Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20. 2011

today's date July 26, 2014

page 718


7-26-14  DREAM  I was in a place  unknown and a mancame up to me and said I had to have a shot and he gave me an injection in my right shoulder blade, and it hurt so much, I woke up for an instant and shifted on my pillow and the pain vanished.

The shot was called  "sol mariner" .

Then, I and the man and the other people who had gotten the "sol mariner" shot lay on the lawn awaiting the event, and I woke up again.

It was after I woke up that I realized that the man was President Clinton as he looked when he was President.

NOTE:  When I looked up "Sol Mariner" all I got was in Spanish about a resort.

When I took the quotes off, I got the Ancient Mariner.

Watch “Rime of the Ancient Mariner Orson Welles” on YouTube... youtube/

Apr 24, 2014 ... youtube_gdata_player  ...



The 1960s 
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By 1960, human space engineers were ready to build and send interplanetary science probes away from Earth toward the Moon and planets. Since then, some two dozen unmanned Mars explorers have been fired into interplanetary space from the U.S. and the USSR to look at the Red Planet and its moons Phobos and Deimos. 

The USSR's Mars 1, launched in November 1962, was the first attempt to probe Mars. Unfortunately, contact was lost with the spacecraft only 60 million miles along its route to the Red Planet. 

America's Mariner 4 launched in November 1964 was the first successful probe to reach Mars, sending back 22 photos as it flew by in July 1965. The first close-up pictures ever of another world showed a barren wilderness. 

Meanwhile, a Soviet probe intended for Mars missed the 1965 window of opportunity for a launch, but was fired off anyway. It faxed back to Earth photographs of the far side of the Moon as it flew away into an orbit around the Sun. 

In 1969, the U.S. probes Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 successfully completed the first dual-spacecraft mission to the Red Planet, sending back more than 100 pictures and data on the atmosphere and surface. 

Meanwhile, the Soviet Union lost two Mars probes during their launches. 

The 1970s 
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In 1971, the U.S. suffered a loss when the probe Mariner 8 splashed into the ocean off Puerto Rico during launch. 

But then the first man-made satellite to orbit a planet other than Earth was America'sMariner 9 which brought us the first close-ups of the Martian moons Phobos and Deimos. Launched toward Mars in May 1971, Mariner 9 arrived in a 12-hour orbit around the Red Planet in that November. Mariner 9 had two TV cameras which sent back 7,329 photos including close-ups of giant volcanoes, canyons and ancient riverbeds. 

The Soviet Union in 1971 finally achieved success with Mars 2 and Mars 3, which transmitted data on the harsh atmosphere. The lander from Mars 2 crashed on the surface while the lander from Mars 3 became the first to make a successful soft landing on Mars. However, shortly after the Mars 3 lander touched down on December 2, 1971, it stopped communicating.
Mars 2 and Mars 3 were identical spacecraft – each an orbiter with attached descent module. They were supposed to send back images of the surface along with information about weather conditions, the composition of the atmosphere, and chemical and mechanical properties of the soil. Each had two television cameras, a mass spectrometer to study the atmosphere, and temperature, pressure, and wind sensors. Each had a mechanical scoop to search for organic signs of life. 

Both Mars 2 and Mars 3 arrived in orbit over the Red Planet and dropped their descent modules, which were decorated with USSR flags. The descent modules had radar altimeters, cone-shaped aerodynamic braking shields, parachutes and retro-rockets. After landing, four triangular petals would open, turning the spacecraft upright and exposing the science instruments. 

Each lander carried a small maneuverable robot called PROP-M. Each lander would use a manipulator arm to place its rover on the surface in the field of view of its television cameras. Each rover could slide along on a pair of skis, traveling up to 50 feet, while remaining attached to the lander by a tether cable. Each rover had a penetrometer and a radiation densitometer and would stop for measurements every five feet. Movements in the Martian soil would be recorded. 

While Mars 2 crashed, Mars 3 made the first soft landing on Mars. After its descent module was separated from the orbiter, its descent engine fired. A braking parachute was deployed. Later, the main parachute popped out, the heat shield was ejected, and the radar altimeter was turned on. When the package was about 75-100 feet above the surface, the main parachute was cut loose and the retrorockets were fired. The entire entry and landing took about three minutes. It hit the ground at about 50 mph with its built-in shock absorbers preventing damage to the instruments. 

The four petals covering the Mars 3 lander opened and, 90 seconds later, the capsule began transmitting to the Mars 3 orbiter. Unfortunately, the transmission stopped after only 20 seconds and no further signals were received. It wasn't possible to tell what failed – the lander or the orbiter's communications relay. One partial panoramic image was relayed to Earth, but it was dark with no detail. Could the dark picture have been caused by a powerful dust storm taking place around the landing site at the time?
The USSR tried to send four probes to Mars in 1973-74. Mars 4 and Mars 5 were intended for orbit around the planet. Mars 5 succeeded. Mars 6 was to land on Mars, but crashed.Mars 7 missed the planet. 



Mariner 10 was launched on November 3, 1973, 12:45 am PST, from Cape Canaveral on an Atlas/Centaur rocket (a reconditioned Intercontinental Ballistic Missile - ICBM). Within 12 hours of launch the twin cameras were turned on and several hundred pictures of both the Earth and the Moon were acquired over the following days.

The Earth and Moon were imaged by Mariner 10 from 2.6 million km while completing the first ever Earth-Moon encounter by a spacecraft capable of returning high resolution digital color image data. These images have been combined at right to illustrate the relative sizes of the two bodies. From this particular viewpoint the Earth appears to be a water planet!


The Mariner 10 mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

Image Credit:
NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

Viking 1 and Viking 2 carried the American flag across millions of miles of interplanetary space to photograph Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and land on the Red Planet in 1976. The Vikings have been the most scientifically-profitable Martian operations to date.
Viking 1 launched September 9, 1975, arrived at Mars June 19, 1976, and landed.
Viking 2 launched August 20, 1975, arrived at Mars August 7, 1976, and landed.
Viking bio-tests turned up unusual chemical activity in the soil, but any finding of evidence of life remains controversial even today. At the time, the planet was said to be sterile. 

The 1980s 
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In 1988, the Soviet Union sent two probes to Mars. They were designed to explore the Sun while enroute, and then Mars and the Martian moon Phobos — the spacecraft were namedPhobos 1 and Phobos 2

A software glitch led to loss of contact with Phobos 1. 

Phobos 2 carried the USSR flag 111 million miles to Mars orbit on January 29, 1989. It detected water vapor in the Martian atmosphere and sent back some photos. However, a computer problem ended the its mission before the spacecraft could send a robot probe to land on the moon Phobos. 

The 1990s 
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In 1993, after a Mars-launch hiatus of 18 years, the U.S. sent a new spacecraft — Mars Observer — to look in on the Red Planet. Unfortunately, it's signal was lost three days before it was to fly into orbit around Mars. 

In 1996, America launched Mars Global Surveyor to map the Red Planet. MGS sent home more than 120,000 pictures along with data raising a possibility of water beneath the martian surface. 

Meanwhile, Russia tried to send its Mars 96 probe, but the spacecraft splashed into the Pacific Ocean at launch. 

The next year, America's Pathfinder landed on Mars. Millions of people on Earth watched as the lander sent out a rover named Sojourner for a close-up look at rocks and the terrain. Pathfinder sent back more than 20,000 images that made it seem Mars once might have been warm and wet. 

Japan launched its Planet-B interplanetary probe on July 3, 1998, to look for signs of water on Mars and measure the Red Planet's magnetic field. In space, it was renamed Nozomi, which is Japanese for Hope. The spacecraft was Japan's first interplanetary mission. Previously, only the United States and Russia had sent spacecraft to Mars. 

The U.S. suffered two setbacks from 1999 launches. Its Climate Orbiter was lost as it arrived at Mars. Then the signal from Polar Lander was lost when it was supposed to touch down near the south pole of the Red Planet. 

The 2000s 
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In 2001, the U.S. probe Mars Odyssey was sent to examine the composition of the Martian surface, to look for water and ice, and to study the radiation environment. In the process, it created the first large-scale geological map of the planet. 

The European Space Agency launched its probe Mars Express on June 2, 2003, to fly into orbit around Mars in January 2004, and drop a lander named Beagle 2 to the surface. 

Also in summer 2003, the U.S. sent two identical six-wheeled Mars Exploration Rovers – named Spirit and Opportunity – to land on the Martian surface. 

Meanwhile, the first Japanese Mars orbiter, Planet B or Nozomi, continues on its 4.5 year voyage from Earth to the Red Planet. 

The five craft – Mars Express with Beagle 2, Nozomi, and the twin Mars Exploration Rovers – will arrive in December 2003 and January 2004. 

The New Era 
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A new era of sophisticated robot interplanetary probes that may be launched from Earth by the United States, Europe, Japan, Russia and China in the 21st century will continue to teach us many new things about Mars and help us solve some old mysteries of the Solar System. 

Table of Mars Flights 
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Mars Probes at a Glance
1962 USSR Mars 1 radio contact lost
traveled 60 million miles
1964 USA Mariner 3 failed to achieve Mars trajectory
1964 USA Mariner 4 passed within 6200 miles 7/14/65
22 photos
1964 USSR Zond 2 passed Mars 1965
sent no data
1965 USSR Zond 3 enroute to Mars
flew within 5717 miles of Moon
sent 25 photos of far side of Moon
1969 USA Mariner 6 passed within 2100 miles of Mars 7/31/69
photographed equator, sent 100 photos
measured surface temperature
measured atmosphere pressure and composition
1969 USA Mariner 7 passed within 2200 miles of Mars 8/5/69
photographed southern hemisphere
and polar ice cap, 100 photos
measured surface temperature
atmosphere pressure and composition
1971 USA Mariner 8 launch failure
1971 USSR Mars 2 entered Mars orbit 11/71
studied surface and atmosphere
landing capsule crashed
1971 USSR Mars 3 entered Mars orbit 12/71
studied surface and atmosphere
lander successful
stopped transmitting 2 minutes after landing
1971 USA Mariner 9 orbited Mars 11/13/71
two TV cameras, sent 7329 photos
entire surface mapped
photos of Phobos and Deimos
studied atmosphere and surface temperature
saw violent planet-wide dust storm 9/71
spacecraft was turned off 10/72
1973 USSR Mars 4 braking rocket failed, craft overshot Mars 2/74
1973 USSR Mars 5 entered Mars orbit 2/74, snapped photos
quit working after few days
1973 USSR Mars 6 flew past Mars 3/74
dropped lander which crashed
1973 USSR Mars 7 flew past Mars 3/74
dropped lander which missed planet
1975 USA Viking 1 orbited Mars 1976
two TV cameras, 26,000 photos
lander parachuted to surface 7/20/76
weather station, seismometer, soil analyzer
seismometer failed
TV showed red rocky surface
dusty pink sky, sand dunes
no large life forms
soil mostly silicon and iron
temps 20 degrees to -120 degrees
winds 30 mph
lander worked 6.5 years on surface
1975 USA Viking 2 orbited Mars 1976
two TV cameras, 26,000 photos
lander parachuted to surface 9/3/76
weather station, seismometer and soil analyzer
found wind and minor marsquakes
red rocky surface, dusty pink sky, sand dunes
no large life forms
soil mostly silicon and iron
temps -20 degrees to -120 degrees
30 mph winds
lander worked 3.5 years on surface
1988 USSR Phobos 1 left Earth 7/7/88, traveled 12 million of 
111 million-mile route to Mars 
accidentally turned off by ground control 8/29/88
now aimless in solar orbit
1988 USSR Phobos 2 left Earth 7/12/88, arrived Mars 1/29/89 
mapped planet, found water vapor in atmosphere 
took photos of moon Phobos 
radio contact lost 3/27/89 
unable to drop hopping lander on Phobos 4/89
1992 USA Mars
launched 9/25/92, disappeared 8/21/93 
three days before it was due to arrive at Mars 
while preparing to brake to enter Mars orbit
1996 USA Mars
launched 11/7/96, arrived 9/12/97
mapping from 250 miles above Mars began 3/99
findings include signs of water under the surface
1996 Russia Mars 96 final stage failed in Earth orbit 11/17/96
failed to send craft on Mars trajectory
craft fell back to Earth
1996 USA Mars
launched 12/96, arrived 7/4/97, landed 7/4/97 
very successful, highly popular Sojourner rover 
Pathfinder worked until 9/27/97 
Pathfinder returned 2.6 billion bits of information 
including more than 16,000 lander images 
550 Sojourner rover images 
more than 15 chemical analyses of rocks 
and data on winds and weather
1998 USA Mars
launched 12/11/98, arrived 9/23/99 
lost as it entered orbit around Mars 
due to a math error by engineers who mixed 
metric measurements (newtons) with 
English units (pounds) to measure 
the strength of thruster firings
1998 Japan Nozomi
Planet B
launched 7/3/98, arrival 1/04 
orbiter to study the planet's environment 
first Japanese craft to reach another planet
1999 USA Mars
launched 1/3/99, arrived 12/3/99 
contact with Earth lost after presumed landing 
also lost Deep Space 2 pair of penetrators 
that were to have separated from Polar Lander 
to puncture the surface 35 miles away
2001 USA Mars
launched 4/7/01, arrived 10/24/01
to work in orbit through 8/04
mapping chemical elements and minerals
looking for hydrogen in subsurface water ice
relays communication for Mars landers
2003 ESA Mars
launched 6/2/03, arrival 1/04 
Mars Express to study the planet from orbit and 
drop Beagle 2 lander to explore the surface
2003 USA Mars
Rover A
to launch 6/03, arrival 1/04 
to land and explore
2003 USA Mars
Rover B
to launch 6/03, arrival 1/04 
to land and explore

Learn about future Mars probes
  • 2005 Orbiter
  • 2007 Scout
  • 2009 Smart Lander
  • 2014 Sample Return
  • 2024 Manned Flight

Space Today Online: 
Exploring Mars 
Mars Probes 
Probes of the Past 
Probes of the Future 
Mars Water 
Mars Canals 
Mars Air 
Mars Rocks 
Mars Seasons 
Mars Mountains 
Mars Rift Valley 
Mars Moons 
Mars Life Search 
Mars Dust Storms 
Mars Stats 
Mars Nearby 
Mars history 
Mars Resources 
Mars Orbiter 2005 
Mars Scout 2007
NASA Mars History: 
Rover Spirit 2003 
Rover Opportunity 2003 
Express 2003 
Odyssey 2001 
Polar Lander 1999 
Climate Orbiter 1998 
Deep Space 2 1999 
Global Surveyor 1996 
Pathfinder Lander 1996 
Rover Sojourner 1996 
Pathfinder Mission 1996 
Viking-1 Lander 1975 
Viking-2 Orbiter 1975 
Viking-1 Lander 1975 
Viking-1 Orbiter 1975 
Mariner 9 Orbiter 1971 
Mars 3 Lander 1971 
Mariner 4 Flyby 1964 
Viking Mission 1975 
Mars Meteorites - JPL
Explorations Planned: 
2003 & Beyond - Goddard 
2005 & Beyond - JPL 
Mars Exploration - JPL 
Plans to Explore Planets 

Solar System: 
Solar System - JPL 
Welcome to the Planets - JPL 
Planetary Photojournal - JPL 
Mars - Athena - NASA Ames 
Solar System Tour - BBC 
Mars - New York Times 
Windows...Universe - UMich 
Mars - Apollo Society 
Planetary Society 
Mars Society 
The Nine Planets 
Planet Mars Company 
Solar System - STO 
Solar System Tour
Artist conception of Mars with water four billion years ago
Solar System    Search STO    STO Cover    About STO    Questions       © 2004 Space Today Online



The Mariner program was a program conducted by the American space agency NASAin conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) that launched a series of robotic interplanetary probes designed to investigate Mars, Venus and Mercury from 1962 to 1973. The program included a number of firsts, including the first planetary flyby, the first pictures from another planet, the first planetary orbiter, and the first gravity assistmaneuver.

Of the ten vehicles in the Mariner series, seven were successful and three were lost.The planned Mariner 11 and Mariner 12 vehicles evolved into Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 of the Voyager program, while the Viking 1 and Viking 2 Mars orbiters were enlarged versions of the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Other Mariner-based spacecraft, launched since Voyager, included the Magellan probe to Venus, and the Galileo probe to Jupiter. A second-generation Mariner spacecraft, called the Mariner Mark II series, eventually evolved into the Cassini–Huygens probe, now in orbit around Saturn.

The total cost of the Mariner program was approximately $554 million.


This 1963 photo shows Dr. William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, presenting a Mariner 2 spacecraft model to President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James Webb is standing directly behind the Mariner model

All Mariner spacecraft were based on a hexagonal or octagonal "bus", which housed all of the electronics, and to which all components were attached, such as antennae, cameras, propulsion, and power sources. All of the Mariners launched after Mariner 2 had four solar panels for power, except for Mariner 10, which had two, and Mariner 2, which was based on the Ranger Lunar probe. Additionally, all except Mariner 1,Mariner 2 and Mariner 5 had TV cameras.

The first five Mariners were launched on Atlas-Agena rockets, while the last five used the Atlas-Centaur. All Mariner-based probes after Mariner 10used the Titan IIIE, Titan IV unmanned rockets or the Space Shuttle with a solid-fueled Inertial Upper Stage and multiple planetary flybys.

Mariners 1 and 2

Main articles: Mariner 1 and Mariner 2
Mariner 2 in space.jpg

Mariner 1 (P-37) and Mariner 2 (P-38) were two deep-space probes making up NASA's Mariner-R project. The primary goal of the project was to develop and launch two spacecraft sequentially to the near vicinity of the planet Venus, receive communications from the spacecraft and to perform radiometric temperature measurements of the planet. A secondary objective was to make interplanetary magnetic field and/or particle measurements on the way to Venus and in the vicinity of Venus. Mariner 1 (designated Mariner R-1) was launched on July 22, 1962, but was destroyed approximately 5 minutes after liftoff by the Air Force Range Safety Officer when its malfunctioning Atlas-Agena rocket went off course. Mariner 2 (designated Mariner R-2) was launched on August 27, 1962, sending it on a 3½-month flight to Venus. The mission was a success, and Mariner 2 became the first spacecraft to have flown by another planet.


Mariners 3 and 4


Main articles: Mariner 3 and Mariner 4
Mariner 3 and 4.jpg

Mariner 3 and Mariner 4 were Mars flyby missions.

Mariner 3 was lost when the launch vehicle's nose fairing failed to jettison. Its sister ship, Mariner 4, launched on November 28, 1964, was the first successful flyby of the planet Mars and gave the first glimpse of Mars at close range.


Mariner 5

Main article: Mariner 5

The Mariner 5 spacecraft was launched to Venus on June 14, 1967 and arrived in the vicinity of the planet in October 1967. It carried a complement of experiments to probe Venus' atmosphere with radio waves, scan its brightness in ultraviolet light, and sample the solar particles and magnetic fieldfluctuations above the planet.

Status: Mariner 5 – Defunct. Now in Heliocentric orbit.

Mariners 6 and 7[edit]

Main article: Mariner 6 and 7
Mariner 6and7.gif

Mariners 6 and 7 were identical teammates in a two-spacecraft mission to Mars. Mariner 6 was launched on February 24, 1969, followed by Mariner 7 on March 21, 1969. They flew over the equator and southern hemisphere of the planet Mars.


Mariners 8 and 9

Main articles: Mariner 8 and Mariner 9

Mariner 8 and Mariner 9 were identical sister craft designed to map the Martian surface simultaneously, but Mariner 8 was lost in a launch vehicle failure. Its identical sister craft, Mariner 9, was launched in May 1971 and became the first artificial satellite of Mars. It entered Martian orbit in November 1971 and began photographing the surface and analyzing the atmosphere with its infrared and ultraviolet instruments.


Mariner 10

Main article: Mariner 10

The Mariner 10 spacecraft launched on November 3, 1973 and was the first to use a gravity assist trajectory, accelerating as it entered the gravitational influence of Venus, then being flung by the planet's gravity onto a slightly different course to reach Mercury. It was also the first spacecraft to encounter two planets at close range, and for 33 years the only spacecraft to photograph Mercury in closeup.

Status: Mariner 10 – Defunct. Now in a Heliocentric orbit.

Mariner 11 and 12 plans

Originally, a Mariner 11 and Mariner 12 were planned as part of the Mariner program, however, due to congressional budget cuts, the mission was scaled back to be a flyby of Jupiter and Saturn, and renamed the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes. As the program progressed, the name was later changed to Voyager, as the probe designs began to differ greatly from previous Mariner missions. The Voyager program launched Voyager 1 and Voyager 2.


  1. Jump up^ "Mariner-Venus 1962 Final Project Report" (PDF). NASA Technical Reports Server. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b "Mariner Program". JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
  3. Jump up^ "Mariner Missions". NASA Science. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b c Chapter 11 "Voyager: The Grand Tour of Big Science" (sec. 268.), by Andrew,J. Butrica, found in From Engineering Science To Big Science ISBN 978-0-16-049640-0 edited by Pamela E. Mack, NASA, 1998
  5. Jump up^ Mariner 4, NSSDC Master Catalog
  6. Jump up^ "Untitled" (PDF). NASA Technical Reports Server. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
  7. Jump up^ "Tracking Information Memorandom: Mariner R 1 and 2"(PDF). NASA Technical Reports Server. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
  8. Jump up^ "Mariner R Spacecraft for Missions P-37/P-38" (PDF). NASA Technical Reports Server. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Pyle, Rod (2012). Destination Mars. Prometheus Books. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-61614-589-7. "Mariner 3, dead and still ensnared in its faulty launch shroud, in a large orbit around the sun."
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Pyle, Rod (2012). Destination Mars. Prometheus Books. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-61614-589-7. "It eventually joined its sibling, Mariner 3, dead ... in a large orbit around the sun."
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b c Pyle, Rod (2012). Destination Mars. Prometheus Books. pp. 61–66. ISBN 978-1-61614-589-7.
  12. Jump up^ NASA - This Month in NASA History: Mariner 9, November 29, 2011 — Vol. 4, Issue 9

See also





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