let me have some wheat if I wished it. I told him I would be pleased to get some. He wished me to go with him and he would let me have it. I went, got the wheat, 4 or 4.5 bushels I got, and took it to Knight’s Mill and returned home with the grist, thus was our prayers answered."

Richard Neitzel Holzapfel and T. Jeffery Cottle, Old Mormon Nauvoo and Southeastern Iowa, Historical Photographs and Guide, page 175.

Little Sarah, Dear, Farewell!
From the life of Wilford Woodruff

In early August 1839, Elder Wilford Woodruff left his home in Montrose, Iowa, obeying the Lord's call to serve a mission in the British Isles. He bade farewell to his wife, Phoebe, and his only child, one-year-old Sarah Emma. At the time, Phoebe was pregnant with Wilford Jr., who would be born March 22, 1840.

A few months after leaving Montrose, Elder Woodruff was in the eastern United States, preaching the gospel and preparing for the journey to Great Britain. During this stay he wrote in his journal of three separate dreams in which he saw his wife. After the first dream he wrote the following entry in his journal: "I saw Mrs. Woodruff in deep affliction in a dream at Montrose. I did not see Sarah Emma." His report of the second dream was also short: "I had a dream during the night and had an interview with Mrs. Woodruff but did not see Sarah Emma." The third dream was more detailed: "We rejoiced much at having an interview with each other, yet our embraces were mixed with sorrow, for after conversing a while about her domestic affairs, I asked where Sarah Emma was. . . . She said, weeping, . . . 'She is dead.' We sorrowed a moment, and I awoke. . . . Is this dream true? Time must determine."

On July 14, 1840, Elder Woodruff, now in Great Britain, wrote a journal entry commemorating an important day for his family: "Sarah Emma is two years old this day. May the Lord preserve my wife and children from sickness and death until my return." Always one to acknowledge the Lord's will, he added, "O Lord, I commit them into thy hands; feed, clothe, and comfort them, and thine shall be the glory." Three days later, little Sarah Emma died.

Elder Woodruff did not learn of his daughter's death until October 22, 1840, when he read the news in a letter sent to one of his brethren in the Quorum of the Twelve. Four days later he finally received the news from Phoebe, in a letter dated July 18. He copied part of her letter in his journal: "My dear Wilford, what will be your feelings when I say that yesterday I was called to witness the departure of our little Sarah Emma from this world? Yes, she is gone. The relentless hand of death has snatched her from my embrace. . . . When looking on her, I have often thought how I should feel to part with her. I thought I could not live without her, especially in the absence of my companion. But she has gone. The Lord hath taken her home to Himself for some wise purpose.

"It is a trial to me, but the Lord hath stood by me in a wonderful manner. I can see and feel that He has taken her home and will take better care of her than I possibly could for a little while until I shall go and meet her. Yes, Wilford, we have one little angel in heaven, and I think it likely her spirit has visited you before this time.

"It is hard living without her. . . . She left a kiss for her papa with me just before she died. . . . The elders laid hands upon her and anointed her a number of times, but the next day her spirit took its flight from this to another world without a groan.

"Today Wilford [Jr.] and I, with quite a number of friends accompanying us, came over to Commerce, [Illinois,] to pay our last respects to our little darling in seeing her decently buried. She had no relative to follow her to the grave or to shed a tear for her but her ma and little Wilford. . . . I have just been to take a pleasing, melancholy walk to Sarah's grave. She lies alone in peace. I can say that the Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away, and blessed be the name of the Lord [see Job 1:21]."

Other than copying Phoebe's letter, Elder Woodruff wrote very little about his daughter's passing. He merely said that Sarah Emma had been "taken from time" and that she was "gone to be seen no more in this life."

Ye Also Ought to Retain in Remembrance - Loren C. Dunn

It is good to look to the past to gain appreciation for the present and perspective for the future. It is good to look upon the virtues of those who have gone before, to gain strength for whatever lies ahead. It is good to reflect upon the work of those who labored so hard and gained so little in this world, but out of whose dreams and early plans, so well nurtured, has come a great harvest of which we are the beneficiaries. Their tremendous example can become a compelling motivation for us all, for each of us is a pioneer in his own life, often in his own family, and many of us pioneer daily in trying to establish a gospel foothold in distant parts of the world. [Gordon B. Hinckley, "The Faith of the Pioneers," Ensign, July 1984, p. 3]

I would like to finish today by recounting an experience in early Church history having to do with Israel Barlow. He was one of those who went up the Mississippi River from Quincy and helped scout out the area that later became Nauvoo. He lived in Nauvoo and came west with the Saints as one of the early pioneers. In the early 1850s he was attending a general conference of the Church.

It was in that meeting that Israel Barlow heard his name mentioned from the pulpit. In those days, this was how the brethren were called on missions. Israel Barlow was called on a mission to Great Britain. He didn't have to have an interview. He didn't have to have a medical examination. He was called to go on a mission. He had a family and was just getting started in his new area, so it was no small
sacrifice to answer the call from the presidency of the Church. But he had enough faith that this was what he knew he must do. His wife was supportive of him, but she asked him for one favor on his way to the mission field. Would he stop at their old farm in Nauvoo and find where they had buried their firstborn child and remove the grave to the Old Nauvoo Burial Ground? He said he would do this, and he made his way back across the Mississippi River and came up to Nauvoo.

He went to the farm and got the permission of the people who lived there to look for and move the grave. He said that at first he could not find it, but then he located it because his wife had planted ground cover around it. When he dug down, he felt that the grave was in such a condition that it could not be moved. According to his journal, he said to himself that he would leave it to the morning of the first resurrection and hoped that his wife would understand. As he turned away to continue his journey up the river and on to Great Britain, he turned back one more time just to be sure that he had made the right decision. He again felt that nothing more could be done, and as he turned away again he said that words came into his mind so clear that he knew he had not put them there. These words were, "Daddy, don't leave me here!" He said he stopped and took the necessary time and effort to move the grave of his firstborn child to the Old Nauvoo Burial Ground.

After he had completed the work, he said that he spent some time by the grave feeling this bond between himself and his firstborn child before he left, not knowing if he would return. To our knowledge, he never did return to the site. (See Ora H. Barlow, The Israel Barlow Story and Mormon Mores [Salt Lake City: Publishers Press, 1968], pp. 300­308.)

There is quite a message in the expression "Daddy, don't leave me here!" I feel that with the recent celebration in San Francisco the voyage of the Brooklyn Saints has been lifted from just a footnote of Church history to the position that it probably deserves. The faithful Saints who came on that ship deserve such attention. It is as if those who have written that chapter of Church history were saying to us, "Don't leave us here. Don't forget us."

And so it is with all of us as we remember our own heritage, as we remember the heritage of the Church, and as we pass it on to those who come after us and build their faith, just as our faith has been built because of the steadfastness of those who have gone on before us. Each of us is on his or her own sea voyage. Our steadfastness in finishing the voyage and just living from day to day the way we should live will leave a great heritage.

For the Book of Mormon people, it was the heritage of Moses leading the camp of Israel out of Egypt and into the promised land and Lehi and his family coming over the ocean. For Latter-day Saints, it is a young boy going into a grove of trees and, in an answer to faithful prayer, having God the Father and his Son Jesus Christ appear to him and speak to him. And then, through succeeding revelations and visions, it is having the fullness of the gospel of Jesus Christ restored with the priesthood, the authority, the covenants, and all that we enjoy today in the gospel of Jesus Christ. This is our heritage, and this was the heritage they sacrificed so much to establish. That heritage includes a thousand personal sacrifices taken from the lives of each member and deserves to live on for the sake of those who come after us. Like us, these early Saints knew the restored gospel was true and that there were living apostles and prophets. They were willing to sacrifice for that sacred knowledge.

I bear you my witness that there is a God in heaven and that he lives. I know God lives. I know that Jesus Christ is our Savior and our Redeemer. I know that Joseph Smith was a true prophet and that Gordon B. Hinckley is a prophet today. I know that this is the church of Jesus Christ and that the Book of Mormon is true.

May the Lord bless us that we may honor our heritage and pass the gift of faith to the generations who follow us. I say this in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen.

Farewell to Nauvoo

In the concluding dedicatory session of the Nauvoo Temple, President Hinckley made a special request of all those who were then in Nauvoo. He asked everyone to take a few minutes to "walk down Parley Street to the waterfront," to the landing on the Mississippi River from which the saints departed Nauvoo and crossed into Iowa on their westward trek. He asked members to leave behind the comfort of their air-conditioned cars, to walk along this sacred path and take time to read the plaques along the Trail of Hope.

As the saints prepared to leave Nauvoo, they too walked down Parley Street. Some were fortunate enough to own a wagon and were able to cross the Mississippi River on a ferry boat while others walked across the frozen Mississippi never to return to Nauvoo again.

At the edge of the river stands the Pioneer Memorial and Exodus to Greatness Monument. The Pioneer Memorial contains the names of many of those who died along the Mormon Trail and surrounds the Exodus to Greatness Monument, a stone mounted bronze frieze of the Mormon Trail.

Upon the walls of the Pioneer Memorial are the names of nearly 4,000 Latter-day Saints who died along the Mormon Trail. The Memorial serves as a silent testament of the faithfulness of the many pioneers who died before their journey was through.

The list was compiled after many years of research, scouring through hundreds of official records. Although there are others who died along the trail whose names are lost from records, they are not lost to our Savior Jesus Christ, and their faithfulness remains in the hearts of the Latter-day Saints today.

Near this spot, many Latter-day Saints began their journey across the Mormon Trail to find a new home in the Rocky Mountains. Fleeing enemies, these refugees crossed the Mississippi River with their wagons on flatboats, except for a few days when they crossed on ice. The Exodus to Greatness Monument inside the Pioneer Memorial is a bronze relief that pays tribute to the great sacrifices of all those who made the arduous trek to Salt Lake.

Seeking freedom to worship God, as they believed, more than 50,000 Mormon pioneers, mostly with ox-drawn wagons or handcarts, crossed the plains to the Rocky Mountains before the completion of the transcontinental railroad May 10, 1869.

Sister Ardeth Kapp, former General Young Women president, said the following, "We read about the pioneers who, in the early history of the Church, left their possessions, "their things," and headed west. Those who were with the handcart company who would push or pull their carts into the wilderness would give much thought to what they would make room for in their wagons and what they would be willing to leave behind. Even after the journey began, some things had to be unloaded along the way for people to reach their destination.

Today our tests are different. We are not called to load our wagons and head west. Our frontier and wilderness are of a different nature, but we too must decide what we will make room for in our wagons and what is of highest value.

When my grandmother left her home in England as a young immigrant, she left everything behind because someone taught her of the gospel of Jesus Christ. She joined the Saints in America and eventually moved to Canada. For fear of being persuaded to remain in England, she did not tell her family of her conversion to the Church or her plans to leave. They never saw each other again in this earth life. And none of my grandmother's family joined the Church. However, their temple work has been done for them.

What is it that drives a people to sacrifice all if necessary to receive the blessings available only in the temple? It is their faith and a spiritual witness of the importance of our covenants with God and our immense possibilities. It is in the temple, the house of the Lord, that we participate in ordinances and covenants that span the distance between heaven and earth and prepare us to return to God's presence and enjoy the blessings of eternal families and eternal life.

As we take an inventory of the things we are carrying in our wagons and make decisions about what we will be willing to leave behind and what we will cling to, we have guidance. The Lord has given us a great promise to which I bear my testimony. He has said, "Therefore, if you will ask of me you shall receive; if you will knock it shall be opened unto you. Seek to bring forth and establish my Zion. Keep my commandments in all things. And, if you keep my commandments and endure to the end you shall have eternal life, which gift is the greatest of all the gifts of God (D&C 14:5­7).

When we understand that our covenants with God are essential to our eternal life, these sacred promises become the driving force that helps us lighten our load, prioritize our activities, eliminate the excesses, accelerate our progress, and reduce the distractions that could, if not guarded, get us mired down in mud while other wagons move on. If any of you are burdened with sin and sorrow, transgression and guilt, then unload your wagon and fill it with obedience, faith, and hope, and a regular renewal of your covenants with God."

Requirements for the Journey

Family of Five

1 strong wagon, well covered
2-3 good yoke of oxen, ages 4-10
2-3 good milk cows
1 or more good beeves
3 sheep, if can be obtained
1,000 lb. flour or bread stuff in good sacks
1 bu. of beans
100 lb. sugar
1 good musket or rifle to each male over 12, 1 lb. Powder, 1 lb. Lead
1 lb. tea, 5 lb. coffee
1 few pounds of dried beef or bacon
25 lb. seed grain
25-100 lb. farming and mechanical tools
Clothing and bedding per family, not to exceed 500 lb.
Cooking utensils: bake kettle, fry pan, coffee pot, teakettle, tin cups, plates, forks, knives, spoons, pans
A few goods to trade with the Indians
15 lb. iron and steel
A few pounds of wrought nails
1 gallon alcohol
10 lb. dried apples, 5 lb. dried peaches, 25 lb. salt, 2 lb. black pepper
20 lb. soap, 5 lb. soda, 1 lb. cayenne pepper, 1 lb. cinnamon, 1/2 lb. cloves
1 doz. nutmegs, 1/2 lb. mustard
A good tent and furniture to each 2 families
1 or more sets of saw and gristmill irons to each 100 families
1 fish seine for each company, 4 or 5 hooks and lines
2 sets of pulley blocks and rope for crossing rivers to each company
2 ferry boats to each company, each wagon to carry one ton without people, or 2800 lb. with them
10 extra teams per company of 100

N.B.- In addition to the above list, horse and mule teams can be used as well as oxen. Many items of comfort and convenience will support themselves to a wise and provident people, and can be laid in in season, but some should start without filling the original bill first.

The inside of a pioneer wagon, or 'prairie schooner' as they were often called, was designed first for utility and then for comfort. These supplies needed to last the occupants for up to six months had to be packed into an area usually ten feet long and four feet side (about the same amount of room as the inside of a VW van). Many of the Mormon pioneers traveled by handcart, pushing and pulling their way across the plains. For these saints, a wagon would have been a luxury beyond compare.

Trail of Hope - Parley Street

1. "Our camp resounded with songs of joy and praise to God, all were cheerful and happy in the anticipation of finding a resting place from persecution in some of the lonely, solitary valleys of the great interior basin whithersoever we might be led." -Orson Pratt

2. "How well I remember what a hard time (father) had breaking in the animals to draw the wagon. There were six cows and two oxen. The oxen were well broken and quite sedate. But the cows were wild and unruly...while Father was breaking the cattle, Mother was praying...many nights when we were in bed asleep...she would go out into the orchard...and pour out her soul in prayer, asking the Lord to open the way for us to o with the Saints." -Margaret Judd Clawson

3. "I stopped my carriage on the top of a rolling prairie and had a splendid view. I could see the Saints pouring out and gathering like clouds from the hills and dales, grove and prairie with their teams, wagons, flocks, and herds by hundreds and thousands as it were until it looked the movement of a great Nation. -Wilford Woodruff, 1846

4. "Last evening the ladies met to organize...several resolutions were adopted...if the men wish to hold control over women, let them be alert. We believe in equal rights." -Louisa Barnes Pratt, June 7, 1846

5. "The thoughts of leaving my family for the Mormon Battalion at this critical time are indescribable. My family consisted of a wife and two small children, who were left in company with an aged father and mother and a brother. The most of the Battalion left families...when we were to meet with them again, God only knew. Nevertheless, we did not feel to murmur." -William Hyde

6. "So, we have both suffered. We must help one another and the Great Spirit will help us both." -Chief Pied Riche, Pottawattamie Tribe, June 1846

7. "A large amount of labor has been done since arriving in this grove. Indeed, the whole camp is very industrious. Many houses have been built, wells dug, extensive farms fenced, and the whole place assumes the appearance of having been occupied for years..." -Orson Pratt, May 10, 1846

8. "He died in my arms about four o'clock. This was the second child, which I had lost, both dying in my arms. He died with whooping cough and black canker. We are entirely destitute of anything even to eat, much less to nourish the sick." Hosea Stout, May 8, 1846

9. "There on the bank of the Chariton River, I was delivered of a fine son. Occasionally the wagon had to be stopped that I might take a breath. Thus I journeyed on. But I did not mind the hardship of my situation, for my life had been preserved, and my babe was so beautiful." -Zina Huntington Jacobs Young

10. "My last act in that precious spot was to tidy the rooms, sweep up the floor, and set the broom in its accustomed place behind the door. The with emotions in my heart...I gently closed the door and faced unknown future; faced it with faith in God and with no less assurance of the ultimate establishment of the Gospel in the West and of its true enduring principles, than I had felt in those trying scenes in Missouri." -Bathsheba Smith

11. "We hurried to pack some food, cooking utensils, clothing, and bedding, which was afterward unpacked and strewn over the ground by the mob as they searched for firearms. Mother had some bread already in the kettles to bake. Of course she did not have time to bake, so she hung it on the reach of our wagon and cooked it after we crossed the Mississippi River." -Mary Field Garner

12. "The fall of 1845 found Nauvoo, as it were, one vast mechanic shop, as nearly every family was engaged in making wagons. Our parlor was used as a paint shop in which to paint wagons." -Bathsheba Smith

13. "Those of us who can't remember when we were compelled to abandon Nauvoo, when the winter was so inclement, know how dark and gloomy the circumstances of the saints were, with the mob surrounding our outer settlements and threatening to destroy us and how trying it was to the faith of the people of God. The word was to cross the Mississippi and to launch out into an unknown wilderness- to go where, no one knew. Who knew anything of the terrors of the journey thither, or of the dangers that might have to be met and contended with? Who knew anything about the country to be traversed? Moving out with faith that was undisturbed by its unknown terror, it was by faith that this was accomplished." -George Q. Cannon

14. "I was in Nauvoo on the 26th day of May, 1846, for the last time, and left the city of the Saints feeling that most likely I was taking a final farewell of Nauvoo for this life. I looked upon the temple and City as they receded from view and asked the Lord to remember the sacrifices of his Saints." -Wilford Woodruff

15. "Some had covers drawn over their wagons while others had only a sheet drawn over a few poles to make a tent. Sometimes these rude tents were the only covering for the while keeping the watchman post in the darkness of the night. I wept over the distress condition of the Saints. Toward the dim light of many flickering lamp have my eyes been directed because of the crying of my children, the restless movements of the aged, infirm and mournful groan of many suffering from fever. These have made an impression on my mind which can never be forgotten." -Gilbert Belnap

16. "With this advanced camp of the great exodus, there had come a brass band, led by Captain Pitt. After encampment was made and the toils of the day were over, the snow would be scraped away, a huge fire or several of them kindled within the wagoned enclosure, and there to the inspiring music of Pitt's band, song and dance often beguiled the exiles into forgetfulness of their trials and discomforts." -B.H. Roberts

17. "As Sarah Leavitt and her daughters tried to comfort her sick husband, he began to sing, 'Come Let Us Anew, Our Journey Pursue...' He sang the hymn as long as he had strength to sing it and then wanted Elisa, one of his daughters, to sing it. He died without a struggle or groan." -Sarah Leavitt

18. "The suffering and sadness of that camp I shall never forget. It is impossible to describe the cries of the hungry children, the sadness of others for the loss of their loved ones. What a terrible night of misery. We didn't even have a light, except a candle which flickered out in the wind and rain as it was carried from one place to another." -Mary Field Garner

19. "Prepared for the night by erecting a temporary tent out of bed clothes. At this time my wife was hardly able to sit up and my little son was sick with a very high fever and would not even notice anything that was going on." -Hosea Stout

20. "...Here we all halted and took a farewell view of our delightful City...We also beheld the magnificent Temple rearing its lofty tower towards the heavens...My heart did swell within me." -Newell Knight

21. "I was five years old when we started from Nauvoo. We crossed over the Mississippi in the skiff in the dusk of the evening. We bid goodbye to our dear old feeble grandmother, Lucy Mack Smith. I can never forget the bitter tears she shed when she bid us goodbye for the last time in this life. She knew it would be the last time she would see her son's family..." -Martha Ann Smith

22. "Without fire and something ward to eat, all would suffer through the night. Seeing no other way, I emptied a large valuable chest, highly prized, split it up with the hatchet, and soon had a warm supper, then during the freezing storm, we crowded into our wagon and remained there throughout the night." -Benjamin F. Johnson, Recollections

23. "I was the mid-wife, and delivered nine babies that night." -Jane Johnston

24. "When a boat sank while attempting to cross the Mississippi, a number of Saints were tossed and sported on the water at the mercy of the cold and unrelenting waves...some climbed on top of the wagon...while cows and oxen were seen swimming to the shore from whence they came." -Hosea Stout

25. "I had a small flock of sheep which I had not time to sell. These I left, together with my house and lot, the former containing my furniture and books." -Priddy Meeks

26. "Early in February, multitudes of the people commenced to cross the Mississippi, and from their encampments in the forest of Iowa. In regard to the terrible suffering that followed, the terrible snow storms and rains that continued from February until May, causing such floods and mire, distress and suffering and consequent sickness, as perhaps has never before been known to the lot of man..." -Erastus Snow

27. "Unless the people are more united in spirit and cease to pray against counsel, it will bring me down to my grave. I am reduced in flesh so that my coat that would scarcely meet around me last winter now laps over twelve inches. It is with much ado that I can keep from lying down and sleeping to wait the resurrection." -Brigham Young

28. "We bade our children and friends goodbye and started from the west. Crossed the river about noon...I knitted almost a mitten for Mr. Sessions while he went back to get some things we left." -Patty Sessions

29. "I was not large enough to keep out of the way of the wagon at all times and consequently had my feet and leg run over two of three times when jumping out of the wagon to stop the team." -Gideon Murdock, age 6

30. "We had nothing to sweeten anything until the Lord sent honey dew, which we gathered from bushes until we got all the sweets we wanted. I also boiled maple juice and got cakes of maple." -Jane Johnston

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