Investigative mythologist William Henry & historian Laurence Gardner joined in a discussion about Holy Grail mysteries and how they relate to theories in the Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown. As in that book, both Gardner and Henry contend that Jesus married Mary Magdalene and had children with her. Their bloodline, is what some consider to be the Holy Grail.
Gardner offered a critiqued of the Da Vinci Code, suggesting that some of the material presented as fact in the fiction work, were less than entirely accurate. For instance, he said the notion that Da Vinci encoded his paintings with hidden allegorical messages, while true, was more evident in certain works that Brown didn't cite. Gardner also explained how Jesus likely survived the crucifixion. Historically, he said, it could take up to two weeks for people to die when nailed to a cross and additionally the idea of Jesus' resurrection was not compiled until the 4th century.
During Hour 2, Henry appeared solo and chatted about the Annunaki and ancient stargates, one of which may have resided in Iraq. He mentioned he is working on a new book about the symbolism of Atlantis, and theorized that in the center of Atlantis there could have been a vortex/stargate that became lost when the continent was submerged. Interestingly, he noted that the purpose of the human body may be to function as a "ladder or stairway into heaven."
First hour guest R.B. Trombley of the Southwest Volcano Research Center reacted to the new USGS list of America's most dangerous volcanoes. Because Yellowstone has not shown any recent significant quake activity, he rated it as a low threat at this time. Mount Rainier, however, in Washington state, he views as the "most feared volcano in the U.S. today," and noted it has not had a major eruption since 1894.
Millions of people around the world live in the shadow of active volcanoes. Under constant threat of massive volcanic eruptions, their homes and their lives are daily at risk from these sleeping giants. From Japan’s Mount Fuji to the "Sleeping Giant" submerged beneath Naples to the Yellowstone "supervolcano" in the United States, we will travel with scientists from around the world who are at work on these sites, attempting to discover how likely these volcanoes are to erupt, when it might happen, and exactly how deadly they could prove to be.
The enlightened child matures like a fine wine into the full embodiment of enlightenment. The marriage of your soul with the Spirit cannot come until the soul is purified. Enlightenment comes in stages first the Satori and then the Samadhi. For me the Satori was an enlightenment of the being itself. The Samadhi was a cosmic universal one. The relationship with the father grew with it all. The Holy mother and her son led me to the father.
The void is a wonderful place to be, the slate wiped clean and a new vision can then be drawn before your very eyes.
Do you encounter stress? What type of stress?
I surrendered my life completely to the divine will back in 1998. After that various missions were given and I completed each one to the best of my ability. Each as moved me to a different space of being. The point of my life is to serve God and humanity following the instructions of God. Now 2 year's work with the middle east is finished my main purpose and current mission is with Christianity/Religion and to continue to provide the messages from God to those that they are for.
Just allowing God's will to unfold before me, in me and around me. However, have been told that we must do our best to be living ecologically and self -sustainably by 2012. Know that we will be moving to a warm country and also allowing that to fall into place with whom and exactly where. God said that the divine plan does have a pecking order so one step at a time.
Have you surrendered completely to God Olix? Have you put your life into the hands of God?
How can we help you?
[link to uk.youtube.com]
Published in Paradigm Shift Magazine Summer 2004
Once upon a time Mother Earth was a planet filled with peace loving communities, they honored the feminine and the fertile and flourishing land. In excess of 5,000 years ago, cosmic universal law was transgressed by control through domination of the feminine principle, a pyramidal social structure was created that exists to this day. At this point humanity 'lost a part of its soul' through fragmentation we fell down from higher dimensional reality by losing connection with the female balance and our sensitivity to cyclic rhythms and the seasons that nourished us. Humanity has searched for peace, paradise and the Garden of Eden ever since.
The destruction persists, pollution, extinction of animals, fish, insects, floral species and ancient cultures. The land stripped bare of resources, through greed and desire to dominate and control nature itself, GM foods and cloning are just two examples. when we transgress cosmic law by playing with nature, mother earth usually responds with retribution, the karma of cause and effect. This is our current reality and the illusion of western civilization.
It is time for atonement, you may call yourself a Lightworker, Starseed, Spiriitual, Peaceful or Rainbow Warrior or you could even be a brave soul, an Earth Angel in disguise but you are here for a reason. Your soul wishes you to heal the three wounds and retrieve that which humanity lost through the mist of millennium's.
THE THREE WOUNDS
1. Repression of women and the feminine principle. Men also hold this repression in their energetic system due to their past life experiences and both energies also carry guilt from past lives. Science has now proved that guilt is one of the most lethal emotions that breaks down the immune system and stimulates disease.
2. The mysterious wound and the wounded individual that has harmed itself, and in doing so has harmed all sentient beings. For we are one, what we do to the self we do to others and the land of which we are all part. The ripple effect impacts on the whole universe and the planets beyond.
3. Creation of the Wasteland through the transgression of cosmic law.
The earth is ailing almost beyond repair.
Nobel Prize Winner Dr Alexis Carel 1912, warned that since the soil is the basis for all human life, our only hope for a healthy world rests on re-establishing the harmony in the soil.
"So long as one feeds on food from unhealthy soil, the spirit will lack the stamina to free itself from the prisons of the body." Rudolf Steiner
THE HOLY GRAIL
In medieval times the new spiritual resurgence was inspired by the Gnostics, Cathars and Alchemists they brought forth the ancient mystery teachings and honored the feminine view of the cosmos. Rome overreacted to this perceived threat of their power and used the Crusades to take control, the persecutions and witch hunts resulted in ten million lives being lost. Further burial of the divine feminine aspect through control and religious dogma has kept us in separation, duality and polarity every since. The universal law of attraction was concealed by hiding the principle that energy follows thought ~ creating cause and effect.
The Gnostics incensed the priests by giving women equal status and claiming that the true esoteric Christianity was transmitted to Mary Magdalene by Master Jesus, from beyond the veil. Master Jesus and the Essenes were holders of the mystery teachings, handed down from teacher to student from the beginning of time. They knew that mortals had the ability to go beyond the veil following redemption of the feminine.
The influence of Sophia was widespread bringing forth the divine feminine wisdom of GOD and Holy Spirit, this fact was hidden from the inquisition within alchemical and astrological manuscripts. Her symbol is the white dove and colours red and white, it is said that the world was born from her smile. Interesting that the term Philosophy itself comes from the Greek philosophia, which means love of wisdom. The Eastern Christians held Sophia in great love and devotion, her greatest shrine is the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. She also appears in the Jewish Kabala as the Shekhina of God.
Both the Shiites and mystical Sufi's maintained that the feminine powers of sacred divine love held the world together. One of the first Sufi poets Farid declared that true divinity was feminine. Can East and West resolve their differences and raise their vibration by embracing the ancient mystery teachings of the divine feminine and its values of unconditional love and compassion?
The Grail story is one of salvation, redemption and the search for enlightenment. The Egyptian sacred golden Ankh is a symbol of salvation uniting both the womb of creation and the masculine principle. It can help you to align your energies by wearing it on your thymus chakra assisting you to come into your power and reach your fullest healing potential. This eighth major chakra is one of transformation and synchronicity, its colour is turquoise and it is ruled by planet Chiron, the eighth astronomical body and the planet of the wounded healer, eight being the symbol of infinity and all that is, this planet cannot be underestimated. Chiron’s influence is paramount in helping humanity to fulfill its destiny of soul purification and retrieval of the holy grail. The thymus chakra is opening for the first time in over 2,000 years so that humanity can learn to communicate and live from the heart of compassion once again. Chiron brings powerful influences to assist us to fulfill the divine plan, heal the mysterious wound, regain the wisdom of Sophia and become one with the source.
Some say the tests experienced on the grail journey can be ardous but that depends on your perceptions and the depth of your integration of acceptance, surrender, forgiveness, unconditional love, compassion and allowing a sense of humour to see the cosmic joke. The numerous adventures encountered strengthen the soul light of the brave knight to succeed in the quest of healing both King and Kingdom. Uniting both male and female aspects and reinstating the lost paradise within.
The first step is to heal the soveriegn for we are the Guardians of the Grail and then by accessing our own mysterious wound, one can restore the kingdom which has become a barren wasteland due to the transgression of cosmic law. In order for the land to be fertile, and flourish naturally there has to be a divine connection between the land and its soveriegn.
The original paradise can only be restored by the individual themselves, in this way the Grail hero can redeem the lost cause. The lost cause can be described as illness and pollution of the mind, body and soul of the individual and the environment we co-create.
The story of the Holy Grail is a multi-dimensional one, on an individual level it includes courage, pure intent, endurance, purification, living in integrity, transparency and embracing spiritual power, the purest essence of the higher feminine self. The knights had to face the void and their demons alone through spiritual independence in order to earn the right to a direct communion with God. On another level it is about healing the individual and in so doing healing mother earth. As above, so below. The goal was to achieve self-mastery, becoming master of one’s emotions, through partaking a sacred and magical journey to purify the self. Many failed in their quest because they did not ask the right questions. The Knights of King Arthur sought the divine feminine to become whole but there were few knights that had purified themselves and their lens of perception enough, to have the eyes to see and the heart to embrace the feminine within.
The legends speak of a secret passage that can assist with the holy quest, it includes synchroncity allowing natural cosmic law to flow through the surrender of control. A quest to rediscover the feminine and embrace all its hidden qualities. By restoring the feminine principle one also fertilises the soil of unity and redemption, re-establishing the realm itself.
In present day this analogy may help you to integrate this knowledge. When your human will is in control you have your hands on the wheel of the car, when you surrender your heart to GOD and align your will with GOD’s will then you don’t need the car anymore!
You freely walk in the light! You can then see the signposts, as if for the very first time, a picture emerges of that which no longer serves you, unhealthy situations drift away like the clouds leaving a blue sky, and your vision becomes sheer with clarity. When you surrender your heart and implement the wisdom of self discipline you are able to walk on the middle path directly in oneness with the source. Both feminine and masculine energies are balanced and this determines the value of the third resulting in completion of atonement.
The medieval hero's knew that for them to communicate with Christ about the mysteries of the Grail one must feel worthy to look upon his face and view beyond the veil. Unworthiness due to repression is one of the core issues that you may feel the need to heal. The seeker is given the opportunity to ask the right questions, obtain the keys to access one’s own powerful energy and discover “what ails thee?” Achievement depends on being steadfast and loyal to the task at hand, dedicated service to compassionate action for the benefit of humanity. Through endurance and passing numerous tests, manifestation of the transformational quest and Holy Grail is assured.
Life is meant to be a celebration as well as a process of change. So sit light in your saddle as you ride the crest of the wave, allow your sense of humour to uplift you and grant you the humility to laugh at yourself and most of all walk in joy. Thinking globally and acting locally sharing your heart with the rest of the planet.
The Holy Mother says that there is a new dawn on the horizon and the mysteries are simple for you to unfold. Honour your precious temple of divinity, for there is no justice while suffering remains in any domain. The holy spirit welcomes your new awakening, she embraces you all with her love and compassion and gracefully passes you her silk. All are chosen to be an emissary of her love and light and blessed are those who choose to walk in her name.
Article content briefed by Archangel Michael
Recommended reading: The Holy Grail, Malcolm Godwin, The Tragic History of Esoteric Christianity, The Church’s war against the spirit of Sophia, Sam Byrne, The Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Jean-Yves Leloup, Jesus and the Goddess, Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy. The Secrets of the Soil, New Solutions for restoring our planet. Peter Tompkins and Christopher Bird.
This article is about the new Dreamliner - Boeing 787
Boeing 787 Dreamliner - Google Books Result
You can read this entire book on line:
Community: A Journey Into the Heart of Community - Page x - Google Books Result
the Royal Teton Ranch on the northern border of Yellowstone National Park.
Photograph by Roger Viollet/Getty Images
By Maria Cristina Valsecchi
A cross inlaid in the floor of a library marks the spot where Indiana Jones has to dig to access the ancient catacombs of Venice in the film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. The catacombs, a network of dark and narrow underground tunnels and tombs, hold the secret that eventually leads Indy to the hideout of the Holy Grail.
Unfortunately, the dramatic scene is a narrative license. "There are no catacombs in Venice, as the town rises on wood piles in the middle of the saltwater Venetian Lagoon. There is no room for underground chambers or passages, and only a few buildings have a basement," says Luigi Fozzati, head of the Archaeological Superintendence of Veneto.
In fact, Venice's cemetery is located on a small island outside the town, and the oldest tombs of nobles and heads of state lie aboveground in churches.
Rome, Capital of Catacombs
To find catacombs, go to Rome, home of some of the oldest and longest burial underground tunnels in the world. "Hundreds of kilometers of catacombs run underneath the town and its outskirts," says Adriano Morabito, president of the association Roma Sotterranea (Underground Rome). "Some of the networks are well known and open to visitors, while others are still scarcely explored. Probably there are a number of lost catacombs, too."
The oldest tunnels date back to the first century. "The Jewish community in Rome built them as cemeteries. Christian catacombs came a century later. They were not secret meeting places to survive persecutions, as historians thought in the past, but burial tunnels, like the Jewish ones," Morabito explains. "They used to grow larger and larger around the tombs of saints because people asked to be buried near their religious leaders."
All Christian catacombs in Rome are property of the Catholic Church, and no one is allowed to explore them without special permission from the Vatican. "It's not so easy to get the permission. That's one of the reasons there have been very few archaeological expeditions to less known tunnels in the last decades," Morabito says.
The Legend of the Holy Grail
The aura of mystery surrounding the catacombs has fed legends for centuries. Recently, Alfredo Barbagallo, an amateur archaeologist, claimed that the Holy Grail could be hidden in Rome, in the catacomb underneath the Basilica of San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura, near the tomb of St. Lawrence, a deacon martyred in A.D. 258.
According to a legend, Pope Sixtus II entrusted the Holy Grail to Lawrence to save it from the persecution of Emperor Valerian. The deacon put the chalice in a safe place—and perhaps even sent it to Spain—before being killed. Barbagallo thinks the Grail never left Rome and is currently buried in a tunnel under the basilica dedicated to St. Lawrence.
Vatican authorities denied permission to open the catacomb and look for the chalice. "There isn't any solid evidence behind Barbagallo's claims," says Vincenzo Fiocchi Nicolai, rector of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archaeology.
Adriano Morabito agrees. "We don't expect any great discovery from Roman catacombs. Early Christians didn't use to bury objects with the dead. As for now we only found inscriptions and human remains."
|By Clyde Lewis
"Welcome back my friends to the show that never ends, I’m so glad you could attend come inside come inside"—Karnevil 9 by Emerson, Lake and Palmer
Movie lovers will agree that one of the great classic movie series ever made was the Indiana Jones films. The Movies were made at a time where mythology, and the occult were big business at the movies. Spielberg had already demonstrated his ability to convey the tried and true mythology of Captain Ahab when he released "Jaws."
Later he was able to leave us in a state of wonder when on the big screen the idea of an alien infestation, or invasion was shown to us in movies like "Close Encounters of The Third Kind" and "ET the extraterrestrial."
Two of the movies in the Indiana Jones Series dealt with the archaeologist’s struggle to keep precious antiquities and powerful artifacts with occult symbolism out of the hands of the Nazis.
These artifacts were of course the Ark of the Covenant and the Holy Grail.
The stories themselves were based on a grain of truth. It isn’t widely known that Both FDR and Hitler were nuts about the occult and the powers that these strange antiquities possessed. Many people believe that this was the reason the world was plunged into World War II.
The sacred artifacts were only pieces to the puzzle. They were tokens that if possessed in their entirety would unlock the gate that would lead to the discovery of Atlantis.
But what is Atlantis and why is there such an interest in the lost city that has been all but dismissed as a mythical place and why was Hitler and FDR so concerned about it being discovered?
When you research Atlantis and it’s origins you can look to Plato. It is believed that he wrote about the ancient city around 360 B.C. In his description of Atlantis, Plato depicts the structure of the city in great detail, and goes on to describe the lives of the people. According to Plato, the city was a peaceful and prosperous kingdom.
It had incredible yields of resources and the food supply was ample for men and animals. The whole country was organized and beautiful, based on very highly developed and careful planning.
Plato goes on to describe almost every aspect of Atlantis, from construction to economy. He weaves a story of a kingdom so great that it seems to good to be true. It is an established heaven on earth with a government where no one will hunger, where no one is poor. It is a place where man is a perfect breathing soul. It is a place where that is similar to the mythical ZION.
ZION of course is a word taken from the old testament. It is a word meaning SUN or kingdom of the Sun. It is the Kingdom of the most high. The ZION Mythology is quite similar to that of Atlantis. If you look carefully in the old testament ZION or SION is described as a place of light , a hill or island in the midst of turmoil, a high place with God as it’s ruler and king. It is a paradise that is described as the highly favored divine land of God. A land where all are rulers of their own destinies.
Unfortunately Atlantis was destroyed.
When describing the cataclysm that eventually overcame Atlantis, Plato is very brief, specifying only that the great city was struck by an earthquake then swallowed by the sea.
Yet, other writings, composed even before those of Plato, give more insight on Atlantis and its destruction. Plato may have been the first to recount stories about Atlantis, but he certainly wasn’t the first to write about it.
There is factual evidence existing today that reveals several other cultures around the world had written about Atlantis long before Plato’s time. Ancient writings from many other ancient civilizations including the Chilam Balam, Dresden Codex, Popuhl Vuh, Codex Cortesianus, and Troano Manuscript, written by the Aztecs and Mayans, have all been translated into histories of the destruction of Atlantis. The Oera Linda Book from Holland is believed to be one of the oldest books ever found, and it tells of the destruction of a large Atlantic island by earthquakes and tidal waves. There are many other ancient documents that mention Atlantis, and they are found all over the world.
There are those who theorize that Atlantis is the birthplace of the Aryan race. As you can probably figure out the Atlantis mythology has shown itself in many different locales.
I remember hearing stories of the lost city of Enoch that also was the birthplace of the strong masters of the priesthood’s and priestcrafts, However the story goes that the city was taken from the earth in two ways. One account reports that the city was lost in the great deluge and there are others who claim it was taken into heaven because of its righteousness.
There are many organizations and secret societies who have strong beliefs in the Golden Age revival. It has this uncanny feel of the Second Coming or if you want to get all tingly, you can talk about that little event that Art Bell talks about, "The Quickening."
Whether you believe the return of Enoch and the resurrection of the lost city, or the age of the Aryan Supermen bringing with them an Army to march and proclaim the new Atlantis, or even if you believe in a New Jerusalem that will be transformed into a Celestial Eden this mythological template exists and it has a rich history in our collective Psyche.
Take for example one of the most harshly criticized of Star trek Movies, Star Trek V: the Final Frontier. Sybok the Vulcan half brother of Spock arrives at Nimbus III. His mission is to gather a group of hostages and hold them until he can get a star ship. The enterprise of course is used to find the "final frontier." His goal is to find God. He dwells in the cosmic "Atlantis."
Sha Ka Ree. "The Scource." "Heaven." "Eden." call it "Qui'Tu." To the Romulans, it's "Vorta Vor." The Andorian word is unpronounceable. Still, every culture shares he common dream of a place from which creation sprang. For us, that place will soon be a reality. –Sybok in Star Trek V: "The Final frontier.
Sybok eventually finds that his quest is a selfish one. When he finally looks into the eyes of the God he seeks he finds that the only God that exists is his Ego. His selfishness is his downfall and he is destroyed along with the cosmic paradise.
It has always been the theory of Trekkers that the U.S.S. Enterprise is a Metaphor for the Earth. It is a place with all kinds of cultures and racial groups are hurtling through space.
Can it be too far of a stretch in the imagination that the plot from this Trek was in actuality based metaphorically on the reality of history?
Could it be that a charismatic leader could try and hijack the earth to find Atlantis?
During World War II it seemed that the earth was similar to the starship Enterprise and it was the endeavor for the discovery of Atlantis that put us in the throes of war. It was obvious that any one who challenged the cause would be destroyed.
During the 1920-30's, German researchers who were exploring ancient Nordic writings had became convinced that a new golden age was about to arrive. They became obsessed with finding the lost continent of Atlantis. and the descendants of the Aryan race that may have survived the destruction of the continent.
They were especially interested in the attributes of Odin, which if you have paid attention to some of the other articles I have written, such as "Good Friday the 13th" Odin shares the same traits and histories that mimic the tales of Michael, Moses, and Jesus Christ.
Their studies had led them into practicing blood mysticism. Blood Mysticism is evident today in many religions and is prevalent in the Vampire and Reptilian being mythologies as well. Is it any coincidence that these stories run in a constant cycle through out history? I have pointed out in previous Ground Zero articles such as "Blurred Bloodlines" and "Writing the Quantum Bible" that the truth is in you. You are the container for what is most precious. You hold within you the blood of the gods. Your bloodline is the most powerful weapon you possess.
These articles also point out that the powers of the blood are well known and when perverted can become the object of the black ritual, and dark forces can shed blood for the purposes of power and influence. The leaders will drink the blood of the young if gives them the power over many. It is frightening to say these things but realize what Hitler wanted. It is no different than any other corrupt leader.
The Nazis were of course so fascinated with the blood mysticism of the age that they were hoping to find the true container of the blood of the gods. They were looking for the San Graal, or the Holy Grail. It is interesting to note that San Graal literally means Holy Grail and if you change the separation of words and make it Sang Raal it literally means royal or holy blood. The grail of course captured the blood of Christ as he hung on the cross. It can be said that if you eat of the flesh and blood of Christ (The Communion Sacrament) you have flowing within your body the blood of a God.
Does this ritual literally make you a Holy Grail?
A weapon of God?
Doesn’t this make all religions somewhat caught up in the blood rituals of the ages?
The one who possesses the Grail is perceived as one who is the most high, or holiest of all.
If you have the Grail, or if you contain the blood of the Gods, then you may pass to the other side. You have the key to unlock the door and enter in to the mythical, Eden, heaven, or Atlantis if you will.
The Nazis were completely convinced of this concept. They however were convinced that German Blood was the ancient pure bloodline and set out to convince the masses of this idea.
Propaganda was spread throughout the land. Nazis were made to look like larger than life God like figures. I once watched the film "Triumph of the will" and it was chilling to see the armies that were mesmerized by the idea that all those who were not of the pure blood Aryan’s were subhuman and needed to be wiped off the face of the earth.
Paranoid German writers, and philosophers vilified the Jews. They considered them a threat to the "racially pure " Aryans. The Jews were also blamed for the economic and social fall of Germany after the First World War. The Germans were bent on creating a pure Aryan race. A race similar to that of Atlantis.
It was justified racism, for the attainment of a powerful Government that saw itself as the only government worthy of seeking the doorway that would be opened so that they could enter the real or metaphorical Atlantis.
This racism became violent. It was an excuse to begin the blood ritual and the purging of what the Germans felt were unclean beings. They were preparing for the destiny to create the thousand year Reich and eventually have in their possession the artifacts that were the keys to talk with, and meet the Supermen of Atlantis. Hitler’s purpose was to bring about a New World order, sealed with the blood mysticism and black magic of the ages.
Now lets take a look at this speech—
"We are steadily building a new race--a new civilization great in its own attainments. The influence and high purposes of our Nation are respected among the peoples of the world. We aspire to distinction in the world, but to a distinction based upon confidence in our sense of justice as well as our accomplishments within our own borders and in our own lives."
Who said this?
Well you lose if you said Hitler, or Rudolf Hess.
The man who said it was Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Was Roosevelt looking for the same Atlantis? Was World War II a war bathed in the secret that we were after the same goals?
The message seems to be eerily the same, but delivered in a more gentle way. After all he delivered it in a fireside chat, not shouting from a pulpit with Swastikas behind him.
You may be angered that I am pointing it out. But it has to be pointed out to demonstrate that perhaps World war II was a war that was fought because a few men who were influenced by the spirituality of the day, were convinced that the renewal of Atlantis was about to take place.
War itself is a purging of blood. It is the blood of the innocents that falls on to the earth. It is a human sacrifice of great proportions. History shows that the idea of blood shed for the higher purpose is an attribute of the Gods. A God or selfless individual lays down his life for the purpose of the greater good. This was the attitude of both Hitler and Roosevelt.
History dictates your attitudes about these leaders. We all know what eventually happened to the one who was selfish. Who used his power to try and tap into the collective consciousness and convince his people that his army of Aryans were the only ones who could get that energy, and use it to bring down all who opposed him.
FDR on the other hand has been accused of many things. He has been accused of intentionally allowing the attack on Pearl Harbor in order to engage against the evil Nazis. This would be consistent with the "God complex" that he apparently possessed.
Why not lay down the lives of the service men at Pearl Harbor if it meant the eventual downfall of the opposing German madmen and the Imperialistic Japanese?
The needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few.
Jesus thought the same way.
The men at Pearl harbor were selfless and bold. A small group offered their lives for the greater good.
Was this the attitude of Roosevelt?
Well according to William Henry who has done exhaustive research into the quest of Atlantis both from the views of Hitler and FDR demonstrates that the Holy Grail was one of the many artifacts being sought after during World War II. That the War itself may have been fought over occult obsessions namely the building of the new Atlantis on earth.
In his Book "One Foot In Atlantis" Henry says that F.D.R. had many occult quests and was also a secret societal zealot (Similar to Hitler’s ties to the Thule Society)
He reports that F.D.R. had this obsession with finding a savior figure (similar to Hitler’s quest of finding the true Aryan super being) FDR was searching for the reincarnated Jesus in Mongolia in 1934. This search was inspired by Henry A. Wallace, F.D.R.'s Secretary of Agriculture. Though unknown to most Americans, F.D.R. and Wallace envisioned themselves as knights of the Holy Grail who were on the ultimate quest.
Hitler and the founders of Nazism also were of the belief that they were the Knights that would usher in the New Kingdom of Atlantis. Their ultimate quest and destiny was to create The new Super Race, the new Super Soldier or Knight that would rule this planet in the future Golden Age. The Nazi leaders were convinced that all of history was in cycles, consisting of golden ages followed by disasters. Hitler stated that the repetition of history required that to recreate the supermen who had come and gone, the Nazis must exterminate all of the inferior races they believed inhabited the planet. It was their belief that it was the destiny of the Nazis, in the universal plan, to manifest the Age of Aquarius and a new race. They believed Earth was near the end of a Cycle when all nations would again be destroyed...by a polar shift, earthquakes, fire and tidal waves.
Is this all sounding familiar?
FDR ‘s Secretary Wallace had even written letter encouraging the quest of the finding of the savior figure in the Coffin making Roosevelt the ultimate leader.
"I have been thinking of you holding the casket -- the sacred most precious casket. And I have thought of the New Country going forth to meet the seven stars under the sign of the three stars"—Letter From William Wallace provided by William Henry.
What is the cryptic significance?
Well according to William Henry there are several occult references with the coffin of a messianic figure –this "casket" was also known as: the Casket or Coffin of Osiris, the Djed Pillar, the Pillar of Osiris, the True Cross, and the Tower of Babel.
In the Ground Zero Article "On the Seventh Day" we tell the Story of Nimrod, the great builder and the symbolism of the tower of Babel. According to traditional mythology Nimrod organized his order of masons to build a great Tower. The reason for this construction was that Nimrod wanted to meet God. Others say he was prideful and wanted dominion over the Valley of nimrod. He wanted to be sole ruler. In order to do this he had to sleigh God. Nimrod was known as the hunter of men. He may have had a quest like FDR after him.
We all know that FDR was a Master Mason. Is the Coffin of a Savior figure symbolic of the new Tower of Babel? That this monolithic Tower be raised up in a new country, with a new race and a new order?
What is the new Country? Well isn’t it obvious? It is the newly formed order, the New Atlantis.
William Wallace was a very interesting character in this whole mix. Coincidentally he was not only secretary of agriculture and Roosevelt’s choice for vice president in the third term but he was also a person who knew about genetic gerrymandering. He founded Hi-Bred, the first company in the world to offer farmers hybrid corn seed. The hybrid seed produced vastly higher crop outputs, and eventually came to dominate the corn seed market.
Wallace also developed new inbreeding and crossbreeding techniques for chickens. His chickens, marketed by his new company, Hy-Line, dominated the world. Even 25 years after Wallace's death, descendants of his chickens were laying one of every three eggs eaten by Americans.
While Hitler was out to build the better human.. Wallace was buidling the better chicken.
Wallace was raised in a Christian home, and had a thorough understanding of the Bible, but never accepted the Bible as the only source of Divine Revelation. Wallace never completely revealed his religious mindset, so the extent of his Christian heresy remains unknown. He investigated astrology, joined the Freemasons and Helena Blavatsky's Theosophical Society.
Many considered him a crackpot. However how cracked was the pot?
Wallace urged FDR to place the Great Seal of the United States on the back of a coin. The great Seal of course is a mystical symbol and many claim that it is a symbol of secret Societies that are all tied together. The ties go all the way to the Bavarian Illuminati. and the Thule Society , the very society with ties to Hitler.
Wallace states in his memoirs:
"The Latin phrase Novus Ordo Seclorum impressed me as meaning the New Deal of the Ages. Therefore I took the publication to President Roosevelt and suggested a coin be put out with the obverse and reverse sides of the Seal. Roosevelt as he looked at the colored reproduction of the Seal was first struck with the representation of the 'All-Seeing Eye,' a Masonic representation of The Great Architect of the Universe. Next he was impressed with the idea that the foundation for the new order of the ages had been laid in 1776 but that it would be completed only under the eye of the Great Architect.
Roosevelt like myself was a 32nd degree Mason. He suggested that the Seal be put on the dollar bill rather than a coin and took the matter up with the Secretary of the Treasury."
It is obvious that Wallace was a strong believer in a One-World Government, and his main concern during the war years was in helping to shape the post-war geopolitical order. He eventually became a lonely man with his ideas on one world government and botanical and agricultural genetics.
Many people thought that Wallace eventually became self absorbed and crazy.
But the quest for the new Atlantis lives on. The ghosts of Hitler, Roosevelt and Wallace continue to show themselves in modern politics and pop culture. The shadows of the past are catching up to us and the world does move in cycles and history seems to be repeating itself. We are storming into countries that have been rumored to be places of antiquities and blood mysticism (Iraq, Macedonia, Yugoslavia)
The speeches of the politicians echo the memory of the New World Order and the hunt for the new Atlantis:
"For two centuries we've done the hard work of freedom. And tonight we lead the world in facing down a threat to decency and humanity. What is at stake is more than one small country, it is a big idea - a new world order, where diverse nations are drawn together in common cause to achieve the universal aspirations of mankind: peace and security, freedom, and the rule of law. Such is a world worthy of our struggle, and worthy of our children's future."
"The world can therefore seize this opportunity to fulfil the long-held promise of a new world order - where brutality will go unrewarded, and aggression will meet collective resistance. Yes, the United States bears a major share of leadership in this effort. Among the nations of the world, only the United States of America has had both the moral standing, and the means to back it up. We are the only nation on this earth that could assemble the forces of peace. " –George Bush Sr. First State of the Union Address
The sciences are all looking for the genetic code to create the perfect human as we track and mark the Human Genome. We are looking at space for other possible places where creation may hide with the NASA programs that have adopted names that are from the Atlantean heritage.
The William Cooper colloquialism about NASA’s mission, "Columbia’s Enterprise for the Discovery of Atlantis and all Challengers will be destroyed" is not so far fetched knowing the secret agenda that may be hidden under the radar.
And isn’t it so coincidental that we are now watching the drama unfold again on television and in the movies with the release of Disney’s "Pearl Harbor", and eventually the animated "Atlantis."
I awoke the other day to news story that made me stop and think. I have been heavily drowned in the sea of Atlantean theory. I have been reading the book "One foot in Atlantis" by William Henry and the news reported a most interesting turn of events.
There are some scientists who think that they may have discovered Atlantis off the coast of Cuba. As it was said in the 1920’s and 1930’s perhaps history repeats itself, and the drama that was World War II may come back for an encore. In searching for the new Atlantis, who next will suffer the senseless acts of bloodshed?
Who will be the next charismatic leader to seize the keys of power and hijack the earth for the sole discovery of Atlantis?
The future and the past are part of the great show. We face the final curtain call in the age of man. Take the Red Pill and see how far you can go down the rabbit hole. Buckle up, this ride is a dark one, but at the end they tell us there will be a city of light.
OZ, ZION, Valhalla, Thule, Shambahla, Sha Ka Ree. "The Scource." "Heaven." "Eden." call it "Qui'Tu." To the Romulans, it's "Vorta Vor." The Andorian word is unpronounceable. Still, every culture shares the common dream of a place from which creation sprang.
For us, that place will soon be a reality, it will be our final destination, yes even our final frontier.
Return To Ground Zero
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The Boeing 787 Dreamliner or simply Boeing 787 is a long-range, mid-size wide- body, twin-engine jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
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Yellowstone is a Boeing Commercial Airplanes project to replace its entire civil aircraft portfolio with advanced technology aircraft. New technologies to be introduced include composite aerostructures, more electrical systems (reduction of hydraulic systems), and more fuel-efficient turbofan engines (such as the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G Geared Turbofan, General Electric GEnx, the CFM International LEAP56, and the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000). The term "Yellowstone" refers to the technologies, while "Y1" through "Y3" refer to the actual aircraft.
The first of these projects, Y2, has entered service as the Boeing 787.
Yellowstone is divided into three projects:
- Boeing Y1, to replace the Boeing 737, 757, and 767-200 product lines. Y1 covers the 100- to 250-passenger market, and is expected to be the second Yellowstone Project aircraft to be developed. Boeing submitted a patent application in November 2009, that was released to the public in August 2010, that envisions an elliptical composite fuselage, and likely signals the company's planning for the 737 successor. In early 2011, Boeing outlined plans for a 737 replacement that would arrive in 2020. But the development of the 737 replacement was pushed back with the decision to launch the 737 MAX, an updated and re-engined version of the 737 in August 2011.
- Boeing Y2, to replace the 767-300 and -400 product lines. It may also replace the 777-200. It covers the 220- to 320-passenger market, and was the first completed Yellowstone project, coming to fruition as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. Y2 initially referred to the highly efficient, more conventional, baseline aircraft for the Sonic Cruiser, which was project "Glacier". The Dreamliner competes with the Airbus A330, A340 and later A350 families.
- Boeing Y3, to replace the 777-300 and 747 product lines. Y3 covers the 300–600+ passenger market, and is expected to be the third Yellowstone Project aircraft to be developed. It will compete with the Airbus A380 family as well as the largest model of the A350 family, the A350-1000, scheduled to be introduced in 2015. In June 2010 it was reported that Emirates, which has the largest fleet of 777s, was in discussions with Boeing about plans to develop a new airliner to replace the 777.
- Boeing Y-class Yellowstone GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "Boeing firms up 737 replacement studies by appointing team". Flight International. March 3, 2006.
- "Weight-Optimizing Internally Pressurized Composite-Body Aircraft Fuselages Having Near-Elliptical Cross Sections". ip.com, August 12, 2010.
- Ostrower, John. Boeing patent may provide glimpse into 737 replacement plan. Flightblogger on Flightglobal.com, September 24, 2010.
- Cameron, Doug. "Boeing Says 787 Still Profitable, Eyes 737 Revamp". The Wall Street Journal, January 26, 2011.
- Ostrower, Jon. "Boeing boss green-lights all-new next generation narrowbody". Air Transport Intelligence news via FlightGlobal.com, February 10, 2011.
- "Boeing Launches 737 MAX". Boeing
- Boeing Launches 737 New Engine Family with Commitments for 496 Airplanes from Five Airlines. Boeing, August 30, 2011
- Norris, Guy. "THE 737 STORY: Smoke and mirrors obscure 737 and Airbus A320 replacement studies". Flight International. February 7, 2006.
- Norris, Guy. Sonic Cruiser is dead - long live Super Efficient?. Flight International. January 7, 2003.
- "Emirates talks to Boeing about 777 successor and hints at more big orders". flightglobal. 2010. http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2010/06/22/343481/emirates-talks-to-boeing-about-777-successor-and-hints-at-more-big.html. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
- March 2001 Newsletter, Richard Aboulafia, March, 2001.
- "Future Airliners", Aerospaceweb.org, January 5, 2003. (refers to Yellowstone as the project name for the future Boeing 787)
- "Not if... but when", Flight International, July 6, 2005.
- "History & Development of the Boeing 737", b737.org.uk, October 23, 2005
- "Boeing's answer to the "superjumbo" takes off". The Independent. February 9, 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/boeings-answer-to-the-superjumbo-takes-off-1893971.html.
THE BOEING PROJECT SO FAR HAS COST OVER 32 BILLION DOLLARS.
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner or simply Boeing 787 is a long-range, mid-size wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Its variants seat 210 to 290 passengers. Boeing states that it is the company's most fuel-efficient airliner and the world's first major airliner to use composite materials as the primary material in the construction of its airframe. The 787 has been designed to be 20% more fuel efficient than the 767 it is to replace. The Dreamliner's distinguishing features include mostly electrical flight systems, a four-panel windshield, noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles, and a smoother nose contour. It shares a common type rating with the larger 777 twinjet, allowing qualified pilots to operate both models, due to related design features.
The aircraft's initial designation was 7E7, prior to its renaming in January 2005. The first 787 was unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 8, 2007, at Boeing's Everett assembly factory, by which time it had reached 677 orders; this is more orders from launch to roll-out than any previous wide-body airliner. By November 2012, the 787 program had logged 844 orders from 57 customers, with International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC) having the largest number on order.
The 787 development and production has involved a large-scale collaboration with numerous suppliers around the globe. Final assembly is at the Boeing Everett Factory in Everett, Washington. Assembly is also taking place at a new factory in North Charleston, South Carolina. Both sites will deliver 787s to airline customers. Originally planned to enter service in May 2008, the project has suffered from multiple delays. The airliner's maiden flight took place on December 15, 2009, and completed flight testing in mid-2011. Final Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) type certification was received in late August 2011 and the first model was delivered in late September 2011. It entered commercial service on October 26, 2011.
The aircraft has suffered from early in-service problems, notably fires on board related with its lithium-ion batteries. These systems are being reviewed by both the FAA and the Japanese aviation agency. On January 16, 2013, the FAA issued an emergency airworthiness directive that grounds all 787s in the U.S. The EASA, Japanese Transport Ministry, India's Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA), and Chile's Dirección General de Aeronautica Civil (DGAC) followed suit and grounded the Dreamliners in their respective jurisdictions.
During the late 1990s, Boeing began considering replacement aircraft programs as sales for the 767 and Boeing 747-400 slowed. The company proposed two new aircraft, the 747X, which would have lengthened the 747-400 and improved efficiency, and the Sonic Cruiser, which would have achieved 15% higher speeds (approximately Mach 0.98) while burning fuel at the same rate as the existing 767. Market interest for the 747X was tepid, but the Sonic Cruiser had brighter prospects. Several major airlines in the United States, including Continental Airlines, initially showed enthusiasm for the Sonic Cruiser concept, although they also expressed concerns about the operating cost.
Earlier proposed design configuration of the Boeing 7E7.
The global airline market was disrupted by the September 11, 2001 attacks and increased petroleum prices, making airlines more interested in efficiency than speed. The worst-affected airlines, those in the United States, had been considered the most likely customers of the Sonic Cruiser, and thus Boeing officially cancelled the Sonic Cruiser on December 20, 2002. Changing course, the company announced an alternative product using Sonic Cruiser technology in a more conventional configuration, the 7E7, on January 29, 2003. The emphasis on a smaller midsize twinjet rather than a large 747-size aircraft represented a shift from hub-and-spoke theory towards the point-to-point theory, in response to analysis of focus groups.
The replacement for the Sonic Cruiser project was dubbed the "7E7" (with a development code name of "Y2"). Technology from the Sonic Cruiser and 7E7 was to be used as part of Boeing's project to replace its entire airliner product line, an endeavor called the Yellowstone Project (of which the 7E7 became the first stage). Early concept images of the 7E7 included rakish cockpit windows, a dropped nose and a distinctive "shark-fin" tail. The "E" was said to stand for various things, such as "efficiency" or "environmentally friendly"; however, in the end, Boeing said that it merely stood for "Eight". In July 2003, a public naming competition was held for the 7E7, for which out of 500,000 votes cast online the winning title was Dreamliner. Other names in the pool included eLiner, Global Cruiser and Stratoclimber.
On April 26, 2004, Japanese airline All Nippon Airways became the launch customer for the Dreamliner, by announcing a firm order for 50 aircraft with deliveries to begin in late 2008. All Nippon Airways' order was initially specified as 30 787-3, 290–330 seat, one-class domestic aircraft, and 20 787-8, long-haul, 210–250 seat, two-class aircraft for regional international routes such as Tokyo Narita–Beijing. The aircraft would allow All Nippon Airways to open new routes to cities not previously served, such as Denver, Moscow, and New Delhi. The 787-3 and 787-8 were to be the initial variants, with the 787-9 entering service in 2010.
The 787 was designed to be the first production airliner with the fuselage assembled with one-piece composite barrel sections instead of the multiple aluminum sheets and some 50,000 fasteners used on existing aircraft. Boeing selected two new engine types to power the 787, the General Electric GEnx and Rolls-Royce Trent 1000. Boeing stated the 787 would be approximately 20 percent more fuel-efficient than the 767, with approximately 40 percent of the efficiency gain from the engines, plus gains from aerodynamic improvements, increased use of lighter-weight composite materials, and advanced systems. The 787-8 and −9 were intended to be certified to 330 minute ETOPS capability.
During the design phase, the 787 underwent extensive wind tunnel testing at Boeing's Transonic Wind Tunnel, QinetiQ's five-meter wind tunnel at Farnborough, UK, and NASA Ames Research Center's wind tunnel, as well as at the French aerodynamics research agency, ONERA. The final styling of the aircraft was more conservative than earlier proposals, with the fin, nose, and cockpit windows changed to a more conventional form. By the end of 2004, customer-announced orders and commitments for the 787 reached 237 aircraft. Boeing initially priced the 787-8 variant at US$120 million, a low figure that surprised the industry. In 2007, the list price was US$146–151.5 million for the 787-3, US$157–167 million for the 787-8 and US$189–200 million for the 787-9. Manufacturing and suppliers
After stiff competition, Boeing announced on December 16, 2003, that the 787 would be assembled in its factory in Everett, Washington. Instead of building the complete aircraft from the ground up in the traditional manner, final assembly would employ just 800 to 1,200 people to join completed subassemblies and to integrate systems. Boeing assigned its global subcontractors to do more assembly themselves and deliver completed subassemblies to Boeing for final assembly. This approach was intended to result in a leaner and simpler assembly line and lower inventory, with pre-installed systems reducing final assembly time by three-quarters to three days.
Subcontracted assemblies included wing manufacture (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan, central wing box) horizontal stabilizers (Alenia Aeronautica, Italy; Korea Aerospace Industries, South Korea); fuselage sections (Global Aeronautica, Italy; Boeing, North Charleston, USA; Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan; Spirit AeroSystems, Wichita, USA; Korean Air, South Korea); passenger doors (Latécoère, France); cargo doors, access doors, and crew escape door (Saab AB, Sweden); software development (HCL Enterprise India); floor beams (TAL Manufacturing Solutions Limited, India); wiring (Labinal, France); wing-tips, flap support fairings, wheel well bulkhead, and longerons (Korean Air, South Korea); landing gear (Messier-Dowty, UK/France); and power distribution and management systems, air conditioning packs (Hamilton Sundstrand, Connecticut, USA). Boeing is considering bringing construction of the 787-9 tail in house; the tail of the 787-8 is currently made by Alenia.
To speed up delivery of the 787's major components, Boeing modified four used 747-400s into 747 Dreamlifters to transport 787 wings, fuselage sections, and other smaller parts. Japanese industrial participation was very important to the project, with Japanese companies co-designing and building of 35% of the aircraft. This was the first time outside firms were given a key role in the design of Boeing airliner wings. The Japanese government also provided support with an estimated US$2 billion in loans. On April 26, 2006, Japanese manufacturer Toray Industries and Boeing announced a production agreement involving US$6 billion worth of carbon fiber, extending a 2004 contract and aimed at easing production concerns. In May 2007 final assembly on the first 787 began at Boeing's Everett, Washington plant.
The 787 project became less lucrative than expected for some subcontractors. Finmeccanica had a total loss of €750 million on the project by 2013.
Production and delivery delays
While Boeing had been working to trim excess weight since assembly of the first airframe began, the company stated in December 2006 that the first six 787s were overweight, with the first aircraft expected to be 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) heavier than specified. In November 2007, Steven F. Udvar-Házy, CEO of International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC) stated that the 787-9's operating empty weight was around 14,000 lb (6,400 kg) overweight. The seventh and subsequent aircraft would be the first optimized 787-8s and were expected to meet all goals, with Boeing working on weight reductions. As part of this process, Boeing redesigned some parts and made more use of lighter titanium.
Boeing had originally planned for a first flight by the end of August 2007 and premiered the first 787 at a rollout ceremony on July 8, 2007. The aircraft's major systems had not been installed at that time and many parts were attached with temporary non-aerospace fasteners requiring their later replacement with flight fasteners. Although intended to shorten the production process, 787 subcontractors initially had difficulty completing the extra work because they could not procure the needed parts and perform the subassembly on schedule, leaving remaining assembly work for Boeing to complete as "traveled work".
On September 5, Boeing announced a three-month delay, blaming a shortage of fasteners as well as incomplete software. On October 10, 2007, a second three-month delay to the first flight and a six-month delay to first deliveries was announced due to problems with the foreign and domestic supply chain, including an ongoing fastener shortage, the lack of documentation from overseas suppliers, and continuing delays with the flight guidance software. Less than a week later, Mike Bair, the 787 program manager was replaced. On January 16, 2008, Boeing announced a third three-month delay to the first flight of the 787, citing insufficient progress on "traveled work". On March 28, 2008, in an effort to gain more control over the supply chain, Boeing announced that it planned to buy Vought Aircraft Industries' interest in Global Aeronautica; the company later agreed to also buy Vought's North Charleston, S.C. factory.
On April 9, 2008, Boeing officially announced a fourth delay, shifting the maiden flight to the fourth quarter of 2008, and delaying initial deliveries by around 15 months to the third quarter of 2009. The 787-9 variant was postponed to 2012 and the 787-3 variant was to follow with no firm delivery date. On November 4, 2008, the company announced a fifth delay due to incorrect fastener installation and the Boeing machinists strike, stating that the first test flight would not occur in the fourth quarter of 2008. After assessing the 787 program schedule with its suppliers, Boeing confirmed on December 11, 2008, that the first flight would be delayed until the second quarter of 2009.
Airlines, including United Airlines and Air India, have stated their intentions to seek compensation from Boeing for the delays.
Pre-flight ground testing
As Boeing worked with its suppliers on early 787 production, the aircraft design had proceeded through a series of test goals. On August 7, 2007, on-time certification of the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engine by European and US regulators was received. On August 23, 2007, a crash test involving a vertical drop of a partial composite fuselage section from about 15 ft (4.6 m) onto a 1 in (25 mm)-thick steel plate occurred in Mesa, Arizona; the results matched what Boeing's engineers had predicted, allowing modeling of various crash scenarios using computational analysis instead of further physical tests. While critics had expressed concerns that a composite fuselage could shatter and burn with toxic fumes during crash landings, Boeing's test data indicated no greater toxicity versus conventional metal airframes. The crash test was the third in a series of demonstrations conducted to match FAA requirements, which included additional certification criteria owing to the 787's introduction of wide-scale composite materials.
The alternative GE GEnx-1B engine achieved certification on March 31, 2008. On June 20, 2008, the 787 team achieved "Power On" of the first aircraft, powering and testing the aircraft's electrical supply and distribution systems. A non-flight 787 test airframe was built for static testing, and on September 27, 2008, over a period of nearly two hours, the fuselage was successfully tested at 14.9 psi (102.7 kPa) differential, which is 150 percent of the maximum pressure expected in commercial service (i.e., when flying at maximum cruising altitude). In December 2008, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) passed the maintenance program for the 787.
On May 3, 2009, the first test 787 was moved to the flight line following extensive factory-testing, including landing gear swings, systems integration verification, and a total run-through of the first flight. On May 4, 2009, a press report indicated a 10–15% range reduction, about 6,900 nmi (12,800 km) instead of the originally promised 7,700 to 8,200 nmi (14,800–15,700 km), for early aircraft that were about 8% overweight. Substantial redesign work was expected to correct this, which would complicate increases in production rates; Boeing stated the early 787-8s would have a range of almost 8,000 nmi (14,800 km). As a result, some airlines reportedly delayed deliveries of 787s in order to take later planes that may be closer to the original estimates. Boeing expected to have the weight issues addressed by the 21st production model.
On June 15, 2009, during the Paris Air Show, Boeing said that the 787 would make its first flight within two weeks. However, on June 23, 2009, Boeing announced that the first flight is postponed "due to a need to reinforce an area within the side-of-body section of the aircraft". Boeing provided an updated 787 schedule on August 27, 2009, with the first flight planned to occur by the end of 2009 and deliveries to begin at the end of 2010. The company expected to write off US$2.5 billion because it considered the first three Dreamliners built unsellable and suitable only for flight tests. On October 28, 2009, Boeing announced the selection of Charleston, SC as the site for a second 787 production line, after soliciting bids from multiple states including Washington. On December 12, 2009, the first 787 completed high speed taxi tests, the last major step before flight.
Flight test program
On December 15, 2009, Boeing conducted the Dreamliner's maiden flight with the first 787-8, originating from Snohomish County Airport in Everett, Washington, at 10:27 am PST, and landing at Boeing Field in King County, Washington, at 1:35 pm PST. Originally scheduled for four hours, the test flight was shortened to three hours because of bad weather. Boeing's schedule called for a 9-month flight test campaign (later revised to 8.5 months). The company's previous major aircraft, the 777, took 11 months with nine aircraft, partly to demonstrate 180-min ETOPS, one of its main features.
The 787 flight test program was composed of 6 aircraft, ZA001 through ZA006, four with Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engines and two with GE GEnx-1B64 engines. The second 787, ZA002 in All Nippon Airways livery, flew to Boeing Field on December 22, 2009, to join the flight test program; the third 787, ZA004 joined the test fleet with its first flight on February 24, 2010, followed by ZA003 on March 14, 2010. On March 24, 2010, testing for flutter and ground effects was completed, clearing the aircraft to fly its entire flight envelope. On March 28, 2010, the 787 completed the ultimate wing load test, which requires that the wings of a fully assembled aircraft be loaded to 150% of design limit load and held for 3 seconds. The wings were flexed approximately 25 ft (7.6 m) upward during the test. Unlike past aircraft however, the wings were not tested to failure. On April 7, Boeing announced that analysis of the data showed the test was a success.
On April 23, 2010, Boeing delivered the newest 787, ZA003, to the McKinley Climatic Laboratory hangar at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, for extreme weather testing in temperatures ranging from 115 to -45 °F (46 to -43 °C), and prepare it for takeoff at both temperature extremes. Dreamliner ZA005, the fifth 787 and the first with General Electric GEnx engines began ground engine tests in May 2010. ZA005 made its first flight on June 16, 2010 and joined the flight test program. In June 2010, gaps were discovered in the horizontal stabilizers of test aircraft, due to improperly installed shims; all aircraft produced then were to be inspected and repaired. That same month, a 787 experienced an in-flight lightning strike, allowing engineers the opportunity to examine the aircraft's design tolerances. Since composites can have as little as 1/1,000th the electrical conductivity of aluminum, Boeing engineers had added conductive material to ameliorate potential risks and to meet FAA requirements. FAA management was also planning to adjust requirements to help the 787 show compliance. Inspections following the 787's first recorded lightning strike showed no damage to the aircraft.
The 787 made its first appearance at an international air show at the Farnborough Airshow, UK, on July 18, 2010. On August 2, a Trent 1000 engine suffered a blowout at Rolls-Royce's test facility during ground testing. The failure caused Boeing to reevaluate its timeline for installing Trent 1000 engines, and on August 27, 2010 the manufacturer confirmed that the first delivery to launch customer All Nippon Airways would be delayed until early 2011. That same month, Boeing faced compensation claims from airlines owing to ongoing delivery delays. On September 9, 2010, it was reported that a further two 787s might join the test fleet, making a total of eight flight test aircraft. On September 10, 2010, a partial engine surge or runaway occurred in a Trent engine on ZA001 at Roswell. On October 4, 2010, the sixth 787, ZA006 joined the test program with its first flight.
On November 5, 2010, it was reported that some early 787 deliveries may be delayed, in one case some three months, to allow for rework to address problems found during flight testing. On November 9, 2010, Boeing 787, ZA002 made an emergency landing after smoke and flames were detected in the main cabin during a test flight over Texas. A Boeing spokesperson said the airliner landed safely and the crew was evacuated after landing at the Laredo International Airport, Texas. The electrical fire caused some systems to fail before landing. Following this incident, Boeing suspended flight testing on November 10, 2010. Ground testing was performed instead. On November 22, 2010, Boeing announced that the in-flight fire can be primarily attributed to foreign object debris (FOD) that was present in the electrical bay. After electrical system and software changes, the 787 resumed company flight testing on December 23, 2010.
In January 2011, Boeing announced that the first 787 delivery was rescheduled to the third quarter of 2011 due to software and electrical updates following the in-flight fire. On February 24, 2011, Boeing announced that the 787 had completed 80% of the test conditions for Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engine and 60% of the conditions for the General Electric GEnx-1B engine. On July 4, 2011, All Nippon Airways began a week of airline operations testing using a 787 in Japan. As of August 15, 2011, the 787 test aircraft have flown 4,828 hours in 1,707 flights combined. During testing the 787 has visited 14 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America to test in extreme climates and conditions, and to perform route testing. Boeing completed certification testing for Rolls-Royce powered 787-8s on August 13, 2011. The FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency certified the 787 on August 26, 2011, at a ceremony in Everett, Washington.
Service entry and early operations
Certification of the 787 cleared the way for deliveries. Boeing began preparations to increase 787 production rates from two to ten aircraft per month over the next two years. Production is taking place at assembly lines in Everett and Charleston. The Charleston site's contributions have been clouded by legal difficulties; on April 20, 2011, the National Labor Relations Board alleged that Boeing's second production line in South Carolina violated two sections of the National Labor Relations Act. This labor dispute ended in December 2011 when the National Labor Relations Board dropped its lawsuit after the Machinists union withdrew its complaint as part of a new contract with Boeing. The first 787 assembled at the South Carolina facility was rolled out on April 27, 2012.
The first 787 was officially delivered to All Nippon Airways on September 25, 2011, at Boeing's facilities in Everett, Washington. A ceremony to mark the occasion was also held the next day. On September 27, the Dreamliner flew to Haneda Airport. The airline took delivery of the second 787 on October 13, 2011.
On October 26, 2011, the 787 flew its first commercial flight from Narita to Hong Kong on All Nippon Airways. The airliner was planned to enter service some three years prior. Tickets for the flight were sold in an online auction, with the highest bidder paying $34,000 for a seat. The 787 flew its first commercial long-haul flight on January 21, 2012 from Haneda to Frankfurt on All Nippon Airways.
On December 6, 2011, test aircraft ZA006 (sixth 787 built), powered by General Electric GEnx engines, flew 10,710 nautical miles (19,830 km) non-stop from Boeing Field eastward to Shahjalal International Airport in Dhaka, Bangladesh, setting a new world distance record for aircraft in the 787's weight class, which is between 440,000 pounds (200,000 kg) and 550,000 pounds (250,000 kg). This flight surpassed the previous record of 9,127 nautical miles (16,903 km), set in 2002 by an Airbus A330. The Dreamliner then continued eastbound from Dhaka to return to Boeing Field, setting a world-circling speed record of 42 hours, 27 minutes. In April 2012, an All Nippon Airways 787 made a delivery flight from Boeing in Seattle to Tokyo's Haneda Airport partially using biofuel from cooking oil.
In late 2011, Boeing began a 787 world tour to promote the airliner. It has visited cities in China, Africa, the Middle East, Europe, United States, and others.
According to launch customer ANA data, the 787 surpassed the promised 20% fuel burn reduction, as compared to the Boeing 767. On the Tokyo-Frankfurt route the fuel savings was 21%. As part of this report, ANA surveyed 800 passengers who flew the 787 from Tokyo to Frankfurt: expectations were surpassed for 90% of passengers, and other features that met or exceeded expectations included air quality and cabin pressure (90% of passengers), cabin ambiance (92% of passengers), higher cabin humidity levels (80% of passengers), headroom (40% of passengers) and the larger than usual windows (90% of passengers). 25% said they would go out of their way to again fly on the 787.
Qatar Airways placed its first 787 on display at the Farnborough Airshow in July 2012; the aircraft was to be officially delivered the following month.
On September 15, 2012, the NTSB requested the grounding of certain 787s due to GE engine failures; GE believed the production problem had been fixed by that time.
A near-planform view of a Boeing 787-8 (ZA005) taking off from Boeing Field.
The 787's design features light-weight construction. The aircraft is 80% composite by volume. Although design changes increased the titanium share, Boeing actually list its materials by weight to 50% composite, 20% aluminum, 15% titanium, 10% steel, and 5% other. Aluminum is used for the wing and tail leading edges; titanium is used mainly on engines and fasteners, with steel used in various areas.
External features include raked wingtips and engine nacelles with noise-reducing serrated edges (chevrons). The longest-range 787 variant can fly 8,000 to 8,500 nautical miles (15,000 to 15,700 km), enough to cover the Los Angeles to Bangkok or New York City to Hong Kong routes. Cruising airspeed is Mach 0.85 (561 mph, 903 km/h at typical cruise altitudes).
Among 787 flight systems, a key change from traditional airliners is the electrical architecture. The architecture is bleedless and replaces bleed air and hydraulic power sources with electrically powered compressors and pumps, while completely eliminating pneumatics and hydraulics from some subsystems (e.g., engine starters or brakes). Boeing says this system extracts 35% less power from the engines, allowing increased thrust and improved fuel economy. The total available on-board electrical power is 1.45 megawatts, which is five times the power available on conventional pneumatic airliners; the most notable electrically powered systems include: engine start, pressurization, horizontal stabilizer trim, and wheel brakes. Wing ice protection is another new system; it uses electro-thermal heater mats on the wing slats instead of traditional hot bleed air. An active gust alleviation system, similar to the system used on the B-2 bomber, improves ride quality during turbulence.
Boeing 787 flight deck
The 787 has a "fly by wire" control system whose architecture is similar to that of the Boeing 777. The 787 flight deck features LCD multi-function displays, all of which use an industry standard GUI widget toolkit (Cockpit Display System Interfaces to User Systems / ARINC 661). The 787 flight deck includes two head-up displays (HUDs) as a standard feature. Like other Boeing airliners, the 787 uses a yoke instead of a side-stick. Under consideration is future integration of forward looking infrared into the HUD system for thermal sensing. This allows pilots to "see" through the clouds. The Lockheed Martin Orion spacecraft will use a glass cockpit derived from Honeywell International's 787 flight deck systems.
On the 787, Honeywell and Rockwell Collins provided flight control, guidance, and other avionics systems, including standard dual head up guidance systems, Thales supplies the integrated standby flight display and power management, while Meggitt/Securaplane provides the APU starting system, electrical power conversion system, and battery control system with lithium cobalt oxide (LiCo) batteries by GS Yuasa. One of the two batteries weighs 28.5 kg and is rated 29.6 V, 76 Ah, giving 2.2 kWh. Battery charging is controlled by four independent systems to prevent overcharging following early lab testing. The battery systems are the focus of regulatory investigation due to multiple lithium battery fires, which led to grounding of the 787 fleet starting in January 2013.
A version of Ethernet (Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX) / ARINC 664) will be used to transmit data between the flight deck and aircraft systems. The airplane's control, navigation, and communication systems are networked with the passenger cabin's in-flight internet systems. In January 2008, FAA concerns were reported regarding possible intentional or unintentional passenger access to the 787's computer networks. In response, Boeing stated various airplane protective hardware and software solutions are employed, including air gaps in places to physically separate the networks, and firewalls for software separation. These measures prevent data transfer from the passenger internet system to the maintenance or navigation systems.
Disassembled composite fuselage section of the Boeing 787
Each 787 contains approximately 35 short tons (32,000 kg) of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), made with 23 tons of carbon fiber. Carbon fiber composites have a higher strength-to-weight ratio than traditional aircraft materials, and help make the 787 a lighter aircraft. Composites are used on fuselage, wings, tail, doors, and interior. Boeing had built and tested the first commercial aircraft composite section while studying the proposed Sonic Cruiser nearly five years before; the Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey military transport uses 50% composites, and the company's C-17 transport has over 16,000 lb (7,300 kg) of structural composites.
Carbon fiber, unlike metal, does not visibly show cracks and fatigue, prompting concerns about the safety risks of widespread use of the material; the rival Airbus A350 was later announced as using composite panels on a frame, a more traditional approach, which its contractors regarded as less risky. Although later fired, in 2006, Boeing engineer Vince Weldon complained to management, then later in public: the composite fuselage was unsafe compared to traditional aluminum designs, and in a crash, was more likely to "shatter too easily and burn with toxic fumes".
In addition, a potential issue is the porous nature of composite materials: collected moisture expanding with altitude can cause delamination. Boeing responded by noting: composites have been used on wings and other passenger aircraft parts for many years without incident, and special defect detection procedures will be instituted for the 787 to detect any potential hidden damage.
In 2006, Boeing launched the 787 GoldCare program. This is an optional, comprehensive life-cycle management service, whereby aircraft in the program are routinely monitored and repaired, as needed. Although the first program of its kind from Boeing, post-sale protection programs are not new; such programs are usually offered by third party service centers. Boeing is also designing and testing composite hardware so inspections are mainly visual. This will reduce the need for ultrasonic and other non-visual inspection methods, saving time and money.
The 787 features two engines; these engines use all-electrical bleedless systems, eliminating the superheated air conduits normally used for aircraft power, de-icing, and other functions. As part of its "Quiet Technology Demonstrator 2" project, Boeing adopted several engine noise-reducing technologies for the 787. Among these are a redesigned air inlet containing sound-absorbing materials and redesigned exhaust duct covers whose rims are tipped in a toothed pattern called chevrons to allow for quieter mixing of exhaust and outside air. Boeing expects these developments to make the 787 significantly quieter both inside and out. The noise-reducing measures ensure that sounds above 85 decibels do not leave airport boundaries.
The two different engine models compatible with the 787 use a standard
electrical interface to allow an aircraft to be fitted with either
Trent 1000 or
GEnx engines. This aims to save time and cost when changing engine types;
while previous aircraft can have engines changed to those of a different
manufacturer, the high cost and time required makes it rare.
In 2006, Boeing addressed reports of an extended change period by stating that
the 787 engine swap was intended to take 24 hours;
engine interchangeability, it is reported, makes the 787 a more flexible asset
to airlines, allowing them to change easily from one manufacturer's engine to
the other if required.
ANA's first 787 Dreamliner features 2–4–2 economy class seating.
The 787-8 is designed to typically seat 234 passengers in a three-class setup, 240 in two-class domestic configuration, and 296 passengers in a high-density economy arrangement. Seat rows can be arranged in four to seven abreast in first or business (e.g., 1–2–1, 2–2–2, 2-3-2). Eight or nine abreast are options in economy (e.g., 3–2–3, 2–4–2, 3–3–3). Typical seat room ranges from 46 to 61 in (120 to 150 cm) pitch in first, 36 to 39 in (91 to 99 cm) in business, and 32 to 34 in (81 to 86 cm) in economy.
Cabin interior width is approximately 18 feet (550 cm) at armrest level, which is 1 inch (2.5 cm) more than originally planned. The Dreamliner's cabin width is 15 inches (38 cm) more than that of the Airbus A330 and A340, 5 inches (13 cm) less than the A350, and 16 in (41 cm) less than the 777. Airlines use economy seat widths that range from 16.33 in (41.5 cm) to 20.66 in (52.5 cm). 787 economy seats are approximately 17.2 in (43.7 cm) for nine-abreast seating and 19 inches (48 cm) wide for eight-abreast seating arrangements. Most airlines are selecting the nine-abreast (3–3–3) configuration. Boeing engineers designed the 787 interior to better accommodate persons with mobility, sensory, and cognitive disabilities. For example, a 56 in (140 cm) by 57 in (140 cm) convertible lavatory includes a movable center wall that allows two separate lavatories to become one large, wheelchair-accessible facility.
The 787's larger windows are designed to improve passenger views.
The 787's cabin windows are larger in area than any other civil air transport in-service or in development, with dimensions of 10.7 by 18.4 in (27 by 47 cm), and a higher eye level so passengers can maintain a view of the horizon. The composite fuselage permits larger windows without the need for structural reinforcement. Instead of window shades, the windows use electrochromism-based smart glass (supplied by PPG Industries) allowing flight attendants and passengers to adjust five levels of sunlight and visibility to their liking, reducing cabin glare while maintaining a view to the outside world, but the most opaque setting still has some transparency. However the lavatory still has a traditional sunshade. The 787's cabin features light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as standard equipment, allowing the aircraft to be entirely 'bulbless'. LED lights have previously been an option on Airbus aircraft and the Boeing 777. The system is based on three color plus white LEDs instead of fluorescent tubes, allowing any color and brightness.
The internal cabin pressure of the 787 is increased to the equivalent of 6,000 feet (1,800 m) altitude instead of the 8,000 feet (2,400 m) on older conventional aircraft. According to Boeing, in a joint study with Oklahoma State University, this will significantly improve passenger comfort. Cabin air pressurization is provided by electrically driven compressors, rather than traditional engine-bleed air, thereby eliminating the need to cool heated air before it enters the cabin. The cabin's humidity is programmable based on the number of passengers carried, and allows 15% humidity settings instead of the 4% found in previous aircraft. The composite fuselage avoids the metal fatigue associated with higher cabin pressure, and eliminates the risk of corrosion from higher humidity levels. The cabin air-conditioning system improves air quality by removing ozone from outside air, and besides standard HEPA filters which remove airborne particles, uses a gaseous filtration system to remove odors, irritants, and gaseous contaminants as well as particulates like viruses, bacteria and allergens.
Size comparison of the Boeing 787-8 (black outline) with the Boeing 777-300 (gray), 767-300 (teal), and 737-800 (blue).
Boeing has offered three variants of the 787 from the program launch in 2004. The 787-8 is the first variant produced and is to be followed by the 787-9.
The 787-8 is the base model of the 787 family, with a length of 186 feet (57 m) and a wingspan of 197 feet (60 m) and a range of 7,650 to 8,200 nautical miles (14,170 to 15,200 km), depending on seating configuration. It is the only 787 variant, and the third Boeing widebody (after the 747SP and the 777-200LR) with a wingspan wider than the length of the fuselage. The 787-8 seats 210 passengers in a three-class configuration. The variant was the first of the 787 line to enter service, entering service in 2011. Boeing is targeting the 787-8 to replace the 767-200ER and 767-300ER, as well as expand into new non-stop markets where larger planes would not be economically viable. Two-thirds of 787 orders are for the 787-8.
The 787-9 will be the first variant of the 787 with a "stretched" or lengthened fuselage, seating 250–290 in three classes with a range of 8,000 to 8,500 nautical miles (14,800 to 15,750 km). This variant differs from the 787-8 in several ways, including structural strengthening, a lengthened fuselage, a higher fuel capacity, a higher maximum take-off weight (MTOW), but with the same wingspan as the 787-8. The targeted entry into service (EIS) date, was originally planned for 2010, but by October 2011 deliveries were scheduled to begin in early 2014. Boeing is targeting the 787-9 to compete with both passenger variants of the Airbus A330 and to replace their own 767-400ER. Like the 787-8, it will also open up new non-stop routes. The firm configuration was finalized on July 1, 2010.
Artist's impression of the stretched 787-9, designed with greater range and payload capability.
When first launched, the 787-9 had the same fuel capacity as the other two variants. The design differences meant higher weight and resulted in a slightly shorter range than the 787-8. After further consultation with airlines, design changes were incorporated to add a forward tank to increase its fuel capacity, so it has a longer range and a higher MTOW than the other two variants. Air New Zealand is the launch customer for the 787-9.
The-3 was targeted for high-density flights; it was designed as a 290-seat (two-class) short-range version with a fully loaded range of 2,500 to 3,050 nautical miles (4,650 to 5,650 km). Using the same basic fuselage as the 787-8, the wing was derived from the 787-8, with blended winglets replacing raked wingtips. The change decreased the wingspan by roughly 25 feet (7.6 m), allowing the 787-3 to fit more domestic gates, and particular within Japan. This model would have been limited in range by a reduced MTOW of 364,000 lb (165,100 kg).[N 1]
The −3 variant was designed to operate on Boeing 757-300/767-200-sized regional routes from airports with restricted gate spacing. Boeing projected the future of aviation as between very large, but close cities, of five million or more people; city populations may stabilize around the capacity level of the 787-3.
Forty-three 787-3s were ordered by the two Japanese airlines; however, production problems on the base 787-8 model led Boeing, in April 2008, to postpone the introduction of the 787-3 until after the 787-9's introduction, but without a firm delivery date. By January 2010, all 787-3 orders had been converted to the 787-8. Following the lack of interest by potential customers, caused by its being designed specifically for the Japanese market at the time, it seemed the 787-3 variant would be shelved entirely. On December 13, 2010, after its orders were canceled, Boeing canceled the 787-3: it was no longer financially viable.
Boeing has stated that it is likely to develop another version, the longer 787-10, with seating capacity between 290 and 310. This proposed model is intended to compete with the planned Airbus A350-900. The 787-10 would supersede the 777-200ER in Boeing's current catalog and could also compete against the Airbus A330-300 and A340-300. Boeing was having discussions with potential customers about the 787-10 in 2006 and 2007. In March 2006 Mike Bair, the head of the 787 program at the time, stated that "It's not a matter of if, but when we are going to do it ... The 787-10 will be a stretched version of the 787-9 and sacrifice some range to add extra seat and cargo capacity." Boeing has not yet officially launched the −10, but it remains under consideration as of 2012.
Although with no set date, Boeing expects to build, possibly in 10 to 15 years, a 787 freighter version. Boeing is reportedly also considering a 787 variant as a candidate to replace the 747-based VC-25 as Air Force One.
Boeing 787 Dreamliner across the world. The countries in bold host operators that are in possession of at least one airplane of the type.
- All Nippon Airways first service October 26, 2011
- Japan Airlines first service on May 1, 2012
- Ethiopian Airlines first service on August 16, 2012
- Air India first service on September 19, 2012
- LAN Airlines first service on October 1, 2012
- United Airlines first service on November 4, 2012
- Qatar Airways first service on November 20, 2012.
- LOT Polish Airlines first service on December 14, 2012.
Orders and deliveries
In September 2011, the 787 was first officially delivered to launch customer All Nippon Airways. As of August 2012, the top three customers for the 787 are: ILFC (International Lease Finance Corporation), with orders totaling 74 Boeing 787s (33 -8s and 41 -9s); All Nippon Airways with 66 orders (36 -8s and 30 -9s); and United Airlines, with 50 orders (36 -8s and 14 -9s). Qantas had 50 orders (15 -8s and 35 -9s) but converted the 787-9 portion of the orders to options, because of delays, and in an effort to reduce near-term costs; this after statutory losses of over US$250 million after taxes, during the 2011–2012 fiscal year.
Incidents and accidents
The Boeing 787 has been involved in one aviation occurrence and no hull-loss accidents as of February 2013[update].
On 16 January 2013, All Nippon Airways Flight NH-692, en route from Ube to Tokyo Haneda, had received indications of battery problems, followed by a burning smell while climbing from Ube, about 35 nautical miles west of Takamatsu, Japan. The pilots decided to divert to Takamatsu, where the plane landed, vacated the runway, and was evacuated via slides. One passenger received a serious injury, and two other passengers received minor injuries during the evacuation. Inspection of the battery compartment revealed that they had suffered a battery fire. This, along with a very similar incident of a parked Japan Airlines 787 in Boston that also had a battery fire within the same week, led the Federal Aviation Administration to ground all Boeing 787s that were flying at the time.
Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner at Boston Logan Airport with lithium-ion battery fire and resulting heavy smoke coming out a cargo hatch
Japan Airlines 787 battery comparison; Left: typical original battery. Right: damaged battery.
The Aft Electronics Bay that held the battery that caught fire.
Coincidentally, the man working in the battery room is named Mike Bauer (the same name as my own son)
That's the second reason I dreamt about this plane. The first reason was because the plane is called The Dreamliner.
The 787 has suffered from a number of problems during its launch, though only two of the problems are related to difficulties that are above and beyond regular wear and tear. In December 2012, Boeing CEO James McNerney told media outlets that the problems were no greater than those experienced by the company with the introduction of other new models, such as the Boeing 777. Since entering service service at least four aircraft suffered from electrical system problems, including problems stemming from its lithium-ion batteries. After an electrical fire found by on a Japan Airlines (JAL) 787 after landing at Boston's Logan International Airport, and a similar fire aboard a All Nippon Airways 787, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ordered a review into the design and manufacture of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. This was followed with a grounding of the entire Boeing 787 fleet.
A JAL 787 experienced a fuel leak on January 8, and its flight from Boston was canceled. On January 9, United Airlines reported a problem in one of its six 787s with the wiring in the same area as the battery fire on JAL's 787. After these incidents, the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board subsequently opened a safety probe. Later, on January 11, 2013, another aircraft was found to have a fuel leak, which led the FAA to announce a comprehensive review of the 787's critical systems, including the design, manufacture and assembly, on January 11, 2013. U.S. Department of Transportation secretary Ray LaHood stated the administration was "looking for the root causes" behind the recent issues. The head of the FAA, Michael Huerta, said that so far nothing found "suggests [the 787] is not safe".
On January 13, 2013, a Japan Airlines 787 at Narita International Airport outside of Tokyo, was found to also have a fuel leak during an inspection, the third time a fuel leak had been reported within a week. The aircraft reportedly was the same one that had a fuel leak in Boston on January 8. This leak, however, was caused by a different valve; the causes of the leaks are unknown. Japan's transport ministry have also launched an investigation.
US-based aviation regulators oversight into the 2007 safety approval and FAA certification of the 787 has now come under scrutiny, as a key US Senate committee prepare "in coming weeks" for a hearing into the procedures of aviation safety certification.
On January 16, 2013, both major Japanese airlines ANA and JAL announced that they were voluntarily grounding or suspending flights for their fleets of 787s after multiple incidents involving different 787s, including emergency landings. These two carriers operate 24 of the 50 Dreamliners delivered to date. The grounding could cost ANA over $1.1 million a day.
|Wikinews has related news: FAA orders review of Boeing 787 Dreamliners following week of incidents|
On January 16, 2013, the FAA issued an emergency airworthiness directive ordering all U.S.-based airlines to ground their Boeing 787s until yet-to-be-determined modifications are made to the electrical system to reduce the risk of the battery overheating or catching fire. This is the first time that the FAA has grounded an airliner type since 1979. Industry experts disagree on consequences of the grounding: Airbus is confident that Boeing will resolve the issue and that no airlines will switch plane type, while other experts see the problem as "costly" and "could take upwards of a year".
The FAA also announced plans to conduct an extensive review of the 787's critical systems. The focus of the review will be on the safety of the lithium-ion batteries made of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCo). The 787 battery contract was signed in 2005, when LiCo batteries were the only type of lithium aerospace battery available, but since then newer and safer types (such as LiFePO), which provide less reaction energy during thermal runaway, have become available. FAA approved a 787 battery in 2007 with nine "special conditions". A battery approved by FAA (through Mobile Power Solutions) was made by Rose Electronics using Kokam cells; the batteries installed in the 787 are made by Yuasa.
On January 20, the NTSB declared that overvoltage was not the cause of the Boston incident, as voltage did not exceed the battery limit of 32 V, and the charging unit passed tests. The battery had signs of short circuiting and thermal runaway. Despite this, on January 24 the NTSB announced that it had not yet pinpointed the cause of the Boston fire; the FAA will not allow U.S.-based Dreamliners to fly again until the problem is found and corrected. In a press briefing that day, NTSB Chairwoman Deborah Hersman said that the NTSB had found evidence of failure of multiple safety systems designed to prevent these battery problems, and stated that fire must never happen on an airplane.
The Japan Transport Safety Board (JTSB) has said on January 23 that the battery in ANA jets in Japan reached a maximum voltage of 31 V (lower than the 32 V limit like the Boston JAL 787), but had a sudden unexplained voltage drop to near zero. All cells had signs of thermal damage before thermal runaway. ANA and JAL had replaced several 787 batteries before the mishaps. As of January 29, 2013, JTSB approved the Yuasa factory quality control while the NTSB continues to look for defects in the Boston battery. The two major battery thermal runaway events in 100,000 flight hours substantially exceeded the 10 million flight hours predicted by Boeing.
The only U.S.-based airline that operates the Dreamliner is United Airlines, which has six. Chile's Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGAC) grounded LAN Airlines' three 787s. The Indian Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) directed Air India to ground its six Dreamliners. The Japanese Transport Ministry made the ANA and JAL groundings official and indefinite following the FAA announcement. The European Aviation Safety Agency has also followed the FAA's advice and grounded the only two European 787s operated by LOT Polish Airlines. Qatar Airways has announced that they are grounding their five Dreamliners. Ethiopian Air was the final operator to announce temporary groundings of its four Dreamliners.
As of January 17, 2013, all 50 of the aircraft delivered to date have been grounded. On January 18, Boeing announced that it was halting 787 deliveries until the battery problem is resolved. On February 7, 2013, the FAA gave approval for Boeing to conduct 787 test flights to gather additional data.
On February 28, 2013, ANA and JAL canceled their 787 flights through the end of May 2013.
On March 7, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board released an interim factual report about the 787 battery fire at Boston's Logan Airport on January 7, 2013. The investigation stated that "heavy smoke and fire coming from the front of the APU battery case". Firefighters "tried fire extinguishing, but smoke and flame (flame size about 3 inches) did not stop".
Schematic of the Boeing 787-8: side, top, front, cross-section views
|Seating, typical||242 (3-class)
|Length||186 ft (56.7 m)||206 ft (62.8 m)|
|Wingspan||197 ft 0 in (60.0 m)|
|Wing area||3,501 sq ft (325 m2)|
|Wing sweepback||32.2 degrees|
|Height||55 ft 6 in (16.9 m)|
|Fuselage dimensions||Width: 18 ft 11 in (5.77 m) / Height: 19 ft 7 in (5.97 m)|
|Maximum cabin width||18 ft (5.49 m)|
|Cargo capacity||4,822 cu ft (137 m3)
or 9x (88x125) pallets
or 8x (96x125) pallets + 2x LD3
|6,086 cu ft (172 m3)
or 11x (88x125) pallets
or 11x (96x125) pallets
|Maximum takeoff weight||502,500 lb (228,000 kg)||553,000 lb (251,000 kg)|
|Maximum landing weight||380,000 lb (172,000 kg)||425,000 lb (193,000 kg)|
|Maximum zero-fuel weight||355,000 lb (161,000 kg)||400,000 lb (181,000 kg)|
|Operating empty weight||242,000 lb (110,000 kg)||254,000 lb (115,000 kg)|
|Cruising speed||Mach 0.85 (567 mph, 490 knots, 913 km/h at 35,000 ft/10,700 m)|
|Maximum speed||Mach 0.89 (593 mph, 515 knots, 954 km/h at 35,000 ft/10,700 m)|
|Range, fully loaded||7,650–8,200 nmi (14,200–15,200 km; 8,800–9,440 mi)||8,000–8,500 nmi (14,800–15,700 km; 9,210–9,780 mi)|
|Takeoff distance at
(sea level, ISA)
|10,300 ft (3,100 m)
High Thrust Rating: 8,500 ft (2,600 m)
|Maximum fuel capacity||33,528 US gal (126,920 L)||36,641 US gal (138,700 L)|
|Service ceiling||43,000 ft (13,100 m)|
|Engines (×2)||General Electric GEnx or Rolls-Royce Trent 1000|
|Thrust (×2)||64,000 lbf (280 kN)||71,000 lbf (320 kN)|
|Boeing 787 cutaway|
|Boeing 787-8 cutaway from Flight International|
- Competition between Airbus and Boeing
- UPS Airlines Flight 6, a crash caused by the thermal runaway of its lithium-ion battery cargo.
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Actual range is based on remaining available weight for fuel after the aircraft empty weight and payload are subtracted from the MTOW.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- Boeing 787 Dreamliner Official page on newairplane.com
- Boeing 787 page on Boeing.com
- Boeing 787 News on Flightglobal.com
- Boeing 787 Dreamliner on Aerospace-Technology.com
- "Go inside the first 787 Dreamliner" Boeing video tour of ZA001.
- Planemakers confront green issues, by Jorn Madslien, BBC News
- "Boeing 787 Dreamliner completes its maiden flight", BBC news with video
- A look at the history of Boeing's Dreamliner jet, Associated Press
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