This page is double wide about 3/4 of the way down in Biblical times, so scroll sideways to get all the information there is. It was impossible to get all the facts on one screen.

Several Scholarly chronologies have been brought together here on one page for comparison. As you will see, there are major disagreements between scholars, and in many cases, there are total unknown quantities listed, no known years of Pharaonic reign, some Pharaohs, though probably in the right dynasty have no known reign period. We will continue to research this work, attempting to get correct placement of the events, the Biblical references and the Pharaonic reigns in their proper perspective.

This type of calculation can lead to wide margins of error.  The further back in time, the wider the margin, so that dates in the Early Dynastic Periods can be off by 50 to 200 years, while New Kingdom dates can be off by 20 years or  more.  After the 26th Dynasty, dates are more readily comparable to other events outside of KMT and the range of error is much less.

Many people use a calendar that is based upon the presumed date upon which Jesus of Nazareth was born. According to that calendar this is the year 1999 A.D. and the years are counted backward from the year one to events that occured before the birth of Jesus.

That is only one calendar system.  The Hebrew calendar, which is another calendar many people use today, starts on a date that some people believe is when the world was created according to the Old Testament.  According to that calendar, this is the year 5758 and there are no dates before the year one.  The Chinese also have a different calendar and so do many other people.

The ancient Egyptians set their calendar very differently than we are used to.  They kept a 365 day year, like we do, but they did not have a leap year to make up for the fact that the Earth takes 365 and a quarter days to travel around the sun.  Therefore the Egyptian civil calendar gradually grew out of step with the seasons.  The ancient Egyptians also only recognized three seasons: flooding, planting and harvesting (instead of spring, summer, fall and winter).

The ancient Egyptians also recorded years very differently than we are used to.  Each time a new Pharaoh came to power, the calendar was reset to year one.  For example, the ancient Egyptians would write that something happend on the 12th day of the of the 3rd month of the 2nd season in the 8th year of King Ramesses.  This makes it very hard to determine just when certain kings ruled because there is not one complete and reliable list of all of the kings and how long each of them ruled.  It is also hard, because there are not many starting dates that we can compare to other reliable events.


In order to be fair in this day of enightenment, we are presenting the precious wives and Mothers of these great Pharoahs.

The Lists of Antediluvian Kings: A Coded Document
by Dr. Patrice Guinard

-- translation Matyas Becvarov --

Note: This paper has been written in French for the Primeras Jornadas Internacionales de Historia de la Astrología en la Antiguedad, organized by the journal Beroso in Barcelona (March 24-25, 2001), and has been published in Spanish in the 4th edition of the journal (1st semestre 2001).


"One should not attribute any particular symbolic value to these numbers."
(Dominique Charpin, Le Déluge, Dossiers d'Archéologie, 204, 1995)

In The Legend of Adapa (attested before 1500 B.C.), Uanna, Hellenized as Oannes by Berossus and given the epithet Adapa ("The Wise"), appears in the reign of A-lulim, the first antediluvian king in the form of a man clothed to resemble a fish. He is the first of the apkallu (= AB.GAL in Sumerian), i.e. the seven sages sent by Ea to civilize human beings. Berossus relates the myth of Oannes (ca. 4500-4000 B.C.), a civilizing hero who ostensibly emerged from the waters of the Persian Gulf to give birth to Sumerian culture (writing, sciences, agriculture, city-dwelling).

Other mythic accounts of Sumerian origin are known, e.g. the famous Epic of Gilgamesh and the story Atrahasis (The Very Wise), which relate the event of the Flood and served as inspiration for the Bible. Between the appearance of Uanna-Oannes and the Flood episode there reigned some dozen kings according to the temple records of Nippur, the religious capital of Sumer, which was dedicated to the god Enlil. These kings are the so-called antediluvian rulers. After the Flood, the royal seat was moved to Kish.

The List of the Isin Dynasty (ca. 2000 B.C.)

The chronology of Mesopotamian kings, the earliest of them being mythical figures, extends from the earliest times up to the 18th century B.C. The record is found on some fifteen tablets, primarily from the archives of Nippur (cf. Thorkild Jacobsen, The Sumerian King List, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1939, and Jean-Jacques Glassner, Chroniques mésopotamiennes, Paris, Belles Lettres, 1993). Several lists exist, with the Sumerian names transcribed into Akkadian and dating from the Amorite dynasty of Larsa (ca. 1800 B.C.) or composed at Isin (ca. 1900 B.C.); the most complete text of the list is found in the collection of Weld-Blundell, and has been translated by Thorkild Jacobsen (op. cit., pp. 70-77):

1 - Eridu A-lulim 28.800 years = 8 saroi
2 - Eridu Alalgar 36.000 years = 10 saroi
3 - Bad-tibira En-men-lu-Anna 43.200 years = 12 saroi
4 - Bad-tibira En-men-gal-Anna 28.800 years = 8 saroi
5 - Bad-tibira Dumu-zi 36.000 years = 10 saroi
6 - Larak En-sipa-zi-Anna 28.800 years = 8 saroi
7 - Sippar En-men-dur-Anna 21.000 years = 5,833 saroi
8 - Shuruppak Ubar-Tutu 18.600 years = 5,166 saroi

The ancient Sumerian system of numeration was sexagesimal (based on 60), which gave rise to our division of the hour into 60 minutes and of the circle into 360 degrees. The key names of the numbers were 1, GES or GESH; 60, also GES or GESH (the base unit); 3600, SAR or SHAR ... The disappearance of Sumerian numeration can be dated to the 15th century B.C. (cf. Georges Ifrah, Histoire universelle des chiffres, Paris, 1981; Paris, Laffont, 1994).

All the numbers are divisible by 3600, with the exception of the last two, which are divisible globally. Hence the last two antediluvian kings are said to have reigned for eleven periods. In total, five cities were governed by eight kings during 67 saroi, or periods of reign.

I suggest a double decoding principle, as follows: the total sum of the duration of the reigns in question, and the sum of the products of those durations (beginning at each end and calculating toward the center value), two by two, the first combined with the last, the second with the seventh, the third with the sixth, and the fourth with the fifth.

This approach yields 67 for the first sum, and 275.658 (= 41.328 + 58.33 + 96 + 80) for the second value. Subsequently I multiply the first value by 10 and divide the second by 10 (the reasons for this operation follow below). The results are 670 and 27.5658 respectively.

These numbers are those of the cycle of the eclipses and of the anomalistic cycle of the moon. In point of fact, solar and lunar eclipses recur at the same moment after each 54 years, or 669 synodic months (approximation 0.15%). By synodic rotation of the moon is understood the interval between two full moons or two new moons. The period of 54 years is attested in a tablet from Uruk (cf. F. Thureau-Dangin, "Tablettes d'Uruk," Textes Cunéiformes du Louvre, 6, Paris, 1922, and Bartel van der Waerden, Science Awakening II: the Birth of Astronomy, 1965; English rev. ed., Leyden, Noordhoff, 1974, p. 103).

One-third of this period of 54 years, called saros by the Greeks, i.e. 18 years and 11.3 days, is the classic cycle of solar and lunar eclipses, and includes 29 lunar eclipses and 41 solar eclipses. The Saros cycle is the period of return of the Sun and Moon to their initial positions relative to the Earth: this return is possible because of synchronization between the synodic and anomalistic revolutions of the Moon. In effect, the period includes exactly 223 synodic lunar cycles and 239 anomalistic revolutions. The anomalistic revolution is the interval of time that separates two passages of the Moon at its perigee across the point where it is closest to the Earth. This relation between synodic months and anomalistic months of the Moon was known to Babylonian astronomers, who used it to predict the return of lunar and solar eclipses. Van der Waerden points out that "The duration of an eclipse is highly influenced by the anomalistic movement of the Moon, but that influence is neutralized if one takes these 223 months as a block" (op. cit., p. 103).

The second number (27.5658) is that of the anomalistic lunar cycle (in reality 27.555, or an approximation of 0.04%). Hence these two numbers relate to extremely precise data concerning knowledge of lunar motion, and take on even more significant shape if one keeps in mind that it was Ishbi-Erra (2017-1985 B.C.), the founder of the Isin Dynasty, who imposed on the greater part of southern Mesopotamia the lunar calendar of Nippur, to the detriment of numerous local competing calendars (cf. Mark Cohen, The Cultic Calendars of the Ancient Near East, Bethesda (Md.), CDL Press, 1993).

Hence the list of antediluvian kings of the Isin Dynasty is an encoding of astronomical data concerning the various lunar periods. The number 10, which serves as multiplier and divisor in this coding, was not chosen arbitrarily, since it was probably at this point, perhaps even under the Isin Dynasty, that the decimal system replaced the Sumerian hexagesimal system.

The List of Berossus (ca. 747 B.C.)

Berossus, the Hellenized Chaldean philosopher/astrologer, proposes in his Babyloniaca (in the first section of Book II) a second list of antediluvian kings who reigned after the appearance of Oannes, this time including ten sovereigns, four cities and 120 periods of reign (the two following sections of his Book II are devoted to a description of the Flood and to the post-diluvian kings).

Berossus borrowed his narrative from the archives of Babylonia-Borsippa, and these archives themselves, with regard to the Creation and the first ages of the world, copied revelations ostensibly inscribed on tablets by Oannes, the first fish-man and "the inventor of letters, sciences and arts, the founder of laws, cities and all civilization. " (Joseph Bidez, "Les écoles chaldéennes sous Alexandre et les Séleucides," in Mélanges Capart, Brussels, 1935, p. 50).

1 - Babylone Alôros (Aloros) = 1 A-lulim 36.000 years = 10 saroi
2 - Babylone Alaparos = 2 Alalgar 10.800 years = 3 saroi
3 - Pautibiblon Amęlôn (Amelon) = 3 En-men-lu-Anna 46.800 years = 13 saroi
4 - Pautibiblon Ammenôn (Ammenon) = 4 En-men-gal-Anna 43.200 years = 12 saroi
5 - Pautibiblon Megalaros (Amegalaros) 64.800 years = 18 saroi
6 - Pautibiblon Daônos ou Daôs (Daonos) = 5 Dumu-zi 36.000 years = 10 saroi
7 - Pautibiblon Euedôrachos (Euedorachos) = 7 En-men-dur-Anna 64.800 years = 18 saroi
8 - Larak Amempsinos = 6 En-sipa-zi-Anna 36.000 years = 10 saroi
9 - Larak Opartes (Otiartes) = 8 Ubar-Tutu 28.800 years = 8 saroi
10 - Shuruppak Xisouthros 64.800 years = 18 saroi

I use transcriptions of the Hellenized names given by Berossus, from G. Contenau (Le déluge babylonien, Paris, 1941; rev. ed. Paris, Payot, 1952, p. 56), and, where a difference occurs, those of Stanley Burstein in parentheses (cf. The Babyloniaca of Berossus, Malibu (Ca.), Sources and Monographs of the Ancient Near East, Undena Publications, 1978, pp. 18-19). Any correspondences with the sovereigns of the first list are also indicated.

Xisouthros is the Ziusuddu (or Ziusudra) of the Sumerian flood story, and En-men-dur-Anna (or Enmenduranki) is the celebrated inventor of divination: he "is held to have invented mantic methods, the various ways of divining the future. What is his name? En-me-dur-an-an, or rather En-me-dur-an-ki, which means: 'the lord of the decrees of heaven and earth.' (...) [He is] the inventor of divination, the principles of which the gods revealed to him, and of whom diviners in ages afterward can be called sons." (G. Contenau, Le déluge babylonien, Paris, Payot, 1952, pp. 49 and 59). One notices that the order of succession for the rulers is not identical in the two chronologies, and that En-men-dur-Anna figures as the seventh sovereign in both lists.

In the second chronology all the durations of reign are divisible by 3600, and the overlap with the first list is obvious: in the latter, four cities ruled by ten kings; in the former, five cities ruled by eight kings. Moreover, the sum of the first four reigns equals 38 [= 19 X 2] in both chronologies, and to the two supplemental rulers there is attributed a period of 18 saroi, the period in question being the cycle of the eclipses observable in the first chronology. In addition, the difference between the total durations of the two chronologies equals 53, or even 54 if one counts only periods of complete reign, and 54 is the number of the great cycle of the eclipses.

Proceeding in the same fashion for the later list (total sum, and sum of the products taken two by two, from the beginning and end to the center), and using two as the code number (since it is here a question of a second list, so the number two symbolizes the redoubling of coding from the first chronology), I obtain the numbers 240 and 365 [= (180 + 24 + 130 + 216 + 180) / 2].

The number 240 is an approximation (0.42%) of the number of anomalistic revolutions of the Moon within the cycle of the saros, and of the average of the numbers of anomalistic (239) and draconitic (242) revolutions of the Moon (approximation 0.20%). Thus it harks back to the first chronology. The number 365 is that of the days in the year (approximation 0.07%), and also the number of double hours in a solar month, since the day was divided into twelve beru of two hours each. The chronology may encode the introduction to the Zodiac vis-ŕ-vis the underlying solar calendar.

It is known that under Nabonassar a new calendar was instituted that introduced seven supplementary months over a period of nineteen years (i.e., 235 lunar cycles). Berossus writes: "Nabonasaros [Nabu-Nasir] gathered and destroyed the archives concerning the kings who preceded him, so that the Chaldean king list would commence with him." (Babyloniaka, 2.5.1, Burstein edition, p. 22.) This reorganization of the archives corresponds to the dawning of a new era following a major scientific discovery: the synchronization of the lunar and solar calendars.

Taking up again the numbers of Berossus' list, and working out the sum of the products of the reigns by city (Babylon, Shuruppak and Pautibiblon, Larak) the results are: [(10 + 3) X 18] + [(13 + 12 + 18 + 10 + 18) X (10 + 8)], which equals 1512.

Berossus also indicates that Alaparos was the son of Aloros, and Xisouthros the son of Otiartes. Calculating the sum of the products of the reigns two by two, and merging the duration of the reigns relative to Alaparos-Aloros and Xisouthros-Otiartes, the results are: [(10 +3) X (8 + 18)] + (13 X 10) + (12 X 18) + (18 X 10), which equals 864.

These numbers, 1512 and 864, are both multiples of 216.
1512 is equal to 216 X 7 (7 being the number of days in the week), and 864 is equal to 216 X 4 (4 being the number of seasons in the year, or the number of weeks in the lunar month). Hence, the introduction of the week of seven days, attested later, may have been conceptualized in this earlier epoch.

What is more, the number 216, equal to 18 (= cycle of saros) times 12 (= months in the solar year), but also 8 X 27 (= days in the solar month), or even 235 (= lunar cycles) - 19 (= solar years), could be the key to understanding the important astronomical discovery of the coincidence of lunar and solar cycles.

We know that the Chinese established in the 6th century B.C. a new calendar based on the cycle of 19 years, or 235 lunar cycles, which is to say, 12 years of 12 lunar months and 7 years of 13 lunar months, and that this cycle of 19 years was reformulated by the Greek Meton of Athens in 430 B.C.

Astronomy, Myth and Celestial Mathematics

No satisfactory explanation has ever been given before for the duration of the reigns in question. Some interpreters have suggested a basis in the great eras defined in Indian thought and have therefore assumed a relationship with the yugas. Others have believed it possible to find in the durations evidence of the precession of the equinoxes. Setting ourselves here to a more modest scale, we have made explicit knowledge attested by the Mesopotamians themselves, but in an earlier epoch, which seems the more likely explanation. It seems plausible to me that such scientific knowledge could have embedded itself in myth (e.g., the legendary sovereigns before the Flood) and crystallized in the form of numbers. It is only thus that the three levels of the Triad (cf. my "Du Sémiotique ŕ l'Astral," 04semas.html ) or the three "worlds" can find a point of commonality and harmony. So astronomical fact, encoded by means of simple arithmetic (but apparently complex enough to have escaped notice in the repeated analyses of rationalistic thought), reveals itself through myth. The Ancients reasoned differently with regard to the pertinence and extension of knowledge. "Empirical fact" needed Myth in order to magnify it, and Number in order to reveal it. All of society benefitted from that approach, and knowledge in those societies was never something hidden, but rather was accessible to the intelligence and perspicacity of those who possess such gifts. The myths and monuments that crystallized such knowledge were available to all people. It is rather modern society, with its incapacity really to understand otherness -- as well as its bondage to its own ego -- that masks this lack of availability through a panoply of experts who remain useless and deaf to dialogue, through a body of knowledge reserved for specialists and shut away in inaccessible places, and through an absurd complexity of data and results. Descartes lived his philosophy like a series of battles. This particular battle, that I have waged now for several years, has led me to conclusions that I find satisfying in part.

home : index : ancient Mesopotamia

Sumerian King List

Statuette of a Sumerian
Sumerian King List: list of rulers of ancient Sumer, used as a framework for the study of Mesopotamian chronology. Sixteen copies (indicated as A, B, C... P) of this text are known, all of them written in Sumerian, although some of them clearly show Akkadian influence. The text appears to have been composed in the late third millennium BCE (Ur III period), and was later updated. The sequence of cities is identical to the Eridu Genesis.

The text presented here is based on version G, an octagonal prism from Larsa.

In Joseph Campbell's, The Inner Reaches Of Outer Space, he writes about the similarity between the Babylonian and Genesis flood stories. In the Babylonian or Sumerian story, there were ten kings who lived very long lives from creation to the time of the flood. This is given as a total of 432,000 years.

Sumerian King List (a version)

































Total years =


In the Biblical account, there were ten patriarchs between Adam and Noah, who also lived long lives. Noah was 600 years old at the time of the landing of the Ark on the mountains of Ararat (in present day Turkey). The total years add up to 1,656.

Dates in Genesis

Age wen
Begging Son

Age at
Time of Death

Adam (Gen 5:3-5)



Seth (Gen 5:6-8)



Enosh (Gen 5:911)



Kenon (Gen 5:12-14)



Mahalalel (Gen 5:15-17)



Jared (Gen 5:18-20)



Enoch (Gen 5:21-24)



Methuselah (Gen 5:25-27)



Lamech (Gen 5:28-31)



Noah (Gen 7:6)

when Flood came

Total years until Flood =


In 1,656 years, there are 86,400 weeks, and half that number is 43,200. There are myths about cycles in time, and out of time, so this doubling/halving is not uncommon. He believed that someone carefully gave the age of Noah to secretly hide the time cycle number.


After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridu.
In Eridu, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28,800 years.
Alalgar ruled for 36,000 years.
Two kings; they ruled for 64800 years.
Then Eridu fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira.
In Bad-tibira, Enmen-lu-ana ruled for 43,200 years.
Enmen-gal-ana ruled for 28,800 years.
The divine Dumuzi, the shepherd, ruled for 36,000 years.
Three kings; they ruled for 108,000 years.
Then Bad-tibira fell and the kingship was taken to Larak.
In Larak, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28,800 years.
One king; he ruled for 28,800 years.
Then Larak fell and the kingship was taken to Sippar.
In Sippar, Enmen-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21,000 years.
One king; he ruled for 21000 years.
Then Sippar fell and the kingship was taken to Šuruppak.
In Šuruppak, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18,600 years.
One king; he ruled for 18,600 years.
Five cities; eight kings ruled for 385,200sic years.
Then the Flood swept over.
After the Flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kiš.
In Kiš, Gišur became king; he ruled for 1,200 years.
Kullassina-bęl ruled for 900 years.
Nan-GIŠ-lišma ruled for 1,200 years.
En-dara-ana ruled for 420 years, 3 months, and 3˝ days.
Babum ruled for 300 years.
Pu'annum ruled for 840 years.
Kalibum ruled for 900 years.
Kalumum ruled for 840 years.
Zuqaqip ruled for 900 years.
Atab ruled for 600 years.
Mašda, son of Atab, ruled for 840 years.
Arwi'um, son of Mašda, ruled for 720 years.
Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and put all countries in order, became king; he ruled for 1,500 years.
Balih, son of Etana, ruled for 400 years.
Enme-nuna ruled for 660 years.
Melem-Kiš, son of Enme-nuna, ruled for 900 years.
Barsal-nuna, son of Enme-nuna, ruled for 1,200 years.
Samug, son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years.
Tizkar, son of Samug, ruled for 305 years.
Ilku'u ruled for 900 years.
Ilta-sadum ruled for 1200 years.
Enmen-baragesi, who destroyed Elam's weapons, became king; he ruled for 900 years.
Agga, son of Enmen-baragesi, ruled for 625 years.
Twenty-three kings ruled for 23,310 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Eanna.
In Eanna, Meš-ki'ag-gašer, son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for 324 years. Meš-ki'ag-gašer entered the sea and disappeared.
Enmekar, son of Meš-ki'ag-gašer, the king of Uruk, who built Uruk, became king; he ruled for 420 years.
The divine Lugal-banda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years.
The divine Dumuzi, the fisherman, whose city was Ku'ara, ruled for 100.
Gilgameš, whose father was an invisible being, the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years.
Ur-Nungal, son of the divine Gilgameš, ruled for 30 years.
Udul-kalama, son of Ur-Nungal, ruled for 15 years.
La-bašer ruled for 9 years.
Ennun-dara-ana ruled for 8 years.
Mešhe, the smith, ruled for 36 years.
Melem-ana ruled for 6 years.
Lugal-ki-GIN ruled for 36 years.
Twelve kings ruled for 2310 years.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ur.
In Ur, Mes-ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years.
Meš-ki'ag-Nuna, son of Mes-ane-pada, became king; he ruled for 36 year.
Elulu ruled for 25 years.
Balulu ruled for 36 years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:)
Four kings ruled for 177 years.
Then Ur was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.
In Awan, [...] became king; he ruled for [...] years.
[...]-Lu ruled for [...] years.
Kul[...] ruled for 36 years.
Three kings ruled for 356 years.
Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš.
In Kiš, Su-suda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 200+N years.
Dadase ruled for 81 years.
Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for 240+N years.
Kalbum, son of Mamagal, ruled for 195 years.
TUG ruled for 360 years.
Men-nuna ruled for 180 years.
Enbi-Ištar ruled for 290 years.
Lugalgu ruled for 360 years.
Eight kings they ruled for 3195sic years.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.
In Hamazi, Hataniš became king; he ruled for 360 years.
One king ruled for 360 years.
Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk.
In Uruk, En-šakuš-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years.
Lugal-ure ruled for 120 years.
Argandea ruled for 7 years.
Three kings ruled for 187 years.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ur.
In Ur, Nanne became king; he ruled for 54+N years.
Mes-ki'ag-Nanna, son of Nanne, ruled for 48 years.
[...], the son of [...], ruled for 2 years.
Three kings ruled for [...] years.
Then Ur was defeated and the kingship was taken to Adab.
In Adab, Lugal-ane-mundu became king; he ruled for 90 years.
One king ruled for 90 years.
Then Adab was defeated and the kingship was taken to Mari.
In Mari, Anubu became king; he ruled for 30 years.
Anba, son of Anubu, ruled for 17 years.
Bazi, the leather worker, ruled for 30 years.
Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years.
Lim-er, the pašišu-priest, ruled for 30 years.
Šarrum-iter ruled for 9 years.
Six kings ruled for 136 years.
Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš.
In Kiš, Ku-Baba, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kiš, became king; she ruled for 100 years.
One queen ruled for 100 years.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Akšak.
In Akšak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years.
Undalulu ruled for 6 years.
Urur ruled for 6 years.
Puzur-Nirah ruled for 20 years.
Išu-Il ruled for 24 years.
Šu-Sin, son of Išu-Il, ruled for 7 years.
Six kings ruled for 93 years.
Then Akšak was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš.
In Kiš, Puzur-Sin, son of Ku-Baba, became king; he ruled for 25 years.
Ur-Zababa, son of Puzur-Sin, ruled for 400.
Simudara ruled for 30 years.
Usi-watar ruled for 7 years.
Ištar-muti ruled for 11 years.
Išme-Šamaš ruled for 11 years.
Nanniya, the stonecutter, ruled for 7 years.
Seven kings ruled for 491 years.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk.
In Uruk, Lugalzagesi became king; he ruled for 25 years. (2341-2316)
One king ruled for 25 years.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Agade.
In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade; he ruled for 56 years. (2335-2279)
Rimuš, son of Sargon, ruled for 9 years. (2279-2270)
Maništušu, the older brother of Rimuš, son of Sargon, ruled for 15 years. (2270-2255)
Naram-Sin, son of Maništušu, ruled for 56 years. (2255-2218)
Šar-kali-šarri, son of Naram-Sin, ruled for 25 years. (2218-2193)
Then who was king? Who was not king?
Irgigi was king, Nanum was king, Imi was king, Elulu was king; those four kings ruled 3 years. (2193-2190)
Dudu ruled for 21 years. (2190-2169)
Šu-Durul, son of Dudu, ruled for 15 years. (2169-2154)
Eleven kings ruled for 181 years.
Then Agade was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk.
In Uruk, Ur-nigin became king; he ruled for 7 years. (2154-2147)
Ur-gigir, son of Ur-nigin, ruled for 6 years. (2147-2141)
Kuda ruled for 6 years. (2141-2135)
Puzur-ili ruled for 5 years. (2135-2130)
Ur-Utu ruled for 6 years. (2130-2124)
Five kings ruled for 30 years.
Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to the army of Gutium.
The army of Gutium, a king whose name is unknown.
Nibia became king; he ruled for 3 years.
Then Ingišu ruled for 6 years.
Ikukum-la-qaba ruled for 6 years.
Šulme ruled for 6 years.
Silulumeš ruled for 6 years.
Inimabakeš ruled for 5 years.
Ige'a'uš ruled for 6 years.
I'ar-la-qaba ruled for years.
Ibate ruled for 3 years.
Yarla ruled for 3 years.
Kurum ruled for 1 year.
Apil-kin ruled for 3 years.
La'arabum ruled for 2 years.
Irarum ruled for 2 years.
Ibranum ruled for 1 year.
Hablum ruled for 2 years.
Puzur-Sin, son of Hablum, ruled for 7 years.
Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years
Si'u ruled for 7 years.
Tiriga ruled for 40 days.
Twenty-one kings ruled for 91 years and 40 days.
Then the army of Gutium was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk.
In Uruk, Utu-hegal became king; he ruled for 420 years and 7 days. (2124-2113)
One king ruled for 427 years and 6sic days.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ur.
In Ur, Ur-Nammu became king; he ruled for 18 years. (2113-2095)
Šulgi, son of Ur-Nammu, ruled for 46 years. (2095-2047)
Amar-Sin, son of Šulgi, ruled for 9 years. (2047-2038)
Šu-Sin, son of Amar-Sin, ruled for 9 years. (2038-2029)
Ibbi-Sin, son of Šu-Sin, ruled for 24 years. (2029-2004)
Foursic kings ruled for 108sic years.
Then Ur was defeated. The kingship was taken to Isin.
In Isin, Išbi-Irra became king; he ruled for 33 years. (2018-1985)
The divine Šu-ilišu, son of Išbi-Irra, ruled for 20 years. (1985-1975)
Iddin-Dagan, son of Šu-ilišu, ruled for 21 years. (1975-1954)
Išme-Dagan, son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for 20 years. (1954-1935)
Lipit-Ištar, son of Išme-Dagan, ruled for 11 years. (1935-1924)
The divine Ur-Ninurta ruled for 28 years. (1924-1896)
Bur-Sin, son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years. (1896-1874)
Lipit-Enlil, son of Bur-Sin, ruled for 5 years. (1864-1869)
The divine Irra-imitti ruled for 8 years. (1869-1861)
The divine Enlil-bani ruled for 24 years. (1861-1837)
The divine Zambija ruled for 3 years. (1837-1834)
The divine Iter-piša ruled for 4 years. (1834-1831)
Urdukuga ruled for 4 years. (1831-1828)
Sin-magir ruled for 11 years. (1828-1817)
Damiq-ilišu, son of Sin-magir, ruled for 23 years. (1817-1794)
Thirteensic kings ruled for 213 years.
Hand of Nur-Ninšubur.

After this, tablet B, from Nippur, adds some totals:
A total of thirty-nine kings ruled for 14409+N years, 3 months and 3˝ days; four dynasties in Kiš.
A total of twenty-two kings ruled for 2610+N years, 6 months and 15 days; five dynasties in Uruk.
A total of twelve kings ruled for 396 years, 3 dynasties in Ur.
A total of three kings ruled for 356 years; one dynasty in Awan.
A total of one king ruled for 420 years; one dynasty in Hamazi.
A total of one king ruled for 90 years; one dynasty in Adab.
A total of six kings ruled for 136 years; one dynasty in Mari.
A total of six kings ruled for 99 years; one dynasty in Akšak.
A total of eleven kings ruled for 197 years; one dynasty in Agade.
A total of twenty-one kings ruled for 125 years and 40 days; one dynasty in Gutium.
A total of eleven kings ruled for 159 years; one dynasty in Isin.
Eleven royal cities. Their total: 134 kings. Total: 28,876+N years, N months, N days.

A tablet from Nippur (CM 2) is an addition to the Sumerian King List. It is too damaged to make sense of it.
[...] reigned 4+N years.
Ur[...], son of a man whose name is not known, ruled for 8 years.
Sumuabum reigned 8 months.
Ikun-pi-Ištar became king; he ruled for [...] years.
A total of N kings ruled for 125+n years; six dynasties of [...]a.

Jona Lendering © 2006
Latest revision: 10 May 2007

home : index : ancient Mesopotamia




WE find allusions to the Atlanteans in the most ancient traditions of many different races.

The great antediluvian king of the Mussulman was Shedd-Ad-Ben-Ad, or Shed-Ad, the son of Ad, or Atlantis.

Among the Arabians the first inhabitants of that country are known as the Adites, from their progenitor, who is called Ad, the grandson of Ham. These Adites were probably the people of Atlantis or Ad-lantis. "They are personified by a monarch to whom everything is ascribed, and to whom is assigned several centuries of life." ("Ancient History of the East," Lenormant and Chevallier, vol. ii., p. 295.), Ad came from the northeast. "He married a thousand wives, had four thousand sons, and lived twelve hundred years. His descendants multiplied considerably. After his death his sons Shadid and Shedad reigned in succession over the Adites. In the time of the latter the people of Ad were a thousand tribes, each composed of several thousands of men. Great conquests are attributed to Shedad; he subdued, it is said, all Arabia and Irak. The migration of the Canaanites, their establishment in Syria, and the Shepherd invasion of Egypt are, by many Arab writers, attributed to an expedition of Shedad." (Ibid., p. 296.)

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Shedad built a palace ornamented with superb columns, and surrounded by a magnificent garden. It was called Irem. "It was a paradise that Shedad had built in imitation of the celestial Paradise, of whose delights he had heard." ("Ancient History of the East," p. 296.) In other words, an ancient, sun-worshipping, powerful, and conquering race overran Arabia at the very dawn of history; they were the sons of Adlantis: their king tried to create a palace and garden of Eden like that of Atlantis.

The Adites are remembered by the Arabians as a great and civilized race. "They are depicted as men of gigantic stature; their strength was equal to their size, and they easily moved enormous blocks of stone." (Ibid.) They were architects and builders. "They raised many monuments of their power; and hence, among the Arabs, arose the custom of calling great ruins "buildings of the Adites." To this day the Arabs say "as old as Ad." In the Koran allusion is made to the edifices they built on "high places for vain uses;" expressions proving that their "idolatry was considered to have been tainted with Sabćism or star-worship." (Ibid.) "In these legends," says Lenormant, "we find traces of a wealthy nation, constructors of great buildings, with an advanced civilization, analogous to that of Chaldea, professing a religion similar to the Babylonian; a nation, in short, with whom material progress was allied to great moral depravity and obscene rites. These facts must be true and strictly historical, for they are everywhere met with among the Cushites, as among the Canaanites, their brothers by origin."

Nor is there wanting a great catastrophe which destroys the whole Adite nation, except a very few who escape because they had renounced idolatry. A black cloud assails their country, from which proceeds a terrible hurricane (the water-spout?) which sweeps away everything.

The first Adites were followed by a second Adite race; probably the colonists who had escaped the Deluge. The centre of its power was the country of Sheba proper. This empire

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endured for a thousand years. The Adites are represented upon the Egyptian monuments as very much like the Egyptians themselves; in other words, they were a red or sunburnt race: their great temples were pyramidal, surmounted by buildings. ("Ancient History of the East," p. 321.) "The Sabćans," says Agatharchides ("De Mari Erythrćo," p. 102), "have in their houses an incredible number of vases, and utensils of all sorts, of gold and silver, beds and tripods of silver, and all the furniture of astonishing richness. Their buildings have porticos with columns sheathed with gold, or surmounted by capitals of silver. On the friezes, ornaments, and the framework of the doors they place plates of gold incrusted with precious stones."

All this reminds one of the descriptions given by the Spaniards of the temples of the sun in Peru.

The Adites worshipped the gods of the Phśnicians under names but slightly changed; "their religion was especially solar... It was originally a religion without images, without idolatry, and without a priesthood." (Ibid., p. 325.) They "worshipped the sun from the tops of pyramids." (Ibid.) They believed in the immortality of the soul.

In all these things we see resemblances to the Atlanteans.

The great Ethiopian or Cushite Empire, which in the earliest ages prevailed, as Mr. Rawlinson says, "from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean, from the shores of the Mediterranean to the mouth of the Ganges," was the empire of Dionysos, the empire of "Ad," the empire of Atlantis. El Eldrisi called the language spoken to this day by the Arabs of Mahrah, in Eastern Arabia, "the language of the people of Ad," and Dr. J. H. Carter, in the Bombay Journal of July, 1847, says, "It is the softest and sweetest language I have ever heard." It would be interesting to compare this primitive tongue with the languages of Central America.

The god Thoth of the Egyptians, who was the god of a foreign country, and who invented letters, was called At-hothes.

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We turn now to another ancient race, the Indo-European family--the Aryan race.

In Sanscrit Adim, means first. Among the Hindoos the first man was Ad-ima, his wife was Heva. They dwelt upon an island, said to be Ceylon; they left the island and reached the main-land, when, by a great convulsion of nature, their communication with the parent land was forever cut off. (See "Bible in India.")

Here we seem to have a recollection of the destruction of Atlantis.

Mr. Bryant says, "Ad and Ada signify the first." The Persians called the first man "Ad-amah." "Adon" was one of the names of the Supreme God of the Phśnicians; from it was derived the name of the Greek god "Ad-onis." The Arv-ad of Genesis was the Ar-Ad of the Cushites; it is now known as Ru-Ad. It is a series of connected cities twelve miles in length, along the coast, full of the most massive and gigantic ruins.

Sir William Jones gives the tradition of the Persians as to the earliest ages. He says: "Moshan assures us that in the opinion of the best informed Persians the first monarch of Iran, and of the whole earth, was Mashab-Ad; that he received from the Creator, and promulgated among men a sacred book, in a heavenly language, to which the Mussulman author gives the Arabic title of 'Desatir,' or 'Regulations.' Mashab-Ad was, in the opinion of the ancient Persians, the person left at the end of the last great cycle, and consequently the father of the present world. He and his wife having survived the former cycle, were blessed with a numerous progeny; he planted gardens, invented ornaments, forged weapons, taught men to take the fleece from sheep and make clothing; he built cities, constructed palaces, fortified towns, and introduced arts and commerce."

We have already seen that the primal gods of this people are identical with the gods of the Greek mythology, and were

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originally kings of Atlantis. But it seems that these ancient divinities are grouped together as "the Aditya;" and in this name "Ad-itya" we find a strong likeness to the Semitic "Adites," and another reminiscence of Atlantis, or Adlantis. In corroboration of this view we find,

1. The gods who are grouped together as the Aditya are the most ancient in the Hindoo mythology.

2. They are all gods of light, or solar gods. (Whitney's Oriental and Linguistic Studies," p. 39.)

3. There are twelve of them. (Ibid.)

4. These twelve gods presided over twelve months in the year.

5. They are a dim recollection of a very remote past. Says Whitney, "It seems as if here was an attempt on the part of the Indian religion to take a new development in a moral direction, which a change in the character and circumstances of the people has caused to fail in the midst, and fall back again into forgetfulness, while yet half finished and indistinct." (Ibid.)

6. These gods are called "the sons of Aditi," just as in the Bible we have allusions to "the sons of Adab," who were the first metallurgists and musicians. "Aditi is not a goddess. She is addressed as a queen's daughter, she of fair children."

7. The Aditya "are elevated above all imperfections; they do not sleep or wink." The Greeks represented their gods as equally wakeful and omniscient. "Their character is all truth; they hate and punish guilt." We have seen the same traits ascribed by the Greeks to the Atlantean kings.

8. The sun is sometimes addressed as an Aditya.

9. Among the Aditya is Varuna, the equivalent of Uranos, whose identification with Atlantis I have shown. In the vedas Varuna is "the god of the ocean."

10. The Aditya represent an earlier and purer form of religion: "While in hymns to the other deities long: life, wealth, power, are the objects commonly prayed for, of the Aditya is

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craved purity, forgiveness of sin, freedom from guilt, and repentance." ("Oriental and Linguistic Studies," p. 43.)

11. The Aditya, like the Adites, are identified with the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. Yama is the god of the abode beyond the grave. In the Persian story he appears as Yima, and "is made ruler of the golden age and founder of the Paradise." (Ibid., p. 45.) (See "Zamna," p. 167 ante.)

In view of all these facts, one cannot doubt that the legends of the "sons of Ad," "the Adites," and "the Aditya," all refer to Atlantis.

Mr. George Smith, in the Chaldean account of the Creation (p. 78), deciphered from the Babylonian tablets, shows that there was an original race of men at the beginning of Chaldean history, a dark race, the Zalmat-qaqadi, who were called Ad-mi, or Ad-ami; they were the race "who had fallen," and were contradistinguished from "the Sarku, or light race." The "fall" probably refers to their destruction by a deluge, in consequence of their moral degradation and the indignation of the gods. The name Adam is used in these legends, but as the name of a race, not of a man.

Genesis (chap. v., 2) distinctly says that God created man male and female, and "called their name Adam." That is to say, the people were the Ad-ami, the people of "Ad," or Atlantis. "The author of the Book of Genesis," says M. Schśbel, "in speaking of the men who were swallowed up by the Deluge, always describes them as 'Haadam,' 'Adamite humanity.'" The race of Cain lived and multiplied far away from the land of Seth; in other words, far from the land destroyed by the Deluge. Josephus, who gives us the primitive traditions of the Jews, tells us (chap. ii., p. 42) that "Cain travelled over many countries" before he came to the land of Nod. The Bible does not tell us that the race of Cain perished in the Deluge. "Cain went out from the presence of Jehovah;" he did not call on his name; the people that were destroyed were the "sons of Jehovah." All this indicates

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that large colonies had been sent out by the mother-land before it sunk in the sea.

Across the ocean we find the people of Guatemala claiming their descent from a goddess called At-tit, or grandmother, who lived for four hundred years, and first taught the worship of the true God, which they afterward forgot. (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iii., p. 75.) While the famous Mexican calendar stone shows that the sun was commonly called tonatiuh but when it was referred to as the god of the Deluge it was then called Atl-tona-ti-uh, or At-onatiuh. (Valentini's "Mexican Calendar Stone," art. Maya Archćology, p. 15.)

We thus find the sons of Ad at the base of all the most ancient races of men, to wit, the Hebrews, the Arabians, the Chaldeans, the Hindoos, the Persians, the Egyptians, the Ethiopians, the Mexicans, and the Central Americans; testimony that all these races traced their beginning back to a dimly remembered Ad-lantis.




"The mythology of the Greeks, which their oldest writers do not pretend to have invented, was no more than a light air, which had passed from a more ancient people into the flutes of the Greeks, which they modulated to such descants as best suited their fancies."

This profoundly wise and great man, who has illuminated every subject which he has touched, guessed very close to the truth in this utterance.

The Hon. W. E. Gladstone has had quite a debate of late with Mr. Cox as to whether the Greek mythology was underlaid by a nature worship, or a planetary or solar worship.

Peru, worshipping the sun and moon and planets, probably represents very closely the simple and primitive religion of Atlantis, with its sacrifices of fruits and flowers. This passed directly to their colony in Egypt. We find the Egyptians in their early ages sun and planet worshippers. Ptah was the object of their highest adoration. He is the father of the god of the sun, the ruler of the region of light. Ra was the sun-god. He was the supreme divinity at On, or Heliopolis, near Memphis. His symbol was the solar disk, supported by two rings. He created all that exists below the heavens.

The Babylonian trinity was composed of Idea, Anu, and Bel. Bel represented the sun, and was the favorite god. Sin was the goddess of the moon.

The Phśnicians were also sun-worshippers. The sun was

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represented by Baal-Samin, the great god, the god of light and the heavens, the creator and rejuvenator.

"The attributes of both Baal and Moloch (the good and bad powers of the sun) were united in the Phśnician god Melkart, "king of the city," whom the inhabitants of Tyre considered their special patron. The Greeks called him "Melicertes," and identified him with Hercules. By his great strength and power he turned evil into good, brought life out of destruction, pulled back the sun to the earth at the time of the solstices, lessened excessive beat and cold, and rectified the evil signs of the zodiac. In Phśnician legends he conquers the savage races of distant coasts, founds the ancient settlements on the Mediterranean, and plants the rocks in the Straits of Gibraltar. ("American Cyclopćdia," art. Mythology.)

The Egyptians worshipped the sun under the name of Ra; the Hindoos worshipped the sun under the name of Rama; while the great festival of the sun, of the Peruvians, was called Ray-mi.

Sun-worship, as the ancient religion of Atlantis, underlies all the superstitions of the colonies of that country. The Samoyed woman says to the sun, "When thou, god, risest, I too rise from my bed." Every morning even now the Brahmans stand on one foot, with their hands held out before them and their faces turned to the east, adoring the sun. "In Germany or France one may still see the peasant take off his hat to the rising sun." ("Anthropology," p. 361.) The Romans, even, in later times, worshipped the sun at Emesa, under the name of Elagabalus, "typified in the form of a black conical stone, which it was believed had fallen from heaven." The conical stone was the emblem of Bel. Did it have relation to the mounds and pyramids?

Sun-worship was the primitive religion of the red men of America. It was found among all the tribes. (Dorman, "Origin of Primitive Superstitions, p. 338.) The Chichimecs called the sun their father. The Comanches have a similar belief.

But, compared with such ancient nations as the Egyptians

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and Babylonians, the Greeks were children. A priest of Sais said to Solon,

"You Greeks are novices in knowledge of antiquity. You are ignorant of what passed either here or among yourselves in days of old. The history of eight thousand years is deposited in our sacred books; but I can ascend to a much higher antiquity, and tell you what our fathers have done for nine thousand years; I mean their institutions, their laws, and their most brilliant achievements."

The Greeks, too young to have shared in the religion of Atlantis, but preserving some memory of that great country and its history, proceeded to convert its kings into gods, and to depict Atlantis itself as the heaven of the human race. Thus we find a great solar or nature worship in the elder nations, while Greece has nothing but an incongruous jumble of gods and goddesses, who are born and eat and drink and make love and ravish and steal and die; and who are worshipped as immortal in presence of the very monuments that testify to their death.

"These deities, to whom the affairs of the world were in trusted, were, it is believed, immortal, though not eternal in their existence. In Crete there was even a story of the death of Zeus, his tomb being pointed out." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 2.)

The history of Atlantis is the key of the Greek mythology. There can be no question that these gods of Greece were human beings. The tendency to attach divine attributes to great earthly rulers is one deeply implanted in human nature. The savages who killed Captain Cook firmly believed that he was immortal, that he was yet alive, and would return to punish them. The highly civilized Romans made gods out of their dead emperors. Dr. Livingstone mentions that on one occasion, after talking to a Bushman for some time about the Deity, he found that the savage thought he was speaking of Sekomi, the principal chief of the district.

We find the barbarians of the coast of the Mediterranean regarding

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the civilized people of Atlantis with awe and wonder: "Their physical strength was extraordinary, the earth shaking sometimes under their tread. Whatever they did was done speedily. They moved through space almost without the loss of a moment of time." This probably alluded to the rapid motion of their sailing-vessels. "They were wise, and communicated their wisdom to men." That is to say, they civilized the people they came in contact with. 'They had a strict sense of justice, and punished crime rigorously, and rewarded noble actions, though it is true they were less conspicuous for the latter." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 4.) We should understand this to mean that where they colonized they established a government of law, as contradistinguished from the anarchy of barbarism.

"There were tales of personal visits and adventures of the gods among men, taking part in battles and appearing in dreams. They were conceived to possess the form of human beings, and to be, like men, subject to love and pain, but always characterized by the highest qualities and grandest forms that could be imagined." (Ibid.)

Another proof that the gods of the Greeks were but the deified kings of Atlantis is found in the fact that "the gods were not looked upon as having created the world." They succeeded to the management of a world already in existence.

The gods dwelt on Olympus. They lived together like human beings; they possessed palaces, storehouses, stables, horses, etc.; "they dwelt in a social state which was but a magnified reflection of the social system on earth. Quarrels, love passages, mutual assistance, and such instances as characterize human life, were ascribed to them." (Ibid., p. 10.)

Where was Olympus? It was in Atlantis. "The ocean encircled the earth with a great stream, and was a region of wonders of all kinds." (Ibid., p. 23.) It was a great island, the then civilized world. The encircling ocean "was spoken of in all the ancient legends. Okeanos lived there with his wife

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[paragraph continues] Tethys: these were the Islands of the Blessed, the garden of the gods, the sources of the nectar and ambrosia on which the gods lived." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 23.) Nectar was probably a fermented intoxicating liquor, and ambrosia bread made from wheat. Soma was a kind of whiskey, and the Hindoos deified it. "The gods lived on nectar and ambrosia" simply meant that the inhabitants of these blessed islands were civilized, and possessed a liquor of some kind and a species of food superior to anything in use among the barbarous tribes with whom they came in contact.

This blessed land answers to the description of Atlantis. It was an island full of wonders. It lay spread out in the ocean "like a disk, with the mountains rising from it." (Ibid.) On the highest point of this mountain dwelt Zeus (the king), "while the mansions of the other deities were arranged upon plateaus, or in ravines lower down the mountain. These deities, including Zeus, were twelve in number: Zeus (or Jupiter), Hera (or Juno), Poseidon (or Neptune), Demeter (or Ceres), Apollo, Artemis (or Diana), Hephćstos (or Vulcan), Pallas Athena (or Minerva), Ares (or Mars), Aphrodite (or Venus), Hermes (or Mercury), and Hestia (or Vesta)." These were doubtless the twelve gods from whom the Egyptians derived their kings. Where two names are given to a deity in the above list, the first name is that bestowed by the Greeks, the last that given by the Romans.

It is not impossible that our division of the year into twelve parts is a reminiscence of the twelve gods of Atlantis. Diodorus Siculus tells us that among the Babylonians there were twelve gods of the heavens, each personified by one of the signs of the zodiac, and worshipped in a certain month of the year. The Hindoos had twelve primal gods, "the Aditya." Moses erected twelve pillars at Sinai. The Mandan Indians celebrated the Flood with twelve typical characters, who danced around the ark. The Scandinavians believed in the twelve gods, the Aesir, who dwelt on Asgard, the Norse Olympus.

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[paragraph continues] Diligent investigation may yet reveal that the number of a modern jury, twelve, is a survival of the ancient council of Asgard.

"According to the traditions of the Phśnicians, the Gardens of the Hesperides were in the remote west." (Murray's "Manual of Mythology," p. 258.) Atlas lived in these gardens. (Ibid., p. 259.) Atlas, we have seen, was king of Atlantis. "The Elysian Fields (the happy islands) were commonly placed in the remote west. They were ruled over by Chronos." (Ibid., p. 60.) Tartarus, the region of Hades, the gloomy home of the dead, was also located "under the mountains of an island in the midst of the ocean in the remote west." (Ibid., p. 58.) Atlas was described in Greek mythology as "an enormous giant, who stood upon the western confines of the earth, and supported the heavens on his shoulders, in a region of the west where the sun continued to shine after he had set upon Greece." (Ibid., p. 156.)

Greek tradition located the island in which Olympus was situated "in the far west," "in the ocean beyond Africa," "on the western boundary of the known world," "where the sun shone when it had ceased to shine on Greece," and where the mighty Atlas "held up the heavens." And Plato tells us that the land where Poseidon and Atlas ruled was Atlantis.

"The Garden of the Hesperides" (another name for the dwelling-place of the gods) "was situated at the extreme limit of Africa. Atlas was said to have surrounded it on every side with high mountains." (Smith's "Sacred Annals, Patriarchal Age," p. 131.) Here were found the golden apples.

This is very much like the description which Plato gives of the great plain of Atlantis, covered with fruit of every kind, and surrounded by precipitous mountains descending to the sea.

The Greek mythology, in speaking of the Garden of the Hesperides, tells us that "the outer edge of the garden was slightly raised, so that the water might not run in and overflow the land." Another reminiscence of the surrounding mountains of Atlantis as described by Plato, and as revealed by the deep-sea soundings of modern times.

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Chronos, or Saturn, Dionysos, Hyperion, Atlas, Hercules, were all connected with "a great Saturnian continent;" they were kings that ruled over countries on the western shores of the Mediterranean, Africa and Spain. One account says:

"Hyperion, Atlas, and Saturn, or Chronos, were sons of Uranos, who reigned over a great kingdom composed of countries around the western part of the Mediterranean, with certain islands in the Atlantic. Hyperion succeeded his father, and was then killed by the Titans. The kingdom was then divided between Atlas and Saturn--Atlas taking Northern Africa, with the Atlantic islands, and Saturn the countries on the opposite shore of the Mediterranean to Italy and Sicily." (Baldwin's Prehistoric Nations," p. 357.)

Plato says, speaking of the traditions of the Greeks ("Dialogues, Laws," c. iv., p. 713), "There is a tradition of the happy life of mankind in the days when all things were spontaneous and abundant. . . . In like manner God in his love of mankind placed over us the demons, who are a superior race, and they, with great care and pleasure to themselves and no less to us, taking care of us and giving us place and reverence and order and justice never failing, made the tribes of men happy and peaceful . . . for Cronos knew that no human nature, invested with supreme power, is able to order human affairs and not overflow with insolence and wrong."

In other words, this tradition refers to an ancient time when the forefathers of the Greeks were governed by Chronos, of the Cronian Sea (the Atlantic), king of Atlantis, through civilized Atlantean governors, who by their wisdom preserved peace and created a golden age for all the populations under their control--they were the demons, that is, "the knowing ones," the civilized.

Plato puts into the mouth of Socrates these words ("Dialogues, Cratylus," p. 397): "My notion would be that the sun, moon, and stars, earth, and heaven, which are still the gods of many barbarians, were the only gods known to the aboriginal Hellenes. . . . What shall follow the gods? Must not demons

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and heroes and men come next? . . . Consider the real meaning of the word demons. You know Hesiod uses the word. He speaks of 'a golden race of men' who came first. He says of them,

But now that fate has closed over this race,
They are holy demons upon earth,
Beneficent averters of ills, guardians of mortal men.'

He means by the golden men not men literally made of gold, but good and noble men; he says we are of the 'age of iron.' He called them demons because they were δαήμονες (knowing or wise)."

This is made the more evident when we read that this region of the gods, of Chronos and Uranos and Zeus, passed through, first, a Golden Age, then a Silver Age--these constituting a great period of peace and happiness; then it reached a Bronze Age; then an Iron Age, and finally perished by a great flood, sent upon these people by Zeus as a punishment for their sins. We read:

"Men were rich then (in the Silver Age), as in the Golden Age of Chronos, and lived in plenty; but still they wanted the innocence and contentment which were the true sources of bu man happiness in the former age; and accordingly, while living in luxury and delicacy, they became overbearing in their manners to the highest degree, were never satisfied, and forgot the gods, to whom, in their confidence of prosperity and com fort, they denied the reverence they owed. . . . Then followed the Bronze Age, a period of constant quarrelling and deeds of violence. Instead of cultivated lands, and a life of peaceful occupations and orderly habits, there came a day when every where might was right, and men, big and powerful as they were, became physically worn out. . . . Finally came the Iron Age, in which enfeebled mankind had to toil for bread with their hands, and, bent on gain, did their best to overreach each other. Dike, or Astrća, the goddess of justice and good faith, modesty and truth, turned her back on such scenes, and retired to Olympus, while Zeus determined to destroy the human race by a great flood. The whole of Greece lay under water, and none but Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha were saved." (Murray's "Mythology" p. 44.)

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It is remarkable that we find here the same succession of the Iron Age after the Bronze Age that has been revealed to scientific men by the patient examination of the relies of antiquity in Europe. And this identification of the land that was destroyed by a flood--the land of Chronos and Poseidon and Zeus--with the Bronze Age, confirms the view expressed in Chapter VIII. (page 237, ante), that the bronze implements and weapons of Europe were mainly imported from Atlantis.

And here we find that the Flood that destroyed this land of the gods was the Flood of Deucalion, and the Flood of Deucalion was the Flood of the Bible, and this, as we have shown, was "the last great Deluge of all," according to the Egyptians, which destroyed Atlantis.

The foregoing description of the Golden Age of Chronos, when "men were rich and lived in plenty," reminds us of Plato's description of the happy age of Atlantis, when "men despised everything but virtue, not caring for their present state of life, and thinking lightly of the possession of gold and other property;" a time when, as the chants of the Delaware Indians stated it (page 109, ante), "all were willingly pleased, all were well-happified." While the description given by Murray in the above extract of the degeneracy of mankind in the land of the gods, "a period of constant quarrelling and deeds of violence, when might was right," agrees with Plato's account of the Atlanteans, when they became "aggressive," "unable to bear their fortune," "unseemly," "base," "filled with unrighteous avarice and power,"--and "in a most wretched state." And here again I might quote from the chant of the Delaware Indians--"they became troubled, hating each other; both were fighting, both were spoiling, both were never peaceful." And in all three instances the gods punished the depravity of mankind by a great deluge. Can all these precise coincidences be the result of accident?

May we not even suppose that the very word "Olympus" is a transformation from "Atlantis" in accordance with the laws

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that regulate the changes of letters of the same class into each other? Olympus was written by the Greeks "Olumpos." The letter a in Atlantis was sounded by the ancient world broad and full, like the a in our words all or altar; in these words it approximates very closely to the sound of o. It is not far to go to convert Otlontis into Oluntos, and this into Olumpos. We may, therefore, suppose that when the Greeks said that their gods dwelt in "Olympus," it was the same as if they said that they dwelt in "Atlantis."

Nearly all the gods of Greece are connected with Atlantis. We have seen the twelve principal gods all dwelling on the mountain of Olympus, in the midst of an island in the ocean in the far west, which was subsequently destroyed by a deluge on account of the wickedness of its people. And when we turn to Plato's description of Atlantis (p. 13, ante) we find that Poseidon and Atlas dwelt upon a mountain in the midst of the island; and on this mountain were their magnificent temples and palaces, where they lived, separated by great walls from their subjects.

It may be urged that Mount Olympus could not have referred to any mountain in Atlantis, because the Greeks gave that name to a group of mountains partly in Macedonia and partly in Thessaly. But in Mysia, Lycia, Cyprus, and elsewhere there were mountains called Olympus; and on the plain of Olympia, in Elis, there was an eminence bearing the same designation. There is a natural tendency among uncivilized peoples to give a "local habitation" to every general tradition.

"Many of the oldest myths," says Baldwin (" Prehistoric Nations," p. 376), "relate to Spain, North-western Africa, and other regions on the Atlantic, such as those concerning Hercules, the Cronidć, the Hyperboreans, the Hesperides, and the Islands of the Blessed. Homer described the Atlantic region of Europe in his account of the wanderings of Ulysses. . . . In the ages previous to the decline of Phśnician influence in Greece and around the Ćgean Sea, the people of those regions must have had a much better knowledge of Western

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Europe than prevailed there during the Ionian or Hellenic period."

The mythology of Greece is really a history of the kings of Atlantis. The Greek heaven was Atlantis. Hence the references to statues, swords, etc., that fell from heaven, and were preserved in the temples of the different states along the shores of the Mediterranean from a vast antiquity, and which were regarded as the most precious possessions of the people. They were relics of the lost race received in the early ages. Thus we read of the brazen or bronze anvil that was preserved in one city, which fell from heaven, and was nine days and nine nights in falling; in other words, it took nine days and nights of a sailing-voyage to bring it from Atlantis.

The modern theory that the gods of Greece never had any personal existence, but represented atmospheric and meteorological myths, the movements of clouds, planets, and the sun, is absurd. Rude nations repeat, they do not invent; to suppose a barbarous people creating their deities out of clouds and sunsets is to reverse nature. Men first worship stones, then other men, then spirits. Resemblances of names prove nothing; it is as if one would show that the name of the great Napoleon meant "the lion of the desert" (Napo-leon), and should thence argue that Napoleon never existed, that he was a myth, that he represented power in solitude, or some such stuff. When we read that Jove whipped his wife, and threw her son out of the window, the inference is that Jove was a man, and actually did something like the thing described; certainly gods, sublimated spirits, aerial sprites, do not act after this fashion; and it would puzzle the mythmakers to prove that the sun, moon, or stars whipped their wives or flung recalcitrant young men out of windows. The history of Atlantis could be in part reconstructed out of the mythology of Greece; it is a history of kings, queens, and princes; of love-making, adulteries, rebellions, wars, murders, sea-voyages, and colonizations; of palaces, temples, workshops, and forges; of sword-making, engraving and

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metallurgy; of wine, barley, wheat, cattle, sheep, horses, and agriculture generally. Who can doubt that it represents the history of a real people?

Uranos was the first god; that is to say, the first king of the great race. As he was at the commencement of all things, his symbol was the sky. He probably represented the race previous even to the settlement of Atlantis. He was a son of Gća (the earth). He seems to have been the parent of three races--the Titans, the Hekatoncheires, and the Kyklopes or Cyclops.

I incline to the belief that these were civilized races, and that the peculiarities ascribed to the last two refer to the vessels in which they visited the shores of the barbarians.

The empire of the Titans was clearly the empire of Atlantis. "The most judicious among our mythologists" (says Dr. Rees, "New British Cyclopćdia," art. Titans)--"such as Gerard Vossius, Marsham, Bochart, and Father Thomassin--are of opinion that the partition of the world among the sons of Noah-Shem, Ham, and Japheth--was the original of the tradition of the same partition among Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto," upon the breaking up of the great empire of the Titans. "The learned Pezron contends that the division which was made of this vast empire came, in after-times, to be taken for the partition of the whole world; that Asia remaining in the hands of Jupiter (Zeus), the most potent of the three brothers, made him looked upon as the god of Olympus; that the sea and islands which fell to Neptune occasioned their giving him the title of 'god of the sea;' and that Spain, the extremity of the then known world, thought to be a very low country in respect of Asia, and famous for its excellent mines of gold and silver, failing to Pluto, occasioned him to be taken for the 'god of the infernal regions.'" We should suppose that Pluto possibly ruled over the transatlantic possessions of Atlantis in America, over those "portions of the opposite continent" which Plato tells us were dominated by Atlas and his posterity, and which, being far beyond or below sunset, were the "under-world" of

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the ancients; while Atlantis, the Canaries, etc., constituted the island division with Western Africa and Spain. Murray tells us ("Mythology," p. 58) that Pluto's share of the kingdom was supposed to lie "in the remote west." The under-world of the dead was simply the world below the western horizon; "the home of the dead has to do with that far west region where the sun dies at night." ("Anthropology," p. 350.) "On the coast of Brittany, where Cape Raz stands out westward into the ocean, there is 'the Bay of Souls,' the launching-place where the departed spirits sail off across the sea." (Ibid.) In like manner, Odysseus found the land of the dead in the ocean beyond the Pillars of Hercules. There, indeed, was the land of the mighty dead, the grave of the drowned Atlanteans.

"However this be," continues F. Pezron, "the empire of the Titans, according to the ancients, was very extensive; they possessed Phrygia, Thrace, a part of Greece, the island of Crete, and several other provinces to the inmost recesses of Spain. To these Sanchoniathon seems to join Syria; and Diodorus adds a part of Africa, and the kingdoms of Mauritania." The kingdoms of Mauritania embraced all that north-western region of Africa nearest to Atlantis in which are the Atlas Mountains, and in which, in the days of Herodotus, dwelt the Atlantes.

Neptune, or Poseidon, says, in answer to a message from Jupiter,

No vassal god, nor of his train am I.
Three brothers, deities, from Saturn came,
And ancient Rhea, earth's immortal dame;
Assigned by lot our triple rule we know;
Infernal Pluto sways the shades below:
O'er the wide clouds, and o'er the starry plain
Ethereal Jove extends his high domain;
My court beneath the hoary waves I keep,
And hush the roaring of the sacred deep.

Iliad, book xviii.

Homer alludes to Poseidon as

"The god whose liquid arms are hurled
Around the globs, whose earthquakes rock the world."

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Mythology tells us that when the Titans were defeated by Saturn they retreated into the interior of Spain; Jupiter followed them up, and beat them for the last time near Tartessus, and thus terminated a ten-years' war. Here we have a real battle on an actual battle-field.

If we needed any further proof that the empire of the Titans was the empire of Atlantis, we would find it in the names of the Titans: among these were Oceanus, Saturn or Chronos, and Atlas; they were all the sons of Uranos. Oceanus was at the base of the Greek mythology. Plato says ("Dialogues," Timćus, vol. ii., p. 533): "Oceanus and Tethys were the children of Earth and Heaven, and from these sprung Phorcys, and Chronos, and Rhea, and many more with them; and from Chronos and Rhea sprung Zeus and Hera, and all those whom we know as their brethren, and others who were their children." In other words, all their gods came out of the ocean; they were rulers over some ocean realm; Chronos was the son of Oceanus, and Chronos was an Atlantean god, and from him the Atlantic Ocean was called by tho ancients "the Chronian Sea." The elder Minos was called "the Son of the Ocean:" he first gave civilization to the Cretans; he engraved his laws on brass, precisely as Plato tells us the laws of Atlantis were engraved on pillars of brass.

The wanderings of Ulysses, as detailed in the "Odyssey" of Homer, are strangely connected with the Atlantic Ocean. The islands of the Phćacians were apparently in mid-ocean:

We dwell apart, afar
Within the unmeasured deep, amid its waves
The most remote of men; no other race
Hath commerce with us.--Odyssey, book vi.

The description of the Phćacian walls, harbors, cities, palaces, ships, etc., seems like a recollection of Atlantis. The island of Calypso appears also to have been in the Atlantic Ocean, twenty days' sail from the Phćacian isles; and when Ulysses

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goes to the land of Pluto, "the under-world," the home of the dead, he

"Reached the far confines of Oceanus,"

beyond the Pillars of Hercules. It would be curious to inquire how far the poems of Homer are Atlantean in their relations and inspiration. Ulysses's wanderings were a prolonged struggle with Poseidon, the founder and god of Atlantis.

"The Hekatoncheires, or Cetimćni, beings each with a hundred hands, were three in number--Kottos, Gyges or Gyes, and Briareus--and represented the frightful crashing of waves, and its resemblance to the convulsions of earthquakes." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 26.) Are not these hundred arms the oars of the galleys, and the frightful crashing of the waves their movements in the water?

"The Kyklopes also were three in number--Brontes, with his thunder; Steropes, with his lightning; and Arges, with his stream of light. They were represented as having only one eye, which was placed at the juncture between the nose and brow. It was, however, a large, flashing eye, as became beings who were personifications of the storm-cloud, with its flashes of destructive lightning and peals of thunder."

We shall show hereafter that the invention of gunpowder dates back to the days of the Phśnicians, and may have been derived by them from Atlantis. It is not impossible that in this picture of the Kyklopes we see a tradition of sea-going ships, with a light burning at the prow, and armed with some explosive preparation, which, with a roar like thunder, and a flash like lightning, destroyed those against whom it was employed? It at least requires less strain upon our credulity to suppose these monsters were a barbarian's memory of great ships than to believe that human beings ever existed with a hundred arms, and with one eye in the middle of the forehead, and giving out thunder and lightning.

The natives of the West India Islands regarded the ships of Columbus as living creatures, and that their sails were wings.

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Berosus tells us, speaking of the ancient days of Chaldea, "In the first year there appeared, from that part of the Erythrćan Sea which borders upon Babylonia, an animal endowed with reason, by name Oannes, whose whole body (according to the account of Apollodorus) was that of a fish; that under the fish's head he had another head, with feet also below, similar to those of a man, subjoined to the fish's tail. His. voice too and language was articulate and human, and a representation of him is preserved even unto this day. This being was accustomed to pass the day among men, but took no food at that season, and he gave them an insight into letters and arts of all kinds. He taught them to construct cities, to found temples, to compile laws, and explained to them the principles of geometrical knowledge. He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth, and showed them how to collect the fruits; in short, be instructed them in everything which could tend to soften manners and humanize their laws. From that time nothing material has been added by way of improvement to his instructions. And when the sun set, this being, Oannes, retired again into the sea, and passed the night in the deep, for he was amphibious. After this there appeared other animals like Oannes."

This is clearly the tradition preserved by a barbarous people of the great ships of a civilized nation, who colonized their coast and introduced the arts and sciences among them. And here we see the same tendency to represent the ship as a living thing, which converted the war-vessels of the Atlanteans (the Kyklopes) into men with one blazing eye in the middle of the forehead.

Uranos was deposed from the throne, and succeeded by his son Chronos. He was called "the ripener, the harvest-god," and was probably identified with the beginning of the Agricultural Period. He married his sister Rhea, who bore him Pluto, Poseidon, Zeus, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera. He anticipated that his sons would dethrone him, as he had dethroned his father, Uranos, and he swallowed his first five children, and would have swallowed the sixth child, Zeus, but that his wife Rhea deceived him with a stone image of the child; and Zeus was conveyed to the island of Crete, and there concealed in a cave

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and raised to manhood. Subsequently Chronos "yielded back to the light the children he had swallowed." This myth probably means that Chronos had his children raised in some secret place, where they could not be used by his enemies as the instruments of a rebellion against his throne; and the stone image of Zeus, palmed off upon him by Rhea, was probably some other child substituted for his own. His precautions seem to have been wise; for as soon as the children returned to the light they commenced a rebellion, and drove the old gentleman from his throne. A rebellion of the Titans followed. The struggle was a tremendous one, and seems to have been decided at last by the use of gunpowder, as I shall show farther on.

We have seen Chronos identified with the Atlantic, called by the Romans the "Chronian Sea." He was known to the Romans under the name of Saturn, and ruled over "a great Saturnian continent" in the Western Ocean. Saturn, or Chronos, came to Italy: he presented himself to the king, Janus, "and proceeded to instruct the subjects of the latter in agriculture, gardening, and many other arts then quite unknown to them; as, for example, how to tend and cultivate the vine. By such means he at length raised the people from a rude and comparatively barbarous condition to one of order and peaceful occupations, in consequence of which he was everywhere held in high esteem, and, in course of time, was selected by Janus to share with him the government of the country, which thereupon assumed the name of Saturnia--'a land of seed and fruit.' The period of Saturn's government was sung in later days by poets as a happy time, when sorrows were unknown, when innocence, freedom, and gladness reigned throughout the land in such a degree as to deserve the title of the Golden Age." (Murray's Mythology," p. 32.)

All this accords with Plato's story. He tells us that the rule of the Atlanteans extended to Italy; that they were a civilized, agricultural, and commercial people. The civilization of Rome

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was therefore an outgrowth directly from the civilization of Atlantis.

The Roman Saturnalia was a remembrance of the Atlantean colonization. It was a period of joy and festivity; master and slave met as equals; the distinctions of poverty and wealth were forgotten; no punishments for crime were inflicted; servants and slaves went about dressed in the clothes of their masters; and children received presents from their parents or relatives. It was a time of jollity and mirth, a recollection of the Golden Age. We find a reminiscence of it in the Roman "Carnival."

The third and last on the throne of the highest god was Zeus. We shall see him, a little farther on, by the aid of some mysterious engine overthrowing the rebels, the Titans, who rose against his power, amid the flash of lightning and the roar of thunder. He was called "the thunderer," and "the mighty thunderer." He was represented with thunder-bolts in his hand and an eagle at his feet.

During the time of Zeus Atlantis seems to have reached its greatest height of power. He was recognized as the father of the whole world; he everywhere rewarded uprightness, truth, faithfulness, and kindness; be was merciful to the poor, and punished the cruel. To illustrate his rule on earth the following story is told:

"Philemon and Baukis, an aged couple of the poorer class, were living peacefully and full of piety toward the gods in their cottage in Phrygia, when Zeus, who often visited the earth, disguised, to inquire into the behavior of men, paid a visit, in passing through Phrygia on such a journey, to these poor old people, and was received by them very kindly as a weary traveller, which he pretended to be. Bidding him welcome to the house, they set about preparing for their guest, who was accompanied by Hermes, as excellent a meal as they could afford, and for this purpose were about to kill the only goose they had left, when Zeus interfered; for he was touched by their kindliness and genuine piety, and that all the more because he had

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observed among the other inhabitants of the district nothing but cruelty of disposition and a habit of reproaching and despising the gods. To punish this conduct he determined to visit the country with a flood, but to save from it Philemon and Baukis, the good aged couple, and to reward them in a striking manner. To this end he revealed himself to them before opening the gates of the great flood, transformed their poor cottage on the hill into a splendid temple, installed the aged pair as his priest and priestess, and granted their prayer that they might both die together. When, after many years, death overtook them, they were changed into two trees, that side by side in the neighborhood--an oak and a linden." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 38.)

Here we have another reference to the Flood, and another identification with Atlantis.

Zeus was a kind of Henry VIII., and took to himself a number of wives. By Demeter (Ceres) he had Persephone (Proserpine); by Leto, Apollo and Artemis (Diana); by Dione, Aphrodite (Venus); by Semele, Dionysos (Bacchus); by Maia, Hermes (Mercury); by Alkmene, Hercules, etc., etc.

We have thus the whole family of gods and goddesses traced back to Atlantis.

Hera, or Juno, was the first and principal wife of Zeus. There were numerous conjugal rows between the royal pair, in which, say the poets, Juno was generally to blame. She was naturally jealous of the other wives of Zeus. Zeus on one occasion beat her, and threw her son Hephćstos out of Olympus; on another occasion he hung her out of Olympus with her arms tied and two great weights attached to her feet--a very brutal and ungentlemanly trick--but the Greeks transposed this into a beautiful symbol: the two weights, they say, represent the earth and sea, "an illustration of how all the phenomena of the visible sky were supposed to hang dependent on the highest god of heaven!" (Ibid., p. 47.) Juno probably regarded the transaction in an altogether different light; and she therefore united with Poseidon, the king's brother, and his daughter

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[paragraph continues] Athena, in a rebellion to put the old fellow in a strait-jacket, "and would have succeeded had not Thetis brought to his aid the sea-giant Ćgćon," probably a war-ship. She seems in the main, however, to have been a good wife, and was the type of all the womanly virtues.

Poseidon, the first king of Atlantis, according to Plato, was, according to Greek mythology, a brother of Zeus, and a son of Chronos. In the division of the kingdom he fell heir to the ocean and its islands, and to the navigable rivers; in other words, he was king of a maritime and commercial people. His symbol was the horse. "He was the first to train and employ horses;" that is to say, his people first domesticated the horse. This agrees with what Plato tells us of the importance attached to the horse in Atlantis, and of the baths and race-courses provided for him. He was worshipped in the island of Tenos "in the character of a physician," showing that he represented an advanced civilization. He was also master of an agricultural people; "the ram with the golden fleece for which the Argonauts sailed was the offspring of Poseidon." He carried in his hand a three-pronged symbol, the trident, doubtless an emblem of the three continents that were embraced in the empire of Atlantis. He founded many colonies along the shores of the Mediterranean; "he helped to build the walls of Troy;" the tradition thus tracing the Trojan civilization to an Atlantean source. He settled Attica and founded Athens, named after his niece Athena, daughter of Zeus, who had no mother, but had sprung from the head of Zeus, which probably signified that her mother's name was not known--she was a foundling. Athena caused the first olive-tree to grow on the Acropolis of Athens, parent of all the olive-trees of Greece. Poseidon seems to have had settlements at Corinth, Ćgina, Naxos, and Delphi. Temples were erected to his honor in nearly all the seaport towns of Greece. He sent a sea-monster, to wit, a ship, to ravage part of the Trojan territory.

In the "Iliad" Poseidon appears "as ruler of the sea, inhabiting

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a brilliant palace in its depths, traversing its surface in a chariot, or stirring the powerful billows until the earth shakes as they crash upon the shores. . . . He is also associated with well-watered plains and valleys." (Murray's "Mythology," p, 51.) The palace in the depths of the sea was the palace upon Olympus in Atlantis; the traversing of the sea referred to the movements of a mercantile race; the shaking of the


earth was an association with earthquakes; the "well-watered plains and valleys" remind us of the great plain of Atlantis described by Plato.

All the traditions of the coming of civilization into Europe point to Atlantis.

For instance, Keleos, who lived at Eleusis, near Athens, hospitably received Demeter, the Greek Ceres, the daughter of Poseidon, when she landed; and in return she taught him the use of the plough, and presented his son with the seed of barley, and sent him out to teach mankind how to sow and utilize that grain. Dionysos, grandson of Poseidon, travelled "through all

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the known world, even into the remotest parts of India, instructing the people, as be proceeded, how to tend the vine, and how to practise many other arts of peace, besides teaching them the value of just and honorable dealings." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 119.) The Greeks celebrated great festivals in his honor down to the coming of Christianity.

"The Nymphs of Grecian mythology were a kind of middle beings between the gods and men, communicating with both, loved and respected by both; . . . living like the gods on ambrosia. In extraordinary cases they were summoned, it was believed, to the councils of the Olympian gods; but they usually remained in their particular spheres, in secluded grottoes and peaceful valleys, occupied in spinning, weaving, bathing, singing sweet songs, dancing, sporting, or accompanying deities who passed through their territories--hunting with Artemis (Diana), rushing about with Dionysos (Bacchus), making merry with Apollo or Hermes (Mercury), but always in a hostile attitude toward the wanton and excited Satyrs."

The Nymphs were plainly the female inhabitants of Atlantis dwelling on the plains, while the aristocracy lived on the higher lands. And this is confirmed by the fact that part of them were called Atlantids, offspring of Atlantis. The Hesperides were also "daughters of Atlas;" their mother was Hesperis, a personification of "the region of the West." Their home was an island in the ocean," Off the north or west coast of Africa.

And here we find a tradition which not only points to Atlantis, but also shows some kinship to the legend in Genesis of the tree and the serpent.

Titća, "a goddess of the earth," gave Zeus a tree bearing golden apples on it. This tree was put in the care of the Hesperides, but they could not resist the temptation to pluck and eat its fruit; thereupon a serpent named Ladon was put to watch the tree. Hercules slew the serpent, and gave the apples to the Hesperides.

Heracles (Hercules), we have seen, was a son of Zeus, king of Atlantis. One of his twelve labors (the tenth) was the carrying

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off the cattle of Geryon. The meaning of Geryon is the red glow of the sunset." He dwelt on the island of "Erythea, in the remote west, beyond the Pillars of Hercules." Hercules took a ship, and after encountering a storm, reached the island and placed himself on Mount Abas. Hercules killed Geryon, stole the cattle, put them on the ship, and landed them safely, driving them "through Iberia, Gaul, and over the Alps down into Italy." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 257.) This was simply the memory of a cattle raid made by an uncivilized race upon the civilized, cattle-raising people of Atlantis.

It is not necessary to pursue the study of the gods of Greece any farther. They were simply barbarian recollections of the rulers of a great civilized people who in early days visited their shores, and brought with them the arts of peace.

Here then, in conclusion, are the proofs of our proposition that the gods of Greece had been the kings of Atlantis:

1. They were not the makers, but the rulers of the world.

2. They were human in their attributes; they loved, sinned, and fought battles, the very sites of which are given; they founded cities, and civilized the people of the shores of the Mediterranean.

3. They dwelt upon an island in the Atlantic,." in the remote west. . . . where the sun shines after it has ceased to shine on Greece."

4. Their land was destroyed in a deluge.

5. They were ruled over by Poseidon and Atlas.

6. Their empire extended to Egypt and Italy and the shores of Africa, precisely as stated by Plato.

7. They existed during the Bronze Age and at the beginning of the Iron Age.

The entire Greek mythology is the recollection, by a degenerate race, of a vast, mighty, and highly civilized empire, which in a remote past covered large parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America.



NOT alone were the gods of the Greeks the deified kings of Atlantis, but we find that the mythology of the Phśnicians was drawn from the same source.

For instance, we find in the Phśnician cosmogony that the Titans (Rephaim) derive their origin from the Phśnician gods Agrus and Agrotus. This connects the Phśnicians with that island in the remote west, in the midst of ocean, where, according to the Greeks, the Titans dwelt.

According to Sanchoniathon, Ouranos was the son of Autochthon, and, according to Plato, Autochthon was one of the ten kings of Atlantis. He married his sister Ge. He is the Uranos of the Greeks, who was the son of Gća (the earth), whom he married. The Phśnicians tell us, "Ouranos had by Ge four sons: Ilus (El), who is called Chronos, and Betylus (Beth-El), and Dagon, which signifies bread-corn, and Atlas (Tammuz?)." Here, again, we have the names of two other kings of Atlantis. These four sons probably represented four races, the offspring of the earth. The Greek Uranos was the father of Chronos, and the ancestor of Atlas. The Phśnician god Ouranos had a great many other wives: his wife Ge was jealous; they quarrelled, and he attempted to kill the children he had by her. This is the legend which the Greeks told of Zeus and Juno. In the Phśnician mythology Chronos raised a rebellion against Ouranos, and, after a great battle, dethroned him. In the Greek legends it is Zeus who attacks and overthrows his father, Chronos. Ouranos had a daughter called Astarte

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[paragraph continues] (Ashtoreth), another called Rhea. "And Dagon, after he had found out bread-corn and the plough, was called Zeus-Arotrius."

We find also, in the Phśnician legends, mention made of Poseidon, founder and king of Atlantis.

Chronos gave Attica to his daughter Athena, as in the Greek legends. In a time of plague be sacrificed his son to Ouranos, and "circumcised himself, and compelled his allies to do the same thing." It would thus appear that this singular rite, practised as we have seen by the Atlantidć of the Old and New Worlds, the Egyptians, the Phśnicians, the Hebrews, the Ethiopians, the Mexicans, and the red men of America, dates back, as we might have expected, to Atlantis.

"Chronos visits the different regions of the habitable world."

He gave Egypt as a kingdom to the god Taaut, who had invented the alphabet. The Egyptians called him Thoth, and he was represented among them as "the god of letters, the clerk of the under-world," bearing a tablet, pen, and palm-branch.

This not only connects the Phśnicians with Atlantis, but shows the relations of Egyptian civilization to both Atlantis and the Phśnicians.

There can be no doubt that the royal personages who formed the gods of Greece were also the gods of the Phśnicians. We have seen the Autochthon of Plato reappearing in the Autochthon of the Phśnicians; the Atlas of Plato in the Atlas of the Phśnicians; the Poseidon of Plato in the Poseidon of the Phśnicians; while the kings Mestor and Mneseus of Plato are probably the gods Misor and Amynus of the Phśnicians.

Sanchoniathon tells us, after narrating all the discoveries by which the people advanced to civilization, that the Cabiri set down their records of the past by the command of the god Taaut, "and they delivered them to their successors and to foreigners, of whom one was Isiris (Osiris), the inventor of the three letters, the brother of Chua, who is called the first Phśnician."

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[paragraph continues] (Lenormant and Chevallier, "Ancient History of the East," vol. ii., p. 228.)

This would show that the first Phśnician came long after this line of the kings or gods, and that he was a foreigner, as compared with them; and, therefore, that it could not have been the Phśnicians proper who made the several inventions narrated by Sanchoniathon, but some other race, from whom the Phśnicians might have been descended.

And in the delivery of their records to the foreigner Osiris, the god of Egypt, we have another evidence that Egypt derived her civilization from Atlantis.

Max Müller says:

"The Semitic languages also are all varieties of one form of speech. Though we do not know that primitive language from which the Semitic dialects diverged, yet we know that at one time such language must have existed. . . . We cannot derive Hebrew from Sanscrit, or Sanscrit from Hebrew; but we can well understand bow both may have proceeded from one common source. They are both channels supplied from one river, and they carry, though not always on the surface, floating materials of language which challenge comparison, and have already yielded satisfactory results to careful analyzers." ("Outlines of Philosophy of History," vol. i., p. 475.)

There was an ancient tradition among the Persians that the Phśnicians migrated from the shores of the Erythrćan Sea, and this has been supposed to mean the Persian Gulf; but there was a very old city of Erythia, in utter ruin in the time of Strabo, which was built in some ancient age, long before the founding of Gades, near the site of that town, on the Atlantic coast of Spain. May not this town of Erythia have given its name to the adjacent sea? And this may have been the starting-point of the Phśnicians in their European migrations. It would even appear that there was an island of Erythea. In the Greek mythology the tenth labor of Hercules consisted in driving away the cattle of Geryon, who lived in the island of Erythea, "an island somewhere in the remote west, beyond the

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[paragraph continues] Pillars of Hercules." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 257.) Hercules stole the cattle from this remote oceanic island, and, returning drove them "through Iberia, Gaul, over the Alps, and through Italy." (Ibid.) It is probable that a people emigrating from the Erythrćan Sea, that is, from the Atlantic, first gave their name to a town on the coast of Spain, and at a later date to the Persian Gulf--as we have seen the name of York carried from England to the banks of the Hudson, and then to the Arctic Circle.

The builders of the Central American cities are reported to have been a bearded race. The Phśnicians, in common with the Indians, practised human sacrifices to a great extent; they worshipped fire and water, adopted the names of the animals whose skins they wore--that is to say, they had the totemic system--telegraphed by means of fires, poisoned their arrows, offered peace before beginning battle, and used drums. (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 77.)

The extent of country covered by the commerce of the Phśnicians represents to some degree the area of the old Atlantean Empire. Their colonies and trading-posts extended east and west from the shores of the Black Sea, through the Mediterranean to the west coast of Africa and of Spain, and around to Ireland and England; while from north to south they ranged from the Baltic to the Persian Gulf. They touched every point where civilization in later ages made its appearance. Strabo estimated that they had three hundred cities along the west coast of Africa. When Columbus sailed to discover a new world, or re-discover an old one, he took his departure from a Phśnician seaport, founded by that great race two thousand five hundred years previously. This Atlantean sailor, with his Phśnician features, sailing from an Atlantean port, simply re-opened the path of commerce and colonization which had been closed when Plato's island sunk in the sea. And it is a curious fact that Columbus had the antediluvian world in his mind's eye even then, for when he reached the mouth of

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the Orinoco he thought it was the river Gihon, that flowed out of Paradise, and he wrote home to Spain, "There are here great indications suggesting the proximity of the earthly Paradise, for not only does it correspond in mathematical position with the opinions of the holy and learned theologians, but all other signs concur to make it probable."

Sanchoniathon claims that the learning of Egypt, Greece, and Judća was derived from the Phśnicians. It would appear probable that, while other races represent the conquests or colonizations of Atlantis, the Phśnicians succeeded to their arts, sciences, and especially their commercial supremacy; and hence the close resemblances which we have found to exist between the Hebrews, a branch of the Phśnician stock, and the people of America.

Upon the Syrian sea the people live
Who style themselves Phśnicians. . . .
These were the first great founders of the world--
Founders of cities and of mighty states--
Who showed a path through seas before unknown.
In the first ages, when the sons of men
Knew not which way to turn them, they assigned
To each his first department; they bestowed
Of land a portion and of sea a lot,
And sent each wandering tribe far off to share
A different soil and climate. Hence arose
The great diversity, so plainly seen,
'Mid nations widely severed.

Dyonysius of Susiana, A.D. 3,



IN the Scandinavian mythology the chief god was Odin, the Woden, Wotan, or Wuotan of the Germans. He is represented with many of the attributes of the Greek god Zeus, and is supposed by some to be identical with him. He dwelt with the twelve Ćsir, or gods, upon Asgard, the Norse Olympus, which arose out of Midgard, a land half-way between the regions of frost and fire (to wit, in a temperate climate). The Scandinavian Olympus was probably Atlantis. Odin is represented as a grave-looking elderly man with a long beard, carrying in his hand a spear, and accompanied by two dogs and two ravens. He was the father of poetry, and the inventor of Runic writing.

The Chiapenese of Central America (the people whose language we have seen furnishing such remarkable resemblances to Hebrew) claim to have been the first people of the New World. Clavigero tells us ("Hist. Antiq. del Messico," Eng. trans., 1807, vol. i.) that according to the traditions of the Chiapenese there was a Votan who was the grandson of the man who built the ark to save himself and family from the Deluge; he was one of those who undertook to build the tower that should reach to heaven., The Lord ordered him to people America. "He came from the East." He brought seven families with him. He had been preceded in America by two others, Igh and Imox. He built a great city in America called "Nachan," City of the Serpents (the serpent that tempted Eve was Nahash), from his own race, which was named Chan, a serpent. This Nachan is supposed to have been Palenque. The date of

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his journey is placed in the legends in the year 3000 of the world, and in the tenth century B.C. He also founded three tributary monarchies, whose capitals were Tulan, Mayapan, and Chiquimala. He wrote a book containing a history of his deeds, and proofs that he belonged to the tribe of Chanes (serpents). He states that "he is the third of the Votans; that he conducted seven families from Valum-Votan to this continent, and assigned lands to them; that be determined to travel until he came to the root of heaven and found his relations, the Culebres, and made himself known to them; that he accordingly made four voyages to Chivim; that he arrived in Spain; that he went to Rome; that he saw the house of God building; that be went by the road which his brethren, the Culebres, had bored; that he marked it, and that he passed by the houses of the thirteen Culebres. He relates that, in returning from one of his voyages, he found seven other families of the Tzequil nation who had joined the first inhabitants, and recognized in them the same origin as his own, that is, of the Culebres; he speaks of the place where they built the first town, which from its founders received the name of Tzequil; he affirms that, having taught them the refinement of manners in the use of the table, table-cloths, dishes, basins, cups, and napkins, they taught him the knowledge of God and his worship; his first ideas of a king, and obedience to him; that he was chosen captain of all these united families."

It is probable that Spain and Rome are interpolations. Cabrera claims that the Votanites were Carthaginians. He thinks the Chivim of Votan were the Hivim, or Givim, who were descended of Heth, son of Canaan, Phśnicians; they were the builders of Accaron, Azotus, Ascalon, and Gaza. The Scriptures refer to them as Hivites (Givim) in Deuteronomy (chap. ii., verse 32), and Joshua (chap. xiii., verse 4). He claims that Cadmus and his wife Hermione were of this stock; and according to Ovid they were metamorphosed into snakes (Culebres). The name Hivites in Phśnician signifies a snake.

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Votan may not, possibly, have passed into Europe; be may have travelled altogether in Africa. His singular allusion to "a way which the Culebres had bored" seems at first inexplicable; but Dr. Livingstone's last letters, published 8th November, 1869, in the "Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society," mention that "tribes live in underground houses in Rua. Some excavations are said to be thirty miles long, and have running rills in them; a whole district can stand a siege in them. The 'writings' therein, I have been told by some of the people, are drawings of animals, and not letters; otherwise I should have gone to see them. People very dark, well made, and outer angle of eyes slanting inward."

And Captain Grant, who accompanied Captain Speke in his famous exploration of the sources of the Nile, tells of a tunnel or subway under the river Kaoma, on the highway between Loowemba and Marunga, near Lake Tanganyika. His guide Manua describes it to him:

"I asked Manua if he had ever seen any country resembling it. His reply was, 'This country reminds me of what I saw in the country to the south of the Lake Tanganyika, when travelling with an Arab's caravan from Unjanyembeh. There is a river there called the Kaoma, running into the lake, the sides of which are similar in precipitousness to the rocks before us.' I then asked, 'Do the people cross this river in boats?' 'No; they have no boats; and even if they had, the people could not land, as the sides are too steep: they pass underneath the river by a natural tunnel, or subway.' He and all his party went through it on their way from Loowemba to Ooroongoo, and returned by it. He described its length as having taken them from sunrise till noon to pass through it, and so high that, if mounted upon camels, they could not touch the top. Tall reeds, the thickness of a walking-stick, grew inside, the road was strewed with white pebbles, and so wide--four hundred yards--that they could see their way tolerably well while passing through it. The rocks looked as if they had been planed by artificial means. Water never came through from the river overhead; it was procured by digging wells. Manua added that the people of Wambweh take shelter in this tunnel, and

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live there with their families and cattle, when molested by the Watuta, a warlike race, descended from the Zooloo Kafirs.

But it is interesting to find in this book of Votan, however little reliance we may place in its dates or details, evidence that there was actual intercourse between the Old World and the New in remote ages.

Humboldt remarks:

"We have fixed the special attention of our readers upon this Votan, or Wodan, an American who appears of the same family with the Wods or Odins of the Goths and of the people of Celtic origin. Since, according to the learned researches of Sir William Jones, Odin and Buddha are probably the same person, it is curious to see the names of Bondvar, Wodansday, and Votan designating in India, Scandinavia, and in Mexico the day of a brief period." ("Vues des Cordilleras," p. 148, ed. 1810.)

There are many things to connect the mythology of the Gothic nations with Atlantis; they had, as we have seen, flood legends; their gods Krodo and Satar were the Chronos and Saturn of Atlantis; their Baal was the Bel of the Phśnicians, who were closely connected with Poseidon and Atlas; and, as we shall see hereafter, their language has a distinct relationship with the tongues of the Arabians, Cushites, Chaldeans, and Phśnicians.



No fact is better established than the reverence shown to the sign of the Cross in all the ages prior to Christianity. We cannot do better than quote from an able article in the Edinburgh Review of July, 1870, upon this question:

"From the dawn of organized Paganism in the Eastern world to the final establishment of Christianity in the Western, the Cross was undoubtedly one of the commonest and most sacred of symbolical monuments; and, to a remarkable extent, it is so still in almost every land where that of Calvary is unrecognized or unknown. Apart from any distinctions of social or intellectual superiority, of caste, color, nationality, or location in either hemisphere, it appears to have been the aboriginal possession of every people in antiquity--the elastic girdle, so to say, which embraced the most widely separated heathen communities--the most significant token of a universal brotherhood, to which all the families of mankind were severally and irresistibly drawn, and by which their common descent was emphatically expressed, or by means of which each and all preserved, amid every vicissitude of fortune, a knowledge of the primeval happiness and dignity of their species. Where authentic history is silent on the subject, the material relics of past and long since forgotten races are not wanting to confirm and strengthen this supposition. Diversified forms of the symbol are delineated more or less artistically, according to the progress achieved in civilization at the period, on the ruined walls of temples and palaces, on natural rocks and sepulchral galleries, on the hoariest monoliths and the rudest statuary; on coins, medals, and vases of every description; and, in not a few instances, are preserved in the architectural proportions of subterranean

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as well as superterranean structures, of tumuli as well as fanes. The extraordinary sanctity attaching to the symbol, in every age and under every variety of circumstance, justified any expenditure incurred in its fabrication or embellishment; hence the most persistent labor, the most consummate ingenuity, were lavished upon it. Populations of essentially different culture, tastes, and pursuits--the highly-civilized and the demi-civilized, the settled and nomadic--vied with each other in their efforts to extend the knowledge of its exceptional import and virtue among their latest posterities. The marvellous rock-hewn caves of Elephanta and Ellora, and the stately temples of Mathura and Terputty, in the East, may be cited as characteristic examples of one laborious method of exhibiting it; and the megalithic structures of Callernish and Newgrange, in the West, of another; while a third may be instanced. in the great temple at Mitzla, 'the City of the Moon,' in Ojaaca, Central America. also excavated in the living rock, and manifesting the same stupendous labor and ingenuity as are observable in the cognate caverns of Salsette--of endeavors, we repeat, made by peoples as intellectually as geographically distinct, and followers withal of independent and unassociated deities, to magnify and perpetuate some grand primeval symbol. . . .

"Of the several varieties of the Cross still in vogue, as national or ecclesiastical emblems, in this and other European states, and distinguished by the familiar appellations of St. George, St. Andrew, the Maltese, the Greek, the Latin, etc., etc., there is not one among them the existence of which may not be traced to the remotest antiquity. They were the common property of the Eastern nations. No revolution or other casualty has wrought any perceptible difference in their several forms or delineations; they have passed from one hemisphere to the other intact; have survived dynasties, empires, and races; have been borne on the crest of each successive wave of Aryan population in its course toward the West; and, having been reconsecrated in later times by their lineal descendants, are still recognized as military and national badges of distinction. . . .

"Among the earliest known types is the crux ansata, vulgarly called 'the key of the Nile,' because of its being found sculptured or otherwise represented so frequently upon Egyptian and Coptic monuments. It has, however, a very much older and more sacred signification than this. It was the symbol of

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symbols, the mystical Tau, 'the bidden wisdom,' not only of the ancient Egyptians but also of the Chaldeans, Phśnicians, Mexicans, Peruvians, and of every other ancient people commemorated in history, in either hemisphere, and is formed very similarly to our letter T, with a roundlet, or oval, placed immediately above it. Thus it was figured

on the gigantic emerald or glass statue of Serapis, which was transported (293 B.C.) by order of Ptolemy Soter from Sinope, on the southern shores of the Black Sea, re-erected within that famous labyrinth which encompassed the banks of Lake Mśris, and destroyed by the victorious army of Theodosius (A.D. 389), despite the earnest entreaties of the Egyptian priesthood to spare it, because it was the emblem of their god and of 'the life to come.' Sometimes, as may be seen on the breast of an Egyptian mummy in the museum of the London University, the simple T only is planted on the frustum of a cone; and sometimes it is represented as springing from a heart; in the first instance signifying goodness; in the second, hope or expectation of reward. As in the oldest temples
and catacombs of Egypt, so this type likewise abounds in the ruined cities of Mexico and Central America, graven as well upon the most ancient cyclopean and polygonal walls as upon the more modern and perfect examples of masonry; and is displayed in an equally conspicuous manner upon the breasts of innumerable bronze statuettes which have been recently disinterred from the cemetery of Juigalpa (of unknown antiquity) in Nicaragua."

When the Spanish missionaries first set foot upon the soil of America, in the fifteenth century, they were amazed to find the Cross was as devoutly worshipped by the red Indians as by themselves, and were in doubt whether to ascribe the fact to the pious labors of St. Thomas or to the cunning device of the Evil One. The hallowed symbol challenged their attention

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on every hand and in almost every variety of form. It appeared on the bass-reliefs of ruined and deserted as well as on those of inhabited palaces, and was the most conspicuous ornament in the great temple of Gozumel, off the coast of Yucatan. According to the particular locality, and the purpose which it served, it was formed of various materials--of marble and gypsum in the open spaces of cities and by the way-side; of wood in the teocallis or chapels on pyramidal summits and in subterranean sanctuaries; and of emerald or jasper in the palaces of kings and nobles.

When we ask the question how it comes that the sign of the Cross has thus been reverenced. from the highest antiquity by the races of the Old and New Worlds, we learn

that it is a reminiscence of the Garden of Eden, in other words, of Atlantis.

Professor Hardwicke says:

"All these and similar traditions are but mocking satires of the old Hebrew story--jarred and broken notes of the same strain; but with all their exaggerations they intimate how in the background of man's vision lay a paradise of holy joy--a paradise secured from every kind of profanation, and made

inaccessible to the guilty; a paradise full of objects that were calculated to delight the senses and to elevate the mind a paradise that granted to its tenant rich and rare immunities, and that fed with its perennial streams the tree of life and immortality."

To quote again from the writer in the Edinburgh Review, already cited:

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"Its undoubted antiquity, no less than its extraordinary diffusion, evidences that it must have been, as it may be said to be still in unchristianized lands, emblematical of some fundamental doctrine or mystery. The reader will not have failed to observe that it is most usually associated with water; it was 'the key of the Nile,' that mystical instrument by means of which, in the popular judgment of his Egyptian devotees, Osiris produced the annual revivifying inundations of the sacred stream; it is discernible in that mysterious pitcher or vase portrayed on the brazen table of Bembus, before-mentioned, with its four lips discharging as many streams of water in opposite directions; it was the emblem of the water-deities of the Babylonians in the East and of the Gothic nations in the West, a


well as that of the rain-deities respectively of the mixed population in America. We have seen with what peculiar rites the symbol was honored by those widely separated races in the western hemisphere; and the monumental slabs of Nineveh, now in the museums of London and Paris, show us how it was similarly honored by the successors of the Chaldees in the eastern. . . .

"In Egypt, Assyria, and Britain it was emblematical of creative power and eternity; in India, China, and Scandinavia, of heaven and immortality; in the two Americas, of rejuvenescence and freedom from physical suffering; while in both hemispheres it was the common symbol of the resurrection, or 'the sign of the life to come;' and, finally, in all heathen communities,

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without exception, it was the emphatic type, the sole enduring evidence, of the Divine Unity. This circumstance alone determines its extreme antiquity--an antiquity, in all likelihood, long antecedent to the foundation of either of the three great systems of religion in the East. And, lastly, we have seen how, as a rule, it is found in conjunction with a stream or streams of water, with exuberant vegetation, and with a bill or a mountainous region--in a word, with a land of beauty, fertility, and joy. Thus it was expressed upon those circular and sacred cakes of the Egyptians, composed of the richest materials-of flour, of honey, of milk--and with which the serpent

and bull, as well as other reptiles and beasts consecrated to the service of Isis and their higher divinities, were daily fed; and upon certain festivals were eaten with extraordinary ceremony by the people and their priests. 'The cross-cake,' says Sir Gardner Wilkinson, 'was their hieroglyph for civilized land;' obviously a land superior to their own, as it was, indeed, to all other mundane territories; for it was that distant, traditional country of sempiternal contentment and repose, of exquisite delight and serenity, where Nature, unassisted by man, produces all that is necessary for his sustentation."

And this land was the Garden of Eden of our race. This was the Olympus of the Greeks, where

"This same mild season gives the blooms to blow,
The buds to harden and the fruits to grow."

In the midst of it was a sacred and glorious eminence--the umbilicus orbis terrarum--"toward which the heathen in all parts of the world, and in all ages, turned a wistful gaze in every act of devotion, and to which they hoped to be admitted, or, rather, to be restored, at the close of this transitory scene."

In this "glorious eminence" do we not see Plato's mountain in the middle of Atlantis, as he describes it:

"Near the plain and in the centre of the island there was a mountain, not very high on any side. In this mountain there dwelt one of the earth-born primeval men of that country,

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whose name was Evenor, and he had a wife named Leucippe, and they had an only daughter, who was named Cleito. Poseidon married her. He enclosed the hill in which she dwelt all around, making alternate zones of sea and land, larger and smaller, encircling one another; there were two of land and three of water . . . so that no man could get to the island. . . . He brought streams of water under the earth to this mountain-island, and made all manner of food to grow upon it. This island became the seat of Atlas, the over-king of the whole island; upon it they built the great temple of their nation; they continued to ornament it in successive generations, every king surpassing the one who came before him to the utmost of his power, until they made the building a marvel to behold for size and beauty. . . . And they had such an amount of wealth as was never before possessed by kings and potentates--as is not likely ever to be again."

The gardens of Alcinous and Laertes, of which we read in Homeric song, and those of Babylon, were probably transcripts of Atlantis. "The sacred eminence in the midst of a 'superabundant, happy region figures more or less distinctly in a]most every mythology, ancient or modern. It was the Mesomphalos of the earlier Greeks, and the Omphalium of the Cretans, dominating the Elysian fields, upon whose tops, bathed in pure, brilliant, incomparable light, the gods passed their days in ceaseless joys."

"The Buddhists and Brahmans, who together constitute nearly half the population of the world, tell us that the decussated figure (the cross), whether in a simple or a complex form, symbolizes the traditional happy abode of their primeval ancestors--that 'Paradise of Eden toward the East,' as we find expressed in the Hebrew. And, let us ask, what better picture, or more significant characters, in the complicated alphabet of symbolism, could have been selected for the purpose than a circle and a cross: the one to denote a region of absolute purity and perpetual felicity; the other, those four perennial streams that divided and watered the several quarters of it?" (Edinburgh Review, January, 1870.)

And when we turn to the mythology of the Greeks, we find

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that the origin of the world was ascribed to Okeanos, the ocean, The world was at first an island surrounded by the ocean, as by a great stream:

"It was a region of wonders of all kinds; Okeanos lived there with his wife Tethys: these were the Islands of the Blessed, the gardens of the gods, the sources of nectar and ambrosia, on which the gods lived. Within this circle of water the earth lay spread out like a disk, with mountains rising from it, and the vault of heaven appearing to rest upon its outer edge all around." (Murray's "Manual of Mythology," pp. 23, 24, et seq.)

On the mountains dwelt the gods; they had palaces on these mountains, with store-rooms, stabling, etc.

"The Gardens of the Hesperides, with their golden apples, were believed to exist in some island of the ocean, or, as it was sometimes thought, in the islands off the north or west coast of Africa. They were far famed in antiquity; for it was there that springs of nectar flowed by the couch of Zeus, and there that the earth displayed the rarest blessings of the gods; it was another Eden." (Ibid., p. 156.)

Homer described it in these words:

"Stern winter smiles on that auspicious clime,
The fields are florid with unfading prime,
From the bleak pole no winds inclement blow.
Mould the round hail, or flake the fleecy snow;
But from the breezy deep the blessed inhale
The fragrant murmurs of the western gale."

"It was the sacred Asgard of the Scandinavians, springing from the centre of a fruitful land, which was watered by four primeval rivers of milk, severally flowing in the direction of the cardinal points, 'the abode of happiness, and the height of bliss.' It is the Tien-Chan, 'the celestial mountain-land, . . . the enchanted gardens' of the Chinese and Tartars, watered by the four perennial fountains of Tychin, or Immortality; it is the hill-encompassed Ilá of the Singhalese and Thibetians, 'the everlasting dwelling-place of the wise and just.' It is the Sineru of the Buddhist, on the summit of which is Tawrutisa, the habitation of Sekrá, the supreme god, from which proceed the four sacred streams, running in as many contrary directions.

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[paragraph continues] It is the Slávratta, 'the celestial earth,' of the Hindoo, the summit of his golden mountain Meru, the city of Brahma, in the centre of Jambadwípa, and from the four sides of which gush forth the four primeval rivers, reflecting in their passage the colorific glories of their source, and severally flowing northward, southward, eastward, and westward."

It is the Garden of Eden of the Hebrews:

"And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first is Pison; that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; and the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. And the Lord God took the man and put him into the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." (Gen. ii., 8-1-5.)

As the four rivers named in Genesis are not branches of any one stream, and head in very different regions, it is evident that there was an attempt, on the part of the writer of the Book, to adapt an ancient tradition concerning another country to the known features of the region in which be dwelt.

Josephus tells us (chap. i., p. 41), "Now the garden (of Eden) was watered by one river, which ran round about the whole earth, and was parted into four parts." Here in the four parts we see the origin of the Cross, while in the river running around the whole earth we have the wonderful canal of Atlantis, described by Plato, which was "carried around the whole of the plain," and received the streams which came down from the mountains. The streams named by Josephus would seem to represent the migrations of people from Atlantis to its colonies.

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[paragraph continues] "Phison," he tells us, "denotes a multitude; it ran into India; the Euphrates and Tigris go down into the Red Sea while the Geon runs through Egypt."

We are further told (chap. ii., p. 42) that when Cain, after the murder of. Abel, left the land of Adam, "he travelled over many countries" before be reached the land of Nod; and the land of Nod was to the eastward of Adam's home. In other words, the original seat of mankind was in the West, that is to say, in the direction of Atlantis. Wilson tells us that the Aryans of India believed that they originally came "from the West." Thus the nations on the west of the Atlantic look to the east for their place of origin; while on the east of the Atlantic they look to the west: thus all the lines of tradition converge upon Atlantis.

But here is the same testimony that in the Garden of Eden there were four rivers radiating from one parent stream. And these four rivers, as we have seen, we find in the Scandinavian traditions, and in the legends of the Chinese, the Tartars, the Singhalese, the Thibetians, the Buddhists, the Hebrews, and the Brahmans.

And not only do we find this tradition of the Garden of Eden in the Old World, but it meets us also among the civilized races of America. The elder Montezuma said to Cortez, "Our fathers dwelt in that happy and prosperous place which they called Aztlan, which means whiteness. . . . In this place there is a great mountain in the middle of the water which is called Culhuacan, because it has the point somewhat turned over toward the bottom; and for this cause it is called Culhuacan, which means 'crooked mountain.'" He then proceeds to describe the charms of this favored land, abounding in birds, game, fish, trees, "fountains enclosed with elders and junipers, and alder-trees both large and beautiful." The people planted "maize, red peppers, tomatoes, beans, and all kinds of plants, in furrows."

Here we have the same mountain in the midst of the water

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which Plato describes--the same mountain to which all the legends of the most ancient races of Europe refer.

The inhabitants of Aztlan were boatmen. (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 325.) E. G. Squier, in his "Notes on Central America," p. 349, says, "It is a significant fact that in the map of their migrations, presented by Gemelli, the place of the origin of the Aztecs is designated by the sign of water, Atl standing for Atzlan, a pyramidal temple with grades, and near these a palm-tree." This circumstance did not escape the attention of Humboldt, who says, I am astonished at finding a palm-tree near this teocalli. This tree certainly does not indicate a northern origin. . . . The possibility that an unskilful artist should unintentionally represent a tree of which he had no knowledge is so great, that any argument dependent on it hangs upon a slender thread." ("North Americans of Antiquity," p. 266.)

The Miztecs, a tribe dwelling on the outskirts of Mexico, had a tradition that the gods, "in the day of obscurity and darkness," built "a sumptuous palace, a masterpiece of skill, in which they male their abode upon a mountain. The rock was called 'The Place of Heaven;' there the gods first abode on earth, living many years in great rest and content, as in a happy and delicious land, though the world still lay in obscurity and darkness. The children of these gods made to themselves a garden, in which they put many trees, and fruit-trees, and flowers, and roses, and odorous herbs. Subsequently there came a great deluge, in which many of the sons and daughters of the gods perished." (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iii., p. 71.) Here we have a distinct reference to Olympus, the Garden of Plato, and the destruction of Atlantis.

And in Plato's account of Atlantis we have another description of the Garden of Eden and the Golden Age of the world:

"Also, whatever fragrant things there are in the earth, whether roots, or herbage, or woods, or distilling drops of flowers and fruits, grew and thrived in that land; and again the cultivated

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fruits of the earth, both the edible fruits and other species of food which we call by the name of legumes, and the fruits having a hard rind, affording drinks and meats and ointments . . . all these that sacred island, lying beneath the sun, brought forth in abundance. . . . For many generations, as long as the divine nature lasted in them, they were obedient to the laws, and well affectioned toward the gods, who were their kinsmen; for they possessed true and in every way great spirits, practising gentleness and wisdom in the various chances of life, and in their intercourse with one another. They despised everything but virtue, not caring for their present state of life, and thinking lightly of the possession of gold and other property, which seemed only a burden to them; neither were they intoxicated by luxury; nor did wealth deprive them of their self-control; but they were sober, and saw clearly that all these goods were increased by virtuous friendship with one another, and that by excessive zeal for them, and honor of them, the good of them is lost, and friendship perishes with them."

All this cannot be a mere coincidence; it points to a common tradition of a veritable land, where four rivers flowed down in opposite directions from a central mountain-peak. And these four rivers, flowing to the north, south, east, and west, constitute the origin of that sign of the Cross which we have seen meeting us at every point among the races who were either descended from the people of Atlantis, or who, by commerce and colonization, received their opinions and civilization from them.

Let us look at the question of the identity of the Garden of Eden with Atlantis from another point of view:

If the alphabet of the Phśnicians is kindred with the Maya alphabet, as I think is clear, then the Phśnicians were of the same race, or of some race with which the Mayas were connected; in other words, they were from Atlantis.

Now we know that the Phśnicians and Hebrews were of the same stock, used the same alphabet, and spoke almost precisely the same language.

The Phśnicians preserved traditions, which have come down

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to us in the writings, of Sanchoniathon, of all the great essential inventions or discoveries which underlie civilization. The first two human beings, they tell us, were Protogonos and Aion (Adam and 'Havath), who produce Genos and Genea (Qęn and Qęnath), from whom again are descended three brothers, named Phos, Phur, and Phlox (Light, Fire, and Flame), because they "have discovered how to produce fire by the friction of two pieces of wood, and have taught the use of this element." In another fragment, at the origin of the human race we see in succession the fraternal couples of Autochthon and Technites (Adam and Quen--Cain?), inventors of the manufacture of bricks; Agros and Agrotes (Sade and Cęd), fathers of the agriculturists and hunters; then Amynos and Magos, "who taught to dwell in villages and rear flocks."

The connection between these Atlantean traditions and the Bible record is shown in many things. For instance, "the Greek text, in expressing the invention of Amynos, uses the words κώμας καὶ ποίμνας, which are precisely the same as the terms ôhel umiqneh, which the Bible uses in speaking of the dwellings of the descendants of Jabal (Gen., chap. iv., v. 20). In like manner Lamech, both in the signification of his name and also iv the savage character attributed to him by the legend attached to his memory, is a true synonyme of Agrotes."

"And the title of Ἀλῆται, given to Agros and Agrotes in the Greek of the Phśnician history, fits in wonderfully with the physiognomy of the race of the Cainites in the Bible narrative, whether we take Ἀλῆται simply as a Hellenized transcription of the Semitic Elim, 'the strong, the mighty,' or whether we take it in its Greek acceptation, 'the wanderers;' for such is the destiny of Cain and his race according to the very terms of the condemnation which was inflicted upon him after his crime (Gen. iv., 14), and this is what is signified by the name of his grandson 'Yirad. Only, in Sanchoniathon the genealogy does not end with Amynos and Magos, as that of the Cainites in the Bible does with the three sons of Lamech. These two personages are succeeded by Misôr and Sydyk, 'the released and the

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just,' as Sanchoniathon translates them, but rather the 'upright and the just' (Mishôr and Çüdüq), 'who invent the use of salt.' To Misôr is born Taautos (Taűt), to whom we owe letters; and to Sydyk the Cabiri or Corybantes, the institutors of navigation." (Lenormant, "Genealogies between Adam and the Deluge." Contemporary Review, April, 1880.)

We have, also, the fact that the Phśnician name for their goddess Astynome (Ashtar No'emâ), whom the Greeks called Nemaun, was the same as the name of the sister of the three sons of Lamech, as given in Genesis--Na'emah, or Na'amah.

If, then, the original seat of the Hebrews and Phśnicians was the Garden of Eden, to the west of Europe, and if the Phśnicians are shown to be connected, through their alphabets, with the Central Americans, who looked to an island in the sea, to the eastward, as their starting-point, the conclusion becomes irresistible that Atlantis and the Garden of Eden were one and the same.

The Pyramid.--Not only are the Cross and the Garden of Eden identified with Atlantis, but in Atlantis, the habitation of the gods, we find the original model of all those pyramids which extend from India to Peru.

This singular architectural construction dates back far beyond the birth of history. In the Purânas of the Hindoos we read of pyramids long anterior in time to any which have survived to our day. Cheops was preceded by a countless host of similar erections which have long since mouldered into ruins.

If the reader will turn to page 104 of this work he will see, in the midst of the picture of Aztlan, the starting-point of the Aztecs, according to the Botturini pictured writing, a pyramid with worshippers kneeling before it.

Fifty years ago Mr. Faber, in his "Origin of Pagan Idolatry," placed artificial tumuli, pyramids, and pagodas in the same category, conceiving that all were transcripts of the holy mountain which was generally supposed to have stood in the centre of Eden; or, rather. as intimated in more than one place by

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the Psalmist, the garden itself was situated on an eminence. (Psalms, chap. iii., v. 4, and chap. lxviii., vs. 15, 16, 18.)

The pyramid is one of the marvellous features of that problem which confronts us everywhere, and which is insoluble without Atlantis.

The Arabian traditions linked the pyramid with the Flood. In a manuscript preserved in the Bodleian Library, and translated by Dr. Sprenger, Abou Balkhi says:

"The wise men, previous to the Flood, foreseeing an impending Judgment from heaven, either by submersion or fire, which would destroy every created thing, built upon the tops of the mountains in Upper Egypt many pyramids of stone, in order to have some refuge against the approaching calamity. Two of these buildings exceeded the rest in height, being four hundred cubits, high and as many broad and as many long. They were built with large blocks of marble, and they were so well put together that the joints were scarcely perceptible. Upon the exterior of the building every charm and wonder of physic was inscribed."

This tradition locates these monster structures upon the mountains of Upper Egypt, but there are no buildings of such dimensions to be found anywhere in Egypt. Is it not probable that we have here another reference to the great record preserved in the land of the Deluge? Were not the pyramids of Egypt and America imitations of similar structures in Atlantis? Might not the building of such a gigantic edifice have given rise to the legends existing on both continents in regard to a Tower of Babel?

How did the human mind hit upon this singular edifice--the pyramid? By what process of development did it reach it? Why should these extraordinary structures crop out on the banks of the Nile, and amid the forests and plains of America? And why, in both countries, should they stand with their sides square to the four cardinal points of the compass? Are they in this, too, a reminiscence of the Cross, and of the four rivers of Atlantis that ran to the north, south, east, and west?

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"There is yet a third combination that demands a specific notice. The decussated symbol is not unfrequently planted upon what Christian archćologists designate 'a calvary,' that is, upon a mount or a cone. Thus it is represented in both hemispheres. The megalithic structure of Callernish, in the island of Lewis before mentioned, is the most perfect example of the practice extant in Europe. The mount is preserved to this day. This, to be brief, was the recognized conventional mode of expressing a particular primitive truth or mystery from the days of the Chaldeans to those of the Gnostics, or from one extremity of the civilized world to the other. It is seen in the treatment of the ash Yggdrasill of the Scandinavians, as well as in that of the Bo-tree of the Buddhists. The prototype was not the Egyptian, but the Babylonian crux ansata, the lower member of which constitutes a conical support for the oval or sphere above it. With the Gnostics, who occupied the debatable ground between primitive Christianity and philosophic paganism, and who inscribed it upon their tombs, the cone symbolized death as well as life. In every heathen mythology it was the universal emblem of the goddess or mother of heaven, by whatsoever name she was addressed--whether as Mylitta, Astarte, Aphrodite, Isis, Mata, or Venus; and the several eminences consecrated to her worship were, like those upon which Jupiter was originally adored, of a conical or pyramidal shape. This, too, is the ordinary form of the altars dedicated to the Assyrian god of fertility. In exceptional instances the cone is introduced upon one or the other of the sides, or is distinguishable in the always accompanying mystical tree." (Edinburgh Review, July, 1870.)

If the reader will again turn to page 104 of this work he will see that the tree appears on the top of the pyramid or mountain in both the Aztec representations of Aztlan, the original island-home of the Central American races.

The writer just quoted believes that Mr. Faber is correct in his opinion that the pyramid is a transcript of the sacred mountain which stood in the midst of Eden, the Olympus of Atlantis. He adds:

"Thomas Maurice, who is no mean authority, held the same view. He conceived the use to which pyramids in particular

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were anciently applied to have been threefold--namely, as tombs, temples, and observatories; and this view he labors to establish in the third volume of his 'Indian Antiquities.' Now, whatever may be their actual date, or with whatsoever people they may have originated, whether in Africa or Asia, in the lower valley of the Nile or in the plains of Chaldea, the pyramids of Egypt were unquestionably destined to very opposite purposes. According, to Herodotus, they were introduced by the Hyksos; and Proclus, the Platonic philosopher, connects them with the science of astronomy--a science which, he adds, the Egyptians derived from the Chaldeans. Hence we may reasonably infer that they served as well for temples for planetary worship as for observatories. Subsequently to the descent of the shepherds, their hallowed precincts were invaded by royalty, from motives of pride and superstition; and the principal chamber in each was used as tombs."

The pyramidal imitations, dear to the hearts of colonists of the sacred mountain upon which their gods dwelt, was devoted, as perhaps the mountain itself was, to sun and fire worship. The same writer says:

"That Sabian worship once extensively prevailed in the New World is a well-authenticated fact; it is yet practised to some extent by the wandering tribes on the Northern continent, and was the national religion of the Peruvians at the time of the Conquest. That it was also the religion of their more highly civilized predecessors on the soil, south of the equator more especially, is evidenced by the remains of fire-altars, both round and square, scattered about the shores of lakes Umayu and Titicaca, and which are the counterparts of the Gueber dokh mehs overhanging the Caspian Sea. Accordingly, we find, among these and other vestiges of antiquity that indissolubly connected those long-since extinct populations in the New with the races of the Old World, the well-defined symbol of the Maltese Cross. On the Mexican feroher before alluded to, and which is most elaborately carved in bass-relief on a massive piece of polygonous granite, constituting a portion of a cyclopean wall, the cross is enclosed within the ring, and accompanying it are four tassel-like ornaments, graved equally well. Those accompaniments, however, are disposed without any particular

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regard to order, but the four arms of the cross, nevertheless, severally and accurately point to the cardinal quarters, The same regularity is observable on a much smaller but not less curious monument, which was discovered some time since in an ancient Peruvian huaca or catacomb--namely, a syrinx or pandean pipe, cut out of a solid mass of lapis ollaris, the sides of which are profusely ornamented, not only with Maltese crosses, but also with other symbols very similar in style to those inscribed on the obelisks of Egypt and on the monoliths of this country. The like figure occurs on the equally ancient Otrusco black pottery. But by far the most remarkable example of this form of the Cross in the New World is that which appears on a second type of the Mexican feroher, engraved on a tablet of gypsum, and which is described at length by its discoverer, Captain du Paix, and depicted by his friend, M. Baradčre. Here the accompaniments--a shield, a hamlet, and a couple of bead-annulets or rosaries--are, with a single exception, identical in even the minutest particular with an Assyrian monument emblematical of the Deity. . . .

"No country in the world can compare with India for the exposition of the pyramidal cross. There the stupendous labors of Egypt are rivalled, and sometimes surpassed. Indeed, but for the fact of such monuments of patient industry and unexampled skill being still in existence, the accounts of some others which have long since disappeared, having succumbed to the ravages of time and the fury of the bigoted Mussulman, would sound in our ears as incredible as the story of Porsenna's tomb, which 'o'ertopped old Pelion,' and made 'Ossa like a wart.' Yet something not very dissimilar in character to it was formerly the boast of the ancient city of Benares, on the banks of the Ganges. We allude to the great temple of Bindh Madhu, which was demolished in the seventeenth century by the Emperor Aurungzebe. Tavernier, the French baron, who travelled thither about the year 1680, has preserved a brief description of it. The body of the temple was constructed in the figure of a colossal cross (i. e., a St. Andrew's Cross), with a lofty dome at the centre, above which rose a massive structure of a pyramidal form. At the four extremities of the cross there were four other pyramids of proportionate dimensions, and which were ascended from the outside by steps, with balconies at stated distances for places of rest, reminding us of the temple

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of Belus, as described in the pages of Herodotus. The remains of a similar building are found at Mhuttra, on the banks of the Jumna. This and many others, including the subterranean temple at Elephanta and the caverns of Ellora and Salsette, are described at length in the well-known work by Maurice; who adds that, besides these, there was yet another device in which the Hindoo displayed the all-pervading sign; this was by pyramidal towers placed crosswise. At the famous temple of Chillambrum, on the Coromandel coast, there were seven lofty walls, one within the other, round the central quadrangle, and as many pyramidal gate-ways in the midst of each side which forms the limbs of a vast cross."

In Mexico pyramids were found everywhere. Cortez, in a letter to Charles V., states that he counted four hundred of them at Cholula. Their temples were on those "high-places." The most ancient pyramids in Mexico are at Teotihuacan, eight leagues from the city of Mexico; the two largest were dedicated to the sun and moon respectively, each built of cut stone, with a level area at the summit, and four stages leading up to it. The larger one is 680 feet square at the base, about 200 feet high, and covers an area of eleven acres. The Pyramid of Cholula, measured by Humboldt, is 160 feet high, 1400 feet square at the base, and covers forty five acres! The great pyramid of Egypt, Cheops, is 746 feet square, 450 feet high, and covers between twelve and thirteen acres. So that it appears that the base of the Teotihuacan structure is nearly as large as that of Cheops, while that of Cholula covers nearly four times as much space. The Cheops pyramid, however, exceeds very much in height both the American structures.

Seńor Garcia y Cubas thinks the pyramids of Teotihuacan (Mexico) were built for the same purpose as those of Egypt. He considers the analogy established in eleven particulars, as follows: 1, the site chosen is the same; 2, the structures are orientated with slight variation; 3, the line through the centres of the structures is in the astronomical meridian; 4, the

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construction in grades and steps is the same; 5, in both cases the larger pyramids are dedicated to the sun; 6, the Nile has "a valley of the dead," as in Teotihuacan there is "a street of the dead;" 7, some monuments in each class have the nature of fortifications; 8, the smaller mounds are of the same nature and for the same purpose; 9, both pyramids have a small mound joined to one of their faces; 10, the openings discovered in the Pyramid of the Moon are also found in some Egyptian pyramids; 11, the interior arrangements of the pyramids are analogous. ("Ensayo de un Estudio.")

It is objected that the American edifices are different in form from the Egyptian, in that they are truncated, or flattened at the top; but this is not an universal rule.

"In many of the ruined cities of Yucatan one or more pyramids have been found upon the summit of which no traces of any building could be discovered, although upon surrounding pyramids such structures could be found. There is also some reason to believe that perfect pyramids have been found in America. Waldeck found near Palenque two pyramids in a state of perfect preservation, square at the base, pointed at the top, and thirty-one feet high, their sides forming equilateral triangles." (Bancroft's Native Races," vol. v., p. 58.)

Bradford thinks that some of the Egyptian pyramids, and those which with some reason it has been supposed are the most ancient, are precisely similar to the Mexican teocalli." ("North Americans of Antiquity" p. 423.)

And there is in Egypt another form of pyramid called the mastaba, which, like the Mexican, was flattened on the top; while in Assyria structures flattened like the Mexican are found. "In fact," says one writer, "this form of temple (the flat-topped) has been found from Mesopotamia to the Pacific Ocean." The Phśnicians also built pyramids. In the thirteenth century the Dominican Brocard visited the ruins of the Phśnician city of Mrith or Marathos, and speaks in the strongest terms of admiration of those pyramids of surprising grandeur, constructed of blocks of stone from twenty-six to twenty-eight

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feet long, whose thickness exceeded the stature of a tall man. ("Prehistoric Nations," p. 144.)

"If," says Ferguson, "we still hesitate to pronounce that there was any connection between the builders of the pyramids of Suku and Oajaca, or the temples of Xochialco and Boro Buddor, we must at least allow that the likeness is startling, and difficult to account for on the theory of mere accidental coincidence."

The Egyptian pyramids all stand with their sides to the cardinal


points, while many of the Mexican pyramids do likewise. The Egyptian pyramids were penetrated by small passage-ways; so were the Mexican. The Pyramid of Teotihuacan, according to Almarez, has, at a point sixty-nine feet from the base, a gallery large enough to admit a man crawling on hands and knees,

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which extends, inward, on an incline, a distance of twenty feet, and terminates in two square wells or chambers, each five feet square and one of them fifteen feet deep. Mr. Löwenstern


states, according to Mr. Bancroft ("Native Races," vol. iv., p. 533), that "the gallery is one hundred and fifty-seven feet long, increasing in height to over six feet and a half as it penetrates the pyramid; that the well is over six feet square, extending (apparently) down to the base and up to the summit; and that other cross-galleries are blocked up by débris." In the Pyramid of Cheops there is a similar opening or passage-way forty-nine feet above the base; it is three feet eleven inches high, and three feet five and a half inches wide; it leads down a slope to a sepulchral chamber or well, and connects with other passage-ways leading up into the body of the pyramid.

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Click to view

In both the Egyptian the American pyramids the outside of the structures was covered with a thick coating of smooth, shining cement.

Humboldt considered the Pyramid of Cholula of the same type as the Temple of Jupiter Belus, the pyramids of Meidoun Dachhour, and the group of Sakkarah, in Egypt.


In both America and Egypt the pyramids were used as places of sepulture; and it is a remarkable fact that the system of earthworks and mounds, kindred to the pyramids, is found even in England. Silsbury Hill, at Avebury, is an artificial mound one hundred and seventy feet high. It is connected with ramparts, avenues (fourteen hundred and eighty yards

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long), circular ditches, and stone circles, almost identical with those found in the valley of the Mississippi. In Ireland the dead were buried in vaults of stone, and the earth raised over them in pyramids flattened on the top. They were called "moats" by the people. We have found the stone vaults at the base of similar truncated pyramids in Ohio. There can be no doubt that the pyramid was a developed and perfected mound, and that the parent form of these curious structures is to be found in Silsbury Hill, and in the mounds of earth of Central America and the Mississippi Valley.

We find the emblem of the Cross in pre-Christian times venerated as a holy symbol on both sides of the Atlantic; and we find it explained as a type of the four rivers of the happy island where the civilization of the race originated.

We find everywhere among the European and American nations the memory of an Eden of the race, where the first men dwelt in primeval peace and happiness, and which was afterward destroyed by water.

We find the pyramid on both sides of the Atlantic, with its four sides pointing, like the arms of the Cross, to the four cardinal points-a reminiscence of Olympus; and in the Aztec representation of Olympos (Aztlan) we find the pyramid as the central and typical figure.

Is it possible to suppose all these extraordinary coincidences to be the result of accident? We might just as well say that the similarities between the American and English forms of government were not the result of relationship or descent, but that men placed in similar circumstances had spontaneously and necessarily reached the same results.



MONEY is the instrumentality by which man is lifted above the limitations of barter. Baron Storch terms it "the marvellous instrument to which we are indebted for our wealth and civilization."

It is interesting to inquire into the various articles which have been used in different countries and ages as money. The following is a table of some of them:

Articles of Utility.

India Cakes of tea.
China Pieces of silk.
Abyssinia Salt.
Iceland and Newfoundland Codfish.
Illinois (in early days) Coon-skins.
Bornoo (Africa) Cotton shirts.
Ancient Russia Skins of wild animals.
West India Islands (1500) Cocoa-nuts.
Massachusetts Indians Wampum and musket-balls.
Virginia (1700) Tobacco.
British West India Islands Pins, snuff, and whiskey.
Central South America Soap, chocolate, and eggs.
Ancient Romans Cattle.
Ancient Greece Nails of copper and iron.
The Lacedemonians Iron.
The Burman Empire Lead.
Russia (1828 to 1845) Platinum.
Rome (under Numa Pompilius) Wood and leather.
Rome (under the Cćsars) Land.p. 344
Carthaginians Leather.
Ancient Britons Cattle, slaves, brass, and iron.
England (under James II.) Tin, gun-metal, and pewter.
South Sea Islands Axes and hammers.

Articles of Ornament.

Ancient Jews Jewels.
The Indian Islands and Africa Cowrie shells,

Conventional Signs.

Holland (1574) Pieces of pasteboard.
China (1200) Bark of the mulberry-tree.

It is evident that every primitive people uses as money those articles upon which they set the highest value--as cattle, jewels, slaves, salt, musket-balls, pins, snuff, whiskey, cotton shirts, leather, axes, and hammers; or those articles for which there was a foreign demand, and which they could trade off to the merchants for articles of necessity--as tea, silk, codfish, coonskins, cocoa-nuts, and tobacco. Then there is a later stage, when the stamp of the government is impressed upon paper, wood, pasteboard, or the bark of trees, and these articles are given a legal-tender character.

When a civilized nation comes in contact with a barbarous people they seek to trade with them for those things which they need; a metal-working people, manufacturing weapons of iron or copper, will seek for the useful metals, and hence we find iron, copper, tin, and lead coming into use as a standard of values--as money; for they can always be converted into articles of use and weapons of war. But when we ask bow it chanced that gold and silver came to be used as money, and why it is that gold is regarded as so much more valuable than silver, no answer presents itself. It was impossible to make either of them into pots or pans, swords or spears; they were not necessarily more beautiful than glass or the combinations of tin and copper. Nothing astonished the American races

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more than the extraordinary value set upon gold and silver by the Spaniards; they could not understand it. A West Indian savage traded a handful of gold-dust with one of the sailors accompanying Columbus for some tool, and then ran for his life to the woods lest the sailor should repent his bargain and call him back. The Mexicans had coins of tin shaped like a letter T. We can understand this, for tin was necessary to them in hardening their bronze implements, and it may have been the highest type of metallic value among them. A round copper coin with a serpent stamped on it was found at Palenque, and T-shaped copper coins are very abundant in the ruins of Central America. This too we can understand, for copper was necessary in every work of art or utility.

All these nations were familiar with gold and silver, but they used them as sacred metals for the adornment of the temples of the sun and moon. The color of gold was something of the color of the sun's rays, while the color of silver resembled the pale light of the moon, and hence they were respectively sacred to the gods of the sun and moon. And this is probably the origin of the comparative value of these metals: they became the precious metals because they were the sacred metals, and gold was more valuable than silver--just as the sun-god was the great god of the nations, while the mild moon was simply an attendant upon the sun.

The Peruvians called gold "the tears wept by the sun." It was not used among the people for ornament or money. The great temple of the sun at Cuzco was called the "Place of Gold." It was, as I have shown, literally a mine of gold. Walls, cornices, statuary, plate, ornaments, all were of gold; the very ewers, pipes, and aqueducts--even the agricultural implements used in the garden of the temple--were of gold and silver. The value of the jewels which adorned the temple was equal to one hundred and eighty millions of dollars! The riches of the kingdom can be conceived when we remember that from a pyramid in Chimu a Spanish explorer named

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Toledo took, in 1577, $4,450,284 in gold and silver. ("New American Cyclopćdia," art. American Antiquities.) The gold and silver of Peru largely contributed to form the metallic currency upon which Europe has carried on her commerce during the last three hundred years.

Gold and silver were not valued in Peru for any intrinsic usefulness; they were regarded as sacred because reserved for the two great gods of the nation. As we find gold and silver mined and worked on both sides of the Atlantic at the earliest periods of recorded history, we may fairly conclude that they were known to the Atlanteans; and this view is confirmed by the statements of Plato, who represents a condition of things in Atlantis exactly like that which Pizarro found in Peru. Doubtless the vast accumulations of gold and silver in both countries were due to the fact that these metals were not permitted to be used by the people. In Peru the annual taxes of the people were paid to the Inca in part in gold and silver from the mines, and they were used to ornament the temples; and thus the work of accumulating the sacred metals went on from generation to generation. The same process doubtless led to the vast accumulations in the temples of Atlantis, as described by Plato.

Now, as the Atlanteans carried on an immense commerce with all the countries of Europe and Western Asia, they doubtless inquired and traded for gold and silver for the adornment of their temples, and they thus produced a demand for and gave a value to the two metals otherwise comparatively useless to man--a value higher than any other commodity which the people could offer their civilized customers; and as the reverence for the great burning orb of the sun, master of all the manifestations of nature, was tenfold as great as the veneration for the smaller, weaker, and variable goddess of the night, so was the demand for the metal sacred to the sun ten times as great as for the metal sacred to the moon. This view is confirmed by the fact that the root of the word by which the Celts,

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the Greeks, and the Romans designated gold was the Sanscrit word karat, which means, "the color of the sun." Among the Assyrians gold and silver were respectively consecrated to the and moon precisely as they were in Peru. A pyramid belonging to the palace of Nineveh is referred to repeatedly in the inscriptions. It was composed of seven stages, equal in height, and each one smaller in area than the one beneath it; each stage was covered with stucco of different colors, "a different color representing each of the heavenly bodies, the least important being at the base: white (Venus); black (Saturn); purple (Jupiter); blue (Mercury); vermillion (Mars); silver (the Moon); and gold (the Sun)." (Lenormant's "Ancient History of the East," vol. i., p. 463.) "In England, to this day the new moon is saluted with a bow or a courtesy, as well as the curious practice of 'turning one's silver,' which seems a relic of the offering of the moon's proper metal." (Tylor's "Anthropology", p. 361.) The custom of wishing, when one first sees the new moon, is probably a survival of moon-worship; the wish taking the place of the prayer.

And thus has it come to pass that, precisely as the physicians of Europe, fifty years ago, practised bleeding, because for thousands of years their savage ancestors had used it to draw away the evil spirits out of the man, so the business of our modern civilization is dependent upon the superstition of a past civilization, and the bankers of the world are to-day perpetuating the adoration of "the tears wept by the sun" which was commenced ages since on the island of Atlantis.

And it becomes a grave question--when we remember that the rapidly increasing business of the world, consequent upon an increasing population, and a civilization advancing with giant steps, is measured by the standard of a currency limited by natural laws, decreasing annually in production, and incapable of expanding proportionately to the growth of the world--whether this Atlantean superstition may not yet inflict more incalculable injuries on mankind than those which resulted from the practice of phlebotomy.





THE western shores of Atlantis were not far distant from the West India Islands; a people possessed of ships could readily pass from island to island until they reached the continent. Columbus found the natives making such voyages in open canoes. If, then, we will suppose that there was no original connection between the inhabitants of the main-land and of Atlantis, the commercial activity of the Atlanteans would soon reveal to them the shores of the Gulf. Commerce implies the plantation of colonies; the trading-post is always the nucleus of a settlement; we have seen this illustrated in modern times in the case of the English East India Company and the Hudson Bay Company. We can therefore readily believe that commercial intercourse between Atlantis and Yucatan, Honduras and Mexico, created colonies along the shores of the Gulf which gradually spread into the interior, and to the high table-lands of Mexico. And, accordingly, we find, as I have already shown, that all the traditions of Central America and Mexico point to some country in the East, and beyond the sea, as the source of their first civilized people; and this region, known among them as "Aztlan," lived in the memory of the people as a beautiful and happy land, where their ancestors had dwelt in peace for many generations.

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Dr. Le Plongeon, who spent four years exploring Yucatan, says:

"One-third of this tongue (the Maya) is pure Greek. Who brought the dialect of Homer to America? or who took to Greece that of the Mayas? Greek is the offspring of the Sanscrit. Is Maya? or are they coeval? . . . The Maya is not devoid of words from the Assyrian."

That the population of Central America (and in this term I include Mexico) was at one time very dense, and had attained to a high degree of civilization, higher even than that of Europe in the time of Columbus, there can be no question; and it is also probable, as I have shown, that they originally belonged to the white race. Dęsirč Charnay, who is now exploring the ruins of Central America, says (North American Review, January, 1881, p. 48), "The Toltecs were fair, robust, and bearded. I have often seen Indians of pure blood with blue eyes." Quetzalcoatl was represented as large, "with a big head and a heavy beard." The same author speaks (page 44) of "the ocean of ruins all around, not inferior in size to those of Egypt" At Teotihuacan he measured one building two thousand feet wide on each side, and fifteen pyramids, each nearly as large in the base as Cheops. "The city is indeed of vast extent . . . the whole ground, over a space of five or six miles in diameter, is covered with heaps of ruins--ruins which at first make no impression, so complete is their dilapidation." He asserts the great antiquity of these ruins, because be found the very highways of the ancient city to be composed of broken bricks and pottery, the débris left by earlier populations. "This continent," he says (page 43), "is the land of mysteries; we here enter an infinity whose limits we cannot estimate. . . . I shall soon have to quit work in this place. The long avenue on which it stands is lined with ruins of public buildings and palaces, forming continuous lines, as in the streets of modern cities. Still, all these edifices and halls were as nothing compared with the vast substructures which strengthened their foundations."

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We find the strongest resemblances to the works of the ancient European races: the masonry is similar; the cement is the same; the sculptures are alike; both peoples used the arch; in both continents we find bricks, glassware, and even porcelain (North American Review, December, 1880, pp. 524, 525), "with blue figures on a white ground;" also bronze composed of the same elements of copper and tin in like proportions; coins made of copper, round and T-shaped, and even metallic candlesticks.

Dęsirč Charnay believes that he has found in the ruins of Tula the bones of swine, sheep, oxen, and horses, in a fossil state, indicating an immense antiquity. The Toltecs possessed a pure and simple religion, like that of Atlantis, as described by Plato, with the same sacrifices of fruits and flowers; they were farmers; they raised and wove cotton; they cultivated fruits; they used the sign of the Cross extensively; they cut and engraved precious stones; among their carvings have been found representations of the elephant and the lion, both animals not known in America. The forms of sepulture were the same as among the ancient races of the Old World; they burnt the bodies of their great men, and enclosed the dust in funeral urns; some of their dead were buried in a sitting position, others reclined at full length, and many were embalmed like the Egyptian mummies.

When we turn to Mexico, the same resemblances present themselves.

The government was an elective monarchy, like that of Poland, the king being selected from the royal family by the votes of the nobles of the kingdom. There was a royal family, an aristocracy, a privileged priesthood, a judiciary, and a common people. Here we have all the several estates into which society in Europe is divided.

There were thirty grand nobles in the kingdom, and the vastness of the realm may be judged by the fact that each of these could muster one hundred thousand vassals from their

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own estates, or a total of three millions. And we have only to read of the vast hordes brought into the field against Cortez to know that this was not an exaggeration.

They even possessed that which has been considered the crowning feature of European society, the feudal system. The nobles held their lands upon the tenure of military service.

But the most striking feature was the organization of the judiciary. The judges were independent even of the king, and held their offices for life. There were supreme judges for the larger divisions of the kingdom, district judges in each of the provinces, and magistrates chosen by the people throughout the country.

There was also a general legislative assembly, congress, or parliament, held every eighty days, presided over by the king, consisting of all the judges of the realm, to which the last appeal lay

"The rites of marriage," says Prescott, "were celebrated with as much formality as in any Christian country; and the institution was held in such reverence that a tribunal was instituted for the sole purpose of determining questions relating to it. Divorces could not be obtained until authorized by a sentence of the court, after a patient hearing of the parties."

Slavery was tolerated, but the labors of the slave were light, his rights carefully guarded, and his children were free. The slave could own property, and even other slaves.

Their religion possessed so many features similar to those of the Old World, that the Spanish priests declared the devil had given them a bogus imitation of Christianity to destroy their souls. "The devil," said they, "stole all he could."

They had confessions, absolution of sins, and baptism. When their children were named, they sprinkled their lips and bosoms with water, and "the Lord was implored to permit the holy drops to wash away the sin that was given it before the foundation of the world."

The priests were numerous and powerful. They practised

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fasts, vigils, flagellations, and many of them lived in monastic seclusion.

The Aztecs, like the Egyptians, had progressed through all the three different modes of writing--the picture-writing, the symbolical, and the phonetic. They recorded all their laws, their tribute-rolls specifying the various imposts, their mythology, astronomical calendars, and rituals, their political annals and their chronology. They wrote on cotton-cloth, on skins prepared like parchment, on a composition of silk and gum, and on a species of paper, soft and beautiful, made from the aloe. Their books were about the size and shape of our own, but the leaves were long strips folded together in many folds.

They wrote poetry and cultivated oratory, and paid much attention to rhetoric. They also had a species of theatrical performances.

Their proficiency in astronomy is thus spoken of by Prescott:

"That they should be capable of accurately adjusting their festivals by the movements of the heavenly bodies, and should fix the true length of the tropical year with a precision unknown to the great philosophers of antiquity, could be the result only of a long series of nice and patient observations, evincing no slight progress in civilization."

"Their women," says the same author, "are described by the Spaniards as pretty, though with a serious and rather melancholy cast of countenance. Their long, black hair might generally be seen wreathed with flowers, or, among the richer people, with strings of precious stones and pearls from the Gulf of California. They appear to have been treated with much consideration by their husbands; and passed their time in indolent tranquillity, or in such feminine occupations as spinning, embroidery, and the like; while their maidens beguiled the hours by the rehearsal of traditionary tales and ballads.

"Numerous attendants of both sexes waited at the banquets. The balls were scented with perfumes, and the courts strewed with odoriferous herbs and flowers, which were distributed in profusion among the guests as they arrived. Cotton napkins and ewers of water were placed before them as they took their

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seats at the board. Tobacco was them offered, in pipes, mixed with aromatic substances, or in the form of cigars inserted in tubes of tortoise-shell or silver. It is a curious fact that the Aztecs also took the dried tobacco leaf in the pulverized form of snuff.

"The table was well supplied with substantial meats, especially game, among which the most conspicuous was the turkey. Also, there were found very delicious vegetables and. fruits of every variety native to the continent. Their palate was still further regaled by confections and pastry, for which their maize-flower and sugar furnished them ample materials. The meats were kept warm with chafing-dishes. The table was ornamented


with vases of silver and sometimes gold of delicate workmanship. The favorite beverage was chocolatl, flavored with vanilla and different spices. The fermented juice of the maguey, with a mixture of sweets and acids, supplied various agreeable drinks of different degrees of strength."

It is not necessary to describe their great public works, their floating gardens, their aqueducts, bridges, forts, temples, palaces,

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and gigantic pyramids, all ornamented with wonderful statuary.

We find a strong resemblance between the form of arch used in the architecture of Central America and that of the oldest buildings of Greece. The Palenque arch is made by the gradual overlapping of the strata of the building, as shown in the accompanying cut from Baldwin's "Ancient America," page 100. It was the custom of these ancient architects to fill in the arch itself with masonry, as shown in the picture

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Click to view


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on page 355 of the Arch of Las Monjas, Palenque. If now we took at the representation of the "Treasure-house of Atreus" at Mycenć, on page 354--one of the oldest structures in Greece--we find precisely the same form of arch, filled in in the same way.

Rosengarten ("Architectural Styles," p. 59) says:

"The base of these treasure-houses is circular, and the covering of a dome shape; it does not, however, form an arch, but courses of stone are laid horizontally over one another in such a way that each course projects beyond the one below it, till the space at the highest course becomes so narrow that a single stone covers it. Of all those that have survived to the present day the treasure-house at Atreus is the most venerable."

The same form of arch is found among the ruins of that interesting people, the Etruscans.

"Etruscan vaults are of two kinds. The more curious and probably the most ancient are false arches, formed of horizontal courses of stone, each a little overlapping the other, and carried on until the aperture at the top could be closed by a single superincumbent slab. Such is the construction of the Regulini-Galassi vault, at Cervetere, the ancient Cćre." (Rawlinson's "Origin of Nations," p. 117.)

It is sufficient to say, in conclusion, that Mexico, under European rule, or under her own leaders, has never again risen to her former standard of refinement, wealth, prosperity, or civilization.



WHAT proofs have we that the Egyptians were a colony from Atlantis?

1. They claimed descent from "the twelve great gods," which must have meant the twelve gods of Atlantis, to wit, Poseidon and Cleito and their ten sons.

2. According to the traditions of the Phśnicians, the Egyptians derived their civilization from them; and as the Egyptians far antedated the rise of the Phśnician nations proper, this must have meant that Egypt derived its civilization from the same country to which the Phśnicians owed their own origin. The Phśnician legends show that Misor, from whom, the Egyptians were descended, was the child of the Phśnician gods Amynus and Magus. Misor gave birth to Taaut, the god of letters, the inventor of the alphabet, and Taaut became Thoth, the god of history of the Egyptians. Sanchoniathon tells us that "Chronos (king of Atlantis) visited the South, and gave all Egypt to the god Taaut, that it might be his kingdom." "Misor" is probably the king "Mestor" named by Plato.

3. According to the Bible, the Egyptians were descendants of Ham, who was one of the three sons of Noah who escaped from the Deluge, to wit, the destruction of Atlantis.

4. The great similarity between the Egyptian civilization and that of the American nations.

5. The fact that the Egyptians claimed to be red men.

6. The religion of Egypt was pre-eminently sun-worship, and Ra was the sun-god of Egypt, Rama, the sun of the Hindoos,

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[paragraph continues] Rana, a god of the Toltecs, Raymi, the great festival of the sun of the Peruvians, and Rayam, a god of Yemen.

7. The presence of pyramids in Egypt and America.

8. The Egyptians were the only people of antiquity who were well-informed as to the history of Atlantis. The Egyptians were never a maritime people, and the Atlanteans must have brought that knowledge to them. They were not likely to send ships to Atlantis.

9. We find another proof of the descent of the Egyptians from Atlantis in their belief as to the "under-world." This land of the dead was situated in the West--hence the tombs were all placed, whenever possible, on the west bank of the Nile. The constant cry of the mourners as the funeral procession moved forward was, "To the west; to the west." This under-world was beyond the water, hence the funeral procession always crossed a body of water. "Where the tombs were, as in most cases, on the west bank of the Nile, the Nile was crossed; where they were on the eastern shore the procession passed over a sacred lake." (R. S. Poole, Contemporary Review, August, 1881, p. 17.) In the procession was "a sacred ark of the sun."

All this is very plain: the under-world in the West, the land of the dead, was Atlantis, the drowned world, the world beneath the horizon, beneath the sea, to which the peasants of Brittany looked from Cape Raz, the most western cape projecting into the Atlantic. It was only to be reached from Egypt by crossing the water, and it was associated with the ark, the emblem of Atlantis in all lands.

The soul of the dead man was supposed to journey to the under-world by "a water progress" (Ibid., p. 18), his destination was the Elysian Fields, where mighty corn grew, and where he was expected to cultivate the earth; "this task was of supreme importance." (Ibid., p. 19.) The Elysian Fields were the "Elysion" of the Greeks, the abode of the blessed, which we have seen was an island in the remote west." The Egyptian

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belief referred to a real country; they described its cities, mountains, and rivers; one of the latter was called Uranes, a name which reminds us of the Atlantean god Uranos. In connection with all this we must not forget that Plato described Atlantis as "that sacred island lying beneath the sun." Everywhere in the ancient world we find the minds of men looking to the west for the land of the dead. Poole says, "How then can we account for this strong conviction? Surely it must be a survival of an ancient belief which flowed in the very veins of the race." (Contemporary Review, 1881, p. 19.) It was based on an universal tradition that under "an immense ocean," in "the far west," there was an "under-world," a world comprising millions of the dead, a mighty race, that had been suddenly swallowed up in the greatest catastrophe known to man since he had inhabited the globe.

10. There is no evidence that the civilization of Egypt was developed in Egypt itself; it must have been transported there from some other country. To use the words of a recent writer in Blackwood,

"Till lately it was believed that the use of the papyrus for writing was introduced about the time of Alexander the Great; then Lepsius found the hieroglyphic sign of the papyrus-roll on monuments of the twelfth dynasty; afterward be found the same sign on monuments of the fourth dynasty, which is getting back pretty close to Menes, the protomonarch; and, indeed, little doubt is entertained that the art of writing on papyrus was understood as early as the days of Menes himself. The fruits of investigation in this, as m many other subjects, are truly most marvellous. Instead of exhibiting the rise and progress of any branches of knowledge, they tend to prove that nothing had any rise or progress, but that everything is referable to the very earliest dates. The experience of the Egyptologist must teach him to reverse the observation of Topsy, and to '`spect that nothing growed,' but that as soon as men were planted on the banks of the Nile they were already the cleverest men that ever lived, endowed with more knowledge and more power than their successors for centuries and centuries could

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attain to. Their system of writing, also, is found to have been complete from the very first. . . .

"But what are we to think when the antiquary, grubbing in the dust and silt of five thousand years ago to discover some traces of infant effort--some rude specimens of the ages of Magog and Mizraim, in which we may admire the germ that has since developed into a wonderful art--breaks his shins against an article so perfect that it equals if it does not excel the supreme stretch of modern ability? How shall we support the theory if it come to our knowledge that, before Noah was cold in his grave, his descendants were adepts in construction and in the fine arts, and that their achievements were for magnitude such as, if we possess the requisite skill, we never attempt to emulate? . . .

"As we have not yet discovered any trace of the rude, savage Egypt, but have seen her in her very earliest manifestations already skilful, erudite, and strong, it is impossible to determine the order of her inventions. Light may yet be thrown upon her rise and progress, but our deepest researches have hitherto shown her to us as only the mother of a most accomplished race. How they came by their knowledge is matter for speculation; that they possessed it is matter of fact. We never find them without the ability to organize labor, or shrinking from the very boldest efforts in digging canals and irrigating, in quarrying rock, in building, and in sculpture."

The explanation is simple: the waters of the Atlantic now flow over the country where all this magnificence and power were developed by slow stages from the rude beginnings of barbarism.

And how mighty must have been the parent nation of which this Egypt was a colony!

Egypt was the magnificent, the golden bridge, ten thousand years long, glorious with temples and pyramids, illuminated and illustrated by the most complete and continuous records of human history, along which the civilization of Atlantis, in a great procession of kings and priests, philosophers and astronomers, artists and artisans, streamed forward to Greece, to Rome, to Europe, to America. As far back in the ages as the

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eye can penetrate, even where the perspective dwindles almost to a point, we can still see the swarming multitudes, possessed of all the arts of the highest civilization, pressing forward from out that other and greater empire of which even this wonderworking Nile-land is but a faint and imperfect copy.

Look at the record of Egyptian greatness as preserved in her works: The pyramids, still in their ruins, are the marvel of mankind. The river Nile was diverted from its course by monstrous embankments to make a place for the city of Memphis. The artificial lake of Mśris was created as a reservoir for the waters of the Nile: it was four hundred and fifty miles in circumference and three hundred and fifty feet deep, with subterranean channels, flood-gates, locks, and dams, by which the wilderness was redeemed from sterility. Look at the magnificent mason-work of this ancient people! Mr. Kenrick, speaking of the casing of the Great Pyramid, says, "The joints are scarcely perceptible, and not wider than the thickness of silver-paper, and the cement so tenacious that fragments of the casing-stones still remain in their original position, notwithstanding the lapse of so many centuries, and the violence by which they were detached." Look at the ruins of the Labyrinth, which aroused the astonishment of Herodotus; it had three thousand chambers, half of them above ground and half below--a combination of courts, chambers, colonnades, statues, and pyramids. Look at the Temple of Karnac, covering a square each side of which is eighteen hundred feet. Says a recent writer, "Travellers one and all appear to have been unable to find words to express the feelings with which these sublime remains inspired them. They have been astounded and overcome by the magnificence and the prodigality of workmanship here to be admired. Courts, halls, gate-ways, pillars, obelisks, monolithic figures, sculptures, rows of sphinxes, are massed in such profusion that the sight is too much for modern comprehension." Denon says, "It is hardly possible to believe, after having seen it, in the reality of the existence of so many buildings

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collected on a single point--in their dimensions, in the resolute perseverance which their construction required, and in the incalculable expense of so much magnificence." And again, "It is necessary that the reader should fancy what is before him to be a dream, as he who views the objects themselves occasionally yields to the doubt whether he be perfectly awake." There were lakes and mountains within the periphery of the sanctuary. "The cathedral of Notre Dame at Paris could be set inside one of the halls of Karnac, and not touch the walls! . . . The whole valley and delta of the Nile, from the Catacombs to the sea, was covered with temples, palaces, tombs, pyramids, and pillars." Every stone was covered with inscriptions.

The state of society in the early days of Egypt approximated very closely to our modern civilization. Religion consisted in the worship of one God and the practice of virtue; forty-two commandments prescribed the duties of men to themselves, their neighbors, their country, and the Deity; a heaven awaited the good and a hell the vicious; there was a judgment-day when the hearts of men were weighed:

"He is sifting out the hearts of men
Before his judgment-seat."

Monogamy was the strict rule; not even the kings, in the early days, were allowed to have more than one wife. The wife's rights of separate property and her dower were protected by law; she was "the lady of the house;" she could "buy, sell, and trade on her own account;" in case of divorce her dowry was to be repaid to her, with interest at a high rate. The marriage-ceremony embraced an oath not to contract any other matrimonial alliance. The wife's status was as high in the earliest days of Egypt as it is now in the most civilized nations of Europe or America.

Slavery was permitted, but the slaves were treated with the greatest humanity. In the confessions, buried with the dead,

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the soul is made to declare that "I have not incriminated the slave to his master," There was also a clause in the commandments "which protected the laboring man against the exaction of more than his day's labor." They were merciful to the captives made in war; no picture represents torture inflicted upon them; while the representation of a sea-fight shows them saving their drowning enemies. Reginald Stuart Poole says (Contemporary Review, August, 1881, p. 43):

"When we consider the high ideal of the Egyptians, as proved by their portrayals of a just life, the principles they laid down as the basis of ethics, the elevation of women among them, their humanity in war, we must admit that their moral place ranks very high among the nations of antiquity.

"The true comparison of Egyptian life is with that of modern nations. This is far too difficult a task to be here undertaken. Enough has been said, however, to show that we need not think that in all respects they were far behind us."

Then look at the proficiency in art of this ancient people.

They were the first mathematicians of the Old World. Those Greeks whom we regard as the fathers of mathematics were simply pupils of Egypt. They were the first land-surveyors. They were the first astronomers, calculating eclipses, and watching the periods of planets and constellations. They knew the rotundity of the earth, which it was supposed Columbus had discovered!

"The signs of the zodiac were certainly in use among the Egyptians 1722 years before Christ. One of the learned men of our day, who for fifty years labored to decipher the hieroglyphics of the ancients, found upon a mummy-case in the British Museum a delineation of the signs of the zodiac, and the position of the planets; the date to which they pointed was the autumnal equinox of the year 1722 B.C. Professor Mitchell, to whom the fact was communicated, employed his assistants to ascertain the exact position of the heavenly bodies belonging to our solar system on the equinox of that year. This was done, and a diagram furnished by parties ignorant of his object, which showed that on the 7th of October, 1722 B.C.

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the moon and planets occupied the exact point in the heavens marked upon the coffin in the British Museum." (Goodrich's "Columbus," p. 22.)

They had clocks and dials for measuring time. They possessed gold and silver money. They were the first agriculturists of the Old World, raising all the cereals, cattle, horses, sheep, etc. They manufactured linen of so fine a quality that in the days of King Amasis (600 years B.C.) a single thread of a garment was composed of three hundred and sixty-five minor threads. They worked in gold, silver, copper, bronze, and iron; they tempered iron to the hardness of steel. They were the first chemists. The word "chemistry" comes from chemi, and chemi means Egypt. They manufactured glass and all kinds of pottery; they made boats out of earthenware; and, precisely as we are now making railroad car-wheels of paper, they manufactured vessels of paper. Their dentists filled teeth with gold; their farmers hatched poultry by artificial beat. They were the first musicians; they possessed guitars, single and double pipes, cymbals, drums, lyres, harps, flutes, the sambric, ashur, etc.; they had even castanets, such as are now used in Spain. In medicine and surgery they had reached such a degree of perfection that several hundred years B.C. the operation for the removal of cataract from the eye was performed among them; one of the most delicate and difficult feats of surgery, only attempted by us in the most recent times. "The papyrus of Berlin" states that it was discovered, rolled up in a case, under the feet of an Anubis in the town of Sekhem, in the days of Tet (or Thoth), after whose death it was transmitted to King Sent, and was then restored to the feet of the statue. King Sent belonged to the second dynasty, which flourished 4751 B.C., and the papyrus was old in his day. This papyrus is a medical treatise; there are in it no incantations or charms; but it deals in reasonable remedies, draughts, unguents and injections. The later medical papyri contain a great deal of magic and incantations.

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"Great and splendid as are the things which we know about oldest Egypt, she is made a thousand times more sublime by our uncertainty as to the limits of her accomplishments. She presents not a great, definite idea, which, though hard to receive, is, when once acquired, comprehensible and clear. Under the soil of the modern country are hid away thousands and thousands of relics which may astonish the world for ages to come, and change continually its conception of what Egypt was. The effect of research seems to be to prove the objects of it to be much older than we thought them to be--some things thought to be wholly modern having been proved to be repetitions of things Egyptian, and other things known to have been Egyptian being by every advance in knowledge carried back more and more toward the very beginning of things. She shakes our most rooted ideas concerning the world's history; she has not ceased to be a puzzle and a lure: there is a spell over her still."

Renan says, "It has no archaic epoch." Osborn says, "It bursts upon us at once in the flower of its highest perfection." Seiss says ("A, Miracle in Stone," p. 40), "It suddenly takes its place in the world in all its matchless magnificence, without father, without mother, and as clean apart from all evolution as if it had dropped from the unknown heavens." It had dropped from Atlantis.

Rawlinson says ("Origin of Nations," p. 13):

"Now, in Egypt, it is notorious that there is no indication of any early period of savagery or barbarism. All the authorities agree that, however far back we go, we find in Egypt no rude or uncivilized time out of which civilization is developed. Menes, the first king, changes the course of the Nile, makes a great reservoir, and builds the temple of Phthah at Memphis. . . . We see no barbarous customs, not even the habit, so slowly abandoned by all people, of wearing arms when not on military service."

Tylor says (" Anthropology," p. 192):

"Among the ancient cultured nations of Egypt and Assyria handicrafts had already come to a stage which could only have

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been reached by thousands of years of progress. In museums still may be examined the work of their joiners, stone-cutters, goldsmiths, wonderful in skill and finish, and in putting to shame the modern artificer. . . . To see gold jewellery of the highest order, the student should examine that of the ancients, such as the Egyptian, Greek, and Etruscan."

The carpenters' and masons' tools of the ancient Egyptians were almost identical with those used among us to-day.

There is a plate showing an Aztec priestess in Delafield's "Antiquities of America," p. 61, which presents a head-dress strikingly Egyptian. In the celebrated "tablet of the cross," at Palenque, we see a cross with a bird perched upon it, to which (or to the cross) two priests are offering sacrifice. In Mr. Stephens's representation from the Vocal Memnon we find almost the same thing, the difference being that, instead of an ornamented Latin cross, we have a crux commissa, and instead of one bird there are two, not on the cross, but immediately above it. In both cases the hieroglyphics, though the characters are of course different, are disposed upon the stone in much the same manner. (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 61.)

Even the obelisks of Egypt have their counterpart in America.

Quoting from Molina ("History of Chili," tom. i., p. 169), McCullough writes, "Between the hills of Mendoza and La Punta is a pillar of stone one hundred and fifty feet high, and twelve feet in diameter." ("Researches," pp. 171, 172.) The columns of Copan stand detached and solitary, so do the obelisks of Egypt; both are square or four-sided, and covered with sculpture. (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 60.)

In a letter by Jomard, quoted by Delafield, we read,

"I have recognized in your memoir on the division of time among the Mexican nations, compared with those of Asia, some very striking analogies between the Toltec characters and institutions observed on the banks of the Nile. Among these

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analogies there is one which is worthy of attention--it is the use of the vague year of three hundred and sixty-five days, composed of equal months, and of five complementary days, equally employed at Thebes and Mexico--a distance of three thousand leagues. . . . In reality, the intercalation of the Mexicans being thirteen days on each cycle of fifty-two years, comes to the same thing as that of the Julian calendar, which is one day in four years; and consequently supposes the duration of the year to be three hundred and sixty-five days six hours. Now such was the length of the year among the Egyptians--they intercalated an entire year of three hundred and seventy-five days every one thousand four hundred and sixty years. ... The fact of the intercalation (by the Mexicans) of thirteen days every cycle that is, the use of a year of three hundred and sixty-five days and a quarter--is a proof that it was borrowed from the Egyptians, or that they had a common origin." ("Antiquities of America," pp. 52, 53.)

The Mexican century began on the 26th of February, and the 26th of February was celebrated from the time of Nabonassor, 747 B.C., because the Egyptian priests, conformably to their astronomical observations, had fixed the beginning of the month Toth, and the commencement of their year, at noon on that day. The five intercalated days to make up the three hundred and sixty-five days were called by the Mexicans Nemontemi, or useless, and on them they transacted no business; while the Egyptians, during that epoch, celebrated the festival of the birth of their gods, as attested by Plutarch and others.

It will be conceded that a considerable degree of astronomical knowledge must have been necessary to reach the conclusion that the true year consisted of three hundred and sixty-five days and six hours (modern science has demonstrated that it consists of three hundred and sixty-five days and five hours, less ten seconds); and a high degree of civilization was requisite to insist that the year must be brought around, by the intercalation of a certain number of days in a certain period of time, to its true relation to the seasons. Both were the outgrowth of a vast, ancient civilization of the highest order,

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which transmitted some part of its astronomical knowledge to its colonies through their respective priesthoods.

Can we, in the presence of such facts, doubt the statements of the Egyptian priests to Solon, as to the glory and greatness of Atlantis, its monuments, its sculpture, its laws, its religion, its civilization?

In Egypt we have the oldest of the Old World children of Atlantis; in her magnificence we have a testimony to the development attained by the parent country; by that country whose kings were the gods of succeeding nations, and whose kingdom extended to the uttermost ends of the earth.

The Egyptian historian, Manetho, referred to a period of thirteen thousand nine hundred years as "the reign of the gods," and placed this period at the very beginning of Egyptian history. These thirteen thousand nine hundred years were probably a recollection of Atlantis. Such a lapse of time, vast as it may appear, is but as a day compared with some of our recognized geological epochs.



IF we will suppose a civilized, maritime people to have planted colonies, in the remote past, along the headlands and shores of the Gulf of Mexico, spreading thence, in time, to the tablelands of Mexico and to the plains and mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, what would be more natural than that these adventurous navigators, passing around the shores of the Gulf, should, sooner or later, discover the mouth of the Mississippi River; and what more certain than that they would enter it, explore it, and plant colonies along its shores, wherever they found a fertile soil and a salubrious climate. Their outlying provinces would penetrate even into regions where the severity of the climate would prevent great density of population or development of civilization.

The results we have presupposed are precisely those which we find to have existed at one time in the Mississippi Valley.

The Mound Builders of the United States were pre-eminently a river people. Their densest settlements and greatest works were near the Mississippi and its tributaries. Says Foster ("Prehistoric Races," p. 110), "The navigable streams were the great highways of the Mound Builders."

Mr. Fontaine claims ("How the World was Peopled") that this ancient people constructed "levees" to control and utilize the bayous of the Mississippi for the purpose of agriculture and commerce. The Yazoo River is called Yazoo-okhinnah--the River of Ancient Ruins. "There is no evidence that they had reached the Atlantic coast; no authentic remains

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of the Mound Builders are found in the New England States, nor even in the State of New York." ("North Americans of Antiquity," p. 28.) This would indicate that the civilization of this people advanced up the Mississippi River and spread out over its tributaries, but did not cross the Alleghany Mountains. They reached, however, far up the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers, and thence into Oregon. The head-waters of the Missouri became one of their great centres of population; but their chief sites were upon the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. In Wisconsin we find the northern central limit of their work; they seem to have occupied the southern counties of the State, and the western shores of Lake Michigan. Their circular mounds are found in Minnesota and Iowa, and some very large ones in Dakota. Illinois and Indiana were densely populated by them: it is believed that the vital centre of their colonies was near the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.

The chief characteristic of the Mound Builders was that from which they derived their name-the creation of great structures of earth or stone, not unlike the pyramids of Mexico and Egypt. Between Alton and East St. Louis is the great mound of Cahokia, which may be selected as a type of their works: it rises ninety-seven feet high, while its square sides are 700 and 500 feet respectively. There was a terrace on the south side 160 by 300 feet, reached by a graded way; the summit of the pyramid is flattened, affording a platform 200 by 450 feet. It will thus be seen that the area covered by the mound of Cahokia is about as large as that of the greatest pyramid of Egypt, Cheops, although its height is much less.

The number of monuments left by the Mound Builders is extraordinarily great. In Ohio alone there are more than ten thousand tumuli, and from one thousand to fifteen hundred enclosures. Their mounds were not cones but four-sided pyramids-their sides, like those of the Egyptian pyramids, corresponding with the cardinal points. (Foster's "Prehistoric Races," p. 112.)

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The Mound Builders had attained a considerable degree of civilization; they were able to form, in the construction of their works, perfect circles and perfect squares of great accuracy, carried over the varying surface of the country. One large enclosure comprises exactly forty acres. At Hopetown, Ohio, are two walled figures--one a square, the other a circle--each containing precisely twenty acres. They must have possessed regular scales of measurement, and the means of determining angles and of computing the area to be enclosed by the square and the circle, so that the space enclosed by each might exactly correspond.

"The most skilful engineer of this day would find it difficult," says Mr. Squier, "without the aid of instruments, to lay down an accurate square of the great dimensions above represented, measuring, as they do, more than four-fifths of a mile in circumference. . . . But we not only find accurate squares and perfect circles, but also, as we have seen, octagons of great dimensions."

They also possessed an accurate system of weights; bracelets of copper on the arms of a skeleton have been found to be of uniform size, measuring each two and nine-tenth inches, and each weighing precisely four ounces.

They built great military works surrounded by walls and ditches, with artificial lakes in the centre to supply water. One work, Fort Ancient, on the Little Miami River, Ohio, has a circuit of between four and five miles; the embankment was twenty feet high; the fort could have held a garrison of sixty thousand men with their families and provisions.

Not only do we find pyramidal structures of earth in the Mississippi Valley very much like the pyramids of Egypt, Mexico, and Peru, but a very singular structure is repeated in Ohio and Peru: I refer to the double walls or prolonged pyramids, if I may coin an expression, shown in the cut page 375.

The Mound Builders possessed chains of fortifications reaching from the southern line of New York diagonally across the

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country, through Central and Northern Ohio to the Wabash. It would appear probable, therefore, that while they advanced


from the south it was from the north-east the savage races came who drove them south or exterminated them.

At Marietta, Ohio, we find a combination of the cross and pyramid., (See p. 334, ante.) At Newark, Ohio, are extensive


and intricate works: they occupy an area two miles square, embraced within embankments twelve miles long. One of the mounds is a threefold symbol, like a bird's foot; the central

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mound is 155 feet long, and the other two each 110 feet it length. Is this curious design a reminiscence of Atlantis and the three-pronged trident of Poseidon? (See 4th fig., p, 242, ante.)

The Mound Builders made sun-dried brick mixed with rushes, as the Egyptians made sun-dried bricks mixed with straw; they worked in copper, silver, lead, and there are evidences, as we shall see, that they wrought even in iron.

Copper implements are very numerous in the mounds. Copper axes, spear-heads, hollow buttons, bosses for ornaments, bracelets, rings, etc., are found in very many of them strikingly similar to those of the Bronze Age in Europe. In one in Butler County, Ohio, was found a copper fillet around the head of a skeleton, with strange devices marked upon it.

Silver ornaments have also been found, but not in such great numbers. They seem to have attached a high value to silver, and it is often found in thin sheets, no thicker than paper, wrapped over copper or stone ornaments so neatly as almost to escape detection. The great esteem in which they held a metal so intrinsically valueless as silver, is another evidence that they must have drawn their superstitions from the same source as the European nations.

Copper is also often found in this manner plated over stone pipes, presenting an unbroken metallic lustre, the overlapping edges so well polished as to be scarcely discoverable. Beads and stars made of shells have sometimes been found doubly plated, first with copper then with silver.

The Mound Builders also understood the art of casting metals, or they held intercourse with some race who did; a copper axe it "cast" has been found in the State of New York. (See Lubbock's "Prehistoric Times," p. 254, note.) Professor Foster ("Prehistoric Races," p. 259) also proves that the ancient people of the Mississippi Valley possessed this art, and he gives us representations of various articles plainly showing the marks of the mould upon them.

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A rude article in the shape of an axe, composed of pure lead, weighing about half a pound, was found in sinking a well within the trench of the ancient works at Circleville. There can be no doubt it was the production of the Mound Builders, as galena has often been found on the altars in the mounds.

It has been generally thought, by Mr. Squier and others, that there were no evidences that the Mound Builders were acquainted with the use of iron, or that their plating was more than a simple overlaying of one metal on another, or on some foreign substance.

Some years since, however, a mound was opened at Marietta, Ohio, which seems to have refuted these opinions. Dr. S. P. Hildreth, in a letter to the American Antiquarian Society, thus speaks of it:

"Lying immediately over or on the forehead of the body were found three large circular bosses, or ornaments for a sword-belt or buckler; they are composed of copper overlaid with a thick plate of silver. The fronts are slightly convex, with a depression like a cup in the centre, and they measure two inches and a quarter across the face of each. On the back side, opposite the depressed portion, is a copper rivet or nail, around which are two separate plates by which they were fastened to the leather. Two small pieces of leather were found lying between the plates of one of the bosses; they resemble the skin of a mummy, and seem to have been preserved by the salts of copper. Near the side of the body was found a plate of silver, which appears to have been the upper part of a sword scabbard; it is six inches in length, two in breadth, and weighs one ounce. It seems to have been fastened to the scabbard by three or four rivets, the holes of which remain in the silver.

"Two or three pieces of copper tube were also found, filled with iron rust. These pieces, from their appearance, composed the lower end of the scabbard, near the point of the sword. No signs of the sword itself were discovered, except the rust above mentioned.

"The mound had every appearance of being as old as any in the neighborhood, and was at the first settlement of Marietta covered with large trees. It seems to have been made for this

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single personage, as this skeleton alone was discovered. The bones were very much decayed, and many of them crumbled to dust upon exposure to the air."

Mr. Squier says, "These articles have been critically examined, and it is beyond doubt that the copper bosses were absolutely plated, not simply overlaid, with silver. Between the copper and the silver exists a connection such as, it seems to me, could only be produced by heat; and if it is admitted that. these are genuine relies of the Mound Builders, it must, at the same time, be admitted that they possessed the difficult art of plating one metal upon another. There is but one alternative, viz., that they had occasional or constant intercourse with a people advanced in the arts, from whom these articles were obtained. Again, if Dr. Hildreth is not mistaken, oxydized iron or steel was also discovered in connection with the above remains, from which also follows the extraordinary conclusion that the Mound Builders were acquainted with the use of iron, the conclusion being, of course, subject to the improbable alternative already mentioned."

In connection with this subject, we would refer to the interesting evidences that the copper mines of the shore of Lake Superior had been at some very remote period worked by the Mound Builders. There were found deep excavations, with rude ladders, huge masses of rock broken off, also numerous stone tools, and all the evidences of extensive and long-continued labor. It is even said that the great Ontonagon mass of pure copper which is now in Washington was excavated by these ancient miners, and that when first found its surface showed numerous marks of their tools.

There seems to be no doubt, then, that the Mound Builders were familiar with the use of copper, silver, and lead, and in all probability of iron. They possessed various mechanical contrivances. They were very probably acquainted with the lathe. Beads of shell have been found looking very much like ivory, and showing the circular strić, identical with those produced by turning in a lathe.

In a mound on the Scioto River was found around the neck

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of a skeleton triple rows of beads, made of marine shells and the tusks of some animal. "Several of these," says Squier, "still retain their polish, and bear marks which seem to indicate that they were turned in some machine, instead of being carved or rubbed into shape by hand."

"Not among the least interesting and remarkable relies," continues the same author, "obtained from the mounds are the stone tubes. They are all carved from fine-grained materials, capable of receiving a polish, and being made ornamental as well as useful. The finest specimen yet discovered, and which can scarcely be surpassed in the delicacy of its workmanship, was found in a mound in the immediate vicinity of Chillicothe. It is composed of a compact variety of slate. This stone cuts with great clearness, and receives a fine though not glaring polish. The tube under notice is thirteen inches long by one and one-tenth in diameter; one end swells slightly, and the other terminates in a broad, flattened, triangular mouth-piece of fine proportions, which is carved with mathematical precision. It is drilled throughout; the bore is seven-tenths of an inch in diameter at the cylindrical end of the tube, and retains that calibre until it reaches the point where the cylinder subsides into the mouth-piece, when it contracts gradually to one-tenth of an inch. The inner surface of the tube is perfectly smooth till within a short distance of the point of contraction. For the remaining distance the circular strić, formed by the drill in boring, are distinctly marked. The carving upon it is very fine."

That they possessed saws is proved by the fact that on some fossil teeth found in one of the mounds the strić of the teeth of the saw could be distinctly perceived.

When we consider that some of their porphyry carvings will turn the edge of the best-tempered knife, we are forced to conclude that they possessed that singular process, known to the Mexicans and Peruvians of tempering copper to the hardness of steel.

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We find in the mounds adzes similar in shape to our own, with the edges bevelled from the inside.

Drills and gravers of copper have also been found, with chisel-shaped edges or sharp points.

"It is not impossible," says Squier, "but, on the contrary, very probable, from a close inspection of the mound pottery, that the ancient people possessed the simple approximation toward the potter's wheel; and the polish which some of the finer vessels possess is due to other causes than vitrification."

Their sculptures show a considerable degree of progress. They consist of figures of birds, animals, reptiles, and the faces of men, carved from various kinds of stones, upon the bowls of pipes, upon toys, upon rings, and in distinct and separate figures. We give the opinions of those who have examined them.

Mr. Squier observes: "Various though not abundant specimens of their skill have been recovered, which in elegance of model, delicacy, and finish, as also in fineness of material, come fully up to the best Peruvian specimens, to which they bear, in many respects, a close resemblance. The bowls of most of the stone pipes are carved in miniature figures of animals, birds, reptiles, etc. All of them are executed with strict fidelity to nature, and with exquisite skill. Not only are the features of the objects faithfully represented, but their peculiarities and habits. are in some degree exhibited. . . . The two heads here presented, intended to represent the eagle, are far superior in point of finish, spirit, and truthfulness, to any miniature carvings, ancient or modern, which have fallen under the notice of the authors. The peculiar defiant expression of the king of birds is admirably preserved in the carving, which in this respect, more than any other, displays the skill of the artist."

Traces of cloth with "doubled and twisted fibre" have been found in the mounds; also matting; also shuttle-like tablets, used in weaving. There have also been found numerous musical pipes, with mouth-pieces and stops; lovers' pipes, curiously and delicately carved, reminding us of Bryant's lines--

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"Till twilight came, and lovers walked and wooed
In a forgotten language; and old tunes,
From instruments of unremembered forms,
Gave the soft winds a voice."

There is evidence which goes to prove that the Mound Builders had relations with the people of a semi-tropical region in the direction of Atlantis, Among their sculptures, in Ohio, we find accurate representations of the lamantine, manatee, or sea-cow--found to-day on the shores of Florida, Brazil, and Central America--and of the toucan, a tropical and almost exclusively South American bird. Sea-shells from the Gulf, pearls from the Atlantic, and obsidian from Mexico, have also been found side by side in their mounds.

The antiquity of their works is now generally conceded. "From the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon," says Mr. Gliddon, "we have bones of at least two thousand five hundred years old; from the pyramids and the catacombs of Egypt both mummied and unmummied crania have been taken, of still higher antiquity, in perfect preservation; nevertheless, the skeletons deposited in our Indian mounds, from the Lakes to the Gulf, are crumbling into dust through age alone."

All the evidence points to the conclusion that civilized or semi-civilized man has dwelt on the western continent from a vast antiquity. Maize, tobacco, quinoa, and the mandico plants have been cultivated so long that their wild originals have quite disappeared.

"The only species of palm cultivated by the South American Indians, that known as the Gulielma speciosa, has lost through that culture its original nut-like seed, and is dependent on the hands of its cultivators for its life. Alluding to the above-named plants Dr. Brinton ("Myths of the New World," p. 37) remarks, 'Several are sure to perish unless fostered by human care. What numberless ages does this suggest? How many centuries elapsed ere man thought of cultivating Indian corn? How many more ere it had spread over nearly a hundred degrees of latitude and lost all resemblance to its original form?'

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[paragraph continues] In the animal kingdom certain animals were domesticated by the aborigines from so remote a period that scarcely any of their species, as in the case of the lama of Peru, were to be found in a state of unrestrained freedom at the advent of the Spaniards." (Short's "North Americans of Antiquity," p. 11.)

The most ancient remains of man found in Europe are distinguished by a flattening of the tibia; and this peculiarity is found to be present in an exaggerated form in some of the American mounds. This also points to a high antiquity.

"None of the works, mounds, or enclosures are found on the lowest formed of the river terraces which mark the subsidence of the streams, and as there is no good reason why their builders should have avoided erecting them on that terrace while they raised them promiscuously on all the others, it follows, not unreasonably, that this terrace has been formed since the works were erected. (Baldwin's "Ancient America," p. 47.)

We have given some illustrations showing the similarity between the works of the Mound Builders and those of the Stone and Bronze Age in Europe. (See pp. 251, 260, 261, 262, 265, 266, ante.)

The Mound Builders retreated southward toward Mexico, and probably arrived there some time between A.D. 29 and A.D. 231, under the name of Nahuas. They called the region they left in the Mississippi Valley "Hue Hue Tlapalan"--the old, old red land--in allusion, probably, to the red-clay soil of part of the country.

In the mounds we find many works of copper but none of bronze. This may indicate one of two things: either the colonies which settled the Mississippi Valley may have left Atlantis prior to the discovery of the art of manufacturing bronze, by mixing one part of tin with nine parts of copper, or, which is more probable, the manufactures of the Mound Builders may have been made on the spot; and as they had no tin within their territory they used copper alone, except, it

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may be, for such tools as were needed to carve stone, and these, perhaps, were hardened with tin. It is known that the Mexicans possessed the art of manufacturing true bronze; and the intercourse which evidently existed between Mexico and the Mississippi Valley, as proved by the presence of implements of obsidian in the mounds of Ohio, renders it probable that the same commerce which brought them obsidian brought them also small quantities of tin, or tin-hardened copper implements necessary for their sculptures.

The proofs, then, of the connection of the Mound Builders with Atlantis are:

1. Their race identity with the nations of Central America who possessed Flood legends, and whose traditions all point to an eastern, over-sea origin; while the many evidences of their race identity with the ancient Peruvians indicate that they were part of one great movement of the human race, extending from the Andes to Lake Superior, and, as I believe, from Atlantis to India.

2. The similarity of their civilization, and their works of stone and bronze, with the civilization of the Bronze Age in Europe.

3. The presence of great truncated mounds, kindred to the pyramids of Central America, Mexico, Egypt, and India.

4. The representation of tropical animals, which point to an intercourse with the regions around the Gulf of Mexico, where the Atlanteans were colonized.

5. The fact that the settlements of the Mound Builders were confined to the valley of the Mississippi, and were apparently densest at those points where a population advancing up that, stream would first reach high, healthy, and fertile lands.

6. The hostile nations which attacked them came from the north; and when the Mound Builders could no longer hold the country, or when Atlantis stink in the sea, they retreated in the direction whence they came, and fell back upon their kindred races in Central America, as the Roman troops in

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Gaul and Britain drew southward upon the destruction of Rome.

7. The Natchez Indians, who are supposed to have descended from the Mound Builders, kept a perpetual fire burning before an altar, watched by old men who were a sort of priesthood, as in Europe.

8. If the tablet said to have been found in a mound near Davenport, Iowa, is genuine, which appears probable, the Mound Builders must either have possessed an alphabet, or have held intercourse with some people who did. (See "North Americans of Antiquity," p. 38.) This singular relic exhibits what appears to be a sacrificial mound with a fire upon it; over it are the sun, moon, and stars, and above these a mass of hieroglyphics which bear some resemblance to the letters of European alphabets, and especially to that unknown alphabet which appears upon the inscribed bronze celt found near Rome. (See p. 258 of this work.) For instance, one of the letters on the celt is this, ; on the Davenport tablet we find this sign, ; on the celt we have ; on the tablet, ; on the celt we have ; on the tablet, .



AT the farthest point in the past to which human knowledge extends a race called Iberian inhabited the entire peninsula of Spain, from the Mediterranean to the Pyrenees. They also extended over the southern part of Gaul as far as the Rhone.

"It is thought that the Iberians from Atlantis and the north-west part of Africa," says Winchell, "settled in the Southwest of Europe at a period earlier than the settlement of the Egyptians in the north-east of Africa. The Iberians spread themselves over Spain, Gaul, and the British Islands as early as 4000 or 5000 B.C. . . . The fourth dynasty (of the Egyptians), according to Brugsch, dates from about 3500 B.C. At this time the Iberians had become sufficiently powerful to attempt the conquest of the known world." ("Preadamites," p. 443.)

"The Libyan-Amazons of Diodorus--that is to say, the Libyans of the Iberian race--must be identified with the Libyans with brown and grizzly skin, of whom Brugsch has already pointed out the representations figured on the Egyptian monuments of the fourth dynasty." (Ibid.)

The Iberians, known as Sicanes, colonized Sicily in the ancient days. They were the original settlers in Italy and Sardinia. They are probably the source of the dark-haired stock in Norway and Sweden. Bodichon claims that the Iberians embraced the Ligurians, Cantabrians, Asturians, and Aquitanians. Strabo says, speaking of the Turduli and Turdetani, "they are the most cultivated of all the Iberians; they employ the art of writing, and have written books containing memorials

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of ancient times, and also poems and laws set in verse, for which they claim an antiquity of six thousand years." (Strabo, lib. iii., p. 139.)

The Iberians are represented to-day by the Basques.

The Basque are "of middle size, compactly built, robust and agile, of a darker complexion than the Spaniards, with gray eyes and black hair. They are simple but proud, impetuous, merry, and hospitable. The women are beautiful, skilful in performing men's work, and remarkable for their vivacity and grace. The Basques are much attached to dancing, and are very fond of the music of the bagpipe." ("New American Cyclopćdia," art. Basques.)

"According to Paul Broca their language stands quite alone, or has mere analogies with the American type. Of all Europeans, we must provisionally hold the Basques to be the oldest inhabitants of our quarter of the world." (Peschel, "Races of Men," p. 501.)

The Basque language--the Euscara--"has some common traits with the Magyar, Osmanli, and other dialects of the Altai family, as, for instance, with the Finnic on the old continent, as well as the Algonquin-Lenape language and some others in America." ("New American Cyclopćdia," art. Basques.)

Duponceau says of the Basque tongue:

"This language, preserved in a corner of Europe by a few thousand mountaineers, is the sole remaining fragment of, perhaps, a hundred dialects constructed on the same plan, which probably existed and were universally spoken at a remote period in that quarter of the world. Like the bones of the mammoth, it remains a monument of the destruction produced by a succession of ages. It stands single and alone of its kind, Surrounded by idioms that have no affinity with it."

We have seen them settling, in the earliest ages, in Ireland. They also formed the base of the dark-haired population of England and Scotland. They seem to have race affinities with the Berbers, on the Mediterranean coast of Africa.

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Dr. Bodichon, for fifteen years a surgeon in Algiers, says

"Persons who have inhabited Brittany, and then go to Algeria, are struck with the resemblance between the ancient Armoricans (the Brčtons) and the Cabyles (of Algiers). In fact, the moral and physical character is identical. The Breton of pure blood has a long head, light yellow complexion of bistre tinge, eyes black or brown, stature short, and the black hair of the Cabyle. Like him, he instinctively hates strangers; in both are the same perverseness and obstinacy, same endurance of fatigue, same love of independence, same inflexion of the voice, same expression of feelings. Listen to a Cabyle speaking his native ton(rue, and you will think you bear a Breton talking Celtic."

The Bretons, he tells us, form a strong contrast to the people around them, who are "Celts of tall stature, with blue eyes, white skins, and blond hair: they are communicative, impetuous, versatile; they pass rapidly from courage to despair. The Bretons are entirely different: they are taciturn, hold strongly to their ideas and usages, are persevering and melancholic; in a word, both in morale and physique they present the type of a southern race--of the Atlanteans."

By Atlanteans Dr. Bodichon refers to the inhabitants of the Barbary States--that being one of the names by which they were known to the Greeks and Romans. He adds:

"The Atlanteans, among the ancients, passed for the favorite children of Neptune; they made known the worship of this god to other nations-to the Egyptians, for example. In other words, the Atlanteans were the first known navigators. Like all navigators, they must have planted colonies at a distance. The Bretons, in our opinion, sprung from one of them."

Neptune was Poseidon, according to Plato, founder of Atlantis.

I could multiply proofs of the close relationship between the people of the Bronze Age of Europe and the ancient inhabitants of Northern Africa, which should be read remembering that "connecting ridge" which, according to the deep-sea soundings, united Africa and Atlantis.



IF we look at the map of Atlantis, as revealed by the deep sea soundings, we will find that it approaches at one point, by its connecting ridge, quite closely to the shore of South. America, above the mouth of the Amazon, and that probably it was originally connected with it.

If the population of Atlantis expanded westwardly, it naturally found its way in its ships up the magnificent valley of the Amazon and its tributaries; and, passing by the low and fever-stricken lands of Brazil, it rested not until it had reached the high, fertile, beautiful, and healthful regions of Bolivia, from which it would eventually cross the mountains into Peru.

Here it would establish its outlying colonies at the terminus of its western line of advance, arrested only by the Pacific Ocean, precisely as we have seen it advancing up the valley of the Mississippi, and carrying on its mining operations on the shores of Lake Superior; precisely as we have seen it going eastward up the Mediterranean, past the Dardanelles, and founding Aryan, Hamitic, and probably Turanian colonies on the farther shores of the Black Sea and on the Caspian. This is the universal empire over which, the Hindoo books tell us, Deva Nahusha was ruler; this was "the great and aggressive empire" to which Plato alludes; this was the mighty kingdom, embracing the whole of the then known world, from which the Greeks obtained their conception of the universal father of all men in King Zeus. And in this universal empire Seńor Lopez must find an explanation of the similarity which, as we

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shall show, exists between the speech of the South American Pacific coast on the one hand, and the speech of Gaul, Ireland, England, Italy, Greece, Bactria, and Hindostan on the other.

Montesino tells us that at some time near the date of the Deluge, in other words, in the highest antiquity, America was invaded by a people with four leaders, named Ayar-manco-topa, Ayar-chaki, Ayar-aucca, and Ayar-uyssu. "Ayar," says Seńor Lopez, "is the Sanscrit Ajar, or aje, and means primitive chief; and manco, chaki, aucca, and uyssu, mean believers, wanderers, soldiers, husbandmen. We have here a tradition of castes like that preserved in the four tribal names of Athens." The laboring class (naturally enough in a new colony) obtained the supremacy, and its leader was named Pirhua-manco, revealer of Pir, light (πῦρ, Umbrian pir). Do the laws which control the changes of language, by which a labial succeeds a labial, indicate that the Mero or Merou of Theopompus, the name of Atlantis, was carried by the colonists of Atlantis to South America (as the name of old York was transplanted in a later age to New York), and became in time Pérou or Peru? Was not the Nubian "Island of Merou," with its pyramids built by "red men," a similar transplantation? And when the Hindoo priest points to his sacred emblem with five projecting points upon it, and tells us that they typify "Mero and the four quarters of the world," does he not refer to Atlantis and its ancient universal empire?

Manco, in the names of the Peruvian colonists, it has been urged, was the same as Mannus, Manu, and the Santhal Maniko. It reminds us of Menes, Minos, etc., who are found at the beginning of so many of the Old World traditions.

The Quichuas--this invading people--were originally a fair skinned race, with blue eyes and light and even auburn hair; they had regular features, large heads, and large bodies. Their descendants are to this day an olive-skinned people, much lighter in color than the Indian tribes subjugated by them.

They were a great race. Peru, as it was known to the Spaniards,

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held very much the same relation to the ancient Quichua civilization as England in the sixteenth century held to the civilization of the empire of the Cćsars. The Incas were simply an offshoot, who, descending from the mountains, subdued the rude races of the sea-coast, and imposed their ancient civilization upon them.

The Quichua nation extended at one time over a region of country more than two thousand miles long. This whole region, when the Spaniards arrived, "was a populous and prosperous empire, complete in its civil organization, supported by an efficient system of industry, and presenting a notable development of some of the more important arts of civilized life." (Baldwin's "Ancient America," p. 222.)

The companions of Pizarro found everywhere the evidences of a civilization of vast antiquity. Cieça de Leon mentions it great edifices "that were in ruins at Tiahuanaca, "an artificial hill raised on a groundwork of stone," and "two stone idols, apparently made by skilful artificers," ten or twelve feet high, clothed in long robes. "In this place, also," says De Leon, "there are stones so large and so overgrown that our wonder is excited, it being incomprehensible how the power of man could have placed them where we see them. They are variously wrought, and some of them, having the form of men, must have been idols. Near the walls are many caves and excavations under the earth; but in another place, farther west, are other and greater monuments, such as large gate-ways with hinges, platforms, and porches, each made of a single stone. It surprised me to see these enormous gate-ways, made of great masses of stone, some of which were thirty feet long, fifteen high, and six thick."

The capital of the Chimus of Northern Peru at Gran-Chimu was conquered by the Incas after a long and bloody struggle, and the capital was given up to barbaric ravage and spoliation. "But its remains exist to-day, the marvel of the Southern Continent, covering not less than twenty square miles. Tombs,

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temples, and palaces arise on every hand, ruined but still traceable. Immense pyramidal structures, some of them half a mile in circuit; vast areas shut in by massive walls, each containing its water-tank, its shops, municipal edifices, and the dwellings of its inhabitants, and each a branch of a larger organization; prisons, furnaces for smelting metals, and almost every concomitant of civilization, existed in the ancient Chimu capital. One of the great pyramids, called the "Temple of the Sun," is 812 feet long by 470 wide, and 150 high. These vast structures have been ruined for centuries, but still the work of excavation is going on.

One of the centres of the ancient Quichua civilization was around Lake Titicaca. The buildings here, as throughout Peru, were all constructed of hewn stone, and had doors and windows with posts, sills, and thresholds of stone.

At Cuelap, in Northern Peru, remarkable ruins were found. "They consist of a wall of wrought stones 3600 feet long, 560 broad, and 150 high, constituting a solid mass with a level summit. On this mass was another 600 feet long, 500 broad, and 150 high," making an aggregate height of three hundred feet! In it were rooms and cells which were used as tombs.

Very ancient ruins, showing remains of large and remarkable edifices, were found near Huamanga, and described by Cieça de Leon. The native traditions said this city was built "by bearded white men, who came there long before the time of the Incas, and established a settlement."

"The Peruvians made large use of aqueducts, which they built with notable skill, using hewn stones and cement, and making them very substantial." One extended four hundred and fifty miles across sierras and over rivers. Think of a stone aqueduct reaching from the city of New York to the State of North Carolina!

The public roads of the Peruvians were most remarkable; they were built on masonry. One of the-se roads ran along the mountains through the whole length of the empire, from

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[paragraph continues] Quito to Chili; another, starting from this at Cuzco, went down to the coast, and extended northward to the equator. These roads were from twenty to twenty-five feet wide, were macadamized with pulverized stone mixed with lime and bituminous cement, and were walled in by strong walls "more than a fathom in thickness." In many places these roads were cut for leagues through the rock; great ravines were filled up with solid masonry; rivers were crossed by suspension bridges, used here ages before their introduction into Europe. Says Baldwin, "The builders of our Pacific Railroad, with their superior engineering skill and mechanical appliances, might reasonably shrink from the cost and the difficulties of such a work as this. Extending from one degree north of Quito to Cuzco, and from Cuzco to Chili, it was quite as long as the two Pacific railroads, and its wild route among the mountains was far more difficult." Sarmiento, describing it, said, "It seems to me that if the emperor (Charles V.) should see fit to order the construction of another road like that which leads from Quito to Cuzco, or that which from Cuzco goes toward Chili, I certainly think be would not be able to make it, with all his power." Humboldt said, "This road was marvellous; none of the Roman roads I had seen in Italy, in the south of France, or in Spain, appeared to me more imposing than this work of the ancient Peruvians."

Along these great roads caravansaries were established for the accommodation of travellers.

These roads were ancient in the time of the Incas. They were the work of the white, auburn-haired, bearded men from Atlantis, thousands of years before the time of the Incas. When Huayna Capac marched his army over the main road to invade Quito, it was so old and decayed "that he found great difficulties in the passage," and he immediately ordered the necessary reconstructions.

It is not necessary, in a work of this kind, to give a detailed description of the arts and civilization of the Peruvians. They

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were simply marvellous. Their works in cotton and wool exceeded in fineness anything known in Europe at that time. They had carried irrigation, agriculture, and the cutting of gems to a point equal to that of the Old World. Their accumulations of the precious metals exceeded anything previously known in the history of the world. In the course of twenty-five years after the Conquest the Spaniards sent from Peru to Spain more than eight hundred millions of dollars of gold, nearly all of it taken from the Peruvians as "booty." In one of their palaces "they had an artificial garden, the soil of which was made of small pieces of fine gold, and this was artificially planted with different kinds of maize, which were of gold, their stems, leaves, and ears. Besides this, they had more than twenty sheep (llamas) with their lambs, attended by shepherds, all made of gold." In a description of one lot of golden articles, sent to Spain in 1534 by Pizarro, there is mention of "four llamas, ten statues of women of full size, and a cistern of gold, so curious that it excited the wonder of all."

Can any one read these details and declare Plato's description of Atlantis to be fabulous, simply because he tells us of the enormous quantities of gold and silver possessed by the people? Atlantis was the older country, the parent country, the more civilized country; and, doubtless, like the Peruvians, its people regarded the precious metals as sacred to their gods; and they had been accumulating them from all parts of the world for countless ages. If the story of Plato is true, there now lies beneath the waters of the Atlantic, covered, doubtless, by hundreds of feet of volcanic débris, an amount of gold and silver exceeding many times that brought to Europe from Peru, Mexico, and Central America since the time of Columbus; a treasure which, if brought to light, would revolutionize the financial values of the world.

I have already shown, in the chapter upon the similarities between the civilizations of the Old and New Worlds, some of the remarkable coincidences which existed between the Peruvians

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and the ancient European races; I will again briefly, refer to a few of them:

1. They worshipped the sun, moon, and planets.

2. They believed in the immortality of the soul.

3. They believed in the resurrection of the body, and accordingly embalmed their dead.

4. The priest examined the entrails of the animals offered in sacrifice, and, like the Roman augurs, divined the future from their appearance.

5. They had an order of women vowed to celibacy-vestal virgins-nuns; and a violation of their vow was punished, in both continents, by their being buried alive.

6. They divided the year into twelve months.

7. Their enumeration was by tens; the people were divided into decades and hundreds, like the Anglo-Saxons; and the whole nation into bodies of 500, 1000, and 10,000, with a governor over each.

8. They possessed castes; and the trade of the father descended to the son, as in India.

9. They had bards and minstrels, who sung at the great festivals.

10. Their weapons were the same as those of the Old World, and made after the same pattern.

11. They drank toasts and invoked blessings.

12. They built triumphal arches for their returning heroes, and strewed the road before them with leaves and flowers.

13. They used sedan-chairs.

14. They regarded agriculture as the principal interest of the nation, and held great agricultural fairs and festivals for the interchange of the productions of the farmers.

15. The king opened the agricultural season by a great celebration, and, like the kings of Egypt, be put his hand to the plough, and ploughed the first furrow.

16. They had an order of knighthood, in which the candidate knelt before the king; his sandals were put on by a nobleman,

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very much as the spurs were buckled on the European knight; he was then allowed to use the girdle or sash around the loins, corresponding to the toga virilis of the Romans; he was then crowned with flowers. According to Fernandez, the candidates wore white shirts, like the knights of the Middle Ages, with a cross embroidered in front.

17. There was a striking resemblance between the architecture of the Peruvians and that of some of the nations of the Old World. It is enough for me to quote Mr. Ferguson's words, that the coincidence between the buildings of the Incas


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and the Cyclopean remains attributed to the Pelasgians in Italy and Greece, "is the most remarkable in the history of architecture."

The strikingly confirm Mr. Ferguson's views.

"The sloping jambs, the window cornice, the polygonal masonry, and other forms so closely resemble what is found in the old Pelasgic cities of Greece and Italy, that it is difficult to resist the conclusion that there may be some relation between them."

Even the mode of decorating their palaces and temples finds a parallel in the Old World. A recent writer says:

"We may end by observing, what seems to have escaped Seńor Lopez, that the interior of an Inca palace, with its walls



covered with gold, as described by Spaniards, with its artificial golden flowers and golden beasts, must have been exactly like the interior of the house of Alkinous or Menelaus--

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"'The doors were framed of gold,
Where underneath the brazen floor doth glass
Silver pilasters, which with grace uphold
Lintel of silver framed; the ring was burnished gold,
And dogs on each side of the door there stand,
Silver and golden.'"

"I can personally testify" (says Winchell, "Preadamites," p. 387) "that a study of ancient Peruvian pottery has constantly reminded me of forms with which we are familiar in Egyptian archćology."

Dr. Schliemann, in his excavations of the ruins of Troy, found a number of what he calls "owl-headed idols" and vases. I give specimens on page 398 and page 400.

In Peru we find vases with very much the same style of face.

I might pursue those parallels much farther; but it seems to me that these extraordinary coincidences

must have arisen either from identity of origin or long-continued ancient intercourse. There can be little doubt that a fair-skinned, light-haired, bearded race, holding the religion which Plato says prevailed in Atlantis, carried an Atlantean civilization at an early day up the valley of the Amazon to the heights of Bolivia and Peru, precisely as a similar emigration of Aryans went westward to the shores of the Mediterranean and Caspian, and it is very likely that these diverse migrations habitually spoke the same language.

Seńor Vincente Lopez, a Spanish gentleman of Montevideo, in 1872 published a work entitled "Les Races Aryennes in Pérou," in which he attempts to prove that the great Quichua language, which the Incas imposed on their subjects over

a vast extent of territory, and which is still a living tongue in Peru and Bolivia, is really a branch of the great Aryan or Indo-European


speech. I quote Andrew Lang's summary of the proofs on this point:

"Seńor Lopez's view, that the Peruvians were Aryans who left the parent stock long before the Teutonic or Hellenic races entered Europe, is supported by arguments drawn from language,

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from the traces of institutions, from religious beliefs, from legendary records, and artistic remains. The evidence from language is treated scientifically, and not as a kind of ingenious guessing. Seńor Lopez first combats the idea that the living dialect of Peru is barbarous and fluctuating. It is not one of the casual and shifting forms of speech produced by nomad races. To which of the stages of language does this belong--the agglutinative, in which one root is fastened on to another, and a word is formed in which the constitutive elements are obviously distinct, or the inflexional, where the auxiliary roots get worn down and are only distinguishable by the philologist? As all known Aryan tongues are inflexional, Seńor Lopez may appear to contradict himself when be says that Quichua is an agglutinative Aryan language. But he quotes Mr. Max Müller's opinion that there must have been a time when the germs of Aryan tongues had not yet reached the inflexional stage, and shows that while the form of Quichua is agglutinative, as in Turanian, the roots of words are Aryan. If this be so, Quichua may be a linguistic missing link.

"When we first look at Quichua, with its multitude of words, beginning with hu, and its great preponderance of q's, it seems almost as odd as Mexican. But many of these forms are due to a scanty alphabet, and really express familiar sounds; and many, again, result from the casual spelling of the Spaniards. We must now examine some of the-forms which Aryan roots are supposed to take in Quichua. In the first place, Quichua abhors the shock of two consonants. Thus, a word like πλέω in Greek would be unpleasant to the Peruvian's ear, and he says pillui, 'I sail.' The plu, again, in pluma, a feather, is said to be found in pillu, 'to fly.' Quichua has no v, any more than Greek has, and just as the Greeks had to spell Roman words beginning with V with Ou, like Valerius--Οὐαλέριος--so, where Sanscrit has v, Quichua has sometimes hu. Here is a list of words in hu:



Huakia, to call. Vacc, to speak.
Huasi, a house. Vas, to inhabit.
Huayra, air, au?'ra. , to breathe.
Huasa, the back. Vas, to be able (pouvoir).

"There is a Sanscrit root, kr, to act, to do: this root is found In more than three hundred names of peoples and places in

Southern America. Thus there are the Caribs, whose name may have the same origin as that of our old friends the Carians, and mean the Braves, and their land the home of the Braves, like Kaleva-la, in Finnish. The same root gives kara, the hand, the Greek χεέρ, and kkalli, brave, which a person of fancy may connect with καλόσ. Again, Quichua has an 'alpha privative'--thus A-stani means 'I change a thing's place;' for ni or mi is the first person singular, and, added to the root of a verb, is the sign of the first person of the present indicative. For instance, can means being, and Can-mi, or Cani, is, 'I am.' In the same way Munanmi, or Munani, is 'I love,' and Apanmi, or Apani, 'I carry.' So Lord Strangford was wrong when he supposed that the last verb in mi lived with the last patriot in Lithuania. Peru has stores of a grammatical form which has happily perished in Europe. It is impossible to do more than refer to the supposed Aryan roots contained in the glossary, but it may be noticed that the future of the Quichuan verb is formed in s-I love, Munani; I shall love, Munasa--and that the affixes denoting cases in the noun are curiously like the Greek prepositions."

The resemblance between the Quichua and Mandan words for I or me--mi--will here be observed.

Very recently Dr. Rudolf Falb has announced (Neue Freie Presse, of Vienna) that he has discovered that the relation of the Quichua and Aimara languages to the Aryan and Semitic tongues is very close; that, in fact, they "exhibit the most astounding affinities with the Semitic tongue, and particularly the Arabic, in which tongue Dr. Falb has been skilled from his boyhood. Following, up the lines of this discovery, Dr. Falb has found (1) a connecting link with the Aryan roots, and (2) has ultimately arrived face to face with the surprising revelation that "the Semitic roots are universally Aryan." The common stems of all the variants are found in their purest condition in Quichua and Aimara, from which fact Dr. Falb derives the conclusion that the high plains of Peru and Bolivia must be regarded as the point of exit of the present human race.

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[Since the above was written I have received a letter from Dr. Falb, dated Leipsic, April 5th, 1881. Scholars will be glad to learn that Dr. Falb's great work on the relationship of the Aryan and Semitic languages to the Quichua and Aimara tongues will be published in a year or two; the manuscript contains over two thousand pages, and Dr. Falb has devoted to it ten years of study. A work from such a source, upon so curious and important a subject, will be looked for with great interest.]

But it is impossible that the Quichuas and Aimaras could have passed across the wide Atlantic to Europe if there had been no stepping-stone in the shape of Atlantis with its bridge-like ridges connecting the two continents.

It is, however, more reasonable to suppose that the Quichuas and Aimaras were a race of emigrants from Plato's island than to think that Atlantis was populated from South America. The very traditions to which we have referred as existing among the Peruvians, that the civilized race were white and bearded, and that they entered or invaded the country, would show that civilization did not originate in Peru, but was a transplantation from abroad, and only in the direction of Atlantis can we look for a white and bearded race.

In fact, kindred races, with the same arts, and speaking the same tongue in an early age of the world, separated in Atlantis and went east and west--the one to repeat the civilization of the mother-country along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, which, like a great river, may be said to flow out from the Black Sea, with the Nile as one of its tributaries, and along the shores of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf; while the other emigration advanced up the Amazon, and created mighty nations upon its head-waters in the valleys of the Andes and on the shores of the Pacific.



AFRICA, like Europe and America, evidences a commingling of different stocks: the blacks are not all black, nor all woolly-haired; the Africans pass through all shades, from that of a light Berber, no darker than the Spaniard, to the deep black of the Iolofs, between Senegal and Gambia.

The traces of red men or copper-colored races are found in many parts of the continent. Prichard divides the true negroes into four classes; his second class is thus described:

"2. Other tribes have forms and features like the European; their complexion is black, or a deep olive, or a copper color approaching to black, while their hair, though often crisp and frizzled, is not in the least woolly. Such are the Bishari and Danekil and Hazorta, and the darkest of the Abyssinians.

"The complexion and hair of the Abyssinians vary very much, their complexion ranging from almost white to dark brown or black, and their hair from straight to crisp, frizzled, and almost woolly." (Nott and Gliddon, "Types of Mankind," p. 194.)

"Some of the Nubians are copper-colored or black, with a tinge of red." (Ibid., p. 198.)

Speaking of the Barbary States, these authors further say (Ibid., p. 204):

"On the northern coast of Africa, between the Mediterranean and the Great Desert, including Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and Benzazi, there is a continuous system of highlands, which have been included under the general term Atlas--anciently Atlantis, now the Barbary States. . . . Throughout

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[paragraph continues] Barbary we encounter a peculiar group of races, subdivided into many tribes of various shades, now spread over a vast area, but which formerly had its principal and perhaps aboriginal abode along the mountain slopes of Atlas. . . . The real name of the Berbers is Mazirgh, with the article prefixed or suffixed--T-amazirgh or Amazirgh-T--meaning free, dominant, or 'noble race.' . . . We have every reason to believe the Berbers existed in the remotest times, with all their essential moral and physical peculiarities. . . . They existed in the time of Menes in the same condition in which they were discovered by Phśnician navigators previously to the foundation of Carthage. They are an indomitable, nomadic people, who, since the introduction of camels, have penetrated in considerable numbers into the Desert, and even as far as Nigritia. . . . Some of these clans are white, others black, with woolly hair."

Speaking of the Barbary Moors, Prichard says:

"Their figure and stature are nearly the same as those of the southern Europeans, and their complexion, if darker, is only so in proportion to the higher temperature of the country. It displays great varieties."

Jackson says:

"The men of Temsena and Showiah are of a strong, robust make, and of a copper color; the women are beautiful. The women of Fez are fair as the Europeans, but hair and eyes always dark. The women of Mequinas are very beautiful, and have the red-and-white complexion of English women."

Spix and Martins, the German travellers, depict the Moors as follows:

A high forehead, an oval countenance, large, speaking, black eyes, shaded by arched and strong eyebrows, a thin, rather long, but not too pointed nose, rather broad lips, meeting in an acute angle, brownish-yellow complexion, thick, smooth, and black hair, and a stature greater than the middle height."

Hodgson states:

"The Tuarycks are a white people, of the Berber race; the Mozabiaks are a remarkably white people, and mixed with the Bedouin Arabs. The Wadreagans and Wurgelans are of a dark bronze, with woolly hair."

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The Foolahs, Fulbe (sing. Pullo), Fellani, or Fellatah, are a people of West and Central Africa. It is the opinion of modern travellers that the Foolahs are destined to become the dominant people of Negro-land. In language, appearance, and history they present striking differences from the neighboring tribes, to whom they are superior in intelligence, but inferior, according to Garth, in physical development. Golbery describes them as "robust and courageous, of a reddish-black color, with regular features, hair longer and less woolly than that of the common negroes, and high mental capacity." Dr. Barth found great local differences in their physical characteristics, as Bowen describes the Foolahs of Bomba as being some black, some almost white, and many of a mulatto color, varying from dark to very bright. Their features and skulls were cast in the European mould. They have a tradition that their ancestors were whites, and certain tribes call themselves white men. They came from Timbuctoo, which lies to the north of their present location.

The Nubians and Foolahs are classed as Mediterraneans. They are not black, but yellowish-brown, or red-brown. The hair is not woolly but curly, and sometimes quite straight; it is either dark-brown or black, with a fuller growth of beard than the negroes. The oval face gives them a Mediterranean type. Their noses are prominent, their lips not puffy, and their languages have no connection with the tongues of the negroes proper. ("American Cyclopćdia," art. Ethnology, p. 759.)

"The Cromlechs (dolmens) of Algeria" was the subject of an address made by General Faidherbe at the Brussels International Congress. He considers these structures to be simply sepulchral monuments, and, after examining five or six thousand of them, maintains that the dolmens of Africa and of Europe were all constructed by the same race, during their emigration from the shores of the Baltic to the southern coast of the Mediterranean. The author does not, however, attempt to explain the existence of these monuments in other countries--

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[paragraph continues] Hindostan, for instance, and America. "In Africa," he says, "cromlechs are called tombs of the idolaters"--the idolaters being neither Romans, nor Christians, nor Phśnicians, but some antique race. He regards the Berbers as the descendants of the primitive dolmen-builders. Certain Egyptian monuments tell of invasions of Lower Egypt one thousand five hundred years before our era by blond tribes from the West. The bones found in the cromlechs are those of a large and dolichocephalous race. General Faidherbe gives the average stature (including the women) at 1.65 or 1.74 metre, while the average stature of French carabineers is only 1.65 metre. He did not find a single brachycephalous skull.

The profiles indicated great intelligence. The Egyptian documents already referred to call the invaders Tamahu, which must have come from the invaders' own language, as it is not Egyptian. The Tuaregs of the present day may be regarded as the best representatives of the Tamahus. They are of lofty stature, have blue eyes, and cling to the custom of bearing long swords, to be wielded by both hands. In Soudan, on the banks of the Niger, dwells a negro tribe ruled by a royal family (Masas), who are of rather fair complexion, and claim descent from white men. Masas is perhaps the same as Mashash, which occurs in the Egyptian documents applied to the Tamahus. The Masas wear the hair in the same fashion as the Tamahus, and General Faidherbe is inclined to think that they too are the descendants of the dolmen-builders.

These people, according to my theory, were colonists from Atlantis--colonists of three different races--white, yellow, and sunburnt or red.



WE have seen that beyond question Spain and France owed a great part of their population to Atlantis. Let us turn now to Ireland.

We would naturally expect, in view of the geographical position of the country, to find Ireland colonized at an early day by the overflowing population of Atlantis. And, in fact, the Irish annals tell us that their island was settled prior to the Flood. In their oldest legends an account is given of three Spanish fishermen who were driven by contrary winds on the coast of Ireland before the Deluge. After these came the Formorians, who were led into the country prior to the Deluge by the Lady Banbha, or Kesair; her maiden name was h'Erni, or Berba; she was accompanied by fifty maidens and three men--Bith, Ladhra, and Fintain. Ladhra was their conductor, who was the first buried in Hibernia. That ancient book, the "Cin of Drom-Snechta," is quoted in the "Book of Ballymote" as authority for this legend.

The Irish annals speak of the Formorians as a warlike race, who, according to the "Annals of Clonmacnois," "were a sept descended from Cham, the son of Noeh, and lived by pyracie and spoile of other nations, and were in those days very troublesome to the whole world."

Were not these the inhabitants of Atlantis, who, according to Plato, carried their arms to Egypt and Athens, and whose subsequent destruction has been attributed to divine vengeance invoked by their arrogance and oppressions?

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The Formorians were from Atlantis. They were called Fomhoraicc, F'omoraig Afraic, and Formoragh, which has been rendered into English as Formorians. They possessed ships, and the uniform representation is that they came, as the name F'omoraig Afraic indicated, from Africa. But in that day Africa did not mean the continent of Africa, as we now understand it. Major Wilford, in the eighth volume of the "Asiatic Researches," has pointed out that Africa comes from Apar, Aphar, Apara, or Aparica, terms used to signify "the West," just as we now speak of the Asiatic world as "the East." When, therefore, the Formorians claimed to come from Africa, they simply meant that they came from the West--in other words, from Atlantis--for there was no other country except America west of them.

They possessed Ireland from so early a period that by some of the historians they are spoken of as the aborigines of the country.

The first invasion of Ireland, subsequent to the coming of the Formorians, was led by a chief called Partholan: his people are known in the Irish annals as "Partholan's people." They were also probably Atlanteans. They were from Spain. A British prince, Gulguntius, or Gurmund, encountered off the Hebrides a fleet of thirty ships, filled with men and women, led by one Partholyan, who told him they were from Spain, and seeking some place to colonize. The British prince directed him to Ireland. ("De Antiq. et Orig. Cantab.")

Spain in that day was the land of the Iberians, the Basques; that is to say, the Atlanteans.

The Formorians defeated Partholan's people, killed Partholan, and drove the invaders out of the country.

The Formorians were a civilized race; they had "a fleet of sixty ships and a strong army."

The next invader of their dominions was Neimhidh; he captured one of their fortifications, but it was retaken by the Formorians under "Morc." Neimhidh was driven out of the

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country, and the Atlanteans continued in undisturbed possession of the island for four hundred years more. Then came the Fir-Bolgs. They conquered the whole island, and divided it into five provinces. They held possession of the country for only thirty-seven years, when they were overthrown by the Tuatha-de-Dananns, a people more advanced in civilization; so much so that when their king, Nuadha, lost his hand in battle, "Creidne, the artificer," we are told, "put a silver hand upon him, the fingers of which were capable of motion." This great race ruled the country for one hundred and ninety-seven years: they were overthrown by an immigration from Spain, probably of Basques, or Iberians, or Atlanteans, "the sons of Milidh," or Milesius, who "possessed a large fleet and a strong army." This last invasion took place about the year 1700 B.C.; so that the invasion of Neimhidh must have occurred about the year 2334 B.C.; while we will have to assign a still earlier date for the coming of Partholan's people, and an earlier still for the occupation of the country by the Formorians from the West.

In the Irish historic tales called "Catha; or Battles," as given by the learned O'Curry, a record is preserved of a real battle which was fought between the Tuatha-de-Dananns and the Fir Bolgs, from which it appears that these two races spoke the same language, and that they were intimately connected with the Formorians. As the armies drew near together the Fir-Bolgs sent out Breas, one of their great chiefs, to reconnoitre the camp of the strangers; the Tuatha-de-Dananns appointed one of their champions, named Sreng, to meet the emissary of the enemy; the two warriors met and talked to one another over the tops of their shields, and each was delighted to find that the other spoke the same language. A battle followed, in which Nunda, king of the Fir-Bolgs, was slain; Breas succeeded him; he encountered the hostility of the bards, and was compelled to resign the crown. He went to the court of his father-in-law, Elathe, a Formorian sea-king or pirate; not being

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well received, he repaired to the camp of Balor of the Evil Eye, a Formorian chief. The Formorian head-quarters seem to have been in the Hebrides. Breas and Balor collected a vast army and navy and invaded Ireland, but were defeated in a great battle by the Tuatha-de-Dananns.

These particulars would show the race-identity of the Fir-Bolg and Tuatha-de-Dananns; and also their intimate connection, if not identity with, the Formorians.

The Tuatha-de-Dananns seem to have been a civilized people; besides possessing ships and armies and working in the metals, they had an organized body of surgeons, whose duty it was to attend upon the wounded in battle; and they had also a bardic or Druid class, to preserve the history of the country and the deeds of kings and heroes.

According to the ancient books of Ireland the race known as "Partholan's people," the Nemedians, the Fir-Bolgs, the Tuatha-de-Dananns, and the Milesians were all descended from two brothers, sons of Magog, son of Japheth, son of Noah, who escaped from the catastrophe which destroyed his country. Thus all these races were Atlantean. They were connected with the African colonies of Atlantis, the Berbers, and with the Egyptians. The Milesians lived in Egypt: they were expelled thence; they stopped a while in Crete, then in Scythia, then they settled in Africa (See MacGeoghegan's "History of Ireland," p. 57), at a place called Gćthulighe or Getulia, and lived there during eight generations, say two hundred and fifty years; "then they entered Spain, where they built Brigantia, or Briganza, named after their king Breogan: they dwelt in Spain a considerable time. Milesius, a descendant of Breogan, went on an expedition to Egypt, took part in a war against the Ethiopians, married the king's daughter, Scota: he died in Spain, but his people soon after conquered Ireland. On landing on the coast they offered sacrifices to Neptune or Poseidon"--the god of Atlantis. (Ibid., p. 58.)

The Book of Genesis (chap. x.) gives us the descendants

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of Noah's three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. We are told that the sons of Japheth were Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. We are then given the names of the descendants of Gomer and Javan, but not of Magog. Josephus says the sons of Magog were the Scythians. The Irish annals take up the genealogy of Magog's family where the Bible leaves it. The Book of Invasions, the "Cin of Drom-Snechta," claims that these Scythians were the Phśnicians; and we are told that a branch of this family were driven out of Egypt in the time of Moses: "He wandered through Africa for forty-two years, and passed by the lake of Salivć to the altars of the Philistines, and between Rusicada and the mountains Azure, and he came by the river Monlon, and by the sea to the Pillars of Hercules, and through the Tuscan sea, and he made for Spain, and dwelt there many years, and he increased and multiplied, and his people were multiplied."

From all these facts it appears that the population of Ireland came from the West, and not from Asia--that it was one of the many waves of population flowing out from the Island of Atlantis-and herein we find the explanation of that problem which has puzzled the Aryan scholars. As Ireland is farther from the Punjab than Persia, Greece, Rome, or Scandinavia, it would follow that the Celtic wave of migration must have been the earliest sent out from the Sanscrit centre; but it is now asserted by Professor Schleicher and others that the Celtic tongue shows that it separated from the Sanscrit original tongue later than the others, and that it is more closely allied to the Latin than any other Aryan tongue. This is entirely inexplicable upon any theory of an Eastern origin of the Indo-European races, but very easily understood if we recognize the Aryan and Celtic migrations as going out about the same time from the Atlantean fountain-head.

There are many points confirmatory of this belief. In the first place, the civilization of the Irish dates back to a vast

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antiquity. We have seen their annals laying claim to an immigration from the direction of Atlantis prior to the Deluge, with no record that the people of Ireland were subsequently destroyed by the Deluge. From the Formorians, who came before the Deluge, to the Milesians, who came from Spain in the Historic Period, the island was continuously inhabited. This demonstrates (1) that these legends did not come from Christian sources, as the Bible record was understood in the old time to imply a destruction of all who lived before the Flood except Noah and his family; (2) it confirms our view that the Deluge was a local catastrophe, and did not drown the whole human family; (3) that the coming of the Formorians having been before the Deluge, that great cataclysm was of comparatively recent date, to wit, since the settlement of Ireland; and (4) that as the Deluge was a local catastrophe, it must have occurred somewhere not far from Ireland to have come to their knowledge. A rude people could scarcely have heard in that day of a local catastrophe occurring in the heart of Asia.

There are many evidences that the Old World recognized Ireland as possessing a very ancient civilization. In the Sanscrit books it is referred to as Hiranya, the "Island of the Sun," to wit, of sun-worship; in other words, as pre-eminently the centre of that religion which was shared by all the ancient races of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. It is believed that Ireland was the "Garden of Phśbus" of the Western mythologists.

The Greeks called Ireland the "Sacred Isle" and "Ogygia."

"Nor can any one," says Camden, "conceive why they should call it Ogygia, unless, perhaps, from its antiquity; for the Greeks called nothing Ogygia unless what was extremely ancient." We have seen that Ogyges was connected by the Greek legends with a first deluge, and that Ogyges was "a quite mythical personage, lost in the night of ages."

It appears, as another confirmation of the theory of the Atlantis origin of these colonies, that their original religion

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was sun-worship; this, as was the case in other countries, became subsequently overlaid with idol-worship. In the reign of King Tighernmas the worship of idols was introduced. The priests constituted the Order of Druids. Naturally many analogies have been found to exist between the beliefs and customs of the Druids and the other religions which were drawn from Atlantis. We have seen in the chapter on sun-worship how extensive this form of religion was in the Atlantean days, both in Europe and America.

It would appear probable that the religion of the Druids passed from Ireland to England and France. The metempsychosis or transmigration of souls was one of the articles of their belief long before the time of Pythagoras; it had probably been drawn from the storehouse of Atlantis, whence it passed to the Druids, the Greeks, and the Hindoos. The Druids had a pontifex maximus to whom they yielded entire obedience. Here again we see a practice which extended to the Phśnicians, Egyptians, Hindoos, Peruvians, and Mexicans.

The Druids of Gaul and Britain offered human sacrifices, while it is claimed that the Irish Druids did not. This would appear to have been a corrupt after-growth imposed upon the earlier and purer sacrifice of fruits and flowers known in Atlantis, and due in part to greater cruelty and barbarism in their descendants. Hence we find it practised in degenerate ages on both sides of the Atlantic.

The Irish Druidical rites manifested themselves principally in sun worship. Their chief god was Bel or Baal--the same worshipped by the Phśnicians--the god of the sun. The Irish name for the sun, Grian, is, according to Virgil, one of the names of Apollo--another sun-god, Gryneus. Sun-worship continued in Ireland down to the time of St. Patrick, and some of its customs exist among the peasantry of that country to this day. We have seen that among the Peruvians, Romans, and other nations, on a certain day all fires were extinguished throughout the kingdom, and a new fire kindled at the

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chief temple by the sun's rays, from which the people obtained their fire for the coming year. In Ireland the same practice was found to exist. A piece of land was set apart, where the four provinces met, in the present county of Meath; here, at a palace called Tlachta, the divine fire was kindled. Upon the night of what is now All-Saints-day the Druids assembled at this place to offer sacrifice, and it was established, under heavy penalties, that no fire should be kindled except from this source. On the first of May a convocation of Druids was held in the royal palace of the King of Connaught, and two fires were lit, between which cattle were driven, as a preventive of murrain and other pestilential disorders. This was called Beltinne, or the day of Bel's fire. And unto this day the Irish call the first day of May "Lha-Beul-tinne," which signifies "the day of Bel's fire." The celebration in Ireland of St. John's-eve by watch-fires is a relic of the ancient sun-worship of Atlantis. The practice of driving cattle through the fire continued for a longtime, and Kelly mentions in his "Folk-lore" that in Northamptonshire, in England, a calf was sacrificed in one of these fires to "stop the murrain" during the present century. Fires are still lighted in England and Scotland as well as Ireland for superstitious purposes; so that the people of Great Britain, it may be said, are still in some sense in the midst of the ancient sun-worship of Atlantis.

We find among the Irish of to-day many Oriental customs. The game of "jacks," or throwing up five pebbles and catching them on the back of the hand, was known in Rome. "The Irish keen (caoine), or the lament over the dead, may still be heard in Algeria and Upper Egypt, even as Herodotus heard it chanted by the Libyan women." The same practice existed among the Egyptians, Etruscans, and Romans. The Irish wakes are identical with the funeral feasts of the Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans. (Cusack's "History of Ireland," p. 141.) The Irish custom of saying "God bless you!" when one sneezes, is a very ancient practice; it was known to the Romans,

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and referred, it is said, to a plague in the remote past, whose first symptom was sneezing.

We find many points of resemblance between the customs of the Irish and those of the Hindoo. The practice of the creditor fasting at the door-step of his debtor until be is paid, is known to both countries; the kindly "God save you!" is the same as the Eastern "God be gracious to you, my son!" The reverence for the wren in Ireland and Scotland reminds us of the Oriental and Greek respect for that bird. The practice of pilgrimages, fasting, bodily macerations, and devotion to holy wells and particular places, extends from Ireland to India.

All these things speak of a common origin; this fact has been generally recognized, but it has always been interpreted that the Irish camp, from the East, and were in fact a migration of Hindoos. There is not the slightest evidence to sustain this theory. The Hindoos have never within the knowledge of man sent out colonies or fleets for exploration; but there is abundant evidence, on the other hand, of migrations from Atlantis eastward. And how could the Sanscrit writings have preserved maps of Ireland, England, and Spain, giving the shape and outline of their coasts, and their very names, and yet have preserved no memory of the expeditions or colonizations by which they acquired that knowledge?

Another proof of our theory is found in "the round-towers" of Ireland. Attempts have been made to show, by Dr. Petrie and others, that these extraordinary structures are of modern origin, and were built by the Christian priests, in which to keep their church-plate. But it is shown that the "Annals of Ulster" mention the destruction of fifty-seven of them by an earthquake in A.D. 448; and Giraldus Cambrensis shows that Lough Neagh was created by an inundation, or sinking of the laud, in A.D. 65, and that in his day the fishermen could

"See the round-towers of other days
In the waves beneath them shining."

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Moreover, we find Diodorus Siculus, in a well-known passage, referring to Ireland, and describing it as "an island in the ocean over against Gaul, to the north, and not inferior in size to Sicily, the soil of which is so fruitful that they mow there twice in the year." He mentions the skill of their harpers, their sacred groves, and their singular temples of round form.

We find similar structures in America, Sardinia, and India. The remains of similar round-towers are very abundant in the Orkneys and Shetlands. "They have been supposed by some," says Sir John Lubbock, to be Scandinavian, but no similar buildings exist in Norway, Sweden, or Denmark, so that this style of architecture is no doubt anterior to the arrival of the


[paragraph continues] Northmen." I give above a picture of the Burgh or Broch of the little island of Moussa, in the Shetlands. It is circular in form, forty-one feet in height, open at the top; the central

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space is twenty feet in diameter, the walls about fourteen feet thick at the base, and eight feet at the top. They contain a staircase, which leads to the top of the building. Similar structures are found in the Island of Sardinia.

In New Mexico and Colorado the remains of round-towers are very abundant. The illustration below represents one


of these in the valley of the Mancos, in the south-western corner of Colorado. A model of it is to be found in the Smithsonian collection at Washington. The tower stands at present, in its ruined condition, twenty feet high. It will be seen that it resembles the towers of Ireland, not only in its circular form but also in the fact that its door-way is situated at some distance from the ground.

It will not do to say that the resemblance between these prehistoric and singular towers, in countries so far apart as Sardinia, Ireland, Colorado, and India, is due to an accidental coincidence. It might as well be argued that the resemblance

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between the roots of the various Indo-European languages was also due to accidental coincidence, and did not establish any similarity of origin. In fact, we might just as well go back to the theory of the philosophers of one hundred and fifty years ago, and say that the resemblance between the fossil forms in the rocks and the living forms upon them did not indicate relationship, or prove that the fossils were the remains of creatures that had once lived, but that it was simply a way nature had of working out extraordinary coincidences in a kind of joke; a sort of "plastic power in nature," as it was called.

We find another proof that Ireland was settled by the people of Atlantis in the fact that traditions long existed among the Irish peasantry of a land in the "Far West," and that this belief was especially found among the posterity of the Tuatha-de-Dananns, whose connection with the Formorians we have shown.

The Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, in a note to his translation of the "Popol Vuh," says:

"There is an abundance of legends and traditions concerning the passage of the Irish into America, and their habitual communication with that continent many centuries before the time of Columbus. We should bear in mind that Ireland was colonized by the Phśnicians (or by people of that race). An Irish Saint named Vigile, who lived in the eighth century, was accused to Pope Zachary of having taught heresies on the subject of the antipodes. At first he wrote to the pope in reply to the charge, but afterward he went to Rome in person to justify himself, and there be proved to the pope that the Irish had been accustomed to communicate with a transatlantic world."

"This fact," says Baldwin, "seems to have been preserved in the records of the Vatican."

The Irish annals preserve the memory of St. Brendan of Clonfert, and his remarkable voyage to a land in the West, made A.D. 545. His early youth was passed under the care of St. Ita, a lady of the princely family of the Desii. When

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he was five years old he was placed under the care of Bishop Ercus. Kerry was his native home; the blue waves of the Atlantic washed its shores; the coast was full of traditions of a wonderful land in the West. He went to see the venerable St. Enda, the first abbot of Arran, for counsel. he was probably encouraged in the plan he had formed of carrying the Gospel to this distant land. "He proceeded along the coast of Mayo, inquiring as he went for traditions of the Western continent. On his return to Kerry he decided to set out on the important expedition. St. Brendan's Hill still bears his name; and from the bay at the foot of this lofty eminence be sailed for the 'Far West.' Directing his course toward the southwest, with a few faithful companions, in a well-provisioned bark, he came, after some rough and dangerous navigation, to calm seas, where, without aid of oar or sail, he was borne along for many weeks." He had probably entered upon the same great current which Columbus travelled nearly one thousand years later, and which extends from the shores of Africa and Europe to America. He finally reached land; he proceeded inland until he came to a large river flowing from east to west, supposed by some to be the Ohio. "After an absence of seven years he returned to Ireland, and lived not only to tell of the marvels he had seen, but to found a college of three thousand monks at Clonfert." There are eleven Latin MSS. in the Bibliothčque Impériale at Paris of this legend, the dates of which vary from the eleventh to the fourteenth century, but all of them anterior to the time of Columbus.

The fact that St. Brendan sailed in search of a country in the west cannot be doubted; and the legends which guided him were probably the traditions of Atlantis among a people whose ancestors had been derived directly or at second-hand from that country.

This land was associated in the minds of the peasantry with traditions of Edenic happiness and beauty. Miss Eleanor C. Donnelly, of Philadelphia, has referred to it in her poem, "The

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Sleeper's Sail," where the starving boy dreams of the pleasant and plentiful land:

"'Mother, I've been on the cliffs out yonder,
Straining my eyes o'er the breakers free
To the lovely spot where the sun was setting,
Setting and sinking into the sea.

"'The sky was full of the fairest colors
Pink and purple and paly green,
With great soft masses of gray and amber,
And great bright rifts of gold between.

"'And all the birds that way were flying,
Heron and curlew overhead,
With a mighty eagle westward floating,
Every plume in their pinions red.

"'And then I saw it, the fairy city,
Far away o'er the waters deep;
Towers and castles and chapels glowing
Like blesséd dreams that we see in sleep.

"'What is its name?' 'Be still, acushla
(Thy hair is wet with the mists, my boy);
Thou hast looked perchance on the Tir-na-n'oge,
Land of eternal youth and joy!

"'Out of the sea, when the sun is setting,
It rises, golden and fair to view;
No trace of ruin, or change of sorrow,
No sign of age where all is new.

"'Forever sunny, forever blooming,
Nor cloud nor frost can touch that spot,
Where the happy people are ever roaming,
The bitter pangs of the past forgot.'

This is the Greek story of Elysion; these are the Elysian Fields of the Egyptians; these are the Gardens of the Hesperides; this is the region in the West to which the peasant of Brittany looks from the shores of Cape Raz; this is Atlantis.

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The starving child seeks to reach this blessed land in a boat and is drowned.

"High on the cliffs the light-house keeper
Caught the sound of a piercing scream;
Low in her hut the lonely widow
Moaned in the maze of a troubled dream;

"And saw in her sleep a seaman ghostly,
With sea-weeds clinging in his hair,
Into her room, all wet and dripping,
A drownéd boy on his bosom bear.

"Over Death Sea on a bridge of silver
The child to his Father's arms had passed!
Heaven was nearer than Tir-na-n'oge,
And the golden city was reached at last."



THAT eminent authority, Dr. Max Müller, says, in his "Lectures on the Science of Religion,"

"If we confine ourselves to the Asiatic continent, with its important peninsula of Europe, we find that in the vast desert of drifting human speech three, and only three, oases have been formed in which, before the beginning of all history, language became permanent and traditional--assumed, in fact, a new character, a character totally different from the original character of the floating and constantly varying speech of human beings. These three oases of language are known by the name of Turanian, Aryan, and Semitic. In these three centres, more particularly in the Aryan and Semitic, language ceased to be natural; its growth was arrested, and it became permanent, solid, petrified, or, if you like, historical speech. I have always maintained that this centralization and traditional conservation of language could only have been the result of religious and political influences, and I now mean to show that we really have clear evidence of three independent settlements of religion--the Turanian, the Aryan, and the Semitic--concomitantly with the three great settlements of language."

There can be no doubt that the Aryan and another branch, which Müller calls Semitic, but which may more properly be called Hamitic, radiated from Noah; it is a question yet to be decided whether the Turanian or Mongolian is also a branch of the Noachic or Atlantean stock.

To quote again from Max Müller:

"If it can only be proved that the religions of the Aryan nations are united by the same bonds of a real relationship

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which have enabled us to treat their languages as so many varieties of the same type--and so also of the Semitic--the field thus opened is vast enough, and its careful clearing, and cultivation will occupy several generations of scholars. And this original relationship, I believe, can be proved. Names of the principal deities, words also expressive of the most essential elements of religion, such as prayer, sacrifice, altar, spirit, law, and faith, have been preserved among the Aryan and among the Semitic nations, and these relies admit of one explanation only. After that, a comparative study of the Turanian religions may be approached with better hope of success; for that there was not only a primitive Aryan and a primitive Semitic religion, but likewise a primitive Turanian religion, before each of these primeval races was broken up and became separated in language, worship and national sentiment, admits, I believe, of little doubt. . . . There was a period during which the ancestors of the Semitic family had not yet been divided, whether in language or in religion. That period transcends the recollection of every one of the Semitic races, in the same way as neither Hindoos, Greeks, nor Romans have any recollection of the time when they spoke a common language, and worshipped their Father in heaven by a name that was as yet neither Sanscrit, nor Greek, nor Latin. But I do not hesitate to call this Prehistoric Period historical in the best sense of the word. It was a real period, because, unless it was real, all the realities of the Semitic languages and the Semitic religions, such as we find them after their separation, would be unintelligible. Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic point to a common source as much as Sanscrit, Greek, and Latin; and unless we can bring ourselves to doubt that the Hindoos, the Greeks, the Romans, and the Teutons derived the worship of their principal deity from their common Aryan sanctuary, we shall not be able to deny that there was likewise a primitive religion of the whole Semitic race, and that El, the Strong One in heaven, was invoked by the ancestors of all the Semitic races before there were Babylonians in Babylon, Phśnicians in Sidon and Tyrus--before there were Jews in Mesopotamia or Jerusalem. The evidence of the Semitic is the same as that of the Aryan languages: the conclusion cannot be different....

"These three classes of religion are not to be mistaken--as little as the three classes of language, the Turanian, the Semitic,

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and the Aryan. They mark three events in the most ancient history of the world, events which have determined the whole fate of the human race, and of which we ourselves still feel the consequences in our language, in our thoughts, and in our religion."

We have seen that all the evidence points to the fact that this original seat of the Phśnician-Hebrew family was in Atlantis.

The great god of the so-called Semites was El, the Strong One, from whose name comes the Biblical names Beth-el, the house of God; Ha-el, the strong one; El-ohim, the gods; El-oah, God; and from the same name is derived the Arabian name of God, Al-lah.

Another evidence of the connection between the Greeks, Phśnicians, Hebrews, and Atlanteans is shown in the name of Adonis.

The Greeks tell us that Adonis was the lover of Aphrodite, or Venus, who was the offspring of Uranus--"she came out of the sea;" Uranus was the father of Chronos, and the grandfather of Poseidon, king of Atlantis.

Now We find Adonâi in the Old Testament used exclusively as the name of Jehovah, while among the Phśnicians Adonâi was the supreme deity. In both cases the root Ad is probably a reminiscence of Ad-lantis.

There seem to exist similar connections between the Egyptian and the Turanian mythology. The great god of Egypt was Neph or Num; the chief god of the Samoyedes is Num; and Max Müller established an identity between the Num of the Samoyedes and the god Yum-ala of the Finns, and probably with the name of the god Nam of the Thibetians.

That mysterious people, the Etruscans, who inhabited part of Italy, and whose bronze implements agreed exactly in style and workmanship with those which we think were derived from Atlantis, were, it is now claimed, a branch of the Turanian family.

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"At a recent meeting of the English Philological Society great interest was excited by a paper on Etruscan Numerals, by the Rev. Isaac Taylor. He stated that the long-sought key to the Etruscan language had at last been discovered. Two dice had been found in a tomb, with their six faces marked with words instead of pips. He showed that these words were identical with the first six digits in the Altaic branch of the Turanian family of speech. Guided by this clew, it was easy to prove that the grammar and vocabulary of the 3000 Etruscan inscriptions were also Altaic. The words denoting kindred, the pronouns, the conjugations, and the declensions, corresponded closely to those of the Tartar tribes of Siberia. The Etruscan mythology proved to be essentially the same as that of the Kalevala, the great Finnic epic."

According to Lenormant ("Ancient History of the East," vol. i., p. 62; vol. ii., p. 23), the early contests between the Aryans and the Turanians are represented in the Iranian traditions as "contests between hostile brothers . . . the Ugro-Finnish races must, according to all appearances, be looked upon as a branch, earlier detached than the others from the Japhetic stem."

If it be true that the first branch originating from Atlantis was the Turanian, which includes the Chinese and Japanese, then we have derived from Atlantis all the building and metalworking races of men who have proved themselves capable of civilization; and we may, therefore, divide mankind into two great classes: those capable of civilization, derived from Atlantis, and those essentially and at all times barbarian, who hold no blood relationship with the people of Atlantis.

Humboldt is sure "that some connection existed between ancient Ethiopia and the elevated plain of Central Asia." There were invasions which reached from the shores of Arabia into China. "An Arabian sovereign, Schamar-Iarasch (Abou Karib), is described by Hamza, Nuwayri, and others as a powerful ruler and conqueror, who carried his arms successfully far into Central Asia; he occupied Samarcand and invaded China. He erected an edifice at Samarcand, bearing an inscription, in

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[paragraph continues] Himyarite or Cushite characters, 'In the name of God, Schamar-Iarasch has erected this edifice to the sun, his Lord." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Nations," p. 110.) These invasions must have been prior to 1518 B.C.

Charles Walcott Brooks read a paper before the California Academy of Sciences, in which be says:

"According to Chinese annals, Tai-Ko-Fokee, the great stranger king, ruled the kingdom of China. In pictures he is represented with two small horns, like those associated with the representations of Moses. He and his successor are said to have introduced into China 'picture-writing,' like that in use in Central America at the time of the Spanish conquest. He taught the motions of the heavenly bodies, and divided time into years and months; be also introduced many other useful arts and sciences.

"Now, there has been found at Copan, in Central America, a figure strikingly like the Chinese symbol of Fokee, with his two horns; and, in like manner, there is a close resemblance between the Central American and the Chinese figures representing earth and heaven. Either one people learned from the other, or both acquired these forms

from a common source. Many physico-geographical facts favor the hypothesis that they were derived in very remote ages from America, and that from China they passed to Egypt. Chinese records say that the progenitors of the Chinese race came from across the sea."

The two small horns of Tai-Ko-Fokee and Moses are probably a reminiscence of Baal. We find the horns of Baal represented in the remains of the Bronze Age of Europe. Bel sometimes wore a tiara with his bull's horns; the tiara was the crown subsequently worn by the Persian kings, and it became, in time, the symbol of Papal authority.

The Atlanteans having domesticated cattle, and discovered

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their vast importance to humanity, associated the bull and cow with religious ideas, as revealed in the oldest hymns of the Aryans and the cow-headed idols of Troy, a representation of one of which is shown on the preceding page. Upon the head of their great god Baal they placed the horns of the bull; and these have descended in popular imagination to the spirit of evil of our day. Burns says:

"O thou! whatever title suit thee,
Auld Hornie, Satan, Nick, or Clootie."

"Clootie" is derived from the cleft hoof of a cow; while the Scotch name for a bull is Bill, a corruption, probably, of Bel. Less than two hundred years ago it was customary to sacrifice a bull on the 25th of August to the "God Mowrie" and "his devilans" on the island of Inis Maree, Scotland. ("The Past



in the Present," p. 165.) The trident of Poseidon has degenerated into the pitchfork of Beelzebub!

And when we cross the Atlantic, we find in America the horns of Baal reappearing in a singular manner. The first cut on page 429 represents an idol of the Moquis of New Mexico: the head is very bull-like. In the next figure we have a representation of the war-god of the Dakotas, with something like a

p. 429

trident in his hand; while the next illustration is taken from Zarate's "Peru," and depicts "the god of a degrading worship." He is very much like the traditional conception of the European devil-horns, pointed ears, wings, and poker. Compare this last figure, from Peru, with the representation on page 430 of a Greek siren, one of those cruel monsters who, according to Grecian mythology, sat in the midst of bones and blood, tempting men to ruin by their sweet music. Here we have the same bird-like legs and claws as in the Peruvian demon.

Heeren shows that a great overland commerce extended in




ancient times between the Black Sea and "Great Mongolia;" he mentions a "Temple of the Sun," and a great caravansary in the desert of Gobi. Arminius Vámbéry, in his "Travels in Central Asia," describes very important ruins near the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, at a place called Gömüshtepe; and connected with these are the remains of a great wall which he followed "ten geographical miles." He found a vast aqueduct one hundred and fifty miles long, extending to the Persian mountains. He reports abundant ruins in all that country, extending even to China.

The early history of China indicates contact with a superior

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race. "Fuh-hi, who is regarded as a demi-god, founded the Chinese Empire 2852 B.C. He introduced cattle, taught the people how to raise them, and taught the art of writing." ("American Cyclopćdia," art. China.) He might have invented

his alphabet, but he did not invent the cattle; he must have got them from some nation who, during many centuries of civilization, had domesticated them; and from what nation was he more likely to have obtained them than from the Atlanteans, whose colonies we have seen reached his borders, and whose armies invaded his territory! "He instituted the ceremony of marriage." (Ibid.) This also was an importation from a civilized land. "His successor, Shin-nung, during a reign of one hundred and forty years, introduced agriculture and medical science. The next emperor, Hwang-ti, is believed to have invented weapons, wagons, ships, clocks, and musical instruments, and to have introduced coins, weights, and measures." (Ibid.) As these various inventions in all other countries have been the result of slow development, running through many centuries, or are borrowed from some other more civilized people, it is certain that no emperor of China ever invented them all during a period of one hundred and sixty-four

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years. These, then, were also importations from the West. In fact, the Chinese themselves claim to have invaded China in the early days from the north-west; and their first location is placed by Winchell near Lake Balkat, a short distance east of the Caspian, where we have already seen Aryan Atlantean colonies planted at an early day. "The third successor of Fuh-hi, Ti-ku, established schools, and was the first to practise polygamy. In 2357 his son Yau ascended the throne, and it is from his reign that the regular historical records begin. A great flood, which occurred in his reign, has been considered synchronous and identical with the Noachic Deluge, and to Yau is attributed the merit of having successfully battled against the waters."

There can be no question that the Chinese themselves, in their early legends, connected their origin with a people who were destroyed by water in a tremendous convulsion of the earth. Associated with this event was a divine personage called Niu-va (Noah?).

Sir William Jones says:

"The Chinese believe the earth to have been wholly covered with water, which, in works of undisputed authenticity, they describe as flowing abundantly, then subsiding and separating the higher from the lower ages of mankind; that this division of time, from which their poetical history begins, just preceded the appearance of Fo-hi on the mountains of Chin. ("Discourse on the Chinese; Asiatic Researches," vol. ii., p. 376.)

The following history of this destruction of their ancestors vividly recalls to us the convulsion depicted in the Chaldean and American legends:

"The pillars of heaven were broken; the earth shook to its very foundations; the heavens sunk lower toward the north; the sun, the moon, and the stars changed their motions; the earth fell to pieces, and the waters enclosed within its bosom burst forth with violence and overflowed it. Man having rebelled against Heaven, the system of the universe was totally

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disordered. The sun was eclipsed, the planets altered their course, and the grand harmony of nature was disturbed."

A learned Frenchman, M. Terrien de la Couperie, member of the Asiatic Society of Paris, has just published a work (1880) in which he demonstrates the astonishing fact that the Chinese language is clearly related to the Chaldean, and that both the Chinese characters and the cuneiform alphabet are degenerate descendants of an original hieroglyphical alphabet. The same signs exist for many words, while numerous words are very much alike. M. de la Couperie gives a table of some of these similarities, from which I quote as follows:

English. Chinese. Chaldee.
To shine Mut Mul.
To die Mut Mit.
Book King Kin.
Cloth Sik Sik.
Right hand Dzek Zag.
Hero Tan Dun.
Earth Kien-kai Kiengi.
Cow Lub Lu, lup.
Brick Ku Ku.

This surprising discovery brings the Chinese civilization still nearer to the Mediterranean head-quarters of the races, and increases the probability that the arts of China were of Atlantean origin; and that the name of Nai Hoang-ti, or Nai Korti, the founder of Chinese civilization, may be a reminiscence of Nakhunta, the chief of the gods, as recorded in the Susian texts, and this, in turn, a recollection of the Deva-Nahusha of the Hindoos, the Dionysos of the Greeks, the king of Atlantis, whose great empire reached to the "farther parts of India," and embraced, according to Plato, "parts of the continent of America."

Linguistic science achieved a great discovery when it established the fact that there was a continuous belt of languages from Iceland to Ceylon which were the variant forms of one

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mother-tongue, the Indo-European; but it must prepare itself for a still wider generalization. There is abundant proof--proof with which pages might be filled--that there was a still older mother-tongue, from which Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic were all derived--the language of Noah, the language of Atlantis, the language of the great "aggressive empire" of Plato, the language of the empire of the Titans.

The Arabic word bin, within, becomes, when it means interval, space, binnon; this is the German and Dutch binnen and Saxon binnon, signifying within. The Ethiopian word aorf, to fall asleep, is the root of the word Morpheus, the god of sleep. The Hebrew word chanah, to dwell, is the parent of the Anglo-Saxon inne and Icelandic inni, a house, and of our word inn, a hotel. The Hebrew word naval or nafal signifies to fall; from it is derived our word fall and fool (one who falls); the Chaldee word is nabal, to make foul, and the Arabic word nabala means to die, that is, to fall. From the last syllable of the Chaldee nasar, to saw, we can derive the Latin serra, the High German sagen, the Danish sauga, and our word to saw. The Arabic nafida, to fade, is the same as the Italian fado, the Latin fatuus (foolish, tasteless), the Dutch vadden, and our to fade. The Ethiopic word gaber, to make, to do, and the Arabic word jabara, to make strong, becomes the Welsh word goberu, to work, to operate, the Latin operor, and the English operate. The Arabic word abara signifies to prick, to sting; we see this root in the Welsh bar, a summit, and pâr, a spear, and per, a spit; whence our word spear. In the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic zug means to join, to couple; from this the Greeks obtained zugos, the Romans jugum, and we the word yoke; while the Germans obtained jok or jog, the Dutch juk, the Swedes ok. The Sanscrit is juga. The Arabic sanna, to be old, reappears in the Latin senex, the Welsh hen, and our senile. The Hebrew banah, to build, is the Irish bun, foundation, and the Latin fundo, fundare, to found. The Arabic baraka, to bend the knee, to fall on the breast, is probably the

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Saxon brecau, the Danish bräkke, the Swedish bräcka, Welsh bregu, and our word to break. The Arabic baraka also signifies to rain violently; and from this we get the Saxon rśgn, to rain, Dutch regen, to rain, Cimbric rśkia, rain, Welsh rheg, rain. The Chaldee word braic, a branch, is the Irish braic or raigh, an arm, the Welsh braic, the Latin brachium, and the English brace, something which supports like an arm. The Chaldee frak, to rub, to tread out grain, is the same as the Latin frico, frio, and our word rake. The Arabic word to rub is fraka. The Chaldee rag, ragag, means to desire, to long for; it is the same as the Greek oregw, the Latin porrigere, the Saxon rśccan, the Icelandic rakna, the German reichen, and our to reach, to rage. The Arabic rauka, to strain or purify, as wine, is precisely our English word rack, to rack wine. The Hebrew word bara, to create, is our word to bear, as to bear children: a great number of words in all the European languages contain this root in its various modifications. The Hebrew word kafar, to cover, is our word to cover, and coffer, something which covers, and covert, a secret place; from this root also comes the Latin cooperio and the French couvrir, to cover. The Arabic word shakala, to bind under the belly, is our word to shackle. From the Arabic walada and Ethiopian walad, to beget, to bring forth, we get the Welsh llawd, a shooting out; and hence our word lad. Our word matter, or pus, is from the Arabic madda; our word mature is originally from the Chaldee mita. The Arabic word amida signifies to end, and from this comes the noun, a limit, a termination, Latin meta, and our words meet and mete.

I might continue this list, but I have given enough to show that all the Atlantean races once spoke the same language, and that the dispersion on the plains of Shinar signifies that breaking up of the tongues of one people under the operation of vast spaces of time. Philology is yet in its infancy, and the time is not far distant when the identity of the languages of all the Noachic races will be as clearly established and as universally

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acknowledged as is now the identity, of the languages of the Aryan family of nations.

And precisely as recent research has demonstrated the relationship between Pekin and Babylon, so investigation in Central America has proved that there is a mysterious bond of union connecting the Chinese and one of the races of Mexico. The resemblances are so great that Mr. Short ("North Americans of Antiquity," p. 494) says, "There is no doubt that strong analogies exist between the Otomi and the Chinese." Seńor Najera ("Dissertacion Sobre la lingua Othomi, Mexico," pp. 87, 88) gives a list of words from which I quote the following:

Chinese. Othomi. English. Chinese. Othomi English.
Cho To The, that. Pa Da To give.
Y N-y A wound. Tsun Nsu Honor.
Ten Gu, mu Head. Hu Hmu Sir, Lord.
Siao Sui Night Na Na That.
Tien Tsi Tooth Hu He Cold.
Ye Yo Shining Ye He And.
Ky Hy (ji) Happiness. Hoa Hia Word.
Ku Du Death Nugo Nga I
Po Yo No Ni Nuy Thou.
Na Ta Man Hao Nho The good.
Nin Nsu Female Ta Da The great.
Tseu Tsi, ti Son Li Ti Gain.
Tso Tsa To perfect Ho To Who.
Kuan Khuani True Pa Pa To leave.
Siao Sa To mock Mu, mo Me Mother.

Recently Herr Forchhammer, of Leipsic, has published a truly scientific comparison of the grammatical structure of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee, and Seminole languages with the Ural-Altaic tongues, in which be has developed many interesting points of resemblance.

It has been the custom to ascribe the recognized similarities between the Indians of America and the Chinese and Japanese to a migration by way of Behring's Strait from Asia into America; but when we find that the Chinese themselves only

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reached the Pacific coast within the Historical Period, and that they came to it from the direction of the Mediterranean and Atlantis, and when we find so many and such distinct recollections of the destruction of Atlantis in the Flood le(rends of the American races, it seems more reasonable to conclude that the resemblances between the Othomi and the Chinese are to be accounted for by intercourse through Atlantis.

We find a confirmation in all these facts of the order in which Genesis names the sons of Noah:

"Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and unto them were sons born after the flood."

Can we not suppose that those three sons represent three great races in the order of their precedence?

The record of Genesis claims that the Phśnicians were descended from Ham, while the Hebrews were descended from Shem; yet we find the Hebrews and Phśnicians united by the ties of a common language, common traditions, and common race characteristics. The Jews are the great merchants of the world eighteen centuries after Christ, just as the Phśnicians were the great merchants of the world fifteen centuries before Christ.

Moreover, the Arabians, who are popularly classed as Semites, or sons of Shem, admit in their traditions that they are descended from "Ad, the son of Ham;" and the tenth chapter of Genesis classes them among the descendants of Ham, calling them Seba, Havilah, Raamah, etc. If the two great so-called Semitic stocks--the Phśnicians and Arabians--are Hamites, surely the third member of the group belongs to the same "sunburnt" race.

If we concede that the Jews were also a branch of the Hamitic stock, then we have, firstly, a Semitic stock, the Turanian, embracing the Etruscans, the Finns, the Tartars, the Mongols, the Chinese, and Japanese; secondly, a Hamitic family,

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[paragraph continues] "the sunburnt" race--a red race--including the Cushites, Phśnicians, Egyptians, Hebrews, Berbers, etc.; and, thirdly, a Japhetic or whiter stock, embracing the Greeks, Italians, Celts, Goths, and the men who wrote Sanscrit-in other words, the entire Aryan family.

If we add to these three races the negro race--which cannot be traced back to Atlantis, and is not included, according to Genesis, among the descendants of Noah--we have the four races, the white, red, yellow, and black, recognized by the Egyptians as embracing all the people known to them.

There seems to be some confusion in Genesis as to the Semitic stock. It classes different races as both Semites and Hamites; as, for instance, Sheba and Havilah; while the race of Mash, or Meshech, is classed among the sons of Shem and the sons of Japheth. In fact, there seems to be a confusion of Hamitic and Semitic stocks. "This is shown in the blending of Hamitic and Semitic in some of the most ancient inscriptions; in the facility of intercourse between the Semites of Asia and the Hamites of Egypt; in the peaceful and unobserved absorption of all the Asiatic Hamites, and the Semitic adoption of the Hamitic gods and religious system. It is manifest that, at a period not long previous, the two families had dwelt together and spoken the same language." (Winchell's "Pre-Adamites," p. 36.) Is it not more reasonable to suppose that the so-called Semitic races of Genesis were a mere division of the Hamitic stock, and that we are to look for the third great division of the sons of Noah among the Turanians?

Francis Lenormant, high authority, is of the opinion that the Turanian races are descended from Magog, the son of Japheth. He regards the Turanians as intermediate between the white and yellow races, graduating insensibly into each. "The Uzbecs, the Osmanli Turks, and the Hungarians are not to be distinguished in appearance from the most perfect branches of the white race; on the other hand, the Tchondes almost exactly resemble the Tongouses, who belong to the yellow race.

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The Turanian languages are marked by the same agglutinative character found in the American races.

The Mongolian and the Indian are alike in the absence of a heavy beard. The royal color of the Incas was yellow; yellow is the color of the imperial family in China. The religion of the Peruvians was sun-worship; "the sun was the peculiar god of the Mongols from the earliest times." The Peruvians regarded Pachacamac as the sovereign creator. Camac-Hya was the name of a Hindoo goddess. Haylli was the burden of every verse of the song composed in praise of the sun and the Incas. Mr. John Ranking derives the word Allah from the word Haylli, also the word Halle-lujah. In the city of Cuzco was a portion of land which none were permitted to cultivate except those of the royal blood. At certain seasons the Incas turned up the sod here, amid much rejoicing, and many ceremonies. A similar custom prevails in China: The emperor ploughs a few furrows, and twelve illustrious persons attend the plough after him. (Du Halde, "Empire of China," vol. i., p. 275.) The cycle of sixty years was in use among most of the nations of Eastern Asia, and among the Muyscas of the elevated plains of Bogota. The "quipu," a knotted reckoning-cord, was in use in Peru and in China. (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 48.) In Peru and China "both use hieroglyphics, which are read from above downward." (Ibid.)

"It appears most evident to me," says Humboldt, "that the monuments, methods of computing time, systems of cosmogony, and many myths of America, offer striking analogies with the ideas of Eastern Asia--analogies which indicate an ancient communication, and are not simply the result of that uniform condition in which all nations are found in the dawn of civilization." ("Exam. Crit.," tom. ii., p. 68.)

"In the ruined cities of Cambodia, which lies farther to the east of Burmah, recent research has discovered teocallis like those in Mexico, and the remains of temples of the same type and pattern as those of Yucatan. And when we reach the sea

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we encounter at Suku, in Java, a teocalli which is absolutely identical with that of Tehuantepec. Mr. Ferguson said, 'as we advance eastward from the valley of the Euphrates, at every step we meet with forms of art becoming more and more like those of Central America.'" ("Builders of Babel," p. 88.)

Prescott says:

The coincidences are sufficiently strong to authorize a belief that the civilization of Anahuac was in some degree influenced by that of Eastern Asia; and, secondly, that the discrepancies are such as to carry back the communication to a very remote period." ("Mexico," vol. iii., p. 418.)

"All appearances," continues Lenormant ("Ancient History of the East," vol. i., p. 64), "would lead us to regard the Turanian race as the first branch of the family of Japheth which went forth into the world; and by that premature separation, by an isolated and antagonistic existence, took, or rather preserved, a completely distinct physiognomy. . . . It is a type of the white race imperfectly developed."

We may regard this yellow race as the first and oldest wave from Atlantis, and, therefore, reaching farthest away from the common source; then came the Hamitic race; then the Japhetic.



IT may seem like a flight of the imagination to suppose that the mariner's compass was known to the inhabitants of Atlantis. And yet, if my readers are satisfied that the Atlantean, were a highly civilized maritime people, carrying on commerce with regions as far apart as Peru and Syria, we must conclude that they possessed some means of tracing their course in the great seas they traversed; and accordingly, when we proceed to investigate this subject, we find that as far back as we may go in the study of the ancient races of the world, we find them possessed of a knowledge of the virtues of the magnetic stone, and in the habit of utilizing it. The people of Europe, rising a few centuries since out of a state of semi-barbarism, have been in the habit of claiming the invention of many things which they simply borrowed from the older nations. This was the case with the mariner's compass. It was believed for many years that it was first invented by an Italian named Amalfi, A.D. 1302. In that interesting work, Goodrich's "Life of Columbus," we find a curious history of the magnetic compass prior to that time, from which we collate the following points:

"In A.D. 868 it was employed by the Northmen." ("The Landnamabok," vol. i., chap. 2.) An Italian poem Of A.D. 1190 refers to it as in use among the Italian sailors at that date. In the ancient language of the Hindoos, the Sanscrit--which has been a dead language for twenty-two hundred years--the

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magnet was called "the precious stone beloved of Iron." The Talmud speaks of it as "the stone of attraction;" and it is alluded to in the early Hebrew prayers as Kalamitah, the same name given it by the Greeks, from the reed upon which the compass floated. The Phśnicians were familiar with the use of the magnet. At the prow of their vessels stood the figure of a woman (Astarte) holding a cross in one hand and pointing the way with the other; the cross represented the compass, which was a magnetized needle, floating in water crosswise upon a piece of reed or wood. The cross became the coat of arms of the Phśnicians--not only, possibly, as we have shown, as a recollection of the four rivers of Atlantis, but because it represented the secret of their great sea-voyages, to which they owed their national greatness. The hyperborean magician, Abaras, carried "a guiding arrow," which Pythagoras gave him, "in order that it may be useful to him in all difficulties in his long journey." ("Herodotus," vol. iv., p. 36.)

The magnet was called the "Stone of Hercules." Hercules was the patron divinity of the Phśnicians. He was, as we have shown elsewhere, one of the gods of Atlantis--probably one of its great kings and navigators. The Atlanteans were, as Plato tells us, a maritime, commercial people, trading up the Mediterranean as far as Egypt and Syria, and across the Atlantic to "the whole opposite continent that surrounds the sea;" the Phśnicians, as their successors and descendants, and colonized on the shores of the Mediterranean, inherited their civilization and their maritime habits, and with these that invention without which their great voyages were impossible. From them the magnet passed to the Hindoos, and from them to the Chinese, who certainly possessed it at an early date. In the year 2700 B.C. the Emperor Wang-ti placed a magnetic figure with an extended arm, like the Astarte of the Phśnicians, on the front of carriages, the arm always turning and pointing to the south, which the Chinese regarded as the

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principal pole. (See Goodrich's "Columbus," p. 31, etc.) This illustration represents one of these chariots:


In the seventh century it was used by the navigators of the Baltic Sea and the German Ocean.

The ancient Egyptians called the loadstone the bone of Haroeri, and iron the bone of Typhon. Haroeri was the son of Osiris and grandson of Rhea, a goddess of the earth, a queen of Atlantis, and mother of Poseidon; Typhon was a wind-god and an evil genius, but also a son of Rhea, the earth goddess. Do we find in this curious designation of iron and loadstone as "bones of the descendants of the earth," an explanation of that otherwise inexplicable Greek legend about Deucalion "throwing the bones of the earth behind him, when instantly men rose from the ground, and the world was repeopled?" Does it mean that by means of the magnet he sailed, after the Flood, to the European colonies of Atlantis. already thickly inhabited?

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A late writer, speaking upon the subject of the loadstone, tells us:

"Hercules, it was said, being once overpowered by the heat of the sun, drew his bow against that luminary; whereupon the god Phśbus, admiring his intrepidity, gave him a golden cup, with which he sailed over the ocean. This cup was the compass, which old writers have called Lapis Heracleus. Pisander says Oceanus lent him the cup, and Lucian says it was a sea-shell. Tradition affirms that the magnet originally was not on a pivot, but set to float on water in a cup. The old antiquarian is wildly theoretical on this point, and sees a compass in the Golden Fleece of Argos, in the oracular needle which Nero worshipped, and in everything else. Yet undoubtedly there are some curious facts connected with the matter. Osonius says that Gama and the Portuguese got the compass from some pirates at the Cape of Good Hope, A.D. 1260. M. Fauchet, the French antiquarian, finds it plainly alluded to in some old poem of Brittany belonging to the year A.D. 1180. Paulo Venetus brought it in the thirteenth century from China, where it was regarded as oracular. Genebrand says Melvius, a Neapolitan, brought it to Europe in A.D. 1303. Costa says Gama got it from Mohammedan seamen. But all nations with whom it was found associate it with regions where Heraclean myths prevailed. And one of the most curious facts is that the ancient Britons, as the Welsh do to-day, call a pilot llywydd (lode). Lodemanage, in Skinner's 'Etymology,' is the word for the price paid to a pilot. But whether this famous, and afterward deified, mariner (Hercules) had a compass or not, we can hardly regard the association of his name with so many Western monuments as accidental."

Hercules was, as we know, a god of Atlantis, and Oceanos, who lent the magnetic cup to Hercules, was the Dame by which the Greeks designated the Atlantic Ocean. And this may be the explanation of the recurrence of a cup in many antique paintings and statues. Hercules is often represented with a cup in his hand; we even find the cup upon the handle of the bronze dagger found in Denmark, and represented in the chapter on the Bronze Age, in this work. (See p. 254 ante.)

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So "oracular" an object as this self-moving needle, always pointing to the north, would doubtless affect vividly the minds of the people, and appear in their works of art. When Hercules left the coast of Europe to sail to the island of Erythea in the Atlantic, in the remote west, we are told, in Greek mythology (Murray, p. 257), that he borrowed "the cup" of Helios, in (with) which "he was accustomed to sail every night." Here we seem to have a reference to the magnetic cup used in


night sailing; and this is another proof that the use of the magnetic needle in sea-voyages was associated with the Atlantean gods.

Lucian tells us that a sea-shell often took the place of the cup, as a vessel in which to hold the water where the needle floated, and hence upon the ancient coins of Tyre we find a sea-shell represented.

Here, too, we have the Pillars of Hercules, supposed to have been placed at the mouth of the Mediterranean, and the tree of life or knowledge, with the serpent twined around it, which appears in Genesis; and in the combination of the two pillars and the serpent we have, it is said, the original source of our dollar mark [$].

Compare these Phśnician coins with the following representation

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of a copper coin, two inches in diameter and three lines thick, found nearly a century ago by Ordonez, at the city of Guatemala. "M. Dupaix noticed an indication of the use of the compass in the centre of one of the sides, the figures on the same side representing a kneeling, bearded, turbaned man between two fierce heads, perhaps of crocodiles, which appear to defend the entrance to a mountainous and wooded country. The reverse presents a serpent coiled around a fruit-tree, and an eagle on a hill." (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iv., p. 118.) The mountain leans to one side: it is a "culhuacan," or crooked mountain.

We find in Sanchoniathon's "Legends of the Phśnicians that Ouranus, the first god of the people of Atlantis, "devised


[paragraph continues] Bćtulia, contriving stones that moved as having life, which were supposed to fall from heaven." These stones were probably magnetic loadstones; in other words, Ouranus, the first god of Atlantis, devised the mariner's compass.

I find in the "Report of United States Explorations for a Route for a Pacific Railroad" a description of a New Mexican Indian priest, who foretells the result of a proposed war by placing a piece of wood in a bowl of water, and causing it to

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turn to the right or left, or sink or rise, as he directs it. This is incomprehensible, unless the wood, like the ancient Chinese compass, contained a piece of magnetic iron hidden in it, which would be attracted or repulsed, or even drawn downward, by a piece of iron held in the hand of the priest, on the outside of the bowl. If so, this trick was a remembrance of the mariner's compass transmitted from age to age by the medicine men. The reclining statue of Chac-Mol, of Central America, holds a bowl or dish upon its breast.

Divination was the ars Etrusca. The Etruscans set their temples squarely with the cardinal points of the compass; so did the Egyptians, the Mexicans, and the Mound Builders of America. Could they have done this without the magnetic compass?

The Romans and the Persians called the line of the axis of the globe cardo, and it was to cardo the needle pointed. Now "Cardo was the name of the mountain on which the human race took refuge from the Deluge . . . the primitive geographic point for the countries which were the cradle of the human race." (Urquhart's "Pillars of Hercules," vol. i., p. 145.) From this comes our word "cardinal," as the cardinal points.

Navigation.--Navigation was not by any means in a rude state in the earliest times:

"In the wanderings of the heroes returning from Troy, Aristoricus makes Menelaus circumnavigate Africa more than 500 years before Neco sailed from Gadeira to India." ("Cosmos," vol. ii., p. 144.)

"In the tomb of Rameses the Great is a representation of a naval combat between the Egyptians and some other people, supposed to be the Phśnicians, whose huge ships are propelled by sails." (Goodrich's "Columbus," p. 29.)

The proportions of the fastest sailing-vessels of the present day are about 300 feet long to 50 wide and 30 high; these were precisely the proportions of Noah's ark--300 cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high.

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"Hiero of Syracuse built, under the superintendence of Archimedes, a vessel which consumed in its construction the material for fifty galleys; it contained galleries, gardens, stables, fish-ponds, mills, baths, a temple of Venus, and an engine to throw stones three hundred pounds in weight, and arrows thirty-six feet long. The floors of this monstrous vessel were inlaid with scenes from Homer's 'Iliad.'" (Ibid., p. 30.)

The fleet of Sesostris consisted of four hundred ships; and when Semiramis invaded India she was opposed by four thousand vessels.

It is probable that in the earliest times the vessels were sheeted with metal. A Roman ship of the time of Trajan has been recovered from Lake Ricciole after 1300 years. The outside was covered with sheets of lead fastened with small copper nails. Even the use of iron chains in place of ropes for the anchors was known at an early period. Julius Cćsar tells us that the galleys of the Veneti were thus equipped. (Goodrich's "Columbus," p. 31.)

Gunpowder.--It is not impossible that even the invention of gunpowder may date back to Atlantis. It was certainly known in Europe long before the time of the German monk, Berthold Schwarz, who is commonly credited with the invention of it. It was employed in 1257 at the siege of Niebla, in Spain. It was described in an Arab treatise of the thirteenth century. In A.D. 811 the Emperor Leo employed fire-arms. "Greek-fire" is supposed to have been gunpowder mixed with resin or petroleum, and thrown in the form of fuses and explosive shells. It was introduced from Egypt A.D. 668. In A.D. 690 the Arabs used fire-arms against Mecca, bringing the knowledge of them from India. In A.D. 80 the Chinese obtained from India a knowledge of gunpowder. There is reason to believe that the Carthaginian (Phśnician) general, Hannibal, used gunpowder in breaking a way for his army over the Alps. The Romans, who were ignorant of its use, said that Hannibal made his way by making fires against the rocks, and pouring

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vinegar and water over the ashes. It is evident that fire and vinegar would have no effect on masses of the Alps great enough to arrest the march of an army. Dr. William Maginn has suggested that the wood was probably burnt by Hannibal to obtain charcoal; and the word which has been translated "vinegar" probably signified some preparation of nitre and sulphur, and that Hannibal made gunpowder and blew up the rocks. The same author suggests that the story of Hannibal breaking loose from the mountains where he was surrounded on all sides by the Romans, and in danger of starvation, by fastening firebrands to the horns of two thousand oxen, and sending them rushing at night among the terrified Romans, simply refers to the use of rockets. As Maginn well asks, how could Hannibal be in danger of starvation when he had two thousand oxen to spare for such an experiment? And why should the veteran Roman troops have been so terrified and panic-stricken by a lot of cattle with firebrands on their horns? At the battle of Lake Trasymene, between Hannibal and Flaminius, we have another curious piece of information which goes far to confirm the belief that Hannibal was familiar with the use of gunpowder. In the midst of the battle there was, say the Roman historians, an "earthquake;" the earth reeled under the feet of the soldiers, a tremendous crash was heard, a fog or smoke covered the scene, the earth broke open, and the rocks fell upon the heads of the Romans. This reads very much as if the Carthaginians had decoyed the Romans into a pass where they had already planted a mine, and had exploded it at the proper moment to throw them into a panic. Earthquakes do not cast rocks up in the air to fall on men's heads!

And that this is not all surmise is shown by the fact that a city of India, in the time of Alexander the Great, defended itself by the use of gunpowder: it was said to be a favorite of the gods, because thunder and lightning came from its walls to resist the attacks of its assailants.

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As the Hebrews were a branch of the Phśnician race, it is not surprising that we find some things in their history which look very much like legends of gunpowder.

When Korah, Dathan, and Abiram led a rebellion against Moses, Moses separated the faithful from the unfaithful, and thereupon "the ground clave asunder that was under them: and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up, and their houses, and all the men that appertained unto Korah, and all their goods. . . . And there came out a fire from the Lord, and consumed the two hundred and fifty men that offered incense. . . . But on the morrow all the congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron, saying, Ye have killed the people of the Lord." (Numb. xvi., 31-41.)

This looks very much as if Moses had blown up the rebels with gunpowder.

Roger Bacon, who himself rediscovered gunpowder, was of opinion that the event described in Judges vii., where Gideon captured the camp of the Midianites with the roar of trumpets, the crash caused by the breaking of innumerable pitchers, and the flash of a multitude of lanterns, had reference to the use of gunpowder; that the noise made by the breaking of the pitchers represented the detonation of an explosion, the flame of the lights the blaze, and the noise of the trumpets the thunder of the gunpowder. We can understand, in this wise, the results that followed; but we cannot otherwise understand how the breaking of pitchers, the flashing of lamps, and the clangor of trumpets would throw an army into panic, until "every man's sword was set against his fellow, and the host fled to Beth-shittah;" and this, too, without any attack upon the part of the Israelites, for "they stood every man in his place around the camp; and all the host ran and cried and fled."

If it was a miraculous interposition in behalf of the Jews, the Lord could have scared the Midianites out of their wits without the smashed pitchers and lanterns; and certain it is

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the pitchers, and lanterns would not have done the work with out a miraculous interposition.

Having traced the knowledge of gunpowder back to the most remote times, and to the different races which were descended from Atlantis, we are not surprised to find in the legends of Greek mythology events described which are only explicable by supposing that the Atlanteans possessed the secret of this powerful explosive.

A rebellion sprang up in Atlantis (see Murray's "Manual of Mythology," p. .30) against Zeus; it is known in mythology as the "War of the Titans:"

"The struggle lasted many years, all the might which the Olympians could bring to bear being useless, until, on the advice of Gća, Zeus set free the Kyklopes and the Hekatoncheires" (that is, brought the ships into play), "of whom the former fashioned thunder-bolts for him, while the latter advanced on his side with force equal to the shock of an earthquake. The earth trembled down to lowest Tartarus as Zeus now appeared with his terrible weapon and new allies. Old Chaos thought his hour had come, as from a continuous blaze of thunder-bolts the earth took fire, and the waters seethed in the sea. The rebels were partly slain or consumed, and partly hurled into deep chasms, with rocks and hills reeling after them."

Do not these words picture the explosion of a mine with a "force equal to the shock of an earthquake?"

We have already shown that the Kyklopes and Hekatoncheires were probably great war-ships, armed with some explosive material in the nature of gunpowder.

Zeus, the king of Atlantis, was known as "the thunderer," and was represented armed with thunder-bolts.

Some ancient nation must, in the most remote ages, have invented gunpowder; and is it unreasonable to attribute it to that "great original race" rather than to any one people of their posterity, who seem to have borrowed all the other arts from them; and who, during many thousands of years, did

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not add a single new invention to the list they received from Atlantis?

Iron.--have seen that the Greek mythological legends asserted that before the submergence of the great race over whom their gods reigned there had been not only an Age of Bronze but an Age of Iron. This metal was known to the Egyptians in the earliest ages; fragments of iron have been found in the oldest pyramids. The Iron Age in Northern Europe far antedated intercourse with the Greeks or Romans. In the mounds of the Mississippi Valley, as I have shown, the remains of iron implements have been found. In the "Mercurio Peruano" (tom. i., p. 201, 1791) it is stated that "anciently the Peruvian sovereigns worked magnificent iron mines at Ancoriames, on the west shore of Lake Titicaca." "It is remarkable," says Molina, "that iron, which has been thought unknown to the ancient Americans, had particular names in some of their tongues." In official Peruvian it was called quillay, and in Chilian panilic. The Mound Builders fashioned implements out of meteoric iron. (Foster's "Prehistoric Races," p. 333.)

As we find this metal known to man in the earliest ages on both sides of the Atlantic, the presumption is very strong that it was borrowed by the nations, east and west, from Atlantis.

Paper.--The same argument holds good as to paper. The oldest Egyptian monuments contain pictures of the papyrus roll; while in Mexico, as I have shown, a beautiful paper was manufactured and formed into books shaped like our own. In Peru a paper was made of plantain leaves, and books were common in the earlier ages. Humboldt mentions books of hieroglyphical writings among the Panoes, which were "bundles of their paper resembling our volumes in quarto."

Silk Manufacture.--The manufacture of a woven fabric of great beauty out of the delicate fibre of the egg-cocoon of a worm could only have originated among a people who had attained the highest degree of civilization; it implies the

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art of weaving by delicate instruments, a dense population, a patient, skilful, artistic people, a sense of the beautiful, and a wealthy and luxurious class to purchase such costly fabrics.

We trace it back to the most remote ages. In the introduction to the "History of Hindostan," or rather of the Mohammedan Dynasties, by Mohammed Cassim, it is stated that in the year 3870 B.C. an Indian king sent various silk stuffs as a present to the King of Persia. The art of making silk was known in China more than two thousand six hundred years before the Christian era, at the time when we find them first possessed of civilization. The Phśnicians dealt in silks in the most remote past; they imported them from India and sold them along the shores of the Mediterranean. It is probable that the Egyptians understood and practised the art of manufacturing silk. It was woven in the island of Cos in the time of Aristotle. The "Babylonish garment" referred to in Joshua (chap. vii., 21), and for secreting which Achan lost his life, was probably a garment of silk; it was rated above silver and gold in value.

It is not a violent presumption to suppose that an art known to the Hindoos 3870 B.C., and to the Chinese and Phśnicians at the very beginning of their history--an art so curious, so extraordinary--may have dated back to Atlantean times.

Civil Government.--Mr. Baldwin shows ("Prehistoric Nations," p. 114) that the Cushites, the successors of the Atlanteans, whose very ancient empire extended from Spain to Syria, were the first to establish independent municipal republics, with the right of the people to govern themselves; and that this system was perpetuated in the great Phśnician communities; in "the fierce democracies" of ancient Greece; in the "village republics" of the African Berbers and the Hindoos; in the "free cities" of the Middle Ages in Europe; and in the independent governments of the Basques, which continued down to our own day. The Cushite state was an aggregation

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of municipalities, each possessing the right of self-government, but subject within prescribed limits to a general authority; in other words, it was precisely the form of government possessed to-day by the United States. It is a surprising thought that the perfection of modern government may be another perpetuation of Atlantean civilization.

Agriculture.--The Greek traditions of "the golden apples of the Hesperides" and "the golden fleece" point to Atlantis. The allusions to the golden apples indicate that tradition regarded the "Islands of the Blessed" in the Atlantic Ocean as a place of orchards. And when we turn to Egypt we find that in the remotest times many of our modern garden and field plants were there cultivated. When the Israelites murmured in the wilderness against Moses, they cried out (Numb., chap. xi., 4, 5), "Who shall give us flesh to eat? We remember the fish which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the Melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic." The Egyptians also cultivated wheat, barley, oats, flax, hemp, etc. In fact, if we were to take away from civilized man the domestic animals, the cereals, and the field and garden vegetables possessed by the Egyptians at the very dawn of history, there would be very little left for the granaries or the tables of the world.

Astronomy.--The knowledge of the ancients as to astronomy was great and accurate. Callisthenes, who accompanied Alexander the Great to Babylon, sent to Aristotle a series of Chaldean astronomical observations which he found preserved there, recorded on tablets of baked clay, and extending back as far as 2234 B.C. Humboldt says, "The Chaldeans knew the mean motions of the moon with an exactness which induced the Greek astronomers to use their calculations for the foundation of a lunar theory." The Chaldeans knew the true nature of comets, and could foretell their reappearance. "A lens of considerable power was found in the ruins of Babylon; it was an inch and a half in diameter and nine-tenths of an inch

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thick." (Layard's "Nineveh and Babylon," pp. 16,17.) Nero used optical glasses when be watched the fights of the gladiators; they are supposed to have come from Egypt and the East. Plutarch speaks of optical instruments used by Archimedes "to manifest to the eye the largeness of the sun." "There are actual astronomical calculations in existence, with calendars formed upon them, which eminent astronomers of England and France admit to be genuine and true, and which carry back the antiquity of the science of astronomy, together with the constellations, to within a few years of the Deluge, even on the longer chronology of the Septuagint." ("The Miracle in Stone," p. 142.) Josephus attributes the invention of the constellations to the family of the antediluvian Seth, the son of Adam, while Origen affirms that it was asserted in the Book of Enoch that in the time of that patriarch the constellations were already divided and named. The Greeks associated the origin of astronomy with Atlas and Hercules, Atlantean kings or heroes. The Egyptians regarded Taut (At?) or Thoth, or At-hotes, as the originator of both astronomy and the alphabet; doubtless he represented a civilized people, by whom their country was originally colonized. Bailly and others assert that astronomy "must have been established when the summer solstice was in the first degree of Virgo, and that the solar and lunar zodiacs were of similar antiquity, which would be about four thousand years before, the Christian era. They suppose the originators to have lived in about the fortieth degree of north latitude, and to have been a highly-civilized people." It will be remembered that the fortieth degree of north latitude passed through Atlantis. Plato knew (" Dialogues, Phćdo," 108) that the earth "is a body in the centre of the heavens" held in equipoise. He speaks of it as a "round body," a "globe;" he even understood that it revolved on its axis, and that these revolutions produced day and night. He says--"Dialogues, Timćus"--"The earth circling around the pole (which is extended through the universe) be made to be

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the artificer of night and day." All this Greek learning was probably drawn from the Egyptians.

Only among the Atlanteans in Europe and America do we find traditions preserved as to the origin of all the principal inventions which have raised man from a savage to a civilized condition. We can give in part the very names of the inventors.

Starting with the Chippeway legends, and following with the Bible and Phśnician records, we make a table like the appended:

The Invention or Discovery.

The Race.

The Inventors.



Phos, Phur, and Phlox.
The bow and arrow


The use of flint


The use of copper


The manufacture of bricks


Autochthon and Technites.
Agriculture and hunting


Argos and Agrotes.
Village life, and the rearing of flocks


Amynos and Magos.
The use of salt


Misor and Sydyk.
The use of letters


Taautos, or Taut.


The Cabiri, or Corybantes.
The art of music


Metallurgy, and the use of iron


The syrinx


The lyre



We cannot consider all these evidences of the vast antiquity of the great inventions upon which our civilization mainly rests, including the art of writing, which, as I have shown, dates back far beyond the beginning of history; we cannot remember that the origin of all the great food-plants, such as wheat, oats, barley, rye, and maize, is lost in the remote past; and that all the domesticated animals, the horse, the ass, the ox, the sheep, the goat, and the hog had been reduced to subjection to man in ages long previous to written history, without having the conclusion forced upon us irresistibly that beyond Egypt and Greece, beyond Chaldea and China, there existed a mighty civilization, of which these states were but the broken fragments.



WE come now to another question: "Did the Aryan or Japhetic race come from Atlantis?"

If the Aryans are the Japhetic race, and if Japheth was one of the sons of the patriarch who escaped from the Deluge, then assuredly, if the tradition of Genesis be true, the Aryans came from the drowned land, to wit, Atlantis. According to Genesis, the descendants of the Japheth who escaped out of the Flood with Noah are the Ionians, the inhabitants of the Morea, the dwellers on the Cilician coast of Asia Minor, the Cyprians, the Dodoneans of Macedonia, the Iberians, and the Thracians. These are all now recognized as Aryans, except the Iberians.

"From non-Biblical sources," says Winchell, "we obtain further information respecting the early dispersion of the Japhethites or Indo-Europeans--called also Aryans. All determinations confirm the Biblical account of their primitive residence in the same country with the Hamites and Semites. Rawlinson informs us that even Aryan roots are mingled with Presemitic in some of the old inscriptions of Assyria. The precise region where these three families dwelt in a common home has not been pointed out." ("Preadamites," p. 43.)

I have shown in the chapter in relation to Peru that all the languages of the Hamites, Semites, and Japhethites are varieties of one aboriginal speech.

The centre of the Aryan migrations (according to popular opinion) within the Historical Period was Armenia. Here too

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is Mount Ararat, where it is said the ark rested--another identification with the Flood regions, as it represents the usual transfer of the Atlantis legend by an Atlantean people to a high mountain in their new home.

Now turn to a map: Suppose the ships of Atlantis to have reached the shores of Syria, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, where dwelt a people who, as we have seen, used the Central American Maya alphabet; the Atlantis ships are then but two hundred miles distant from Armenia. But these ships need not stop at Syria, they can go by the Dardanelles and the Black Sea, by uninterrupted water communication, to the shores of Armenia itself. If we admit, then, that it was from Armenia the Aryans stocked Europe and India, there is no reason why the original population of Armenia should not have been themselves colonists from Atlantis.

But we have seen that in the earliest ages, before the first Armenian migration of the historical Aryans, a people went from Iberian Spain and settled in Ireland, and the language of this people, it is now admitted, is Aryan. And these Iberians were originally, according to tradition, from the West.

The Mediterranean Aryans are known to have been in Southeastern Europe, along the shores of the Mediterranean, 2000 B.C. They at that early date possessed the plough; also wheat, rye, barley, gold, silver, and bronze. Aryan faces are found depicted upon the monuments of Egypt, painted four thousand years before the time of Christ. "The conflicts between the Kelts (an Aryan race) and the Iberians were far anterior in date to the settlements of the Phśnicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, and Noachites on the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea." ("American Cyclopćdia," art. Basques.) There is reason to believe that these Kelts were originally part of the population and Empire of Atlantis. We are told (Rees's "British Encyclopćdia," art. Titans) that "Mercury, one of the Atlantean gods, was placed as ruler over the Celtć, and became their great divinity." F. Pezron, in his "Antiquity of the Celtć," makes

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out that the Celtć were the same as the Titans, the giant race who rebelled in Atlantis, and "that their princes were the same with the giants of Scripture." He adds that the word Titan "is perfect Celtic, and comes from tit, the earth, and ten or den, man, and hence the Greeks very properly also called them terriginć, or earth-born." And it will be remembered that Plato uses the same phrase when he speaks of the race into which Poseidon intermarried as "the earth-born primeval men of that country."

The Greeks, who are Aryans, traced their descent from the people who were destroyed by the Flood, as did other races clearly Aryan.

"The nations who are comprehended under the common appellation of Indo-European," says Max Müller--"the Hindoos, the Persians, the Celts, Germans, Romans, Greeks, and Slavs--do not only share the same words and the same grammar, slightly modified in each country, but they seem to have likewise preserved a mass of popular traditions which had grown up before they left their common home."

"Bonfey, L. Geiger, and other students of the ancient Indo-European languages, have recently advanced the opinion that the original home of the Indo-European races must be sought in Europe, because their stock of words is rich in the names of plants and animals, and contains names of seasons that are not found in tropical countries or anywhere in Asia." ("American Cyclopćdia," art. Ethnology.)

By the study of comparative philology, or the seeking out of the words common to the various branches of the Aryan race before they separated, we are able to reconstruct an outline of the civilization of that ancient people. Max Müller has given this subject great study, and availing ourselves of his researches we can determine the following facts as to the progenitors of the Aryan stock: They were a civilized race; they possessed the institution of marriage; they recognized the relationship of father, mother, son, daughter, grandson,

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brother, sister, mother-in-law, father-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, brother-in-law, and sister-in-law, and had separate words for each of these relationships, which we are only able to express by adding the words "in-law." They recognized also the condition of widows, or "the husbandless." They lived in an organized society, governed by a king. They possessed houses with doors and solid walls. They had wagons and carriages. They possessed family names. They dwelt in towns and cities, on highways. They were not hunters or nomads. They were a peaceful people; the warlike words in the different Aryan languages cannot be traced back to this original race. They lived in a country having few wild beasts; the only wild animals whose names can be assigned to this parent stock being the bear, the wolf, and the serpent. The name of the elephant, "the beast with a hand," occurs only twice in the "Rig-Veda;" a singular omission if the Aryans were from time immemorial an Asiatic race; and "when it does occur, it is in such a way as to show that he was still an object of wonder and terror to them." (Whitney's "Oriental and Linguistic Studies," p. 26.) They possessed nearly all the domestic animals we now have--the ox and the cow, the horse, the dog, the sheep, the goat, the hog, the donkey, and the goose. They divided the year into twelve months. They were farmers; they used the plough; their name as a race (Aryan) was derived from it; they were, par excellence, ploughmen; they raised various kinds of grain, including flax, barley, hemp, and wheat; they had mills and millers, and ground their corn. The presence of millers shows that they had proceeded beyond the primitive condition where each family ground its corn in its own mill. They used fire, and cooked and baked their food; they wove cloth and wore clothing; they spun wool; they possessed the different metals, even iron: they had gold. The word for "water" also meant "salt made from water," from which it might be inferred that the water with which they were familiar was saltwater. It is evident they manufactured salt by evaporating salt-water.

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[paragraph continues] They possessed boats and ships. They had progressed so far as to perfect "a decimal system of enumeration, in itself," says Max Müller, "one of the most marvellous achievements of the human mind, based on an abstract conception of


quantity, regulated by a philosophical classification, and yet conceived, nurtured, and finished before the soil of Europe was trodden by Greek, Roman, Slav, or Teuton."

And herein we find another evidence of relationship between the Aryans and the people of Atlantis. Although Plato does not tell us that the Atlanteans possessed the decimal system of numeration, nevertheless there are many things in his narrative which point to that conclusion "There were ten kings ruling over ten provinces; the whole country was divided into military districts or squares ten stadia each way; the total force of chariots was ten thousand; the great ditch or canal was one hundred feet deep and ten thousand stadia long; there were one hundred Nereids," etc. In the Peruvian colony the decimal system clearly obtained: "The army had heads of ten, fifty, a hundred, five hundred, a thousand, ten thousand. . . . The community at large was registered in groups, under the control of officers over tens, fifties, hundreds, and so on." (Herbert Spencer, "Development of Political Institutions," chap. x.) The same division into tens and hundreds obtained among the Anglo-Saxons.

Where, we ask, could this ancient nation, which existed before

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Greek was Greek, Celt was Celt, Hindoo was Hindoo, or Goth was Goth, have been located! The common opinion says, in Armenia or Bactria, in Asia. But where in Asia could they have found a country so peaceful as to know no terms for war or bloodshed;--a country so civilized as to possess no wild beasts save the bear, wolf, and serpent? No people could have been developed in Asia without bearing in its language traces of century-long battles for life with the rude and barbarous races around them; no nation could have fought for ages for existence against "man-eating" tigers, lions, elephants, and hyenas, without bearing the memory of these things in their tongue. A tiger, identical with that of Bengal, still exists around Lake Aral, in Asia; from time to time it is seen in Siberia. "The last tiger killed in 1828 was on the Lena, in latitude fifty-two degrees thirty minutes, in a climate colder than that of St. Petersburg and Stockholm."

The fathers of the Aryan race must have dwelt for many thousand years so completely protected from barbarians and wild beasts that they at last lost all memory of them, and all words descriptive of them; and where could this have been possible save in some great, long-civilized land, surrounded by the sea, and isolated from the attack of the savage tribes that occupied the rest of the world? And if such a great civilized nation had dwelt for centuries in Asia, Europe, or Africa, why have not their monuments long ago been discovered and identified? Where is the race who are their natural successors, and who must have continued to live after them in that sheltered and happy land, where they knew no human and scarcely any animal enemies? Why would any people have altogether left such a home? Why, when their civilization had spread to the ends of the earth, did it cease to exist in the peaceful region where it originated?

Savage nations cannot usually count beyond five. This people had names for the numerals up to one hundred, and the power, doubtless, of combining these to still higher powers, as

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three hundred, five hundred, ten hundred, etc. Says a high authority, "If any more proof were wanted as to the reality of that period which must have preceded the dispersion of the Aryan race, we might appeal to the Aryan numerals as irrefragable evidence of that long-continued intellectual life which characterizes that period." Such a degree of progress implies necessarily an alphabet, writing, commerce, and trade, even as the existence of words for boats and ships has already implied navigation.

In what have we added to the civilization of this ancient people? Their domestic animals were the same as our own, except one fowl adopted from America. In the past ten thousand years we have added one bird to their list of domesticated animals! They raised wheat and wool, and spun and wove as we do, except that we have added some mechanical contrivances to produce the same results. Their metals are ours. Even iron, the triumph, as we had supposed, of more modern times, they had already discovered. And it must not be forgotten that Greek mythology tells us that the god-like race who dwelt on Olympus, that great island "in the midst of the Atlantic," in the remote west, wrought in iron; and we find the remains of an iron sword and meteoric iron weapons in the mounds of the Mississippi Valley, while the name of the metal is found in the ancient languages of Peru and Chili, and the Incas worked in iron on the shores of Lake Titicaca.

A still further evidence of the civilization of this ancient race is found in the fact that, before the dispersion from their original home, the Aryans had reached such a degree of development that they possessed a regularly organized religion: they worshipped God, they believed in an evil spirit, they believed in a heaven for the just. All this presupposes temples, priests, sacrifices, and an orderly state of society.

We have seen that Greek mythology is really a history of the kings and queens of Atlantis.

When we turn to that other branch of the great Aryan

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family, the Hindoos, we find that their gods are also the kings of Atlantis. The Hindoo god Varuna is conceded to be the Greek god Uranos, who was the founder of the royal family of Atlantis.

In the Veda we find a hymn to "King Varuna," in which occurs this passage:

"This earth, too, belongs to Varuna, the king, and this wide sky, with its ends far apart. The two seas are Varuna's loins; he is contained also in this drop of water."

Again in the Veda we find another hymn to King Varuna:

"He who knows the place of the birds that fly through the sky; who on the waters knows the ships. He, the upholder of order, who knows the twelve months with the offspring of each, and knows the month that is engendered afterward."

This verse would seem to furnish additional proof that the Vedas were written by a maritime people; and in the allusion to the twelve months we are reminded of the Peruvians, who also divided the year into twelve parts of thirty days each, and afterward added six days to complete the year. The Egyptians and Mexicans also had intercalary days for the same purpose.

But, above all, it must be remembered that the Greeks, an Aryan race, in their mythological traditions, show the closest relationship to Atlantis. At-tika and At-hens are reminiscences of Ad, and we are told that Poseidon, god and founder of Atlantis, founded Athens. We find in the "Eleusinian mysteries" an Atlantean institution; their influence during the whole period of Greek history down to the coming of Christianity was extraordinary; and even then this masonry of Pre-Christian days, in which kings and emperors begged to be initiated, was, it is claimed, continued to our own times in our own Freemasons, who trace their descent back to "a Dionysiac fraternity which originated in Attika." And just as we have seen the Saturnalian festivities of Italy descending from Atlantean

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harvest-feasts, so these Eleusinian mysteries can be traced back to Plato's island. Poseidon was at the base of them; the first hierophant, Eumolpus, was "a son of Poseidon," and all the ceremonies were associated with seed-time and harvest, and with Demeter or Ceres, an Atlantean goddess, daughter of Chronos, who first taught the Greeks to use the plough and to plant barley. And, as the "Carnival" is a survival of the "Saturnalia," so Masonry is a survival of the Eleusinian mysteries. The roots of the institutions of to-day reach back to the Miocene Age.

We have seen that Zeus, the king of Atlantis, whose tomb was shown at Crete, was transformed into the Greek god Zeus; and in like manner we find him reappearing among the Hindoos as Dyaus. He is called "Dyaus-pitar," or God the Father, as among the Greeks we have Zeus-pater," which became among the Romans "Jupiter."

The strongest connection, however, with the Atlantean system is shown in the case of the Hindoo god Deva-Nahusha.

We have seen in the chapter on Greek mythology that Dionysos was a son of Zeus and grandson of Poseidon, being thus identified with Atlantis. "When he arrived at manhood," said the Greeks, "he set out on a journey through all known countries, even into the remotest parts of India, instructing the people, as be proceeded, how to tend the vine, and how to practise many other arts of peace, besides teaching them the value of just and honorable dealings. He was praised everywhere as the greatest benefactor of mankind." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 119.)

In other words, be represented the great Atlantean civilization, reaching into "the remotest parts of India," and "to all parts of the known world," from America to Asia. In consequence of the connection of this king with the vine, he was converted in later times into the dissolute god Bacchus. But everywhere the traditions concerning him refer us back to Atlantis. "All the legends of Egypt, India, Asia Minor, and

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the older Greeks describe him as a king very great during his life, and deified after death. . . . Amon, king of Arabia or Ethiopia, married Rhea, sister of Chronos, who reigned over Italy, Sicily, and certain countries of Northern Africa." Dionysos, according to the Egyptians, was the son of Amon by the beautiful Amalthea. Chronos and Amon had a prolonged war; Dionysos defeated Chronos and captured his capital, dethroned him, and put his son Zeus in his place; Zeus reigned nobly, and won a great fame. Dionysos succeeded his father Amon, and "became the greatest of sovereigns. He extended his sway in all the neighboring countries, and completed the conquest of India. . . . He gave much attention to the Cushite colonies in Egypt, greatly increasing their strength, intelligence, and prosperity." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Nations," p. 283.)

When we turn to the Hindoo we still find this Atlantean king.

In the Sanscrit books we find reference to a god called Deva-Nahusha, who has been identified by scholars with Dionysos. He is connected "with the oldest history and mythology in the world." He is said to have been a contemporary with Indra, king of Meru, who was also deified, and who appears in the Veda as a principal form of representation of the Supreme Being.

"The warmest colors of imagination are used in portraying the greatness of Deva-Nahusha. For a time he had sovereign control of affairs in Meru; he conquered the seven dwipas, and led his armies through all the known countries of the world; by means of matchless wisdom and miraculous heroism he made his empire universal." (Ibid., p. 287.)

Here we see that the great god Indra, chief god of the Hindoos, was formerly king of Meru, and that Deva-Nahusha (De(va)nushas--De-onyshas) had also been king of Meru; and we must remember that Theopompus tell us that the island of Atlantis was inhabited by the "Meropes;" and Lenormant

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has reached the conclusion that the first people of the ancient world were "the men of Mero."

We can well believe, when we see traces of the same civilization extending from Peru and Lake Superior to Armenia and the frontiers of China, that this Atlantean kingdom was indeed "universal," and extended through all the "known countries of the world."

"We can see in the legends that Pururavas, Nahusha, and others had no connection with Sanscrit history. They are referred to ages very long anterior to the Sanscrit immigration, and must have been great personages celebrated in the traditions of the natives or Dasyus. . . . Pururavas was a king of great renown, who ruled over thirteen islands of the ocean, altogether surrounded by inhuman (or superhuman) personages; he engaged in a contest with Brahmans, and perished. Nahusha, mentioned by Maull, and in many legends, as famous for hostility to the Brahmans, lived at the time when Indra ruled on earth. He was a very great king, who ruled with justice a mighty empire, and attained the sovereignty of three worlds." (Europe, Africa, and America?) "Being intoxicated with pride, he was arrogant to Brahmans, compelled them to bear his palanquin, and even dared to touch one of them with his foot" (kicked him?), "whereupon be was transformed into a serpent." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Nations," p. 291.)

The Egyptians placed Dionysos (Osiris) at the close of the period of their history which was assigned to the gods, that is, toward the close of the great empire of Atlantis.

When we remember that the hymns of the "Rig-Veda" are admitted to date back to a vast antiquity, and are written in a language that had ceased to be a living tongue thousands of years ago, we can almost fancy those hymns preserve some part of the songs of praise uttered of old upon the island of Atlantis. Many of them seem to belong to sun-worship, and might have been sung with propriety upon the high places of Peru:

"In the beginning there arose the golden child. He was the one born Lord of all that is. He established the earth and the sky. Who is the god to whom we shall offer sacrifice?

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"He who gives life; He who gives strength; whose command all the bright gods" (the stars?) "revere; whose light is immortality; whose shadow is death. . . . He who through his power is the one God of the breathing and awakening world. He who governs all, man and beast. He whose greatness these snowy mountains, whose greatness the sea proclaims, with the distant river. He through whom the sky is bright and the earth firm. . . . He who measured out the light in the air... Wherever the mighty water-clouds went, where they placed the seed and lit the fire, thence arose He who is the sole life of the bright gods. . . . He to whom heaven and earth, standing firm by His will, look up, trembling inwardly. . . . May he not destroy us; He, the creator of the earth; He, the righteous, who created heaven. He also created the bright and mighty waters."

This is plainly a hymn to the sun, or to a god whose most glorious representative was the sun. It is the hymn of a people near the sea; it was not written by a people living in the heart of Asia. It was the hymn of a people living in a volcanic country, who call upon their god to keep the earth "firm" and not to destroy them. It was sung at daybreak, as the sun rolled up the sky over an "awakening world."

The fire (Agni) upon the altar was regarded as a messenger rising from the earth to the sun:

"Youngest of the gods, their messenger, their invoker. . . . For thou, O sage, goest wisely between these two creations (heaven and earth, God and man) like a friendly messenger between two hamlets."

The dawn of the day (Ushas), part of the sun-worship, became also a god:

"She shines upon us like a young wife, rousing every living being to go to his work. When the fire had to be kindled by man, she made the light by striking down the darkness."

As the Egyptians and the Greeks looked to a happy abode (an under-world) in the west, beyond the waters, so the Aryan's paradise was the other side of some body of water. In the

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Veda (vii. 56, 24) we find a prayer to the Maruts, the storm-gods: "O, Maruts, may there be to us a strong son, who is a living ruler of men; through whom we may cross the waters on our way to the happy abode." This happy abode is described as "where King Vaivasvata reigns; where the secret place of heaven is; where the mighty waters are . . . where there is food and rejoicing . . . where there is happiness and delight; where joy and pleasure reside." (Rig-Veda ix. 113, 7.) This is the paradise beyond the seas; the Elysion; the Elysian Fields of the Greek and the Egyptian, located upon an island in the Atlantic which was destroyed by water. One great chain of tradition binds together these widely separated races.

"The religion of the Veda knows no idols," says Max Müller; "the worship of idols in India is a secondary formation, a degradation of the more primitive worship of ideal gods."

It was pure sun-worship, such as prevailed in Peru on the arrival of the Spaniards. It accords with Plato's description of the religion of Atlantis.

"The Dolphin's Ridge," at the bottom of the Atlantic, or the high land revealed by the soundings taken by the ship Challenger, is, as will be seen, of a three-pronged form--one prong pointing toward the west coast of Ireland, another connecting with the north-east coast of South America, and a third near or on the west coast of Africa. It does not follow that the island of Atlantis, at any time while inhabited by civilized people, actually reached these coasts; there is a strong probability that races of men may have found their way there from the three continents of Europe, America, and Africa; or the great continent which once filled the whole bed of the present Atlantic Ocean, and from whose débris geology tells us the Old and New Worlds were constructed, may have been the scene of the development, during immense periods of time, of diverse races of men, occupying different zones of climate.

There are many indications that there were three races of men

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dwelling on Atlantis. Noah, according to Genesis, had three sons--Shem, Ham, and Japheth--who represented three different races of men of different colors. The Greek legends tell us of the rebellions inaugurated at different times in Olympus. One of these was a rebellion of the Giants, "a race of beings sprung from the blood of Uranos," the great original progenitor of the stock. "Their king or leader was Porphyrion, their most powerful champion Alkyoneus." Their mother was the earth: this probably meant that they represented the common people of a darker line. They made a desperate struggle for supremacy, but were conquered by Zeus. There were also two rebellions of the Titans. The Titans seem to have had a government of their own, and the names of twelve of their kings are given in the Greek mythology (see Murray, p. 27). They also were of "the blood of Uranos," the Adam of the people. We read, in fact, that Uranos married Gća (the earth), and had three families: 1, the Titans; 2, the Hekatoncheires; and 3, the Kyklopes. We should conclude that the last two were maritime peoples, and I have shown that their mythical characteristics were probably derived from the appearance of their ships. Here we have, I think, a reference to the three races: 1, the red or sunburnt men, like the Egyptians, the Phśnicians, the Basques, and the Berber and Cushite stocks; 2, the sons of Shem, possibly the yellow or Turanian race; and 3, the whiter men, the Aryans, the Greeks, Kelts, Goths, Slavs, etc. If this view is correct, then we may suppose that colonies of the pale-faced stock may have been sent out from Atlantis to the northern coasts of Europe at different and perhaps widely separated periods of time, from some of which the Aryan families of Europe proceeded; hence the legend, which is found among them, that they were once forced to dwell in a country where the summers were only two months long.

From the earliest times two grand divisions are recognized in the Aryan family: "to the east those who specially called themselves Arians, whose descendants inhabited Persia, India,

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etc.; to the west, the Yavana, or the Young Ones, who first emigrated westward, and from whom have descended the various nations that have populated Europe. This is the name (Javan) found in the tenth chapter of Genesis." (Lenormant and Chevallier, "Ancient History of the East," vol. ii., p. 2.) But surely those who "first emigrated westward," the earliest to leave the parent stock, could not be the "Young Ones;" they would be rather the elder brothers. But if we can suppose the Bactrian population to have left Atlantis at an early date, and the Greeks, Latins, and Celts to have left it at a later period, then they would indeed be the "Young Ones" of the family, following on the heels of the earlier migrations, and herein we would find the explanation of the resemblance between the Latin and Celtic tongues. Lenormant says the name of Erin (Ireland) is derived from Aryan; and yet we have seen this island populated and named Erin by races distinctly. connected with Spain, Iberia, Africa, and Atlantis.

There is another reason for supposing that the Aryan nations came from Atlantis.

We find all Europe, except a small corner of Spain and a strip along the Arctic Circle, occupied by nations recognized as Aryan; but when we turn to Asia, there is but a corner of it, and that corner in the part nearest Europe, occupied by the Aryans. All the rest of that great continent has been filled from immemorial ages by non-Aryan races. There are seven branches of the Aryan family: 1. Germanic or Teutonic; 2. Slavo-Lithuanic; 3. Celtic; 4. Italic; 5. Greek; 6. Iranian or Persian; 7. Sanscritic or Indian; and of these seven branches five dwell on the soil of Europe, and the other two are intrusive races in Asia from the direction of Europe. The Aryans in Europe have dwelt there apparently since the close of the Stone Age, if not before it, while the movements of the Aryans in Asia are within the Historical Period, and they appear as intrusive stocks, forming a high caste amid a vast population of a different race. The Vedas are supposed to date back to

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[paragraph continues] 2000 B.C., while there is every reason to believe that the Celt inhabited Western Europe 5000 B.C. If the Aryan race had originated in the heart of Asia, why would not its ramifications have extended into Siberia, China, and Japan, and all over Asia? And if the Aryans moved at a comparatively recent date into Europe from Bactria, where are the populations that then inhabited Europe--the men of the ages of stone and bronze? We should expect to find the western coasts of Europe filled with them, just as the eastern coasts of Asia and India are filled with Turanian populations. On the contrary, we know that the Aryans descended upon India from the Punjab, which lies to the north-west of that region; and that their traditions represent that they came there from the west, to wit, from the direction of Europe and Atlantis.



THE farther we go back in time toward the era of Atlantis, the more the evidences multiply that we are approaching the presence of a great, wise, civilized race. For instance, we find the Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Israelites, from the earliest ages, refusing to eat the flesh of swine. The Western nations departed from this rule, and in these modern days we are beginning to realize the dangers of this article of food, on account of the trichina contained in it; and when we turn to the Talmud, we are told that it was forbidden to the Jews, "because of a small insect which infests it."

The Egyptians, the Ethiopians, the Phśnicians, the Hebrews, and others of the ancient races, practised circumcision. It was probably resorted to in Atlantean days, and imposed as a religious duty, to arrest one of the most dreadful scourges of the human race-a scourge which continued to decimate the people of America, arrested their growth, and paralyzed their civilization. Circumcision stamped out the disease in Atlantis; we read of one Atlantean king, the Greek god Ouranos, who, in a time of plague, compelled his whole army and the armies of his allies to undergo the rite. The colonies that went out to Europe carried the practice but not the disease out of which it originated with them; and it was not until Columbus reopened communication with the infected people of the West India Islands that the scourge crossed the Atlantic and "turned Europe," as one has expressed it, "into a charnal-house."

Life-insurance statistics show, nowadays, that the average

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life and health of the Hebrew is much greater than that of other men; and he owes this to the retention of practices and beliefs imposed ten thousand years ago by the great, wise race of Atlantis.

Let us now, with all the facts before us, gleaned from various sources, reconstruct, as near as may be, the condition of the antediluvians.

They dwelt upon a great island, near which were other smaller islands, probably east and west of them, forming stepping-stones, as it were, toward Europe and Africa in one direction, and the West India Islands and America in the other. There were volcanic mountains upon the main island, rising to a height of fifteen hundred feet, with their tops covered with perpetual snow. Below these were elevated table-lands, upon which were the royal establishments. Below these, again, was "the great plain of Atlantis." There were four rivers flowing north, south, east, and west from a central point. The climate was like that of the Azores, mild and pleasant; the soil volcanic and fertile, and suitable at its different elevations for the growth of the productions of the tropical and temperate zones.

The people represented at least two different races: a dark brown reddish race, akin to the Central Americans, the Berbers and the Egyptians; and a white race, like the Greeks, Goths, Celts, and Scandinavians. Various battles and struggles followed between the different peoples for supremacy. The darker race seems to have been, physically, a smaller race, with small hands; the lighter-colored race was much larger--hence the legends of the Titans and Giants. The Guanches of the Canary Islands were men of very great stature. As the works of the Bronze Age represent a small-handed race, and as the races who possessed the ships and gunpowder joined in the war against the Giants, we might conclude that the dark races were the more civilized, that they were the metal-workers and navigators.

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The fact that the same opinions and customs exist on both sides of the ocean implies identity of origin; it might be argued that the fact that the explanation of many customs existing on both hemispheres is to be found only in America, implies that the primeval stock existed in America, the emigrating portion of the population carrying away the custom, but forgetting the reason for it. The fact that domestic cattle and the great cereals, wheat, oats, barley, and rye, are found in Europe and not in America, would imply that after population moved to Atlantis from America civilization was developed in Atlantis, and that in the later ages communication was closer and more constant between Atlantis and Europe than between Atlantis and America. In the case of the bulky domestic animals, it would be more difficult to transport them, in the open vessels of that day, from Atlantis across the wider expanse of sea to America, than it would be to carry them by way of the now submerged islands in front of the Mediterranean Sea to the coast of Spain. It may be, too, that the climate of Spain and Italy was better adapted to the growth of wheat, barley, oats and rye, than maize; while the drier atmosphere of America was better suited to the latter plant Even now comparatively little wheat or barley is raised in Central America, Mexico, or Peru, and none on the low coasts of those countries; while a smaller quantity of maize, proportionately, is grown in Italy, Spain, and the rest of Western Europe, the rainy climate being unsuited to it. We have seen (p. 60, ante) that there is reason to believe that maize was known in a remote period in the drier regions of the Egyptians and Chinese.

As science has been able to reconstruct the history of the migrations of the Aryan race, by the words that exist or fail to appear in the kindred branches of that tongue, so the time will come when a careful comparison of words, customs, opinions, arts existing on the opposite sides of the Atlantic will furnish an approximate sketch of Atlantean history.

The people had attained a high position as agriculturists.

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[paragraph continues] The presence of the plough in Egypt and Peru implies that they possessed that implement. And as the horns and ox-head of Baal show the esteem in which cattle were held among them, we may suppose that they had passed the stage in which the plough was drawn by men, as in Peru and Egypt in ancient times, and in Sweden during the Historical Period, and that it was drawn by oxen or horses. They first domesticated the horse, hence the association of Poseidon or Neptune, a sea-god, with horses; hence the race-courses for horses described by Plato. They possessed sheep, and manufactured woollen goods; they also had goats, dogs, and swine. They raised cotton and made cotton goods; they probably cultivated maize, wheat, oats, barley, rye, tobacco, hemp, and flax, and possibly potatoes; they built aqueducts and practised irrigation; they were architects, sculptors, and engravers; they possessed an alphabet; they worked in tin, copper, bronze, silver, gold, and iron.

During the vast period of their duration, as peace and agriculture caused their population to increase to overflowing, they spread out in colonies east and west to the ends of the earth. This was not the work of a few years, but of many centuries; and the relations between these colonies may have been something like the relation between the different colonies that in a later age were established by the Phśnicians, the Greeks, and the Romans; there was an intermingling with the more ancient races, the autochthones of the different lands where they settled; and the same crossing of stocks, which we know to have been continued all through the Historical Period, must have been going on for thousands of years, whereby new races and new dialects were formed; and the result of all this has been that the smaller races of antiquity have grown larger, while all the complexions shade into each other, so that we can pass from the whitest to the darkest by insensible degrees.

In some respects the Atlanteans exhibited conditions similar to those of the British Islands: there were the same, and even greater, race differences in the population; the same plantation

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of colonies in Europe, Asia, and America; the same carrying of civilization to the ends of the earth. We have seen colonies from Great Britain going out in the third and fifth centuries to settle on the shores of France, in Brittany, representing one of the nationalities and languages of the mother-country--a race Atlantean in origin. In the same way we may suppose Hamitic emigrations to have gone out from Atlantis to Syria, Egypt, and the Barbary States. If we could imagine Highland Scotch, Welsh, Cornish, and Irish populations emigrating en masse from England in later times, and carrying to their new lands the civilization of England, with peculiar languages not English, we would have a state of things probably more like the migrations which took place from Atlantis. England, with a civilization Atlantean in origin, peopled by races from the same source, is repeating in these modern times the empire of Zeus and Chronos; and, just as we have seen Troy, Egypt, and Greece warring against the parent race, so in later days we have seen Brittany and the United States separating themselves from England, the race characteristics remaining after the governmental connection had ceased.

In religion the Atlanteans had reached all the great thoughts which underlie our modern creeds. They had attained to the conception of one universal, omnipotent, great First Cause. We find the worship of this One God in Peru and in early Egypt. They looked upon the sun as the mighty emblem, type, and instrumentality of this One God. Such a conception could only have come with civilization. It is not until these later days that science has realized the utter dependence of all earthly life upon the sun's rays:

"All applications of animal power may be regarded as derived directly or indirectly from the static chemical power of the vegetable substance by which the various organisms and their capabilities are sustained; and this power, in turn, from the kinetic action of the sun's rays.

"Winds and ocean currents, hailstorms and rain, sliding

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glaciers, flowing rivers, and falling cascades are the direct offspring of solar heat. All our machinery, therefore, whether driven by the windmill or the water-wheel, by horse-power or by steam--all the results of electrical and electro-magnetic changes--our telegraphs, our clocks, and our watches, all are wound up primarily by the sun.

"The sun is the great source of energy in almost all terrestrial phenomena. From the meteorological to the geographical, from the geological to the biological, in the expenditure and conversion of molecular movements, derived from the sun's rays, must be sought the motive power of all this infinitely varied phantasmagoria."

But the people of Atlantis had gone farther; they believed that the soul of man was immortal, and that he would live again in his material body; in other words, they believed in "the resurrection of the body and the life everlasting." They accordingly embalmed their dead.

The Duke of Argyll ("The Unity of Nature") says:

"We have found in the most ancient records of the Aryan language proof that the indications of religious thought are higher, simpler, and purer as we go back in time, until at last, in the very oldest compositions of human speech which have come down to us, we find the Divine Being spoken of in the sublime language which forms the opening of the Lord's Prayer. The date in absolute chronology of the oldest Vedic literature does not seem to be known. Professor Max Müller, however, considers that it may possibly take us back 5000 years. . . . All we can see with certainty is that the earliest inventions of mankind are the most wonderful that the race has ever made. . . . The first use of fire, and the discovery of the methods by which it can be kindled; the domestication of wild animals; and, above all, the processes by which the various cereals were first developed out of some wild grasses-these are all discoveries with which, in ingenuity and in importance, no subsequent discoveries may compare. They are all unknown to history--all lost in the light of an effulgent dawn."

The Atlanteans possessed an established order of priests; their religious worship was pure and simple. They lived under

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a kingly government; they had their courts, their judges, their records, their monuments covered with inscriptions, their mines, their founderies, their workshops, their looms, their grist-mills, their boats and sailing-vessels, their highways, aqueducts, wharves, docks, and canals. They had processions, banners, and triumphal arches for their kings and heroes; they built pyramids, temples, round-towers, and obelisks; they practised religious ablutions; they knew the use of the magnet and of gunpowder. In short, they were in the enjoyment of a civilization nearly as high as our own, lacking only the printing-press, and those inventions in which steam, electricity, and magnetism are used. We are told that Deva-Nahusha visited his colonies in Farther India. An empire which reached from the Andes to Hindostan, if not to China, must have been magnificent indeed. In 'its markets must have met the maize of the Mississippi Valley, the copper of Lake Superior, the gold and silver of Peru and Mexico, the spices of India, the tin of Wales and Cornwall, the bronze of Iberia, the amber of the Baltic, the wheat and barley of Greece, Italy, and Switzerland.

It is not surprising that when this mighty nation sank beneath the waves, in the midst of terrible convulsions, with all its millions of people, the event left an everlasting impression upon the imagination of mankind. Let us suppose that Great Britain should to-morrow meet with a similar fate. What a wild consternation would fall upon her colonies and upon the whole human family! The world might relapse into barbarism, deep and almost universal. William the Conqueror, Richard Cśur de Lion, Alfred the Great, Cromwell, and Victoria might survive only as the gods or demons of later races; but the memory of the cataclysm in which the centre of a universal empire instantaneously went down to death would never be forgotten; it would survive in fragments, more or less complete, in every land on earth; it would outlive the memory of a thousand lesser convulsions of nature; it would survive dynasties, nations, creeds, and languages; it would never

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be forgotten while man continued to inhabit the face of the globe.

Science has but commenced its work of reconstructing the past and rehabilitating the ancient peoples, and surely there is no study which appeals more strongly to the imagination than that of this drowned nation, the true antediluvians. They were the founders of nearly all our arts and sciences; they were the parents of our fundamental beliefs; they were the first civilizers, the first navigators, the first merchants, the first colonizers of the earth; their civilization was old when Egypt was young, and they had passed away thousands of years before Babylon, Rome, or London were dreamed of. This lost people were our ancestors, their blood flows in our veins; the words we use every day were heard, in their primitive form, in their cities, courts, and temples. Every line of race and thought, of blood and belief, leads back to them.

Nor is it impossible that the nations of the earth may yet employ their idle navies in bringing to the light of day some of the relies of this buried people. Portions of the island lie but a few hundred fathoms beneath the sea; and if expeditions have been sent out from time to time in the past, to resurrect from the depths of the ocean sunken treasure-ships with a few thousand doubloons bidden in their cabins, why should not an attempt be made to reach the buried wonders of Atlantis? A single engraved tablet dredged up from Plato's island would be worth more to science, would more strike the imagination of mankind, than all the gold of Peru, all the monuments of Egypt, and all the terra-cotta fragments gathered from the great libraries of Chaldea.

May not the so-called "Phśnician coins" found on Corvo, one of the Azores, be of Atlantean origin? Is it probable that that great race, pre-eminent as a founder of colonies, could have visited those islands within the Historical Period, and have left them unpeopled, as they were when discovered by the Portuguese?

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We are but beginning to understand the past: one hundred years ago the world knew nothing of Pompeii or Herculaneum; nothing of the lingual tie that binds together the Indo-European nations; nothing of the significance of the vast volume of inscriptions upon the tombs and temples of Egypt; nothing of the meaning of the arrow-headed inscriptions of Babylon; nothing of the marvellous civilizations revealed in the remains of Yucatan, Mexico, and Peru. We are on the threshold. Scientific investigation is advancing with giant strides. Who shall say that one hundred years from now the great museums of the world may not be adorned with gems, statues, arms, and implements from Atlantis, while the libraries of the world shall contain translations of its inscriptions, throwing new light upon all the past history of the human race, and all the great problems which now perplex the thinkers of our day?


This is a quote from a book called
Voices of our Ancestors
by Dhyani Ywahoo

(in the quote is the above and the below that you dreamed of teaching
and too Atlantis)

The twelve original tribes of the Tsalagi Nation each exemplified a
particular vortex of activity, a particular creative energy, all
moving cohesively together.


These star people came to Earth in Elohi Mona, five islands in the
Atlantic Ocean, later known as Atlantis.

Before the star people came there were great waters upon the land,
and male and female still existed in one body. There was emotional
nature but not yet the mind to actualize and complete the intention
of Earth being a place of learning, a place of dreaming what is
good. So the purpose of individuation of mind and the descent from
the stars was to quicken life upon the Earth. The star energy came
to spark the fire of mind, that all might return again to the
Mystery. The human being is much like the salmon; we all come forth
from the lake of clear mind; we swim out into the ocean of
experience, with its many lessons and opportunities and illusions -
and as the salmon finds again the stream that leads it back to its
spawning ground, so too must human beings find and follow the stream
that will bring them again to the clear vast light.

The star children, the Sacred Seven, primary energizers, were greeted
by the Children of the Sun, already living upon the Earth, in the
Americas. They had been attuned, through crystal and sound, to
receive the inpouring of pure mind carried by the star beings. The
Sun Children were the true Earth people, in that they first
experienced individuated mind while on Earth, as the dream children
of the star beings. The first to come forth from the Pleiades were
the Adawees, great angelic beings; in contemplating form, in
dreaming, they precipitated the Earth and its peopling in concordance
with the great principle of creation. It is taught in this way that
all human life originated in the Americas, whereas the Sacred Seven
originated as seeds of pure mind in another star system.

That the seed of pure mind might become firmly rooted upon the Earth,
it was decided by the Adawees, the Seven Before the Throne on High,
that those who came from the stars were to marry and bring forth
children with the Children of the Sun, and that at some time those of
Earth would come to full ascendancy. It was known that in this
process there would be periods of great travail and confusion until
there was clear recognition of mind, that sacred fire burning bright
within all people.

What we see today is that prophecy come true. Those who believe in
the primacy of matter seek to manipulate and curtail the fire of
clear mind and spirit. Ming of separation, mind of domination, these
have birthed genocide of Native peoples throughout the world, the
Inquisition and the Nazi holocaust in Europe, the destruction of
lands, cultures, and peoples in Asia, and the invention of weaponry
with power to kill all people on Earth twenty times over. In the
Tsalagi teachings such great sufferings are seen as unnecessary.
They are the result of pride, the idea that one is better or more
important than another. In reality, in the circle of right
relationship, there is no above and no below, no in or out; all are
together in the sacred circle.

Thus the Sacred Seven intermarried with the Children of the Sun, the
Earth people. Their descendants in North America are the Tsalagi,
Creek, Choctaw, Yuchi, and other Red nations of the southeastern
United States, each nation having a particular function in the hoop
of life.

The islands and civilization of the Elohi Mona were eventually
destroyed through the arrogance and ignorance of those who abused the
sacred power, seeking to enslave others. Through lust and grasping,
a few carriers of the starseed became enmeshed in the material world;
instead of seeking to educate and enlighten, they sought to
manipulate and oppress. Such thought forms were antagonistic to the
very elements holding the people and the islands together. The form
would no longer hold them, for they went against the sacred law,
which is cohesive. Thus over a ten-thousand-year period the islands
began breaking up and the great migrations of the people began. It
is in this way that give of the original twelve tribes were lost and
their seed dispersed throughout the remaining seven tribes
(or "types" of people). From these seven tribes many people in North
America today can trace some affinity to the Tsalagi Nation.

The people found their way through South and Central America and
eventually met with people living in what is now called the Four
Corners area. There were many migrations. Similarities in Native
languages throughout the Americas are indications of common origins
and meetings. Before the coming of the Europeans, just in North
America alone there were over 587 different Native nations and
languages; in the 1600s there were some sixty million Red people in
what is now called the United States. Now there are perhaps two
million. This is the result of deliberate genocidal destruction of
life, land, language, science, art, religion - a result of people
ignoring or fighting the natural wisdom light, forgetting that all
humans are relatives and that we all are to care for one another and
for our mother, the Earth.

In the course of the many migrations people settled in groups in
different places, yet their common roots may be known and honored.
Long ago the Tsalagi and the Iroquois were one people, for example,
and in the Tsalagi language the root stock, Algonquin, is still
discernable. Tsalagi and Maya once shared the same religious
practices; the Mayan seed and nobility was of the star people also.
The two peoples diverged over the Aztec imposition of rituals and
blood sacrifice opon the peaceful religion and way of life of the
Principal People. Such practices were not part of the original
teaching, and much of the community of spiritual relationship and
exchange among these people ended when the Aztecs "conquered" the

Thus the mound builders, the temple keepers of the Americas, trace
their migrations to the land of Elohi Mona. In North America they
built a strong creative culture and civilization, from the
southeastern to the southwestern parts of the present United States
up into Canada. The mound society, or temple society, was composed
of four levels of people. The Sun People were the rulers, in that
they very clearly manifested the light of clear mind for the benefit
of all; then there were the nobles, the average people, and
the "stinkards". The stinkards were those who may not have honored
the clarity of mind or allowed the fire to burn brightly; they
probably did the work of butchering, tanning, and so on.

That all future generations might be infused with clear mind, all Sun
People were required to marry stinkards, ensuring that the spark of
wisdom fire would move throughout all levels of the people. This
sacred purpose is still honored today in the manner in which the
Ywahoo lineage is passed. There was once a family bloodline that
amassed great power; they were magicians who abused the rights of the
people, who then rose up and scattered and destroyed them.
Thereafter it was decided that the lineage would pass, not to first
daughter or son, but to appropriate family member, in-law, or one
adopted into the family. The lineage was passed in this way from Eli
Ywahoo to his son-in-law Eonah Fisher, my grandfather. So it is that
the holy duty to instill light continues to be fulfilled.

The temple society existed before the time of Christ. When De Soto
arrived in the Mississippi Valley and found the beauteous and clean
cities of the Tsalagi, he sought their wealth and captured their
female leader. The average mound-building city had no more than
18,000 to 25,000 inhabitants (except during ceremonial times, when
all people came) because it was considered very important that no
area be overburdened. While the decline of the sun temples began
with the coming of the Europeans, the theocracy continued until the
forced removal of the 1830s. The existing temples continued to be
maintained until that time, although no new ones appear to have been
built after the Conference of the Elders preceding the first hell in
A.D. 1531. Some Tsalagi continued to keep the old ways, even into
the present. They became the Kituwa Society and the Etowah Band, and
some small traditional communities in Oklahoma.

When I was a young child listening to our elders speak about the true
history of North America, I stood with my feet firmly planted to the
ground, in the now, and realized that they were speaking great
truths. I thought it odd that others did not know or understand or
believe these truths; even today I think it odd. This true history
will emerge again and be known by all. There are Native scholars now
studying and recovering our history, and ancient documents and books
of our people, stolen from this land, are preserved in the archives
of the Vatican and Spanish museums, taken there by those who feared
revelation of the magnitude of the destruction they had wrought.
When our elders spoke of these things there was never bitterness or
blame as they expressed the brutalization and genocide committed upon
the Native peoples. They were simply stating what had occurred, that
the truth might be known.

Our elders also told me that long before the white men made their
first appearance upon the shores of Turtle Island, other visitors had
come. In the great long time ago, the Black people came from Africa;
they came to visit, to look, and they also came to conquer - but they
found people who were self-empowered and without a need for
domination, and so they were unable to conquer. Also, they were
turned aside by the energy of the Uk-kuk-a-duk, or Ukdena, the great
dragons that used to protect this land, who have now moved into
another dimension.

The connection between these dragons and the mind of humans is
significant for our understanding in these changing times. The
dragons were energy moving in the wave pattern of Earth's energy.
They used to follow the will of the great medicine people who, with
certain crystals, would call them to turn aside dangerous activity
and thus protect the people. The medicine people became too few to
give them proper guidance, and the dragons became weaker and weaker;
many were tied into the mountains, and the intelligent ones vibrated
themselves into another dimension. The last dragon was seen in the
Smoky Mountains in the 1700s.

Basically, the dragon is the unconscious of all nations, the untamed
energies of anger and fear, waiting to be called into the light of
clear thought. Until people awaken to their own minds, the dragon
appears to be dangerous; when emotions are tamed, the dragon becomes
a winged angelic being.

So it is not the dragon that is evil, and known one's true power and
the movement of clear mind in one's own being is not evil. Evil is
thoughtless action, evil is what causes harm to others. Evil begins
in the heart of ignorance and the desire to dominate. So we teach
the young ones that nothing is above or below; the leader and the
community are ever in a reciprocal relationship. Our most sacred
teachers, our most sacred leaders, they are like a walking stick;
they steady the people who are like the body holding the walking
stick, so they find safe passage, yet they are guided along by the
people themselves. The Six Nations Confederacy is based upon this
concept of leadership, and it was borrowed from the teachings of the
Peacemaker for the writing of the U.S. Constitution. It would be
well for us to search within our hearts again for the true meaning of
leadership and right relationship. A leader is not to dominate; a
leader is to guide like a walking stick, that the nations and all the
people may move firmly on the road of good relations.

The history of North America as written by non-Natives is incomplete,
for it is written by those who think they are conquerors. The
conqueror is the person who looks outside himself to make order
rather than making clear his own mind; therefore, all that he sees
and speaks is based on the lies of pride and confusion. The Native
people, particularly the Tsalagi people, had a philosophy and a
written language probably before the people of Europe were emerging
from their caves. The calendar of the Americas is the oldest
calendar in the world and one of the most accurate. The first people
to understand the significance of zero were the Native American
people, through careful meditation and observation of the universe.

Summary of points from Voices of our Ancestors, by Dhyani Ywahoo.

The sacred teachings of the Tsalagi people encompass a 100,000 year
time period, during which there have been four great upheavals of
Earth's life forms.

The first was a change in direction of in Earth's rotation and
polarity, caused by a large comet and its attendant radiation
destroying and mutating many life forms.

The second change was brought about by intense winds arising from
people's confused thought and action, distorting the Earth's mantle.
It was during the second change that beings who were once male and
female in one body separated into different entities, and are even
now looking for their other halves.

The third change was due to volcanic action stirred by the
destruction of Earth's sister planet that once dwelt between Mars and
Jupiter. The volcanic action forced humans to live beneath the ground
for generations, subsisting on transparent fish and fungi.

The fourth change was wrought by water as the human types sought to
integrate emotion and mind power. this was the time of the
destruction of Atlantis, Elohi Mona, and during this age only those
who heeded the voice of truth within were able to avoid destruction
by reaching the high places.

(the books goes on but is not quoted in the above url ~According to
Tsalagi time-keeping we are now in the Fifth World, the ninth and
final stage of purification, and entering the Sixth World, the time
of reintegration of the people and the land.~)

Dhyani is a keeper of the Cherokee oral teachings, and is passing on
what she has to offer as of 1987. I could be wrong, but I doubt she
has any idea what we've been talking about at Troubled Times, or any
of the background reading which precipitates our present thinking.
The fact that the Cherokee traditions speak of the great flood is no
mystery, since every heritage does, but it is absolutely fantastic to
me that they speak of the Pleiades, Atlantis, Star Beings, great
comets, and living underground. And the destruction of the planet now
occupied by the asteroid belt? Holy cow! I'm sure much of the
interpretation needs to be taken with a grain of salt. This book was
a turning point for me in my realization that absolutely everyone is
talking about the same scenario, just so many of them don't realize


concidering earthquakes there have been a few here lately in

this is my backyard where earthquakes aren't supposed to happen

officials are dumbfounded .... don't know whats causing them

loving spirit,

Topics This Page

Edom's Giants
Eleazar the Giant
Execration Texts
Gabbaras, the Arabian Giant
Gath's Giants
Gaza's Giants
Giants, Valley of the
Gibborim, House of

Gomarian Giants

Edom's Giants (See Abraham and the Giants)

Eleazar the Giant
According to Josephus, a Jew named Eleazar the Giant, who stood over ten feet high, was among the hostages that the king of Persia sent to Rome to insure a peace. Vitellius no doubt referred to this same incident, for he declared that when "Darius, son of Artabanes, was sent as a hostage to Rome, he took with him, with divers presents, a man 7 cubits high, a Jew named Eleazar, who was called a giant by reason of his greatness."
71 (See Josephus on the Giants)

Elhanan, the son of Jair, killed Lahmi, the brother of Goliath, in one of Israel's battles with the Philistines at Gob. (See David vs Goliath; Ishbi-benob; Sippai; Six-fingered, Six-toed Giant)

The huge Emim ("dreadful ones") lived in that area later taken over by the descendants of Moab, before Israel's invasion of Canaan. (See Abraham and the Giants; Sihon's and Og's Overthrow)

Execration Texts
The so-called Egyptian Execration Texts, composed between 1900 and 1700 B.C., substantiates the biblical account of a gigantic people called the Anakim. These texts, written on Pharaoh's orders, put curses on some Anakim chieftains who lived in Canaan.

For example, one of the Execration Texts of the Twelfth Dynasty (c. 1900 B.C.), now on display at the Berlin Museum, contains "an incantation directed towards certain enemy cities and territories among which are Palestinian areas and which names specific rulers of an area called 'Iy-'aneq'," which most scholars read as Anak. The texts also often refer to Ashdod as a "city of the giants." (See Canaan's Anakim; Ras Shamra Texts)

Gabbaras, the Arabian Giant
Pliny mentions that in the reign of Claudius (A.D. 41-54), a nine-foot-nine-inch giant named Gabbaras was brought to Rome from Arabia. Claudius placed him at the head of the famed Adiutrix legions. The giant so awed his troops that some worshipped him as a god. (See Giants Who Became Gods; Graveyards of the Giants)

Gath's Giants
Many giants apparently made Gath, one of the five great Philistine cities, their home. Their prominence in the city is borne out by Joshua's statement that at the end of his campaign "there were no Anakim left in the land of the sons of Israel; only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod some remained." Goliath, whom young David killed in later times, lived here. Rapha, believed by some scholars to have been Goliath's father, also lived here, as did four other of his giant sons.
72 (See Ashdod's Giants; Beth-Paleth's Giants; Gaza's Giants)

Gaza's Giants
According to Joshua 11:22, Gaza remained a well-known abode of the Anakim giants after Israel conquered most of Canaan. As one of the five principal Philistine cities, it occupied an important position on the trade routes from Egypt to West Asia. Before the Anakim came, this very ancient city was inhabited by the Avvim giants, who were driven out by the Caphtorim, afterward called the Philistines. (See Ashdod's Giants; Beth-Paleth's Giants; Oath's Giants)

Giants, Valley of the
From the earliest times, a three-mile-long vale that begins at the top of the valley of Hinnom and stretches south along the road to Bethlehem was known as the "Valley of the Rephaim," or "Valley of the Giants." Today it is called the Baqa’. (See Israel's Wars with the Giants)

Gibborim, House of (See Israel's Wars with the Giants)

The Gibeonites, who tricked Israel into signing a treaty with them at the time of the conquest (Joshua 9:3-27), are classified mainly as Amorites and Hivites, but, according to the Septuagint, they are identified also with the giant Horim, who had formerly lived in Edom. (See Israel's Wars with the Giants)

Goliath (See David vs Goliath)

Gomarian Giants
When the great rainstorms finally ceased and the heaped-up waters began to recede, Noah's ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. Strange as it may seem, Noah's unusual three-storied vessel may still lie on this Armenian mountaintop, preserved in ice. At least, while flying over Ararat in 1917, a Russian aviator named Wladimir Roskovitsky spotted what looked like the skeleton of a huge ship whose prow jutted out from the ice pack. And in 1955, the French explorer Fernand Navarra reported finding near the summit of this mountain the remains of what he believed was Noah's ark. He returned with a five-foot piece of the ancient timber impregnated with bituminous pitch.
73 The Institute Forestal at Madrid, Spain, the Centre Technique de Bois at Paris, France, and the Institut de Prehistoire de l'Université at Bordeaux, France, after testing a sample by the "degree of lignite formation, gain in density, cell modification, and the degree of fossilization," described the timber as of "great antiquity."74

These two news stories created much excitement--and some controversy. But the sightings of a ship high up on Ararat amounted to nothing new. Such a vessel has been seen on this mountain since ancient times. The historian Berosus, for example, recorded that in his day, circa 475 B.C., the people still climbed Mount Ararat to see the ark and to scrape off bits of bitumen for talismans or souvenirs. The Jewish historian Josephus also writes that the Armenians of his time (A.D. 37-95) showed tourists the ark at its final resting place. Even that famous traveler Marco Polo, who lived thirteen centuries later, mentioned the ark while describing Mount Ararat. Navarra's discovery has led to some lively arguments among the experts as to what his find really represents. Some claim the ice-encased structure is Noah's ark. Others say not. Whatever the truth of this debate, there remains one indisputable fact: at the foot of Mount Ararat sits the ancient city of Naxuana, or Nakhichevan. It claims the tomb of Noah. And its name, translated, means: "Here Noah settled."

So, after the great flood, Noah and his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, apparently settled in this area. No longer having the antediluvian giants to worry about, they began making for them-selves a new life and repeopling the earth. Eventually their families grew into three separate and distinct races. Noah himself predicted this would happen. One day, in a prophetic mood, he said to the three: "Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem! May God extend the territory of Japheth; may Japheth live in the tents of Shem, and may Canaan be his slave."
76 All these things came true. From the loins of Shem came the Hebrews, through whom the promised Messiah would one day be born. Shem's male issue included Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram. As for Japheth, he greatly enlarged himself. His descendants soon possessed half of Asia, practically all of Europe, a portion of Africa, and in more modern times most of America. Born to Japheth were Gomer, the eldest, who fathered the Gomarian giants, then Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. And just as Noah said, the descendants of Canaan, Ham's youngest son, eventually became servants to those of his brothers. The other sons of Ham included Cush, Mizraim, and Put.

For perhaps a century after the cleansing flood, Noah's fast-growing family remained free of the Nephilim's destructive influences and the giants' tyranny. Humans, nevertheless, were again enticed into ways that were not good. For instance, they got deeply involved in astrology. They also began worshipping idols. Needing a place to gather for these degenerate activities, the people decided to build in Babel a tall tower, called a ziggurat. This stepped temple contained two sanctuaries--one at ground level and one at the summit, where worshippers believed their pagan god sometimes appeared. Moses relates, however, that one night God overthrew this tower, confused the people's language, and scattered them abroad.

Remarkably, an ancient tablet recovered in recent years from the ruins of a tower located in the center of old Babylon seems to con-firm the biblical account. Found by G. Smith, it contained this fateful report: "The building of this illustrious tower offended the gods. In a night they threw down what they had built. They scattered them abroad, and made strange their speech."

Commenting on this find, Henry H. Halley writes: "This seems like a tradition of Babel." The site, he adds, "is now an immense hole 330 feet square, which has been used as a quarry from which to take bricks. When standing it consisted of a number of successive platforms one on the top of another, each smaller than the one below, a sanctuary to Marduk on the top." Halley also explains the Bible's description of a tower with its top in heaven as "an expression of the vast pride of the first builders of 'ziggurats,' the artificial temple hills of Sumeria and Babylonia . . . Ziggurats still exist in ruin at Ur and Erech (modern Warka) and their construction illustrates Genesis 11:3, 4. Their whole purpose whenever found was idolatrous worship and herein lay the sin of the Babel builders."

Following the tower's overthrow, the people of Babel found themselves no longer able to understand one another, so they began scattering toward all points on the compass. But still blessed with robust health and long life, these clans flourished. When their numbers became too great, many pushed out into other lands. Unfortunately, during these migrations, they once more encountered the evolved Nephilim people. And when these fallen, earthbound sons of God saw that the daughters of Noah were more beautiful than their own, they took them for wives. So the Gibborim, the huge, hellish children born of such marriages, once more appeared on earth.

Though these movements occurred in dim antiquity, the ancient historians have been able to track many of them. Gomer's clans, for instance, settled in "Higher Asia," in lands not too distant from one another. Here they came in contact with some Nephilim flood survivors and apparently entered a close association with them, for, after being defiled by genes from this "strange flesh," they eventually evolved into a race of giants. From them, affirms the Celtic scholar Paul Pezron, sprang the enormous blond Sacae that overran parts of Asia and Asia Minor and some Fertile Crescent countries, possibly including Canaan. In later times, having changed their derisive name Sacae to Celtae, they conquered most of Europe.

Topics This Page

Origin of the Giants--Other Theories

Phlegra's Giants
Ras Shamra Texts
Rephaim Giants

Rephaim, Land of the
Rephaim, Valley of the
Sacae Giants
Shaveh Kiriathaim's Giants

Origin of the Giants--Other Theories
Anthropological forensic reconstruction of their skulls reveals strong faces, with full smooth foreheads, narrow noses, and prominent chins. Their long craniums also gave them a brain capacity far above today's average. Except that some probably retained animal appendages, they resembled humans in every way.

So close was this resemblance, writes Moses, that the Nephilim began marrying the beautiful daughters descended from Adam, thus corrupting humanity with animal flesh. The genes of these two different races, being mixed, gave birth to creatures who were partly animal and partly human. Because of their endocrine abnormalities, many of these half-breeds grew to adulthood with colossal statures. But the name given the male giants characterizes their superhuman strength, not their great height. The ancients called them the Gibborim, a word meaning mighty men. Their daring, complemented by their great height, bulk, and bodily power, gained for them a widespread fame. Moses implies that they were fierce and warlike. For centuries they struck terror in the hearts of antediluvians of normal size. This fear they inspired no doubt enabled them to lord it overall Mesopotamia.
164 And their many oppressions, Moses' 6:1-4 passage declares, continued right down to the first days of the great rain. (See Giants and the Flood; Giants Who Became Gods; Gomarian Giants; also see Ariels; Horned Giants; Origin of the Giants-- Other Theories; Shamhazai)

When Israel invaded northern Canaan, the Perizzites occupied the "forest country" near Shechem. Some scholars identify them with the giant Horim. Just to the north of the Perizzites lay a sizable territory belonging to the Rephaim giants. Toward the end of the northern campaign, the tribes of Ephraim and Manassah fought these giants and took their lands. (See Israel's Wars with the Giants)

Phlegra's Giants
Besides his other accounts about the giants, Strabo informs us that on a narrow isthmus to the peninsula of Pallene stood "a city founded by the Corinthians, which in earlier times was called Potidaea, although later on it was called Cassandreia, after the same King Cassander, who restored it after it had been destroyed.... And further, writers say that in earlier times the giants lived here and that the country was named Phlegra."

Some scholars identify Rapha, a giant of Gath, as the father of Goliath and four other giants who are mentioned in the scriptures as feared Philistine warriors. (See David vs Goliath; Ishbi-benob; Lahmi; Sippai; Six-fingered, Six-toed Giant)

Ras Shamra Texts
Written records recovered from a mound that marks the site of the ancient city of Ugarit, located on the Syrian coast opposite Cyprus, provide a separate verification of the biblical giants.

Found in 1928, these Ras Shamra Texts frequently mention the Rephaim, whose communities apparently ranged that far north. Linguists who deciphered the cuneiform texts say they were written about Joshua's time. Ras Shamra is the modern name given to an ancient mound located on the Syrian coast opposite Cyprus. (See Execration Texts; Israel's Wars with the Giant)

Rephaim Giants
According to H. R. Hall, the Rephaim built the megalithic monuments, the dolmens, and the menhirs of Moab and eastern Palestine. Fields of dolmens still may be seen in many parts of northern Jordan. The most notable ones are found in the foothills of the Jordan valley to the east of Damiah bridge, in the foothills east of Talailat Ghassul, around Irbid, and in the hill country near Hasban. (See Argob's Sixty Cities of the Giants; Beit Jibrim)

Rephaim, Land of the
In the widest sense, the "land of the Rephaim" once comprised all Transjordan and Canaan, because the giants occupied those regions in great numbers. At the time of Israel's invasion, they remained a people to be reckoned with, but their population had dwindled to the extent that the Anakim--their cousin--now dominated the land. Yet, in one place, they retained sufficient numbers and power to be still called the "land of the Rephaim." That territory lay in central Canaan, just north of the Perizzites. Scholars say their large settlement extended from there to perhaps as far as the Valley of Jezreel. (See Abraham and the Giants; Argob's Sixty Cities of the Giants; Beit Jibrim; Israel's Wars with the Giants; Giants, Valley of the)

Rephaim, Valley of the
This abode of the giants was located southwest of Jerusalem, beginning at the valley of Hinnom and stretching three miles along the road to Bethlehem. The valley got its name from some early giant inhabitants called the Rephaim. (See Israel's Wars with the Giants)

Sacae Giants (See Gomarian Giants)

The ancient rabbis say that the Rephaim giants Sihon, king of the Amorites, and Og, king of Bashan, were grandsons of Sham-hazai, a fallen angel.
165 Of course, such a genealogy supposes that Shamhazai was one of the Nephilim. (See Sihon's and Og's Overthrow; Origin of the Giants--Biblical Account)

Shaveh Kiriathaim's Giants
The terrible Emim giants at Shaveh Kiriathaim were overthrown by Elam's King Chedorlaomer in the nineteenth century B.C. Some scholars identify that ancient city with modern Kureyat, located ten miles north of Arnon and ten miles east of the Dead Sea. The Emim, described as "great and many and tall" before Chedorlaomer's invasion, never fully recovered. Their land was later taken over by the Moabites. (See Abraham and the Giants)

Moses identified Sheshai as one of the three giant brothers who ruled a clan of the Canaanite Anakim from Hebron when the He-brews were encamped at Kadesh Barnea. The terrifying sight of Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai inspired ten of Moses' spies to return with a recommendation to forget an invasion of the promised land. Their "evil report" so frightened the Hebrew congregation that they rebelled against Moses. Sheshai apparently took his name from his great height, for, declares Bochart, it "refers to his stature, which measured six cubits," i.e., nine feet.
166 He was later driven out of Hebron by Caleb's men. (See Canaan's Anakim; Israel's Wars with the Giants)

Sibecai the Hushathite, one of David's mighty men, delivered a fatal blow to the giant Sippai during a battle at Gob. (See David vs Goliath)

DREAM - 3-21-07 -

The woman's address who was my neighbor was 52 Eridu. 52 is translated as 'Wisdom'. The black man was51 Eridu -translates to 'craft of the basket weaver ', and my address is 53 Eridu - which translates as 'attention'



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Coordinates: 30°48′57.02″N, 45°59′45.85″E

Ancient Mesopotamia
Euphrates · Tigris
Cities / Empires
Sumer: Uruk · Ur · Eridu
Kish · Lagash · Nippur
Akkadian Empire: Akkad
Babylon · Isin · Susa
Assyria: Assur · Nineveh
Dur-Sharrukin · Nimrud
Babylonia · Chaldea
Elam · Amorites
Hurrians · Mitanni
Kassites · Urartu
Kings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Sumerian · Akkadian
Elamite · Hurrian
Enűma Elish
Gilgamesh · Marduk

Eridu (or Eridug/Urudug, from Sumerian Eri.dugga, "Good City") was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur. Eridu was the southernmost of the conglomeration of cities that grew about temples, almost in sight of one another, in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia.

According to the Sumerian kinglist Eridu was the first city in the world. The opening line reads

"[nam]-lugal an-ta čd-dč-a-ba
[eri]duki nam-lugal-la"
"When kingship from heaven was lowered,
the kingship was in Eridu."

In Sumerian mythology, it was said to be one of the five cities built before the flood. It appears to be the earliest Sumerian settlement, most likely founded ca. 4000 BC close to the Persian Gulf near the mouth of the Euphrates River; but with accumulation of silt at the shoreline over the millennia, the remains of the city are now some distance from the gulf at Abu Shahrain in Iraq.

In early Eridu, Enki's temple was known as E-abzu ("the abzu temple"), or the E-engur-a and was located at the edge of a swamp, an apsű.[1]. His consort, known by various names including Ninki, Ninhursag, Damgulnanna, Uriash and Damkina had a nearby temple, the E-sagila (E=house, Sag=sacred, Ila=woman (Akkadian)).


According to Gwedolyn Leick, Eridu was formed at the confluence of three separate ecosystems, supporting three distinct lifestyles. The oldest agrarian settlement seems to have been based upon intensive subsistence irrigation agriculture derived from the Samarra culture to the north, characterised by the building of canals, and mud-brick buildings. The fisher-hunter cultures of the Arabian littoral were responsible for the extensive middens along the Arabian shoreline. They seem to have dwelt in reed huts. The third culture that contributed to the building of Eridu was the nomadic pastoralists of herds of sheep and goats living in tents in semi-desert areas. All three cultures seem implicated in the earliest levels of the city. The urban settlement was centered on an impressive temple complex built of mudbrick, within a small depression that allowed water to accumulate.

Kate Fielden reports "The earliest village settlement (c.5000 BC) had grown into a substantial city of mudbrick and reed houses by c.2900 BC, covering 8-10 ha (20-25 acres). By c.2050 BC the city had declined; there is little evidence of occupation after that date. Eighteen superimposed mudbrick temples at the site underlie the unfinished Ziggurat of Amar-Sin (c.2047-2039 BC). The apparent continuity of occupation and religious observance at Eridu provide convincing evidence for the indigenous origin of Sumerian civilization. The site was excavated chiefly between 1946 and 1949 by the Iraq Antiquities Department." [2] These Archaeological investigations were carried out in the 1940s, which showed, according to Oppenheim, "Eventually the entire south lapsed into stagnation, abandoning the political initiative to the rulers of the northern cities," and the city was abandoned in 600 BC.

In the court of Assyria, special physicians trained in the ancient lore of Eridu, far to the south, foretold the course of sickness from signs and portents on the patient's body, which we must not too hastily connect with "symptoms" in scientific medicine, and they offered the appropriate incantations and magical resources.

Eridu in myth

In the Sumerian king list, Eridu is named as the city of the first kings. The kinglist continues:

In Eridu, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridu fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira.

The king list gave particularly long rules to the kings who came before the "flood", and shows how the centre of power progressively moved from the south to the north of the country.

Adapa U-an, elsewhere called the first man, was a half-god, half-man culture hero, called by the title Abgallu (Ab=water, Gal=Great, Lu=Man) of Eridu. He was considered to have brought civilisation to the city from Dilmun (probably Bahrain), and he served Alulim.

In Sumerian mythology, Eridu was the home of the Abzu temple of the god Enki, the Sumerian counterpart of the Akkadian water-god Ea. Like all the Sumerian and Babylonian gods, Enki/Ea began as a local god, who came to share, according to the later cosmology, with Anu and Enlil, the rule of the cosmos. His kingdom was the waters that surrounded the world and lay below it (Sumerian Ab = Water; Zu = far).

The stories of Inanna, the Goddess of Uruk, describe how she had to go to Eridu in order to receive the gifts of civilisation. At first Enki, the God of Eridu attempted to retrieve these sources of his power, but later willingly accepted that Uruk now was the centre of the land. This seems to be a mythical reference to the transfer of power northward, mentioned above.

Babylonian texts also talk of the creation of Eridu by the god Marduk as the first city, "the holy city, the dwelling of their [the other gods] delight".

Some modern researchers, following David Rohl, have conjectured that Eridu, to the south of Ur, was the original Babel and site of the Tower of Babel, rather than the later city of Babylon, for a variety of reasons:

  1. The ziggurat ruins of Eridu are far larger and older than any others, and seem to best match the Biblical description of the unfinished Tower of Babel.
  2. One name of Eridu in cuneiform logograms was pronounced "NUN.KI" ("the Mighty Place") in Sumerian, but much later the same "NUN.KI" was understood to mean the city of Babylon.
  3. The much later Greek version of the King-list by Berosus (c. 200 BC) reads "Babylon" in place of "Eridu" in the earlier versions, as the name of the oldest city where "the kingship was lowered from Heaven".
  4. Rohl et al. further equate Biblical Nimrod, said to have built Erech (Uruk) and Babel, with the legendary name Enmerkar (-KAR meaning "hunter") of the king-list, said to have built temples both in his capital of Uruk and in Eridu.

External links

Archaeological Searches

Tell Abu Shahrain was excavated in the 1940s by Fuad Safar and Seton Lloyd. It is near the present Basra.


  • Margaret Whitney Green, Eridu in Sumerian Literature, Phd disseration, University of Chicago, 1975.
  • A. Leo Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a dead civilization.
  • Gwendoyn Leick, Mesopotamia: The invention of the city.
  1. ^ Green (1975), pages 180-182
  2. ^ Grolier online publishing


Guide to the Sumerian Texts

© Ian Lawton 2000


Sumerian Myths
The Eridu Genesis (The Flood Myth)
Enki and Ninmah (Ninhursag): The Birth of Man
Enki and Ninki/Ninhursag (A Sumerian Paradise Myth)
Inanna and Enki: The Transfer of the Arts of Civilisation from Eridu to Uruk
Enki and the World Order: The Organisation of Earth and its Cultural Processes
Inanna's Descent to the Netherworld
Dumuzi Texts
Enlil and Ninlil: The Birth of the Moon God
The Ninurta Myth (Lugal-e, The Deeds and Exploits of Ninurta)
Other Myths
Sumerian Epics
Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta
Enmerkar and Ensukushsiranna
Lugalbanda Epics
Gilgamesh Epics
Gilgamesh and the Land of the Living
Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the Netherworld
Gilgamesh and Aka of Kish
Sumerian Divine Hymns
Hymn to Enlil
Hymn to Inanna as Warrior, Star and Bride
Hymn to Nanshe
Other Divine Hymns
Miscellaneous Sumerian Texts
The Babel Story
The Gudea Temple Inscriptions
The Cursing of Akkad: The Ekur Avenged
Royal Love Songs

When I started my research into Ancient Mesopotamia I found it hard to establish comprehensive listings of Mesopotamian literary compositions, especially the older Sumerian texts. Although Samuel Kramer makes a pretty good effort I have found that his lists1 are hard to follow, and not entirely up-to-date. Perhaps surprisingly the number of well-known Sumerian texts turns out to be considerably larger than their Akkadian counterparts: having combined the texts described by Kramer and Thorkild Jacobsen I have assembled a list of over 40 major Sumerian literary works, compared to only of the order of 10 major Akkadian ones.

I have not been able to locate English translations for all the works listed, but those I have used are taken primarily from Thorkild Jacobsen’s The Harps that Once… Sumerian Poetry in Translation. Published in 1987, this set of translations is as far as I am aware the most up-to-date available (although it is inevitable that academics have done more work on these texts since then, I believe this is the most up to date work available to the general public without trawling through specialist publications.) Only where Jacobsen’s anthology omits important works have I then turned to Kramer’s earlier The Sumerians. As far as I can ascertain this has allowed me to cover all the major texts, and ensured that any summaries and extracts used are the most current and informed available. Furthermore the naming of texts has varied considerably from author to author and over the decades, so I have attempted to use full (non-abbreviated) versions of the most recent titles, occasionally with alternative or older names in brackets, in order to aid recognition should the reader wish to consult the source works.

This chapter follows the approach adopted by professional Sumerologists in splitting the literary works into three categories: myths, epics and divine hymns. The difference between the myths and epics is that the former have gods as their central characters while the latter have mere mortals. There are other literary genres - for example royal lovesongs and hymns, hymns to or laments for temples, admonitory histories, satirical edubba texts, debates, proverbs, and wisdom literature - but most of these tend to be less interesting for general purposes.

The earliest of these texts date to the Early Dynastic period, that is the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. However the bulk date to the 3rd Dynasty of Ur and Isin-Larsa period, that is the late 3rd and early 2nd millennia BC.

The aim of this paper and the one following is to provide a primarily objective summary of the contents of each text. The only exception to this is that occasionally I highlight particular aspects that may have an esoteric significance and that will form the subject of a separate work.

Sumerian Myths

The Eridu Genesis (The Flood Myth) 2

One of the most interesting of the Sumerian texts from the point of view of direct biblical parallels, unfortunately this text is largely incomplete, with only the bottom third of one six-column tablet so far retrieved - although it is possible to surmise the contents of the missing portions from other similar texts. It dates to the early part of the 2nd millennium BC, and was excavated at Nippur. It describes the creation of men and other living creatures by An, Enlil, Enki and Ninhursag; the antediluvian cities and their rulers; and the Deluge itself. It is highly likely that this text had some and possibly a major influence on the equivalent stories in Genesis. Certainly the story is picked up later, albeit with some modification, in the Akkadian epic Atra-Hasis, and also in the introduction to the Babylonian Chronicle.

There are inconsistencies between the versions: This text opens with Nintu (Ninhursag) taking pity on 'her forgotten mankind', as if another race had existed previously and been destroyed even before the Deluge. In this text the gods create animals at the same time as mankind, which is consistent with Genesis but not with most of the other Mesopotamian creation stories. The Flood aspect of this story shows many consistencies with other versions, but there are also many inconsistencies: as always in the name of the hero - here Ziusudra ('the far distant') of Shuruppak; in the length of the Flood - here only seven days and nights; in the location in which the boat or ark comes to rest - which here remains unspecified; and in whether or not the hero is deified and granted everlasting life - here he is.

Enki and Ninmah (Ninhursag): The Birth of Man 3

There is little doubt that this text originally comprised two separate stories: The first deals with how Enki and his mother Namma create mankind as a slave after the gods had rebelled against their heavy workload, this process involving a mysterious 'clay'. The second describes how Enki and Ninhursag test each other by performing experiments in which deformed or disabled humans are created, for whom the other must find work. The combination of the two texts leads to a number of inconsistencies: First, the juxtaposition of Namma and Ninhursag in the role of 'birth goddess' between the two parts, although Ninhursag does assist in the first part and there is no doubt that it is she who is most often credited with this role. Second, the party at which Enki and Ninhursag test each other 'having drunk beer' is presented in the combined text as a celebration of the initial creation of man; however various references to the disabled creations being put to work in the courts of existing, presumably mortal, kings and queens would tend to indicate that man must already have been very much in existence. These inconsistencies are a regular feature of Sumerian poetry in which the integration of originally separate texts often appears somewhat careless.

Orthodox opinion suggests that this text can be interpreted as a polemic on two fronts: First, since the being created by Enki to test Ninhursag is revealed to be deformed only because it was not created by a full union between male and female and was somehow 'aborted', it can be seen as a study of the importance of both man and woman in the reproduction process. Second, it can be interpreted as championing the rights of the disabled - indeed an early form of political correctness. However neither of these explanations strike me as particularly compelling as an overall explanation for the creation themes included not only in this text but also in the Akkadian texts Atra-Hasis, Epic of Creation and Epic of Gilgamesh. It seems highly likely that a more esoteric interpretation is appropriate.

Enki and Ninki/Ninhursag (A Sumerian Paradise Myth) 4

This tale is once again clearly made up of two parts which have been merged by the scribes, with similarly minimal effort at continuity. The entire piece in its present form was undoubtedly written to entertain visitors from the trading centre of Dilmun (identified usually, and definitely here, with Bahrein). The first part especially records how the island was provided with its fresh waters by Enki at the request of his consort Ninsikila (Ninki), who is presented here as both his spouse and his daughter - although as we have seen this is not rare for a Sumerian deity. This allowed it to become a rich and verdant land, with a fine harbour to support its excellent trading connections.

The second part abruptly takes us back to the marsh land of lower Mesopotamia, and begins with Enki attempting to copulate with, this time, Nintu (Ninhursag) - which she only allows him to do once he accepts her as his spouse. There then follows a series of conquests in which Enki ravishes four successive generations of daughters sired by him, and it must be said that his 'I must have that' behaviour is reminiscent of a child in a sweetshop - which, if we accept that the Sumerians did not find incest distasteful, has the comic effect desired by the author. When he takes the final daughter, Uttu, with some force, her cries are heard by Ninhursag to whom, already tired of her husband’s philandering, this is the last straw. She removes Enki’s seed from Uttu’s body, plants it, and eight new plants grow up. Enki, once more the curious child who must try everything, eats the new plants and falls dangerously ill, at which point Ninhursag curses him and vows to never set eyes on him again. A fox comes to help him, and is dispatched to fetch Ninhursag, who accepts his pleas and has the curse removed by the Anunnaki in Nippur. She hurries on to Enki, and after she places him in her vulva, cures each of the eight parts of his body which are troubling him by giving birth to a deity from it.

The multitude of confusion of deities and their identities in this text is typical of the problems, already discussed, engendered by the tendency of the gods to have multiple liaisons, especially with members of their own family across generations, and of the scribes to alter their roles and names over the centuries - even to the extent of adjusting syllables to make plays on words.

The only real link in these two stories is that Enki is the main character in both, and even then Jacobsen argues that he may not have been the original subject of the first part. Nevertheless in his much earlier work Kramer5 takes the analysis further and links the combined text to the biblical 'Garden of Eden' story, on three counts: First, he emphasises the description in the first part of the 'paradise' created by Enki in Dilmun. Second, he likens Enki’s eating of the new plants to Adam and Eve’s eating of the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge. Third, he suggests that the name of seventh deity engendered by Ninhursag, in this case from Enki’s rib and called Ninti, can be translated both as 'lady of the rib' and as 'lady who makes live' - and argues that this is the source of the curiosity of Eve being created from Adam’s rib.

On the other hand I would suggest that the highlighting of eight different parts of Enki's body which need curing has parallels with the Egyptian myth of Osiris being dismembered by Seth and then reintegrated by Isis. Again an esoteric explanation may well be the most appropriate for elements of this text.

Inanna and Enki: The Transfer of the Arts of Civilisation from Eridu to Uruk 6

Although I have found no original translation of this text, Kramer does provide an outline of the story. Inanna, acting in her role as tutelary goddess of Erech (later known as Uruk), wishes to enhance her city’s reputation as the centre of Sumerian civilisation. She decides that the answer is for her to obtain, by fair means or foul, the 'me’s' (see below) which are guarded by Enki in his city of Eridu. This turns out to be rather easy, since they get drunk together and Enki - here described as her father, but we may assume this is poetic licence - simply hands them over. When he sobers up and realises they are gone he is distraught, and dispatches his messenger and a group of sea monsters to intercept and retrieve Inanna’s 'boat of heaven' at the first of the seven stopping points between Eridu and Uruk. However Inanna’s vizier prevents the capture on this occasion, and then repeatedly thereafter, until eventually she triumphantly reaches Uruk with her prize.

Given their metaphysical nature no clear translation of the word me’s is likely to be achieved. Kramer calls them 'divine laws', and in the title of the text they are 'the arts of civilisation'. We should also recall that Enki is notorious as the deity who introduced civilisation to mankind, a theme replicated in many other texts from around the world. Fortunately in this text the scribe lists of the order of a hundred me’s, and although only the first 68 are intelligible (with one small gap) this still gives us a fair idea of at least the author’s view of what they were. Accepting that the words are often obscure and sometimes untranslatable, Kramer’s attempted translation of the list is as follows:7

1: en-ship 2: godship 3: the exalted and enduring crown 4: the throne of kingship 5: the exalted sceptre 6: the royal insignia 7: the exalted shrine 8: sheperdship 9: kingship 10: lasting ladyship 11: [the priestly office] 'divine lady' 12: [the priestly office] ishib 13: [the priestly office] lumah 14: [the priestly office] guda 15: truth 16: descent into the netherworld 17: ascent from the netherworld 18: [the eunuch] kurgarra 19: [the eunuch] girbadara 20: [the eunuch] sagursag 21: the [battle] standard 22: the flood 23: weapons (?) 24: sexual intercourse 25: prostitution 26: law [?] 27: libel [?] 28: art 29: the cult chamber 30: 'hierodule of heaven' 31: [the musical instrument] gusilim 32: music 33: eldership 34: heroship 35: power 36: enmity 37: straightforwardness 38: the destruction of cities 39: lamentation 40: rejoicing of the heart 41: falsehood 42: art of metalworking … [43 to 46 missing] … 47: scribeship 48: craft of the smith 49: craft of the leather worker 50: craft of the builder 51: craft of the basket weaver 52: wisdom 53: attention 54: holy purification 55: fear 56: terror 57: strife 58: peace 59: weariness 60: victory 61: counsel 62: the troubled heart 63: judgement 64: decision 65: [the musical instrument] lilis 66: [the musical instrument] ub 67: [the musical instrument] mesi 68: [the musical instrument] ala.

From this list we can see that these 'laws' consisted of, to use Kramer's words, 'various institutions, priestly offices, ritualistic paraphernalia, mental and emotional attitudes, and sundry beliefs and dogmas'. It is also clear that they included both positive and negative aspects of life. Yet again, in my view these are likely to be best understood, at least in part, in an esoteric context.

Enki and the World Order: The Organisation of Earth and its Cultural Processes 8

This text, translated by Kramer, records how Enki went about setting up civilisation on Earth. After much introductory self-praise by Enki, the text describes how he blessed the various lands in and surrounding Mesopotamia with their respective natural resources, and how he ensured their fertility and productivity by appointing gods to look after the various aspects. At the end, Inanna complains she has not been allocated any real responsibility, but is pacified by Enki.

This text is interesting from two aspects: First, it is clear that it is primarily mythopoetic, that is it was written to clarify the roles of the various gods in ensuring primarily agricultural prosperity; as such it tends to support the orthodox view that the gods were created by the Sumerians as simple metaphysical constructs which controlled the varying natural phenomena, including weather, climatic conditions, and natural resources which were evidently outside of their own human control. However it I am of the opinion that, just because one story is clearly written in this context, it does not invalidate the possibility of alternative non-mythical contexts being used in other, perhaps originally far older, stories. For this reason I tend to avoid using the term myth, and only use the term mythopoetic for those texts, or parts of texts, where I believe it fully justified - as here. Second, there are once again some interesting references to the me’s.

Inanna’s Descent to the Netherworld 9

The Sumerian version of this text again forms two distinct parts, although on this occasion their merging by the scribe is more accomplished. The first relates how Inanna attempts to usurp the rule of the netherworld from her sister Ereshkigal. The second contains elements of separate Dumuzi stories, telling of his capture and recapture by a detachment of military police after Inanna, in a jealous rage, had handed him over to act as a substitute for her in the netherworld as a condition of her release.

Dumuzi Texts 10

There exists a proliferation of texts dealing with Dumuzi, who was often referred to as 'the shepherd', many of which involve his consort Inanna. Their titles appear to be more than usually inconsistent amongst the work of modern scholars, but they include stories about their courtship, their marriage, Dumuzi’s unfaithfulness, his dream of death, and his actual death. In the main these texts touchingly describe many of the joys and pitfalls of love with which we are all familiar.

Enlil and Ninlil: The Birth of the Moon God 11

This text describes how Enlil met and wooed Ninlil in Nippur, there union engendering the moon god Suen (Sin or Nanna). Enlil is then banished from the city by a council of gods because he is deemed to have raped her. There follow three instances of somewhat confusing trickery in which Ninlil, who is following him, is apparently persuaded to sleep with three different people each of whom are under Enlil’s instruction - although in the dark they are replaced each time by Enlil himself. In this way three further sons are born to the pair.

The Ninurta Myth (Lugal-e, The Deeds and Exploits of Ninurta) 12

Yet again we find this text composed of originally separate stories, this time three. Part one describes Ninurta’s battle with an uncertain 'creature' called Azag which rules the mountains. It is referred to throughout as an object, not a person or animal, its leading soldiers are 'stones' (this mystery is partly clarified in part three), and although Jacobsen uses a number of references in the text to argue that it is a plant or tree of some sort, his logic is to me not entirely convincing - either in the context of the story itself, or of any mythopoetic message that the scribe might be trying to put across. Similarly enigmatic is Ninurta’s weapon called Sharur, which despite being an object speaks to him throughout and acts as a trusted friend. The gist of the story is that in his familiar guise of 'storm-god' Ninurta launches a pre-emptive strike against Azag, contrary to wise Sharur’s advice, which threatens to end in defeat when Azag sends up a dust cloud which blinds Ninurta and his troops. Sharur seeks Enlil’s help to extract his son, victory is achieved, and Azag is dismembered.

Parts two and three have an entirely different feel, clearly adopting a mythopoetic style in attributing various natural occurrences to Ninurta’s handiwork. On the one hand he facilitates the proper irrigation of the plain by ensuring that the waters of the mountains successfully flow down, and on the other he assigns various practical roles to the stones which supported Azag in battle - good or bad according to the vehemence with which each fought against him.

What can we draw from this? First, it demonstrates clearly the extent to which combination and editing of earlier texts can cause nightmares for attempts at interpretation; for example, it may be that in original versions of the battle story, Azag’s followers were not stones at all but something else - but the author has inserted them because it fits in with the final story of assigning roles to them. This in turn makes it difficult to shed light on who or what Azag is supposed to be.

Second, and following the same line of thought, it is highly likely - indeed both Kramer and Jacobsen make reference to this but from a different perspective - that some of these stories had been around for so long that by the time the versions which we are studying were being written the original context was entirely forgotten. In many cases it is possible to argue that this is of no great significance for the work in hand, but there are a few - and I would regard this as a good example - where this factor plays a vital role. Time and again in this text and others we come across sections which could easily be describing the devastation wrought by, for example, cometary impact, polar shifts or volcanic activity. The problem lies in evaluating the extent to which this interpretation fits the overall context, given the editing process and the fact that the scribes may be describing something from long ago which they have never witnessed, and which they do not therefore understand.

Other Myths

Kramer lists a number of other myths13 for which neither he nor Jacobsen provides a translation: these are Enki and Eridu; Inanna and the Subjugation of Mount Ebih; Inanna and Shukalletuda: The Gardener’s Mortal Sin; Inanna and Bilulu; Enlil and the Creation of the Pickax; The Return of Ninurta to Nippur; and The Journey of Nanna to Nippur.

Sumerian Epics

All the major works classed as epics which have been recovered to date involve three rulers from the 1st Dynasty of Uruk (c. 2750-2660 BC), all of whom are listed in the King List. They are, in chronological order of reign, Enmerkar, Lugalbanda, and Gilgamesh.14

Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta 15

This epic deals with the feud between Enmerkar and an anonymous ruler of neighbouring Aratta, located in the mountains to the east of Uruk and in modern terms placed by Kramer16 in north-western Iran, in the vicinity of lake Urmia and the Caspian Sea. Both men are described as spouses of Inanna, which was the norm for any ruler of a city of which she was the patron goddess, but the tale recounts that she loved Enmerkar best. For his part he was anxious that her temple in Uruk should be of the highest quality, and accordingly he beseeched her to forsake her husband in Aratta, and by blighting his city with drought force him into subservience to Uruk. The 'corvee' work traditionally due to the conqueror would then involve the transportation to Uruk of stone and precious metals and minerals which - unlike the Sumerian plain - Aratta had in abundance; and the building of the temple in Uruk by the subjugated Arattans.

Inanna agrees to the plan, and with military means ruled out by the relatively impregnable location of Aratta, the remainder of the tale is a lengthy account of the trial of wits between the two rulers, both anxious to prove their superiority in protecting their citizens. After a good deal of inventiveness, resourcefulness and wisdom is displayed on both sides, the situation is eventually resolved in an amicable solution in which there is agreement to trade grain and livestock for the required building materials.

This essentially moral tale has one particularly interesting aspect in that it includes a passage which parallels the biblical Babel story, which we will discuss separately below.

Enmerkar and Ensukushsiranna 17

This epic is reviewed briefly by Kramer, and is similar in that again it deals with conflict between Enmerkar and the ruler of Aratta, this time named as Ensukushsiranna. Although the details of their conflict appear entirely different, since I have located no translation of this work I will make no further comment.

Lugalbanda Epics 18

According to Jacobsen there appear to be three epics involving Lugalbanda, who somewhat enigmatically was originally deified but whose status gradually declined to mere mortal ruler - although when he is incidentally mentioned in other tales his status as a deity tends to survive. It is interesting to note that the first and second of these epics once again involve Enmerkar’s campaigns in Aratta, and in these Lugalbanda is merely an officer in Enmerkar’s army. One must therefore assume that they relate to a time before he succeeded to the en-ship of Uruk - indeed, since he is not mentioned as Enmerkar’s son in the King List we might assume that it was his very bravery in the campaigns which subsequently bestowed the succession on him.

The first of his epics, Lugalbanda in the Mountain Cave (Lugalbanda and Mount Hurrum per Kramer), describes how he and his brothers led Enmerkar’s army across the mountains to subdue Aratta, and how he fell ill on the way, forcing his brothers to leave him in a cave with plentiful provisions. I have however located no full translation of this text.

The second, Lugalbanda and the Thunderbird (Lugalbanda and Enmerkar per Kramer), follows on from the first. Having recovered, he roams the mountains aimlessly trying to find his way to Aratta when he comes across the nest of the mighty Thunderbird, which is endowed with magical powers. After caring for its young, he is granted a wish on the Thunderbird’s return, and - given that this version of the story appears to have been written to entertain visiting envoys and messengers - he requests and is given speed and endurance. He rejoins the army, much to his comrades surprise after he had been given up for dead, but the campaign is not going well. Enmerkar wishes to get a message back to Inanna in Uruk, requesting permission to call off the siege, but can find no envoy to cross the dangerous mountains until Lugalbanda volunteers. His new gifts allow him to make the journey easily, and on arrival Inanna tells him of an obscure way to defeat Aratta which involves the capture and eating of a special fish. Thereafter the text becomes highly fragmented. The main point of interest here, apart from the adding of substance to the Enmerkar epics, is the Thunderbird itself. It is somewhat enigmatic, and it is not easy to interpret what it might represent - although of course it may be that it is nothing more than a mythopoetic invention.

The third epic, Lugalbanda and Ninsun, tells how he married his goddess wife in the eastern mountains and brought her back to Uruk. Again I have been unable to locate a full translation of this text.

Gilgamesh Epics

Kramer lists five Sumerian epics19 in which Gilgamesh, the most famous of the Sumerian heroes, is the central figure. Also known as Izdubar, he is regarded by some as the role-model for the epic heroes of many other cultures - including, for example, Buluqiya in Arabian Nights. Some other Sumerian texts refer to Gilgamesh as fully deified, while others still have him at least semi-deified (on account of his mother being the deity Ninsun, and in some texts his father being the former deity Lugalbanda). Given that the King List refers to Gilgamesh’s father as an anonymous 'nomad', and that Lugalbanda comes two before him in the list, Lugalbanda may perhaps be regarded as his adopted father - and certainly if Gilgamesh took over the 'en-ship' of Uruk as an outsider he might well have followed the custom of selecting an illustrious former ruler to refer to as his father.

Four of the five Sumerian epics are undoubtedly incorporated, with varying degrees of faithfulness to the originals, into the later composite Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh. The bulk of the Sumerian Gilgamesh tablets were found at Nippur, Kish and Ur, and with respect to two of the epics, Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven and The Death of Gilgamesh, those found to date are so fragmented that Kramer provides no further details of their content. The other three are translated by him, and are dealt with separately below.

Gilgamesh and the Land of the Living 20

This epic may be regarded on a simplistic level as the forerunner of all 'George and the Dragon' tales in as much as Gilgamesh takes on and, with the help of his ever-present friend Enkidu, slays the fearsome Huwawa. However it is in other ways a complex story which is hard to interpret. Conventional commentators insist that it revolves around Gilgamesh’s concern about his own mortality, and it is clear that early on he laments to Utu about 'man perishing' and 'dead bodies floating in the river’s waters, as for me, I too will be served thus'. He also wishes to 'raise up a name' for himself by building a monument using the cedar from the 'land of the living'. Meanwhile Huwawa’s somewhat enigmatic role is to protect 'the land', and the ending sees Enlil rage at the latter's slaughter. Despite the fact that some aspects of this text are difficult to interpret, it would appear that Gilgamesh's preoccupation with immortality and the tribulations he endures to achieve it may have an esoteric significance in terms of discovering the immortality of the soul.

The composite Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh fleshes this story out considerably in Tablets II to V (see next paper).

Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the Netherworld 21

This epic is split into several parts: The introduction deals with a highly abbreviated and therefore not particularly instructive version of the creation. This is followed by a description of a tree cultivated by Inanna which turns out to harbour various demons - again a possible esoteric angle - which Gilgamesh routs for her. She in turn makes a 'pukku' (Kramer suggests this is a form of drum) and a 'mikku' (similarly a drumstick) for him from the wood. The ensuing part of this epic, which deals with their falling into the netherworld and Enkidu’s attempts to retrieve them, is incorporated almost verbatim into the later composite Epic of Gilgamesh in Tablet XII, and as such we will discuss it in the next paper.

Gilgamesh and Aka of Kish

Both Kramer22 and Jacobsen23 provide a translation of this relatively short tale, which finds Gilgamesh installed as ruler of Uruk which is at this time subjugated to the city-state of Kish, and its ruler Aka (Agga). Gilgamesh resents this overlordship, engages Aka and his troops when they besiege Uruk, and is eventually victorious with the help of his warrior Enkidu. But we can infer that other epics not yet discovered described how Aka had at one time given shelter to Gilgamesh in Kish, and this tale ends with him swearing allegiance to Aka and Kish despite his victory, so as not to be ungrateful for past favours. In effect he has acted so as to restore his pride but maintain his integrity, and so this text can be regarded as an essentially moral as well as a historiographical one which unusually involved no deities at all. Perhaps because of this distinction it is the only Sumerian Gilgamesh story which and is not incorporated in any way into the later Epic of Gilgamesh.

Sumerian Divine Hymns

Hymn to Enlil 24

As we would expect, this hymn is one of unreserved praise for Enlil. It describes him as the leader of all the gods, and a benefactor to mankind with superhuman and all-embracing powers without which nothing could take place. It is also noteworthy for describing how he chose the city of Nippur as his abode, and how his temple - the Ekur, translated by orthodox scholars as 'mountain house' - was built in the sacred region of the 'Duranki', translated similarly as 'bond heaven-earth'. Enlil himself is also described repeatedly as 'great mountain', an epithet whose origins Jacobsen admits are unknown.

Hymn to Inanna as Warrior, Star and Bride 25

This represents a compilation by Jacobsen of hymns to Inanna which it appears were previously regarded as separate texts. Its various parts celebrate her in her different guises: as the goddess of war; as Venus, the morning and evening star; and as the goddess of love, here represented by her acting as a bride. Kramer reports another Hymn to Inanna written by Enheduanna, daughter of Sargon the Great of Akkad, but I cannot be certain whether or not this is included in Jacobsen’s compilation.

Hymn to Nanshe 26

There is little of general interest in this hymn.

Other Divine Hymns

Kramer lists a number of other divine hymns27 for which neither he nor Jacobsen provides a translation: these are Hymn to Ninurta; Hymn to Utu; Hymn to Nungal (the daughter of Ereshkigal); Hymn to Hendursag (Nanshe’s vizier); Hymn to Ninisinna ('the great physician of the black-headed ones'); Hymn to Ninkasi (goddess of drink); and Hymn to Nidaba (goddess of writing, accounting and wisdom).

Miscellaneous Sumerian Texts

The Babel Story

While reading George Smith’s Chaldean Genesis I came across a reference28 to a fragmented Assyrian tablet which supposedly mirrored the biblical 'confusion of tongues' story of Babel.29 Smith himself does not elaborate further, and I can find no other reference to it as a separate text except in as much as there is an interesting passage in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta (see above) referred to as 'Nudimmud’s (Enki’s) spell'. Jacobsen suggests that this is an abbreviated version of a probably separate and independent myth which was gratuitously grafted into the epic by the scribe, but which appears somewhat out of context.30 Nevertheless the passage clearly describes how at one time mankind could 'address Enlil in a single tongue', but that for an undisclosed reason Enki 'estranged the tongues in their mouths'.31 Jacobsen suggests that, since Enki is regarded as a protector of mankind, this act must have been intended to placate Enlil - perhaps the implication being that the unilingual prayers and appeals to him by a proliferating mankind were becoming too much for him to bear. In this respect we find parallels in the Akkadian text Atra-Hasis, in which the ever-increasing 'noise of mankind' so exasperates Enlil that he sends the Deluge in order to get some peace.

Smith and other scholars suggest two possible locations for the Tower of Babel: either Birs Nimrud near Babylon - where a seven stage, 154 feet high tower has been excavated; or the Temple of Bel in the ruins of Babylon itself.

The Gudea Temple Inscriptions 32

Classed by Jacobsen as a 'hymn to a temple', this text is known to be comprised of three cylinders although the first ('cylinder X') has never been recovered, leaving only cylinders A and B. Written around the time of the Gutian invasion which ended the Dynasty of Akkad, it deals with the building of a new temple by Gudea, the ensi of Lagash, c. 2125 BC. The temple, called Eninnu, is in fact a reworking of an earlier structure and is situated in the capital of the region, Girsu. It describes in great detail the traditional processes for such an undertaking: how permission must initially be granted by Enlil; how the ensi is then commissioned to build it by the patron god of the city, in this case Ninurta; how the temple is designed, built and administered; and finally how Gudea hosts a housewarming party for Ninurta and his guests, the great gods themselves, including An, Enlil, Enki and Ninhursag.

The Cursing of Akkad: The Ekur Avenged 33

Categorised by Jacobsen as an 'admonitory history', this text records how the 4th ruler of the Dynasty of Akkad c. 2250 BC, Naram-Sin, attempted to rebuild Enlil’s temple in Nippur, the Ekur, without permission (that is without going through the proper channels as described above). His actions in demolishing it without respect, and in uncovering its most secret chambers, desecrated it to such an extent that Enlil was enraged. He sent the barbarous Gutians from the east to attack and invade the whole area, while in sympathy the other great gods visited devastation on Akkad, the capital city. The supremacy of this short-lived dynasty was thus ended forever.

Royal Love Songs 34

On a more light-hearted note, Jacobsen includes in his book a collection of seven royal love songs mainly penned for the fourth ruler of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur c. 2030 BC, Shu-Suen (Shu-Sin). While they have little weighty significance, their often bawdy nature does serve to remind us that the Sumerians were just as preoccupied with sex as any other society, ancient or modern - they did not devote all their time to worship of their deities and other lofty matters. Two of these in particular, My Wool being Lettuce (wool being a metaphor for pubic hair) and Vigorously he Sprouted, are in fact downright crude.

This completes our review of the Sumerian texts.


Source References

1. Kramer, The Sumerians (University of Chicago Press, 1963), Chapter 5.

2. Jacobsen, The Harps that Once… (Yale University Press, 1987), pp. 145-150.

3. Ibid., pp. 151-166.

4. Ibid., pp. 181-204.

5. Kramer, op. cit., Chapter 4, pp. 148-9.

6. Ibid., Chapter 4, pp. 160-162.

7. Ibid., Chapter 4, p. 116.

8. Ibid., Chapter 5, pp. 171-183.

9. Jacobsen, op. cit., pp. 205-232.

10. Ibid., pp. 3-84.

11. Ibid., pp. 167-180.

12. Ibid., pp. 233-272.

13. Kramer, op. cit., Chapter 5, p. 171.

14. Note that according to the King List, Dumuzi reigned as part of this dynasty between Lugalbanda and Gilgamesh. However since he was so extensively deified the works in which he appears are classed as myths.

15. Jacobsen, op. cit., pp. 275-319.

16. Kramer, op. cit., Chapter 8, p. 275.

17. Ibid., Chapter 8, pp. 272-3.

18. Jacobsen, op. cit., pp. 320-344.

19. Kramer, op. cit., Chapter 5, p. 185.

20. Ibid., Chapter 5, pp. 190-7.

21. Ibid., Chapter 5, pp. 197-205.

22. Ibid., Chapter 5, pp. 186-190.

23. Jacobsen, op. cit., pp. 345-355.

24. Ibid., pp. 101-111.

25. Ibid., pp. 112-124.

26. Ibid., pp. 125-142.

27. Kramer, op. cit., Chapter 5, pp. 205-6.

28. George Smith, The Chaldean Account of Genesis (London, 1876), Chapter 10, pp. 160-2.

29. Genesis 11:2-7.

30. Jacobsen, op. cit., pp. 288-9, Note 25.

31. Ibid., p. 290.

32. Ibid., pp. 386-444.

33. Ibid., pp. 359-374.

34. Ibid., pp. 88-98.


The Dolichocephaloids
Missing Race Of Our Human Family

by Randy Koppang


Evidence outlined below indicates a distinct "race" of people becoming extinct during our Christian era. The "link" this race may represent is not to a pre-human evolutionary lineage, but rather an antediluvian cycle of civilization.

The genetic trait distinguishing them was their anomalously-dolichocephalic heads; i.e., remarkably elongated. A full understanding of who they were is not clear. Yet, in recent years a few researchers have re-discovered the wealth of facts known about their existence. More definitive information and correlations about these people are offered here.

From Museo De National. Lima, Peru

In academic terms, the logical context for these facts is the dogmatic quest for our evolutionary "missing link" with biological origins. However, the word academic, in one sense, is defined as "theoretical rather than practical." Thus, the premise here is that academic authorizations re. Homo sapiens skeletons are still entirely theoretical. Whereas, it is just as valid, and more practical, to evaluate origins via anomalous physical evidence of a people who may not fit into evolutionary preconceptions. The quantity of this evidence is substantial, not dubiously rare.

Doubting "evolution" is heretical, of course. Moods of consternation are provoked among elite academicians when amateurs revise history. All the more reason for culture jammers everywhere to reconnect histories we thought we knew with forbidden facts censored by omission. There are plenty of facts "disappeared" from public knowledge in this way. And if histories were retrofitted with such omissions - transcendent, alternative perceptions of humanity may accrue ...

The Facts
My introduction to this issue was due to research by David Hatcher Childress,1 Adriano Forgione2 and Andrew Collins.3 Taking their publication references to a major research university, I found much more can now be said about the people in question, a "people" distributed around the archaic world.

D.H. Childress humorously calls them "coneheads." This accurately depicts the cranial trait so distinctly differentiating these people. And although conehead is an endearing sobriquet from Saturday Night Live - this mystery group is in no way fictional! Meaning, in the skeptical sense, perhaps the elongated heads were misshapen due to "deformity." In fact, the recurring explanation for the oddly shaped heads, by archeologists, is attributed to deformity. Such an explanation is presumed due to cultural clues. E.G., there are numerous New and Old World tribes with traditions of self-inflicted head molding. Skull elongation can be done by infant head-binding, pressuring skull bones to grow into shape. But revised evidence indicates cosmetic deformity is an artifact of a more complex set of influences.

Another skeptical explanation for distended heads is possibly disease. The osteopathic term dolichocephaly (long cranium), is used to describe symptoms. A disorder called Marfan's Syndrome is one in which resulting symptoms include elongated, deformed body parts. This is caused by congenital traits, and possibly cystathionine synthase protein deficiency.

Clearly, the contribution here is: to affirm the reality of genetically natural, but unusual dolichocephaly, now extinct. Yet, as stated, there are native cultural traditions of head-binding for elongation. We will return to this and other cultural questions later ...

The Best Evidence
Evidence validating the existence of a natural but pronounced dolichocephalic race is a book titled Peruvian Antiquities. First published in 1851, this comprehensive study was co-authored by Mariano E. Rivero and John James Von Tschudi, M.D.

Dr. Von Tschudi was a "doctor in philosophy, medicine and surgery, etc., etc., and a member of various societies of medicine" - credentials being crucial to what Dr. Tschudi reports: "The singular conformation of the Peruvian crania" found in what appeared to be two of the "three distinct races (who) dwelt there before the foundation of the kingdom of the Incas."

Anticipating comparable discoveries in Iraq 100 years later, Dr. Tschudi's book is a revelation. And at the beginning of his chapter two, a disclaimer re. biases is made: " historian ... is under a strict obligation not to permit himself to be carried away by any prejudice, to make a wise and impartial use of his materials, to seek sincerely for the truth, and when found, to admit it without hesitation, even though it may tend to dissipate opinions entertained from infancy and sanctioned by universal reception." Dr. Tschudi, indeed, met his obligation as a scientist, here!

The paradox in Tschudi's anthropology was that he thought he contradicted the first chapters of Genesis. Today, correlations of his work to later discoveries actually contradict "evolution." What the dolichocephalic-racial evidence suggests is an antediluvian source for this variety of racial diversity. Indicating this origin is their general scarcity in numbers, plus their consistent priestly station, associated with both New and Old World settings for their disinterment. And, more importantly, the association or access this race had with pre-existent knowledge for many forms of high-Peruvian civilization. On purely biological terms - the cranial details, as Tschudi recognized them, feature "an anomalous characteristic of ruminant and carnivorous animals," not pre-human primates!

The three pre-Incan "nations or races" Tschudi names are the Chinchas, Aymaraes, and Huancas. With osteopathic precision, Dr. Tschudi illustrated clear structural differences between these three "nations"; each one was comprised of sub-tribes. Obvious differences were based on "numerous and scrupulously careful observations of Dr. J.J. Von Tschudi, who from his long residence in Peru, had it in his power to examine hundreds of crania of the ancient inhabitants of that country."

Skulls of the Chinchas were what we would call normally human. The other two "races" were remarkably unlike the Chinchas. The Huancas had the most pronounced dolichocephalic traits. And it was this people about which Tschudi had the least amount of historical data. The Aymaraes "commenced the dynasty of the Incas." Of the Aymaraes, Tschudi said, "The crania of these people present differences equally remarkable ... and particularly the contour of the cranium." Keeping in mind that Inca is a term venerating the emperors of Peru, not a tribe/nation per sé - the Aymaraes conquered the other two peoples and marshaled the unity of Inca civilization, not unlike requisite unification of early Upper/Lower Egypt. Similarly, this unity ultimately led to racial mixing. However, similar skull formations does suggest the Aymaraes and Huancas were genetically linked already, perhaps.

In any case, Dr. Tschudi condensed these discoveries into two questions, as crucial to human origins today as they were in 1851:
1. "What was the cranial configuration of the ... real Indians?
2. Can there be found anywhere, now existing, the races above named, pure and without any mixture?"

In reverse order Tschudi answers these questions, after "the most scrupulous investigations on these points": (1) Yes. A few pure Indians did then exist. But, largely, the Peruvian natives "proceed from the union of the three races already described." (2) The crania shape of the earliest "real Indians" is the most important question. Why? Because there was a controversy over the cause of the cranial peculiarities among physiologists in the 1840s! Peruvian "coneheads" were deemed "anomalous," but due to "exclusively artificial" head-binding: "It (was) notorious enough that such a practice did obtain among various ... New World peoples; and that it existed among the (Peruvian) Chinchas for the sake of producing distinctive marks in families; an abuse which was forbidden by an apostolic bull in the 16th century." Interesting!

So - of the three "races" discussed, the non-dolicho-headed group, the Chinchas, artificially mimed the actual "conehead" peoples. But why? And inductive reasoning would suggest: additional New World tribes practicing head-binding were miming the true longheads as well?

The Aymaraes had what may be classified as intermediate dolichocephaly. The Huancas possessed the more distinct crania. To be sure, Dr. Tschudi offers, "... physiologists are undoubtedly in error, who suppose (dolichocephaly in) the Peruvian race (is) exclusively artificial. This hypothesis rests on insufficient grounds; its authors could have made their observations solely on the crania of adult(s) ... (however) two mummies of children (analyzed in England) ... belonged to the tribe Aymaraes. The two crania (both of children scarce a year old), had in all respects, the same form as those of adults. We ourselves have observed the same fact in many mummies of children of tender age ..."

"More still: the same formation of the head presents itself in children yet unborn; and of this truth we have had convincing proof in sight of a foetus enclosed in the womb of a mummy of a pregnant woman, ... which is, at this moment, in our collection." The foetus was aged 7 months!

It is significant to note - Dr. Von Tschudi was very "scrupulous" both in his own study, and his peer reviewing others when determining that no confirmed skulls of the famed emperors themselves - the Incas - had ever been unearthed. Tschudi said, "the general opinion is that the Incas descended directly from Manco-capac. All traditions relate this person (being) distinguished from the natives by his physiogamy, and clear color of his complexion ... Our minute and recent investigations go to prove that the Incas do not derive their origin from (Manco-capac), but from a native family established in the royal dignity by the stranger reformer," Manco-capac. Thus, if nothing else, the dolichocephalic skulls, and various traditions representing the Incas contradict anthropological theories that the Americas were originally settled by only Asians. But Asians don't have anomalous dolichocephaly!? (E.g., the Clovis Point Theory.)
Peruvian Mummified Fetus, c. 1851

As an aside - the L.A. Times of 25 July 2003 validates the Gestalt of revisionism here: "New Archeological Dating Shakes Early American Migration Theory."

The article reports five most-ancient habitation sites of earliest Americans are up to "4,000 years" older than a likely Siberian site from which they may have migrated. Uski, Siberia, radiocarbon dated at 13,000 B.P., is where the first Americans theoretically originated. The journal Science featured this research, in which co-author Michael Waters says, "We have to think bigger now and start thinking outside the box."

Likewise, mentioning the Inca Dynasty here emphasizes racial anomalies, distinguishing between Manco-capac's race and dolicho-headed descendent Incas. Native traditions describing Manco-capac and his relatives say this first Inca was non-Indian. Consistent with Dr. Tschudi's data is a more recently revisionist account of "thinking outside the box."

In America's Ancient Civilizations (1953), author A. Hyatt Verrill described the Incas as "fair skinned, tall ... and had red or brown hair." Verrill adds, "There is no question that they were of a different and in some ways more intelligent race." Whomever the first Inca was, he was not the first civilizer of Peru. Manco-capac was a reformer who rejuvenated a decadent civilization preceding his arrival. About the Peruvian region, Dr. Tschudi observed, "It is not to be questioned that there existed in Peru, previous to (Manco-capac), a certain degree of culture" ...

Forensic Mockups from Museo De National. Lima, Peru.
In America's Ancient Civilizations (1953), author A. Hyatt Verrill described the Incas as "fair skinned, tall ... and had red or brown hair." Verrill adds, "There is no question that they were of a different and in some ways more intelligent race." Whomever the first Inca was, he was not the first civilizer of Peru. Manco-capac was a reformer who rejuvenated a decadent civilization preceding his arrival. About the Peruvian region, Dr. Tschudi observed, "It is not to be questioned that there existed in Peru, previous to (Manco-capac), a certain degree of culture" ... A.H. Verrill reiterates, "Beyond any doubt this first Inca found Cuzco an inhabited city, for ... there is abundant and incontrovertible evidence to prove that for many centuries before ... Manko-kapak, the Andean region had been occupied by a highly civilized race." Yes, but which race preceded Manco-capac? And if his own non-native race was not the preceding race, nor the Aymaraes, who Manco-capac may have ordained as his royal surrogates - well, all this makes Dr. Tschudi's anomalous dolichohead-race a lot more mysterious.

The Plot Thickens
The oldest pre-Incan city of this region is Tiahuanco, just over the Peruvian border in Bolivia. Re. the age of Tiahuanco - A.H. Verrill quotes archeo-astronomical computations by Prof. Arthur Posnansky.4 Posnansky and others calculated Tiahuanaco was at least the age of pre-dynastic Egypt. Verill also notes, "The extremely great age of (Tiahuanaco) ruins is proved by the discovery of human skulls (there) that have been completely fossilized," now in the La Paz Museum.
A.H. Verrill does not acknowledge the shape of Tiahuanaco skulls. But, in D.H. Childress' article on this topic, he features two good photos of "conehead" skulls recovered at Tiahuanaco. They are displayed in the Tiahuanaco Museum.

Remarkably, the greatest resource for these odd skulls is the Peruvian region. In a chapter titled "Mining For Mummies," Verrill exclaims how resourceful this region is: In Peru, "... most parts of ... the country is one vast cemetery."

"From Ecuador to Chile ... there is scarcely a square mile (not) filled with dead ... so vast was the number of dead buried in Peru that despite all that have been disinterred practically no impression has been made, and what is more, scientists are constantly finding mummies and remains of hitherto unknown races and cultures." (!!) This genetic insight is internally consistent with Von Tschudi's anomalous dolicho-race conclusions. Verill independently confirms, 100 years later, Tschudi's possible claim of examining "hundreds" of ancient Peruvian crania.

Comprehensively, David H. Childress has presented numerous color photos of the many strangely dolichocephalic skulls5 exhibited in museums at Ica and Nazca, Peru; Tiahuanaco and La Paz, Bolivia; Mexico City.

Ironically, none of the skulls unearthed represent the royal Incas themselves. With "nearly six years" of on-site excavation experience, Verrill reported, "no one, as far as known, had ever found one of them ... Why no one had ever found a royal mummy was something of a mystery."

In A.H. Verrill's chapter on excavating Peru as one vast cemetery, not once did he allude to long-headed mummies specifically. His book was published in 1953. In 1954, however, a Peruvian book photographically illustrated just how common the longheads are in the region. This book is, "Las Trepanaciones Craneanas En El Perú En La Epoca pre-Hispanica." It was written, in Spanish, by two professors of medicine at the university in Lima, Peru.6 The subject of this treatise is the medical anthropology of ancient skull surgery: i.e., trepanning. By default, this book provides great affirmative insights into the populous commonality of pronounced dolichocephaly.

Using both photographs and x-ray imaging, Las Trepanaciones shows how routinely trepanning was performed on the Dolicho-races, and others. The chronological distribution of trepanning specimens discussed here spanned from about 1000 B.C. through 1532 AD. Quite an ancient epoch, for such a modern idea. Given postmodern preoccupations with the Human Genome Project - the above begs the question re. recessive dolichocephalic genes in Peruvians today. Genetic research in America shows humans have been there at least 20,000 years. But from where and how old are the dolicho-race?

Before pursuing Mesopotamian evidence, a few correlations about Mexican dolichocephaly. D.H. Childress extensively illustrates the invaluable media of Mesoamerican art forms for documenting the prominence of dolichoheaded peoples there. Frescoes, reliefs and finely carved sculptures call attention to the inter-cultural prominence of the phenomenon; notably in Mexico and Central America.

Childress presents a wealth of dolichocephalic iconography. These multicultural artifacts, however, seem like simply stylistic novelties. They lack authoritative reality reference, affording their anatomical uniqueness. Anthropological writers minimize even head-binding as explaining such imagery.

The working hypothesis of Childress' overview is the same one prevailing in the 1840s: longheads are intentionally "deformed" via head-binding. And, yes, cross-cultural head-binding - like Chinese foot binding - was somewhat common. Thus, how was the transoceanic/transnational "diffusion" of the practice achieved?

  A problem is presuming an ephemeral (mysterious) cosmetic value warrants wrenching an infant's head in a vice for many formative months. This explanation is a bit lacking for inspiring head-binding. Also, with hindsight, mere cosmetic head-binding doesn't seem to explain the apparent cross-cultural popularity the combined multi-cultural evidence will suggest.

Fortunately, we have the professional assurances of an actual racial model for the custom, by Dr. J.J. Von Tschudi, M.D. He authoritatively reported that not only did he possess a mummified 7-month-old dolichocephalic fetus - "enclosed in the womb" - he also declared: "The same proof is to be found in another mummy which exists in the museum of Lima, under the direction of Don M.E. Rivero," co-author of Tschudi's book! The question is - where are these fetal specimens today? Skeletal remains of an anomalous dolicho-race offer a real possibility that exalted racial personages inspired head-binding. This makes sense!

With Tschudi's facts, the iconographic essence of dolichohead art actually becomes genetically symbolic. Once your discernment acclimates to the cranial contours of the skull evidence, the Mayan canon of imagery enlivens with practicality and physiological authenticity; not to mention reverential symbolism, as opposed to cosmetic contrivance. Now, there is an explanatory option with greater common sense. If dolichocephalic races were in Peru long before the Maya, they could have influenced Mesoamerican territory. Instead of skin color being a determining factor in racial diversity, perhaps in ancient times the quality or class of dolichocephaly was a factor?

An enigma in this regard involves the Olmec peoples of Mexico. D.H. Childress' article features an impressive set of jade figurines, all with striking dolichocephaly. These were attributed to the Olmec, most being found in the Olmec center of La Venta. If the figurines represent the Olmec "perceptions of self," they are an enigma because current Afro-centric historians insist the Olmecs were Africoid. This is plausible. The most monolithic of Olmec anthropomorphic sculptures are their 20-50 ton stone heads. And these heads do look negroid - but they are also irreconcilably round; not dolichocephalic, but bracheocephalic! Renowned Maya scholar Michael D. Coe - who excavated Olmec ruins for three seasons - says, the mega-heads are "portraits of their rulers." This may be, but Olmec people were proto-Mayan, going back to 1200 B.C.. If Olmec jade figurines reflect their genetic or mimetic heritage - where else can we find the longheads inspiring Olmec artificial dolichocephaly; certainly not their rulers whose mega-head "portraits" contradict the numerous Olmec conehead figurines.

Old World Discoveries
Italian writer Adriano Forgione has provided a great service by investigating Mediterranean dolichocephaly.7 Evidence Forgione revived derives from archeology in Malta. Preliminary racial estimations, here secured by Forgione, are second only to the same observed in Peru, i.e., the conclusions of Peruvian/New World racial implications by Dr. Von Tschudi.

Discoveries in Maltese temple-tombs at Taxien, Ggantja and Hal Saflieni pose challenges to evolutionary reasoning of "racial" diffusion. The confutation is every bit as penetrating as those demanded by Peruvian data. The pattern of a global dolicho-race presence, itself, seems to be yet another dolichocephalous anomaly. And culturally, the "oldest city in the Americas," is "a massive 4,600-year-old urban center called Caral" in Peru (L.A. Times, 27 April 2001).

As in Peru, Maltese excavations have yielded three classes of skull anomalies:
1. The highly pronounced elongation; i.e., an "above all, strange, lengthened skull, bigger and more peculiar than the others, lacking of the median knitting,"8 or suture, linking bones in the roof of the skull.
2. Skulls which were more "natural" appearing, yet, "still presented pronounced, natural dolichocephalous" shapes "distinctive of an actual race."9 And

From Museo Regional De Ankash. Huaraz, Peru.

3. A significant proportion of "7,000 skeletons dug out of the Hal Saflieni Hypogeum" (subterranean tomb-cellar), exhibiting "artificially performed deformities."10

If "an actual race" can be established in Malta - what was the compelling incentive for non-longhead races to mimic true Maltese longheads? Are the role-models in Peru and Malta the same?

Maltese Dolichorace Possible
The reading of books about the Maltese discoveries inspired A. Forgione in his research. The authors are Maltese doctors named Dr. Anton Mifsud and Dr. Charles Savona Ventura. Forgione went to Malta, and these doctors helped him confirm details of Maltese dolichocephaly. Also, Forgione names two "Maltese archeologists" who affirmed racial implications to him. Archeologists Mark Anthony Mifsud and Anthony Buonanno say, "They are another race although C-14 or DNA exams haven't yet been performed."

Mark Anthony Mifsud is reportedly a museum archeologist at the Maltese Archeological Museum of the Valletta. This is where Maltese dolicho-skulls were housed. Forgione reports that in 1985, this museum removed the remarkable specimens from public display? Were the dolicho-racial implications an anathema to Maltese Christians?

The approximately dated origin for Maltese skulls is c. 2500 B.C.. And, religio-cultural history of Malta is generally accepted among scholars. So, a reasonably estimated age can be deduced for these skulls. This dating era is at least just prior to the occupation of Malta by Phoenicians.

The Maltese skulls were mostly found interred in temple-tombs of goddess worship. The in-house proximity between temples and skulls, circumstantially implies direct links between sacred mystery cults and this possible dolicho-head race. These Mother Goddess temples "were built by villagers living in a genuinely Neolithic (late Stone Age) cultural stage."11 Maltese temples and tombs were megalithic evidence that they "were in part inspired from the centers of civilization" off the islands.12

Thus, we have another developmental correlation: a relationship between a possible elite dolichocephalous race, and megalithic building skills, during an earliest historical epoch. Of course, it's no coincidence that Malta is nearby the heartland of the oldest, most mega-lithic of all stone work, Baalbek; and is also near to the Edenic Genesis point of the oldest civilizations - Sumer/Akkad (Iraq).

The question is, do we find proto-historic dolicho-head peoples in Iraq? Yes, we do!

The Heartland Skulls
Six kilometers east of Mosul, in northern Iraq, is the ancient site of Tell Arpachiyah. In 1933, Max Mallowan excavated numerous graves of two neolithic cultures: the Halaf and al'Ubaid. "These date from approximately 4600 B.C and 4300 B.C, respectively."13 Coincidentally, A. Forgione quotes the megalithic goddess culture epoch of Maltese skulls at 4100 B.C.-2500 B.C..

Evaluations published on Mallowan's excavations report discovery of skulls having a "marked degree of deliberate, artificial deformation." The resulting cranial effects were to create "an elongated skull."14 No coincidence here!

If there is one revelation I've found re. the preeminent cultural pattern of anomalous human head-formation - it is that none of this is at all new. Even to the extent of finding scientific correlations between iconographic images of dolicho-heads on both pottery and "serpentine" goddess figurines. Current revisionists emphasize this correlation, but they did not originate it. Adriano Forgione's working hypothesis contends meaning of head-binding via serpent symbolism of goddess cult priestess/priest emulation. Likewise, in the monograph cited here,15 a similar proposition is made, "... that skull deformation was being used to demarcate a particular elite group, either social or functional," the elite group being a priestly caste.

Mellowan's assessment also says, "A high frequency of genetically determined (skull) traits raises the possibility that the (skulls) represent the remains of an inbred group." Although, there is no supposition re. skull elongation being anything other than artificial. So, this is why revisionism should push the envelope of inadequate paradigms of thought and history, with broader realms of possibility.


The monograph on Mallowan's recoveries16 remarks, "Skull deformation at Arpachiyah appears, on current (1995) knowledge, striking ... Skull deformation seems to occur with regularity at other sites of this general period over a very wide area."17 In fact, this report acknowledges elongated "deformation" of the head as "widely practiced in the eastern Mediterranean region"! Specimens of the anomaly have been "recovered from Jericho, Chalcolithic Byblos, Ganj Dareh, and Ali Kesh." Indeed, it was so "widely practiced" that it was an aged tradition in the three oldest or most architecturally advanced centers of early civilization: Mesopotamia, Peru and Mesoamerica.

Given that the phenomenon is "widely practiced," in the Peruvian region also - the actual anomaly is that it's not an anomaly! Even greater antiquity has been assigned to dolicho-anomalies at Neolithic-Cyprus, Kow Swamp, Australia (13,000 B.P.), "and perhaps 18000-23000 B.P. at Chou Kou Tien, China."18

The Halaf and Ubaid peoples occupied Arpachiyah successively. The Halaf period was c. "5200 B.C. to 4500 B.C"; the Ubaid period c. "4400 B.C.-4200 B.C" To this degree, Mallowan's excavations "were almost exclusively prehistoric." The Halaf people most prominently influenced the northern Euphrates Valley; the al'Ubaid were "who first settled the Euphrates delta lands," far to the south. From these two was conceived the epoch of Sumer, and the earliest advanced forms of civilized achievements.

Sow Sing Gung Chinese gods of Longevity & Wisdom

All this is a backdrop of origination in which to perceive formative roles played out by longhead peoples? In "the eleventh chapter of Genesis ... the significant feature is the tradition which thus ascribed to the Euphrates Valley the distinction of once harboring all mankind in addition to being a cradle of the human race."19 A still raging conjecture re. the "cradle" of humanity is not a point of departure - it's the issue of globally archaic dolichocephaly, in racial and artificial forms, in a nutshell. I.e., by tracing evidence back to prehistoric times - how could the global patterns, or traditions, of headbinding practice become as inter-culturally diffused as they are? Is it because a racial role model - or archetype - was simultaneously pre-existent in all parts of the world where the cranial-mimetics became traditions? Is it also suggestive of a contradiction to evolutionary principles of physiologically adaptive mutation for survival of the species? Appreciation of this question is obvious upon seeing how irregular a case of anomalous dolichocephaly is when viewed; how much of a handicap such a head would present the individual born with it.

After close analysis of the dolicho-skulls found at Arpachiyah, a plausible genetic relationship was determined. This genetic evidence is not as provocative as racial conclusions drawn in Peru; nor the professional hypothesis of a racial presence in Malta. Yet, in its own way, genetic possibilities at Arpachiyah may be just as important overall. Here, "the practice has considerable potential for elitism."20

First, the recoveries of "deformed" dolicho-head specimens tend to be female throughout the Euphrates Valley region and neighboring lands. But, "At Arpachiyah it involves females and males of an apparently inbred lineage that spans the Halaf-Ubaid," both.21 The evidence for this overlapping inbred relationship, between the two peoples, is a congenital dental pattern. I.e., hypodontia: "The congenital absence of third molars," plus "particularly small (reduced) incisors or pre-molars."22

Figurines from Ur, c. 3200 BC.

Realizing that the historical record in the art of Sumerian Ur, illustrates the general labouring public bearing burdens on their heads - having an intentionally deformed cone-head condition would be a counterproductive handicap.

Cosmetically, heads so shaped would secure a signifying look, symbolic of role distinctions and (elite) class. The Malta case corresponds with this perspective. Temple-tomb recoveries in Malta are an ideal setting for emphasizing the inductive logic of such longhead symbolism. A cult-authority symbolism, ascribed to artificial dolichocephaly by practitioners, would seem existentially vital, only by being symbolic per sé. Also, when comparing drawings/photos of Mallowan's Halaf/Ubaid skulls with drawings/engravings of Von Tschudi's Aymaraes skulls, the two sets appear to possess contours of relationship. And the Aymaraes were sacerdotally ordained successors to the first Inka, as the Inka aristocracy. The correlations are many.

The evidence for tribal inbreeding at Arpachiyah, thus suggests the "skulls represent members of a hereditary group or class - priests ... or princes might be considered."23 The possibly votive figurines with elongated-serpentine heads, found in graves of this period, may also symbolize goddess-cult based motivations for headbinding.

At this point in the discussion, cross-cultural facts are mutually self-referential. Imagistic reinforcement of the recognition that actual peoples with elongated or pointed heads were a reality, for a few thousand years, is clear. The effect is a perceptual shift in historical awareness. This sheds a whole new light on arts of this period. It mitigates against the anthropological habit of labeling unrecognizable imagery as mythic. And it would, otherwise, be a misplaced coincidence how consistently a heightened awareness of dolichocephalic imagery applies to both Old and New World culture styles, as noted above re. Mayan art.

In the case of Sumerian/Akkadian/Babylonian art history, the illustrated figures with dissimilar heads assume greater contrast. Especially noticeable are Sumerian statuary and relief carvings, because Sumerians themselves clearly rendered themselves as diminutive, with very round heads. Yet, certain memorialized figures of prominence consistently wear pointed or conical-erect headgear, while in pottery and figurines there are clearly cone-headed images.

The Egyptian Paradox
Correlating dolicho-art from various ancient cultures literally "comes to a head" when we lastly address the Egyptian record (prehistorically known as KMT, or Khemet). If arts are the media-of-record, re. iconic/archetypal dolicho-head symbology - nowhere is the anomalously dolichocephalous image so literally and mystifyingly controversial as it was in Egypitan art history!

Queen Tety-shery, Mother of King Seqenen-ra,
17th Dynasty, Egypt.

The above culture-sets of facts culminate in a paradox of sorts with Egyptian data. In terms of quantity and quality, the best skeletal evidence for an anomalously dolicho-headed race are skulls found in Peru; the best art rendering of same (e.g., sculpture) is from the Amarna Age of Egypt! Even if Egypt's contribution is but artificially symbolic, toward rendering a global pattern of dolichocephalous anomaly, in cultural development - the degree of artifice is revolutionary.

Previously, two revisionist authors have made good hypothetical cases for a possible dolicho-racial presence in ancient Egypt. The two authors are Adriano Forgione (quoted above), and Andrew Collins.24 Both researchers primarily base their theses on the professional archeology of Walter Emery. Emery did original grave excavations of predynastic/early dynastic Upper Egypt, c. 3500-3100 B.C..

Collins and Forgione both quote a salient passage from Emery's book Archaic Egypt. They interpret Emery as qualifying a possible dolichocephalous foreign race influencing Egyptian development. The problem is - Emery does not actually define his anomalous or alien skeletal discoveries in terms required here. What Emery records is his perception of a non-native race, a race "whose skulls were of a greater size and whose bodies were larger than those of the natives."25

Walter Emery's eminent candor is invaluable for understanding racial diversity in Egyptian development. Yet, current revisionist views - as Dr. G. Elliot Smith put it - may "have been led into error by the imperfections in their knowledge of the contents of Predynastic graves."26 The "contents" Smith refers to are what he terms "Proto-Egyptian." Smith and Emery both agreed that clearly non-native peoples fused with native Egyptians in the formative period. The two men drew different views, however. And neither of them reported definitively anomalous dolicho-headed Egyptians - racial or artificial - as reported in Peru or Malta, etc.

G. Elliot Smith was an anatomist doctor, who authored the book The Ancient Egyptians (1923). Smith's "information concerning these earliest inhabitants of the Nile Valley has been acquired from the study of the contents of many thousands of graves." He performed his study between 1901-1908, mostly under direction of Dr. G.A. Reisner. Smith focused on the period 2800-1500 B.C., though Smith said his study at Naga-ed-der was an "extraordinary" resource of skeletons "for the reconstruction of the racial history of one spot during more than 45 centuries."

The bottom line in Smith's clinical second opinion, is that Egyptian cranial variation derives from integrated indigenous heterogeneity of "affiliated peoples." He admits, it's "puzzling" to confront an obvious "paradoxical" picture that bones present. And Smith reports of equivalent evidence, as Emery found later: of "remains examined in Upper Egypt ... a few ... I definitely labeled 'alien' ... and a considerable number in which the head was bigger ... broader, the features finer and the skeletons generally more robust."27

Dr. Smith defines the "alien traits" with osteopathic detail, as Dr. Von Tschudi does in Peru. Smith notes, "cranial form is one of far reaching importance." But he concludes, the "aliens who began to make their way into the Delta from Palestine and Syria about fifty centuries ago all conform to the same racial type, known as ... Armenoid"; not Mediterranean, but from Asia Minor.

After "nine years experience in the Anatomical Department of the School of Medicine in Cairo (Smith had) ... no doubt" the proto-Egyptian was of what he named the "Brown Race"; a non-Negro, non-Semitic race who integrated with these two.

Contrasting Walter Emery, Smith does say, "The people of Upper Egypt were still dolichocephalic at the time of the earliest pyramid-builders; but the inhabitants of Lower Egypt had become mesaticephalic," i.e., their skulls were moderately broadened/shortened. Here, Smith uses "dolichochephalic" in the most general/osteopathic manner - not to confuse Smith's meaning with Dr. Von Tschudi's connotation.

The possibility of applying Smith's dolicho-"Proto-Egyptian" (c. 3400 B.C.) as an inductive clarifier for explaining the following cultural anomaly, I leave to the reader ...

Here, the Egyptian evidence for cross-cultural continuity, re: an anomalously-dolichocephalic race, becomes even more paradoxical because it manifests in art - not mummies. I refer here to the classically dolicho-anomalous sculptures of Pharaoh Akhenaten, his family, and others.

Akhenaten (1378 B.C.) is a major revolutionary figure in both ancient religio-history and art history. I culminate the foregoing pattern of racial/cultural evidence with Akhenaten's imagistic legacy.

One of Akhenaten's daughters.
Akhenaten, and especially his daughters, were memorialized in sculpted-stone as being inexplicably or anomalously dolichocephalous. Ironically, a revolution in Egyptian art, towards more adept realism, was decreed/inspired by Akhenaten. Thus, there was a controversy about the reasoning in how he and his family are portrayed: given the topical evidence here, the Amarna stone portraits are too good to be true. If the goal of Akhenaten's art policy was greater realism, Egyptologists can't reconcile the peculiar way they were sculpted. As described in The Amarna Age by Rev. James Baikie, "The heads are ... of Akhenaten ... (and) statuettes of Queen Nefertiti, of extraordinary realism ... the princesses, of astonishing charm ... the art of the Armana Age ... unfortunately ... the whole school ... has been prejudiced by one unlucky peculiarity ... due to Akhenaten's exaggeration ... It would seem that among the features of his abnormality were an unusual development of the cranium ... Professor Elliot Smith has suggested that these abnormal features are ... of ... disease ..."28

Such were the Egyptological views in the years prior to our opportunity now, for revising provincial biases with appreciation of interconnected global findings, both old and new.

I would agree that lacking skeletal insights availed in Peru and Mesoamerica, the portraitures of Akhenaten, et al., would be reasonably inexplicable.

However, the global variety of culturo-skeletal evidence does exist. It affords a sea-change in identifying the plausible logic that Akhenaten was genetically related to elite lineages of non-linear/cultural co-creators. A non-linear lineage is meant in the sense that traditional accounts about various pre-dynastic culture phases identify non-native figures who were like mentors for what was developed. Further, I mean to define the elite dolicho-racial co-creators as subordinates; not originators of prerequisite civilizing knowledge, but ordained managers. The resource base for future developments in our proto-historical past was the same as the future world economic basis of today: "A knowledge based economic structure." The people possessing the "knowledge" were the traditional figures known as Wira Kocha, Quetzalcoatl, Yahweh (Elohim), Kukulcan, Osiris, Sargon of Agade, et al. From these creators came the archetypal arcana of the previous cycle. And in their hands manifest an ultimate art form - not diversities of arts and styles comprising cultures, but entire panoramas of cultural permutation in which a civilized-culture and its inhabitants are themselves the art form! It is this perspective that logically explains why, in all the most highly evolved archaic civilizations, forms of the pyramid are outstanding landmarks of continuity.

The rational minds of modern historical analysis expect archaic developments to be logically linear, from simple to complex. But, traditional accounts of archaic origins contradict this linear presumption. Thus, data which doesn't fit the preconception is classified as Myth.

The Reality Of Akhenaten's Realism
In summing up the in-depth pattern of evidence cited above, an obvious detail is conspicuously absent: academic authorities have enigmatically failed to recognize the pattern in their own data. In turn, Pharaoh Akhenaten's historical irony here begs the absent question. Explain why this apparently "self-centered egoist"29 pharaoh chose memorializing his "ungainly and malformed"30 image as - of all things - anomalously dolichocephalic? The pattern of facts re Akhenaten is a set of scholarly documented facts, not revisionist facts ...

A precept basic to Egyptian dynastic history is that, as a ruler, "Akhenaten was himself a god, as his forefathers had been." 31 Thus, Akhenaten's conscious immortalization of his station, "High Priest of Rę," with emphatically sculpted head "deformity," should color how he was symbolizing his lineage and image of authority. His logical purpose also, at least, paid lip service to ma'at - a principle of "truth and justice," indispensable for canonizing his historical moment. But, the truth or reality of Akhenaten's sculpted realism should not nowadays be limited, as it is, to theories re however hollow were his moral intentions. Such theories exclude potential insights availed by the global pattern of facts, amassed by archeologists, and itemized here.

The cross-cultural or skeletal/cultural evidence - now - demands an alternative worldview perspective: i.e., the issue of Akhenaten's sculpted-realism is not a question of what is truthful or deceitful. The question is, what is memory and what time is it in which Akhenaten insisted upon being remembered as anomalously coneheaded, not to mention his family as well?

Egyptologists accept Akhenaten as being actually "deformed," by disease or genetics. Yet, his case is crucial to our perspective here, regardless of whether his deformity was anomalously natural or artificial. Also, Akhenaten's mummy has apparently never been recovered for verification. So, if perhaps he was not dolichocephalous at all, his image would be even more symbolic.

It would be surely fortuitous to physically confirm Akhenaten was as his portraiture exhibits. However, given the significance of cited cross-civilizational anthropological correlations - Akhenaten's stone images sufficiently keep a memory alive: headbinding traditions of artificial dolichocephaly were rooted in archaic meaning. This tradition was globally longstanding prior to Akhenaten's life. Thus, his decree to render his memorial in this manner reminds the viewer of headbinding history, its symbology and possible racial connectedness. Today, Akhenaten's exaggerated image is the memory that headbinding existed before and long after his reign. Cultural-continuity of this tradition in America proves this. Our reported plethora of historic correlations make the symbolic agency of Akhenaten and his family a quite unlikely coincidence in art. And deducting a symbolic value for the headbinding tradition may be oddly facilitated by Akhenaten's own sacerdotal exclamation point, placed upon a logical racial model for headbinding. As pharaoh, Akhenaten was a revolutionary High Priest of Rę. His heresy may very well have been a conflict of interest between his revived priestly race, and the dynastic race theorized by Egyptologists.

In each case of discovery cited above, the role of a priestly-class figures in the set of correlations. Adriano Forgione, cited above, presents one of the most direct associations between evidence for racially distinct dolicho-skulls and Maltese temples. Forgione's hypothesis re Akhenaten is that the pharaoh-priest's religious reformations were "aimed to restore an ancient order" of theocratic guidance. The Maltese case for dolicho-priest influence seems to have died out centuries before. Such a scenario does lend greater logic to Akhenaten's sacerdotal reforms and imagistic legacy. And yet, dolicho-racial evidence consistently points to a priestly-order heritage, not a dynastic race per sé.
Pharaoh Sneferu Bas-relief, Peruvian Dolicho-head Mockups, and Assyrian Bas-relief.

Intelligent Capability vs. Applied Wisdom
Here, we digress to establish the logic that priestly-classes became surrogates for "gods," whom cultural traditions credit giving the gifts of civilizing wisdom to archaic peoples.

Among Egyptologists, evidence for a dynastic race in Egypt is well known. Dr. G. Elliot Smith, cited above, devotes his entire book, The Ancient Egyptians, toward refuting the view that a foreign dynastic race inspired Egyptian developments; that was in 1923. Since then, Mesopotamian discoveries have conclusively antedated Egypt in "cradling" first civil achievements: writing, schools, bicameral congress, social reforms, law codes, etc. Thus, some sort of cultural diffusion of influence is more than plausible - yet, perhaps not on the scale which dynastic race is defined by Egyptologists.

For those not familiar with the "dynastic race" thesis, I quote a colleague of Dr. G. Elliot Smith. D.E. Derry wrote in The Journal of Egyptian Archeology (1956) a survey of skeletal remains. Derry said, skulls "... (of) Predynastic people ... under no circumstances could we consider them to be the same race" as the clearly larger headed bodies also found buried in Egypt. Derry continues, "It is also very suggestive of the presence of a dominant race, perhaps relatively few in numbers but greatly exceeding the original inhabitants in intelligence; a race which brought into Egypt the knowledge of building in stone, of sculpture, painting, reliefs, and above all writing; hence the enormous jump from the primitive predynastic Egyptian to the advanced civilization of the Old Empire."

Notice, Derry did not say "the advanced civilization" culminated, after a few thousand years of advancement, in the New Kingdom or even Middle Kingdom - but "Old Empire" (kingdom). In terms of megalithic architecture, the "Old Empire" was more advanced - in orders of magnitude - than the rest of Egyptian history. A paradox!

Leaving aside all judgmental biases re "race" and "intelligence," from Derry's quote, a passage is salient to our revisionism here: "A dominant race, perhaps relatively few in numbers but greatly exceeding ... in intelligence." However, the issue of intelligence would be more comprehensively precise when substituted with learned application of wisdom. Derry's survey deduced a practical correlation between people with larger skulls/brains and presumably higher intelligence. This could very well be - but simply the issue of intelligence is not sufficient for explaining how a nearly archaic capability, by "original inhabitants" of early dynastic times, applied themselves in realizing certain early achievements. "Intelligence" is simply a potential or capability.

Meanwhile, within a period of only about 210 years, Egyptians built the most enduring, monumental megalithic and fully realized true pyramids, culminating in the Great Pyramid c. 2480 B.C.! Where did the template of experience in execution of concept and social organization for this learning curve come from? Where did the masonic wisdom of workmanship perform its apprenticeship? As Dr. Ahmed Fakhry put it in his book The Pyramids: Wondering how the Great Pyramid was built, "Even equipped with modern tools and instruments, and profiting from nearly five thousand years of experience, architects and engineers today might well quail if called upon to erect a duplicate"(!) Yet, early dynastic Egyptians - recently having left archaic primitivism - simultaneously embarked on a sort of systems theory approach to learning the organizational and technical skills, while applying them, with artful precision. This, of course, makes no evolutionary sense, as inferred by Dr. Fakhry's challenge. And for skeptics who deny some sort of outside source of knowledge influence in Egypt: absence of evidence, is not evidence of absence!

The answer lies in common sense: "The fund of technical knowledge" for these megalithic pursuits was based on wise and ordered preconception. Planning is logically rooted in what the capabilities are; in this case, holistic, systematic wisdom of experience and pre-existent know-how. And through the agency of a perceived "god," a dynastic race ordained by the "god," or other, thus originated developments in Egypt; as they originated in other proto-civilizational centers under identical circumstances.

An understatement of scholarly authority in this regard, by archeologist Dr. I.E.S. Edwards, illustrates how the principle here has been perceived by academics. Commenting on an earliest pyramid complex enigma, Pharaoh Djoser's Step Pyramid, Edwards disclaims: "Doubts have sometimes been entertained whether so high a degree of architectural perfection could have been achieved without having been preceded by a long process of development. There is, however, no evidence that stone had been employed in an earlier building ... Moreover, the Step Pyramid (Third Dynasty) displays many features which suggest that its builders lacked experience in the use of stone." If the Step Pyramid is a sort of prototype complex beginning what is called The Pyramid Age - prototypical flaws or shortcuts would be expected. The hands-on labor of actually piecing the complex together was done by the early dynastic natives, in transition from archaic unsophistication. Flaws notwithstanding, the point of revisionism regards a knowledge-base that the Paleolithic, Neolithic, Archaic/Predynastic epochs did not prepare natives to possess. This knowledge-base of expertise is the "efficient process indicative of careful planning, centralized decision-making, and mobilization of a large labor force."32 And such were the same prerequisite organizational structures in place when the oldest New World civilization of Caral was built by archaic Peruvians. Caral was an irrigation-based society featuring a large multi-pyramidal mound complex. It was built coincidental with the early phase of the Egyptian Pyramid Age, c. 2627 B.C.!

Returning to the thesis of D.E. Derry - he proposes the influence of "... a ... race, perhaps relatively few in numbers ..." Taking Derry's deduction further, our revisionism concludes that these "few in numbers" were knowledge bearers, not an invading horde of master masons. Thus, the building shortcuts I.E.S. Edwards reports in the Step Pyramid can be fairly indicative of a learning curve: e.g., the technique in building, plans of which a knowledge-race logically instilled in actual laborers. This plausibility would reconcile the views of Derry and Edwards, since - of this "remarkable" Step Pyramid edifice by the ancient Egyptians - Edwards implies a paradox by affirming, "No other known pyramid was surrounded with such an array of imposing buildings."33

Some researchers contend the Old Kingdom was not a beginning. Rather, it was a culmination of thousands of years of prehistoric civilizing. In this case, Edwards confirms the archaic people had accrued little mastery of masonic skill - cultural developments yes, but not a systems-set of megalithic building industry skills. Then, a quantum leap in wisdom and capability appeared ...

Myth Is Memory; Myth Is History
Simply taking for granted implicit levels of social organization required in megalithic construction is inadequate. And presuming a sudden leap in intelligence or know-how, by "primitives" in such ancient times, is simplistic. Especially in Egypt, capabilities which Egyptians had were paradoxically combined with a perfected wisdom of planning. Somehow the route to Egyptian perfection provided this evolutionarily elusive shortcut.

In choices and technique, the greatest Egyptian achievements came at the earliest dynastic period. Coincidentally, Egyptian traditions recount how this was realized. However, the prerequisite for presently appreciating Egyptian traditions is to de-mythologize them. And, of course, the ‘Father of Modern Archeology’ himself, Heinrich Schliemann (1822-90), began the science by demythologizing Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, thus locating the historical site of Mysian Troas, or Troy.

Archeologist T.C. Lethbridge, formerly of the Cambridge Archeology Museum, suggested an alternative perception of mythologized traditions. Lethbridge concluded that the traditional enigma of instructional "gods," is that the traditions are histories. Myths were historical memories of possible relationships, which tradition holders were at a loss to totally comprehend. An example is the account of Ptah, one of Egypt's greatest "gods." Ptah was a creator of things. In the Pyramid Text of Teta, Ptah is the owner of a "workshop." He was a great worker in metals, a master architect. Egyptologists consider Ptah mythological. Yet, it is Ptah to whom Egyptians credit giving them their cultural knowledge. What is interesting, is that the early Egyptians created the greatest of all megalithic wonders of the world - the Great Pyramid - and never, in all Egyptian texts, do they take credit for it? What they do is defer to an archetype/role model for having given them basic knowledge.

Ptah was one of a certain group of beings called the Seven Wise Ones. These bearers of knowledge presided over bringing learning and letters to the predynastic archaic people. Another example of Egyptians deferring the potential of their own capabilities involves Osiris. Lewis Spence described this principle of learned "outsourcing" in his book The Myths of Ancient Egypt: "So ... good ... and so pleasant were his methods of instilling knowledge into the minds of the barbarians, that they worshipped the very ground whereon he trod." Common sense should tell us that any people who can realize the greatest civil engineering projects on a grand scale, and in an ancient age with no machines or electricity - such people are certainly intelligent enough to preserve memories of their own history in terms which they do have capacities to comprehend. The myth is actually their history: Seven wise and learned people remarkably impressed natives at a pre-literate stage of development. Out of this globally duplicated relationship was co-created the artforms-of civilized Egypt; civilized Peru; civilized Sumer; civilized Tiahuanaco, etc.

This is a fine-tuning of what D.E. Derry is quoted saying above. He perceived a likely connection between skulls of a larger headed race and, thus, knowledge and capability "greatly exceeding the original "proto-dynastic Egyptians. For Derry, the logic of this equation seemed scientifically more rational than the myth: "instilling knowledge into the minds" of un-learned peoples attributed to a mythic allegory. However, the global pattern of traditional histories are consistent. Archaic cultural accounts of non-native knowledge sources demand revisionist considerations. This New and Old-world constant, among emergent civilizations, and rooted in an actual non-native involvement, has a parallel. Mythologist Joseph Campbell discerned this - that cultures worldwide possessed origination knowledge essentially the same, including a biblical-type flood. And this tradition of knowledge-outsourcing would logically apply to the mystery-rites for merging science with theology, by the Egyptian priestly-class, in their theological colleges ...

At this point we return to interconnected correlations linking sacerdotal knowledge with a distinct race: The Dolichocephaloids. But, first, one more point about historical reckoning.

Censorship By Omission and the Double-Bind
Throughout the formative era of modern archeology, the "science" of excavation recovered invaluable historical insights. The facts, however, cannot impart their service of enlightenment, when politically acceptable artifacts become marketable commodities for the politicized worldviews affecting research funding. This has happened. Numerous published books document the wealth of anomalous artifacts compiled for decades. But these out-of-place artifacts are exactly that - inaccessible to researchers with revisionist perspectives.

Such disservices of archeological pursuits is why revisioning the "conventional wisdom" of interpretation is increasingly vital to historical clarification. Within the halls of academia, the biases of prevailing worldviews predictably translate into intractable impediments to fair reporting; to open-door policies of artifact accessibility.

The political climate of 21st Century academia is in this way constrained by ideologies of politically correct interpretations. Summarizing briefly, the effects of this constraint is known as "the double-bind." The double-bind is where people aspire to careers which demand commitment to ideologies of conventional wisdom. And as a result of their co-dependency with the prevailing worldview of their career relationship - the people become incapable of being able to accurately describe their own system. This loss of perspective has led to censorship by omission. It is why revisionism is valid and necessary.

As erudite and eloquent as academic scholars are, in their limit-set of ancient historical perceptions, they remain hopelessly at odds with their explanatory reasoning; their explanatory model: on one hand, they give archaic peoples the benefit of presumptive doubt, i.e., monumental short term leaps in expertise produced incomparable achievements (e.g., pyramid complexes in Peru, Central America, Mexico, Egypt, even China). On the other hand - when faced with traditional native accounts of who and how native funds of knowledge were provided to them - the rational moderns dismiss symbolic historicity of traditions as a primitive Mythos. Archaic peoples possessed very symbolic worldviews of perception. Moderns have digressively become alienated from perceptual symbology, in the occult sense.

If no other system is more universally constant among the ancients, worldwide, it is the symbology of their worldviews. And for all practical purposes, today, modern sensibility does not identify with a personal symbolic connectedness. As Marshall McLuhan has so rigorously shown, the moderns or postmoderns of today advocate a worldview whose universal constant is social-fragmentation! As this management force of fragmentation has spread, the modern system undermined the sanctity of old percepts. Long ago, then, the value-set of symbols passed into the limbo of the forgotten lost.

Having become alienated from a living-comprehension of symbolic reality, has left archeologists groping and rationalizing a mytholo-genesis when interpreting archaic worldviews. In Mayan rebus texts, or the Sumerian texts, the oral traditions and hieroglyphics of Peruvians, or Egyptian texts, modern perception cannot penetrate symbolic mysteries encrypted within. It has been tried. But as Lewis Spence states, "Regarding the Egyptian mysteries but little is known" - that is, known to the uninitiated profane.

Dr. Albert Churchward put it well in his book The Origin and Evolution of Freemasonry: "No better definition of 'myth' or 'mythology' could be given than is conveyed by the Egyptian word 'Sem.' This signifies 'representation on the ground of likeness,' which led to all the forms of Sign Language that ever could be employed." If the ancient texts were anything, they were a Sign Language. And they were authored for preserving the gnosis of transformative domains at all levels of being. The universally ancient wisdom seen in these texts, was also a gnosis which archaic primitives should have been too rudimentary to author. Thus, in the Egyptian case, they credit Ptah, Osiris, Horus, et al., while the Popular Science of cosmetic archeology obscures mythic-history as fabled or fictitious legend. Presumptive conclusions are presented as facts about how developments originated.

What the legends of Ptah or Osiris say is that knowledge was passed onto common people in a Master/initiate relationship. As time ensued, those men taught by the wise ones, or sages, became priests. It will be an issue of priests and wisdom which will bring us back to the Dolichocephaloids.

From the perspective of occult arcana, Ancient Wisdom was ancient already in the earliest epochs of civilization. A symbolized reckoning of their history would be normal for the protoliterate sensibilities of people at that time. Symbolizing an ancient wisdom, entering the history of archaic people, would seem paradoxically odd in its sophistication to moderns. And an alternative perspective on this sophistication is warranted, given recent discoveries. To paraphrase Lewis Spence, on various theories for penetrating the systematic depth of nuance comprising Egyptian myth, he concedes the following insight: "If these qualities and circumstances are not allegorical ... a much more ingenious hypothesis than the above (The Myths of Ancient Egypt) will be necessary to account for their mythological connection." Yes, and the comprehension of occult knowledge is required for such an "ingenious hypothesis," for understanding the mysteries of Egyptian and other symbolized theologies. Occult knowledge is what is lacking in archeology!

The organized understanding of natural mysteries was, and is, knowledge of power. So, in the original cultural contexts, this knowledge was veiled in a universally symbolic language. Thus, wise or initiated people might read it throughout the ages. However, the precepts of wisdom inherent in the veiled mysteries were also written in parable and allegory for unlettered, uninitiated people, generally. Therefore, words of power could be kept from abuse, yet the wise precepts would dissipate the archaic ignorance of civilized origins. This definitive system of preservation is what the "experts" are not prepared (initiated) to apprehend! Nor would they divulge the specifics or the historical implications if they did apprehend the system. Experts are stuck on the allegorical version of mythic-history.

Meanwhile, in Egypt, colleges for the priesthood formally institutionalized the principles of unifying spirit and matter. The unity of human relationship, born out of the history of Ancient Wisdom, was the Master/instructor: pupil/initiate paradigm. And the unity in human endeavor, born out of the historical wisdom, was merging science and theology. This perspective explains the Chief Architect of Pharaoh Djoser's Step Pyramid also having the title of High Priest of Heliopolis; he was also Chief Ritualist and Overseer of Works of Upper and Lower Egypt...

Tradition Was the Persistence of Memory
The revisionist authors credited above unanimously identify dolicho-head people as fraternally allied with orders of the serpent cult. Evidence for this is plausible. The question, is whether the serpentine qualities of wisdom and/or evil are either symbolic or anthropomorphic in origins?


Here, the concern is more general. In each case of dolicho-skull discovery above, there clearly exists some apparent context plus affiliation between these people, and circumstances of priest-craft. The Mayan vase depiction of an initiation ceremony by dolichocephalous priests (shown here) is an example. Pharaoh Akhenaten, described in detail, seemed to go out of his way to identify his lasting, anomalous, dolicho-head image with his High Priest-King status. A point for reconciling the odd anatomy with priesthood, is that dolicho-heads were wise and knowledgeable about the mysteries; e.g., the Sumerian tradition of how "kingship was lowered from heaven."

The only persuasive logic for explaining Akhenaten's (family) image, is the constant evidence finding anatomy and priestship in consort. Regarding sacerdotal connections, the emphasis here introduces a more substantive racial possibility for origins of anomalous dolichocephaly. It could be that dolicho-people inherited an ancient predisposition for priestcraft. Thus, the inherent or inherited memory of associating dolicho-priests with influential knowledge and wisdom would have imprinted psyches of common peoples. And their traditions of headbinding would logically symbolize their persistence of such memory ...

Enigma of a New World Tradition
In America, the mythic-proportions, or tradition, of dolicho-priest memory persisted into the 19th century. In conclusion here, an extensive set of direct observations will be quoted by a witness of American dolicho-headbinding tradition. The witness was explorer/illustrator, George Catlin. "Written during eight years travel amongst the wildest tribes ... in North America," Catlin self-published his self-illustrated history: 'North American Indians,' 1832-1839. This two volume book was published by the author at the Egyptian Hall, London, 1841.

The insights of value provided here by George Catlin are due to the questions he posed, not the certainty of his solutions! Rather than proclaiming his discovery of why the backward natives "deformed" their own heads - it is the expression of Catlin's vexation, when facing the enigma of the custom, that illuminates the nexus between headbinding and racial dolichocephaly!

Catlin poignantly and bluntly stated what would be "conventional wisdom" of the time. In so doing, Catlin's response to the "utterly ridiculous" headbinding practice also demonstrated a paradox of his time. With hindsight, the evidence presented at the beginning of our discussion, by Dr. J.J. Von Tschudi, is Catlin's counterpart in this paradox. Tschudi's dolicho-race discovery now can be recognized as research occurring simultaneous to Catlin's publishing, and ultimately provides explanatory clarification of questions Catlin felt were unanswerable ...

Catlin observed that the "Flathead" tribe is "A very numerous people living along the Columbia River (Washington State) ... they have undoubtedly got their name from the custom of flattening the head ...

"The Nez Perce's ... are a part of this tribe ... though they are seldom known to flatten the head like those (living) about the mouth of the (Columbia) river ..."

The Chinooks "... are almost the only people who strictly adhere to the custom of squeezing and flattening the head ...

"... This process is seemingly a very cruel one .... done in earliest infancy ...

"By this remarkable operation, those who have the head flattened, are in no way inferior in intellectual powers ...

"This mode of flattening the head is certainly one of the most unaccountable, as well as unmeaning customs, found amongst the North American Indians. What it could have originated in, or for what purpose, other than mere useless fashion, it could have been invented, no human being can probably ever tell. The Indians have many curious and ridiculous fashions, which have come into existence, no doubt, by accident, and are of no earthly use (like many silly fashions in enlightened society), yet they are perpetuated much longer, and that only because their ancestors practiced them in ages gone by ... for which the inquisitive world, I am sure, may forever look in vain to this stupid and useless fashion, that has most unfortunately been engendered on these ignorant people, whose superstition forbids them to lay it down." (Italics added.)

"It is a curious fact ... that these people have not been alone in this strange custom; but that it existed and was practiced precisely the same, until recently, amongst Choctaws and Chickasaws ... of Mississippi and Alabama ... and hundreds of their skulls have been procured, bearing incontrovertible evidence of a similar treatment, with similar results."

"... The distance of the Choctaws from the country of the Chinooks is ... between two and three thousand miles; and there being ... no probability that any two tribes in a state of Nature, would ever hit upon so peculiar an absurdity, we come, whether willingly or not, to the conclusion, that these tribes must at some former period, have lived neighbors to each other, or have been parts of the same family ... (and this) carries a strong argument ... furnishing proof of the very great tenacity these people have for their peculiar customs."

Re Catlin's conclusive observation of the "tenacity" with which natives preserved their headbinding tradition, this sums up a revised perception that the custom reflected the persistence of archaic memory. Judgmental though he was, Catlin's criticism of headbinding underscores the logical missing link for recognizing headbinding for what it symbolized.

In a word, the insight linking the ancient custom with symbolic purpose, persisting in value, would be iconic and racial. It would not be as it appeared, cosmetic "fashion," because native peoples place an existential premium on wisdom.

And, as the evidence worldwide shows (e.g., Dr. Tschudi in Peru), the facts of knowledge, wisdom and priesthood are essential to identifying the dolichocephalous anomaly.

With this, we arrive at the greatest enigma of all. Wherefrom and when did the coneheads originate? Is there a regular appearance of these anomalous-headed people found in routine archeological excavations? No! Has National Geographic published a detailed photo-spread on the dolicho-skulls - as yet another case of cultural-minutia; and if N.G. did so report, what evolutionary "spin" would they place on the evidence? Alas, inductive reasoning suggests the following.

Given provoking Egyptian correlations cited above, it is here, in this epochal nexus of influences, the most likely source for dolicho-head racial history may be - coincidentally - located. The global connotation of anomalously-racial-dolichocephaly may logically be linked to a global history reportedly given to Athenian statesman Solon (c. 575 B.C.) by Egyptian priests.

From the 55 dialogues of Plato, The Timaeus dialogue imparts Solon's account. During his extended visit to the Egyptian city of Sais, Solon was "very honorably received." Solon reportedly declared "that neither himself, nor any one of the Greeks ... had any knowledge of very remote antiquity ... 'I mean the traditions, ... covering after the deluge'... upon this, one of those more ancient priests exclaimed, 'O Solon, Solon, you Greeks are always children, ... Because all your souls are juvenile; neither containing any ancient opinion derived from remote tradition, nor any discipline hoary from its existence in former periods of time. But the reason for this is the multitude and variety of destructions of the human race, which formerly have been ... And from these causes the most ancient traditions are preserved in our country ... whatever has been transacted either by us, or by you, or in any other place ... of which we have heard the report, every thing of this kind is to be found described in our temples, and preserved to the present day ...

'The transactions, therefore, O Solon, which you relate from your antiquities, differ very little from puerile fables. For, ... you only mention one deluge of the earth, when at the same time many have happened. And, ... you are ignorant of a most illustrious and excellent race of men, who once inhabited your country ... For prior, O Solon, to that mighty deluge ... a city of Athenians existed ... by a priority to ours of a thousand years, receiving the seed of your race from Vulcan and the Earth ... For at that time the Atlantic sea was navigable, and had an island ... this island was greater than both Libya and all Asia together ... In this Atlantic island a combination of kings was formed, ... and, besides this, subjected to their dominion all Libya, as far as to Egypt...'" This last point, re dominion over all Libya as far as Egypt, is a related antediluvian detail. It affords a more practical, de-mythed, solution to the "extremely obscure" origins of Osiris - as Lewis Spence said of Osiris. Spence took issue with a theory re Osiris held by three most eminent Egyptologists, Budge, Brugsch and Maspero. The theory is that Osiris is a water-god of the Nile. Dr. Budge professes that all texts show Osiris originating in Northeast Africa, possibly Libya. Spence saw contradiction here: "If Osiris is a god of the Nile alone, why import him from the Libyan desert, which boasts of no rivers? River gods do not as a rule emanate from regions of sand."34 Not unless the excluded point here is that in remote antediluvian antiquity, the whole Libyan region was paternalized by wiser-"god"-like people from an antediluvian civilization. And the aforementioned Solon credited Egyptian priests with clarifying for him the same Libyan connection as a revised version of Earth history. (A whole book of Libyan connections with an antediluvian civilization can be found in Atlantis in Andalucia, E.M. Whishaw 1929.)

Without naming it specifically, this Egyptian "tradition" of Atlantis is attributed to a sequence of sources (Plato, back to Priests of Sais) to whom our classicists would deem impeccably credible - had the historical subject been any other. Yet, once again, the historical coincidence is too consistent and unexpected, whereas a detailed accent on Atlantis is declared via Plato by Egyptian Priests, 500 years B.C.. Because, as you recall, it was eminent Egyptologist I.E.S. Edwards who acknowledged the "doubts ... (as to) whether so high a degree of (Egyptian) architectural perfection could have been achieved without having been preceded by a long process of development." Since Edwards reports no evidence of such a "long period of development" - the logical source, for megalithic expertise and wisdom, should be hypothesized as coming from the source in remote history recounted to Solon by Egyptian Priests: Atlantis. Likewise, with the possible dolichocephalous race. They are definitively linked to the centers of birthing post-diluvian civilizations, but limited in numbers. It is therefore logical that the Atlantis myth is actually the history accounting for the priestly-knowledge of which the dolicho-heads became proponents, worldwide.

From Museo De National. Lima, Peru.

Assertions above intend to establish a basis for progressing beyond our popular historical paradigm. Recognizing unforeseen patterns of circumstantial fundamentals, quite worthy of shifting the paradigm, can now be greatly enhanced in our information environment.

In this vein, an addendum of recent anthropological discovery is offered. Coinciding with the writing of this article, the new discovery deserves being illuminated with much more comprehensive perception than afforded by popular evolution.

This new discovery does not directly involve a race of dolichocephaloids. However, a profound insight into the historical memory imbedded in "myth" & legend is availed by the discovery. And we have already cited the value of revisiting myth as history, not fictitious tradition.

On 28 October 2004, "experts in human origins" were quoted in both Nature Magazine and the Los Angeles Times. The subject was "the most important - and surprising - human find in the last 50 years." Previously unknown humans have been found. They were unique enough to qualify for being an entirely separate species because they were "barely three feet tall"! They were much smaller than pygmies.

Classified as Homo floresiensis, their skeletal remains were recovered on the Indonesian island of Flores. Found near the skeletons was "evidence of stone tools." Artifacts, therefore, suggest that "despite their small brains," these people "commanded fire, cooked ... and demonstrated other basic" human behaviors. Their brains were but one-third that of some Homo erectus brains. Among other crucial circumstances, H. floresiensis facts are congruent with evidence for antediluvian origins of cultural-dolichocephaly: e.g., an important correlation occurs with H. floresiensis dating. Researchers deduce that "the entire population [became extinct] after a massive volcanic eruption 12,000 years ago blanketed the region with ash ... This is remarkably recent," said archeologist Michael J. Morwood. Yet, the more elucidating fact of "Flores Man" is that the skeletons "were so new that the bones had yet to actually fossilize." Catastrophic dating and absent fossilization, dovetails well with antedeluvian origins of dolicho-racial culture at Tiahuanaco. Why? As emphasized by A. Hyatt Verrill, cited above, "The extremely great age of [Tiahuanaco] is proved by the discovery of human skulls that have been completely fossilized. They are now [1953] in the museum at La Paz." It is also clear that dolicho-skulls are exhibited in museums at La Paz and Tiahuanaco.

If H. floresiensis remains are not petrified, then plausible reports of fossilized skulls at Tiahuanaco call into question the "evolutionary" parameters for qualifying the dating of "primitive" and "civilized." A.H. Verrill credits Prof. Arthur Posnansky with applying archeoastronomical formulas for dating the earliest Tiahuanaco to between 9,300 years and 14,600 years. This would make fossilized Tiahuanacan inhabitants contemporaries of "Flores Man," at the time of the catastrophe; a catastrophe coinciding with the mythic destruction of the Atlantean final phase.

It would not be unreasonable here to deconstruct some mythological implications re "Flores Man." Dating of the specimens spans a period from "95,000 years" to "about 12,000 years ago." Since Homo sapiens lived coincident in time, such a long period is sufficient for initiating legends/myths about encounters with the "Flores" people: legends giving way to oral traditions about "the little people," "faeries," the "Nature sprites." Homo sapiens (moderns) also inhabited the Flores region for tens of thousands of years. We have the myths, and now we have a physical reason to apprehend historic fact imbedded therein.

In The Story of Atlantis by W. Scott-Elliot (1896), the author provides four large, detailed maps. The maps chart the reconfigured land masses of the Atlantean domain, subsequent to catastrophic change. Remarkably, the final earth-change was dated at 11,564 years ago - rather close to the incident that experts presume to have caused the "Flores Man" extinction.


In W. Scott-Elliot's map titled "The World ... up to the Catastrophe of About 80,000 Years Ago," there is another coincidence. The charted period of 200,000 to 80,000 B.P. was the Atlantean epoch of Ruta & Daitya. Scott-Elliot's charting of this period shows the entire Sumatran/Indonesian archipelago being solid contiguous land, thus suggesting that "Flores Man" could have originated on what is now the mainland.
Lastly, if miniature "Flores Man" has finally been found to exist, the opposite can surely be regarded as reasonable: i.e., the legends/myths of true giants. Because absence of evidence is not evidence of absence! This is a proven principle by the self-proclaimed expert opinion regarding the "comes out of nowhere" uniqueness of discovering "Flores Man."

Biblical accounts of (mythic) giants are apocryphal, at best, in the eyes of rationalists. Yet, between the King James and the Revised Versions of the Bible, giants are referred to 14 times. The Scripture speaks of the Giants who lived prior to the flood. The Hebrews named them the Nephilim ..., or, as Genesis, Chapter 6, describes them: Those Who Have Come Down, from the Heaven to Earth. This description adds a whole other dimension of revisionist purpose and necessity. For purposes here, however, we must remain limited to what "science" is capable of contributing, in its mode of insight by default.

If faerie-sized humans are possible, so are giants. The L.A. Times article above even explains why giants are possible: "Experts said, ... the pattern of evolutionary biology documented among other species, [shows that] in long-term isolation [creatures] often breed into extremely large or small versions of their ... relatives." And there have been many unofficial reports of finding giant sized human bones. The problem with evolutionism is that anomalous evidence is systematically rejected! Evolutionary theory cannot be reasoned as viable because of such rejection. The reported wealth of rejected anomalies has been relegated to the status of politically motivated data denial. No science can survive by ignoring and denying substantial proportions of its own data! ...
Meanwhile - as of 9 November 2004, the local public school district in Cobb County, Georgia was being sued for disclaiming a need to think critically about evolution.

A sticker was placed on the inside cover of a biology textbook. It reads: "This textbook contains material on evolution. Evolution is a theory, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things. This material should be approached with an open mind, studied carefully, and critically considered."

This sentiment of critical review is precisely what has motivated the research presented here. The Cobb County disclaimer on evolution is a position the author here emphatically agrees with - but not for reasons doctrinaire to orthodox religious creationists.


* Original color plates by Shawn Atlanti.
1. Childress, David Hatcher. The Coneheads of Peru, World Explorer Magazine.
Kempton, Il: World Explorers Club, Vol. 3, No. 4.
2. Forgione, Adriano. Malta: The Skulls of the Mother Goddess, Hera Magazine.
Rome, Italy.
3. Collins, Andrew. Gods of Eden. London: Headline Book Pub., 1998.
4. Posnansky, Arthur. Tiahuanacu. New York: J.J. Augustin, 1946.
5. Id.
6. Grańa, Francisco, Dr.; Rocca, Esteban D., Dr. Las Trepanaciones Craneanas
En El Peru En La Epoca pre-Hispanica
. Lima: Imprenta Santa Maria, 1954.
7. Id.
8. Id.
9. Id.
10. Id.
11. Hawkes, Jacquetta; Woolley, Leonard. Prehistory and the Beginnings of
. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.
12. Ibid.
13. Campbell, Stuart; Molleson, Theya. Deformed Skulls at Tell Arpachiyah: The
Social Context; The Archeology of Death in the Ancient Near East
. USA:
Oxbow Monograph 51, 1995.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. Jastrow, Jr., Morris. The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria. Philadelphia
and London: J.B. Lippincott, 1915.
20. Id.
21. Id.
22. Id.
23. Id.
24. Id.
25. Id.
26. Smith, G. Elliot, Dr. The Ancient Egyptians. London and New York:
Harper, 1923.
27. Ibid.
28. Baikie, Rev. James. The Amarna Age. New York: MacMillan, 1926.
29. Hawkes, Jacquetta; Woolley, Leonard. Prehistory and the Beginnings of
. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.
30. Ibid.
31. Ibid.
32. Maugh, Thomas H. Site in Peru Marks Oldest City in Americas. Los Angeles
Times, 27 April 2001.
33. Edwards, I.E.S. The Pyramids of Egypt. England and USA: Penguin Books
Ltd., 1947, 1961.
34. Spence, Lewis. Myths and Legends of Ancient Egypt. New York: Frederick A.
Stokes Co., printed in England.

© 2003 Joan D'Arc. No graphics or text may be reproduced without the permission of the owner.


Table of Gods

Chapter Four

"As if the similarities of the genealogies and warfare between the Greek and Hindu gods were not enough, tablets discovered in the Hittite royal archives (at a site nowadays called Boghazkoi) contained more tales of the same story: how, as one generation waned unto the other, one god fought another for supremacy.

"The longest texts discovered dealt, as could be expected, with the Hittite supreme deity Teshub: his genealogy, his rightful assumption of dominion over Earth’s upper regions, and the battles launched against him by the god KUMARBI and his offspring. As in the Greek and Egyptian tales, the avenger of Kumarbi was hidden with the aid of allied gods until he grew up somewhere in a "dark-hued" part of Earth. The final battles raged in the skies and in the seas; in one battle Teshub was supported by seventy gods riding in their chariots. At first defeated and either hiding or exiled, Teshub finally faced his challenger in god-to-god combat. Armed with the "Thunder-Stormer which scatters the rocks for ninety furlongs" and "the Lightning which flashes frightfully," he ascended skyward in his chariot, pulled by two gold-plated Bulls of Heaven, and "from the sky he set his face" toward his enemy. Though the fragmented tablets lack the tale’s ending, it is evident that Teshub was finally victorious.

"Who were these ancient gods, who fought each other for supremacy and sought dominion over Earth by pitting nation against nation?

"Fittingly, perhaps, treaties that had ended some of the very wars launched by men for their gods provide important clues.

"When the Egyptians and the Hittites made peace after more than two centuries of warfare, it was sealed by the marriage of the daughter of the Hittite king Hattusilish III to the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II. The Pharaoh recorded the event on commemorative stelas which he placed at Kamak, at Elephantine near Aswan and at Abu Simbel.

Pharaoh Ramses II had refused accepting the texts of the Peace Treaty from king Hattusilish, but the king decided finally to send his elder daughter to him with tributes and accompanied by nobles. The Pharaoh, he at once fell in love.

"....Two copies, one almost complete, the other fragmentary, have been discovered, deciphered, and translated by Egyptologists. As a result we not only have the full text of the Treaty but also know that the Hittite king wrote down the Treaty in the Akkadian language, which was then (as French was a century and two ago) the common language of international relations. To the Pharaoh he sent a copy of the Akkadian original written on a silver tablet, which the Egyptian inscription at Kamak described thus:

What is in the middle of the tablet of silver, on the front side:

Figures consisting of an image of Seth, embracing a figure of the Great Prince of Hatti, surrounded by a border with the words "the seal of Seth, ruler of the sky; "the seal of the regulation which Hattusilish made". . .

What is within that which surrounds the image of the seal of Seth on the other side:

Figures consisting of a female image of the goddess of Hatti embracing a female image of the Princes of Hatti, surrounded by a border with the words "the seal of the Ra of the town of Arinna, the lord of the land". . .

What is within the [frame] surrounding the figures: the seal of Ra of Arinna, the lord of every land.

"In the royal Hittite archives, archaeologists have in fact discovered royal seals depicting the chief Hittite deity embracing the Hittite king, exactly as described in the Egyptian record, even including the inscription surrounding the border of the seal....

"But the Hittite texts called their chief deity Teshub not "Seth of Hatti." Since Teshub meant "Windy Storm," and Seth (to judge by his Greek name Typhon) meant "Fierce Wind," it appeared that the Egyptians and Hittites were matching their pantheons according to the epithet-names of their gods.

"....The Egyptians and the Hittites, it became evident, were matching separate, but parallel, pantheons; and scholars began to wonder what other ancient treaties would reveal. One that provided surprising information was the treaty made circa 1350 B.C. between the Hittite king Shuppilulima and Mattiwaza, king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni, which was situated on the Euphrates river midway between the Land of the Hittites and the ancient lands of Sumer and Akkad.

"....As all treaties in those days, the one between the Hittite and Mitannian kings also ended with a call upon "the gods of the contracting parties to be present, to listen and to serve as witnesses," so that adherence to the treaty shall bring divine bliss, and its violation the wrath of the gods.

"....As other discovered texts proved, the Hittite pantheon was in fact borrowed from (or through) the Hurrians. But this particular treaty held a special surprise: toward the end of the tablet, among the divine witnesses, there were also listed Mitra-ash, Uruwana, Indar, and the Nashatiyanu gods - the very Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and the Nasaya gods of the Hindu pantheon!

"Which of the three - Hittite, Hindu, Hurrian - was then the common source? The answer was provided in the same Hittite-Mitannian treaty: none of them; for those so-called "Aryan" gods were listed in the treaty together with their parents and grandparents, the "Olden Gods,":

the couples Anu and Antu, Enlil and his spouse Ninlil, Ea and his wife Damkina; as well as "the divine Sin, lord of the oath . . . Nergal of Kutha . . . the warrior god Ninurta . . . the warlike Ishtar."

"These are familiar names; they had been involved in earlier days by Sargon of Akkad, who had claimed that he was "overseer of Ishtar, anointed priest of Anu, great righteous shepherd of Enlil."

  • "His grandson Naram-Sin ("Whom the god Sin Loves") could attack the Cedar Mountain when the god Nergal "opened the path" for him

  • Hammurabi of Babylon marched against other lands "on the command of Anu, with Enlil advancing in front of the army"

  • The Assyrian king Tiglat-Pileser went conquering on the command of Anu, Adad, and Ninurta

  • Shalmaneser fought with weapons provided by Nergal

  • Esarhaddon was accompanied by Ishtar on his march to Nineveh

"No less illuminating was the discovery that the Hittites and the Hurrians, though they pronounced the deities’ names in their own language, wrote the names employing Sumerian script; even the "divine" determinative used was the Sumerian DIN.GIR, literally meaning "The Righteous Ones" (DIN) "Of the Rocketship."

"....By the time the Hittites and their writings were reclaimed from oblivion, scholars had already determined that before the Hittite and Egyptian civilizations, before Assyria and Babylon, even before Akkad, there arose in southern Mesopotamia the high civilization of Sumer. All the others were offshoots of that first-known civilization.

"And it is by now established beyond doubt that it was in Sumer that the tales of gods and men were first recorded.... It was that numerous texts - more numerous that can be imagined, more detailed than could be expected - were first inscribed. It was there that the written records of history and prehistory on our planet Earth had originated. We call them THE EARTH CHRONICLES.

"The discovery and understanding of the ancient civilizations has been a process of continuous astonishment, of incredible realizations. The monuments of antiquity -pyramids, ziggurats, vast platforms, columned ruins, carved stones - would have remained enigmas, mute evidence to bygone events, were it not for the Written Word. Were it not for that, the ancient monuments would have remained puzzles: their age uncertain; their creators obscure; their purpose unclear.

"We owe what we know to the ancient scribes - a prolific and meticulous lot, who used monuments, artifacts, foundation stones, bricks, utensils, weapons of any conceivable material, as inviting slates on which to write down names and record events. Above all there were the clay tablets: flattened pieces of wet clay, some small enough to be held in the palm of the hand, on which the scribe deftly embossed with a stylus the symbols that formed syllables, words, and sentences. Then the tablet would be left to dry (or be kiln-dried), and a permanent record had been created - a record that has survived millennia of natural erosion and human destructiveness.

"In place after place - in centers of commerce or administration, in temples and palaces, in all parts of the ancient Near East - there were both state and private archives full of such tablets, and there were also actual libraries where the tablets, tens of thousands of them, were neatly arranged by subject, their contents entitled, their scribed named, their sequel numbered. Invariably, whenever they dealt with history or science or the gods, they were identified as copies of earlier tablets, tablets in the "olden language."

"Astounded as the archaeologists were to uncover the grandeur of Assyria and Babylonia, they were even more puzzled to read in their inscriptions of "olden cities." And what was the meaning of the title "king of Sumer and Akkad" that the kings of these empires coveted so much?

"It was only with the discovery of the records concerning Sargon of Agade that modern scholars were able to convince themselves that a great kingdom, the Kingdom of Akkad, had indeed arisen in Mesopotamia half a millennium before Assyria and Babylonia were to flourish. It was with the greatest amazement that scholars read in these records that Sargon "defeated Uruk and tore down its wall . . . Sargon, king of Agade, was victorious over the inhabitants of Ur. . . He defeated E-Nimmar and tore down its wall and defeated its territory from Lagash as far as the sea. His weapons he washed in the sea. In the battle with the inhabitants of Umma he was victorious..."

"The scholars were incredulous: Could there have been urban centers, walled cities, even before Sargon of Agade, even before 2500 B.C.?

"As is now known, indeed there were. These were the cities and urban centers of Sumer, the "Sumer" in the title "king of Sumer and Akkad." It was, as a century of archaeological discoveries and scholarly research has established, the land where Civilization began nearly six thousand years ago; when suddenly and inexplicably, as though out of nowhere, there appeared:

  • a written language and literature

  • kings and priests

  • schools and temples

  • doctors and astronomers

  • high rise buildings, canals, docks, and ships

  • an intensive agriculture

  • an advance metallurgy

  • a textile industry

  • trade and commerce

  • laws and concepts of justice and morality

  • cosmological theories

  • tales and records of history and prehistory

"In all these writings, be it an epic tale or two-line proverbs, in inscriptions mundane or divine, the same facts emerge as an unshakable tenet of the Sumerians and the peoples that followed them: in bygone days, the DIN.GIR - "The Righteous Ones of the Rocketships," the beings the Greeks began to call "gods" - had come to Earth from their own planet. . . The Akkadian name, Shumer, meant "Land of the Guardians."

"....The statement that the first to establish settlements on Earth were astronauts from another planet was not lightly made by the Sumerians. In text after text, whenever the starting point was recalled, it was always this: 432,000 years before the Deluge, the DIN.GIR (Righteous Ones of the Rocketships) came down from their own planet. The Sumerians considered it a twelfth member of our Solar System - a system made up of the Sun in the center, the Moon, all the nine planets we know of today, and one more planet whose orbit lasts a Sar, 3,600 Earth-years.... This orbit, they wrote, takes the planet to a "station" in the distant heavens, then brings it back to Earth’s vicinity, crossing between Mars and Jupiter. It was in that position - as depicted in a 4,500 year-old Sumerian drawing that the planet obtained its name NIBIRU ("Crossing") and its symbol, the Cross.

"The leader of the astronauts who had come to Earth from Nibiru, we know from numerous ancient texts, was called E.A ("Whose House Is Water"); after he had landed and established Eridu, the First Earth Station, he assumed the title EN.KI ("Lord of Earth")....

"A text that was discovered in the ruins of Sumer describes Ea’s efforts to build extraordinary waterworks in the marshlands at the head of the Persian Gulf.... He built his Water House, with a wharf and other facilities.

"It all had a reason. On his planet gold was needed. Not for jewelry or other frivolous use, for at no time during the millennium that followed were these visitors to Earth ever shown wearing golden jewelry. Gold was, no doubt, required for the space programs of the Nibiruans, as is evident from the Hindu texts’ referenced to the celestial chariots being covered with gold; indeed, gold is vital to many aspects of the space instruments and vehicles of our own times. But that alone could not have been the reason for the intensity of the Nibiruans’ search for gold on Earth and their immense efforts to obtain it here and transfer it in large quantities to their own planet. The metal with its unique properties, was needed back home for a vital need, affecting the very survival of life on that planet; as best as we can make out, this vital need could have been for suspending the gold particles in Nibiru’s waning atmosphere and thus shield it from critical dissipation.

"....Back on the home planet, where Enki’s father AN (Anu in Akkadian) was the ruler, the progress of the landing parties was followed with anxiety and expectation. This must have turned to impatience at the slow progress, and then to disappointment. Evidently the scheme to extract gold from seawaters by laboratory-like processes did not work as expected.

"But the gold was still badly needed; and the Anunnaki faced a tough decision: to abandon the project - which was out of the question - or to try to get the gold in a new way: mining. For gold, the Anunnaki knew by then, was naturally available in abundance in the AB.ZU ("The Primeval Source") on the continent of Africa.

"....The far-reaching decision to change from the sophisticated water-treatment process to a backbreaking toil below the surface of the earth was not lightly taken. Anu (Enki’s father), felt that he (Enki), could not take charge. Anu "came to Earth to see things for himself. He came down accompanied by the Hair Apparent EN.LIL ("Lord of the Command") - a son who, Anu must have felt, could take charge of Earth mission and organize the gold deliveries to Nibiru.

"The choice of Enlil for the mission might have been a necessary one, but it must have been an agonizing one as well, for it only sharpened the rivalry and jealousy between the two half-brothers. For Enki was the first son of Anu by Id, one of his six concubines.... but Enlil was son of Anu by his half-sister wife Antum.... And by the Nibiruan rules of succession, Enlil became the legal heir instead of Enki. And now this rival, this robber of Enki’s birthright, came to Earth to take over the command!

"One cannot stress enough the importance of lineage and genealogy in the Wars of the Gods; the struggles for succession and supremacy, on Nibiru as on Earth later on.

"Indeed, as we unravel the puzzling persistence and ferocity of the wars of the gods, trying to fit them into the framework of history and prehistory - a task never undertaken before - it becomes clear that they stemmed for a code of sexual behavior based not on morality but on considerations of genetic purity. At the core of these wars lay an intricate genealogy that determined hierarchy and succession; and sexual acts were judge not by their tenderness or violence but by their purpose and outcome.

Continuing from the theme of genealogy, Mr. Sitchin gives a few examples (in his book) involving the gods and goddesses and their romances, and rules, among brothers and half-sister wives, concubines and marriage. Then he continues:

"....Because of the importance of the family relationships between these great Anunnaki, many so-called God Lists prepared by ancient scribes were genealogical in nature. In one such major list, titled by the ancient scribes the "An : ilu Anum" series, there are listed the "forty-two fore-parents of Enlil," clearly arranged as twenty-one divine couples. This must have a mark of great royal lineage, for two similar documents for Anu also list his twenty-one ancestral couples on Nibiru. We learn that the parents of Anu were AN.SHAR.GAL, ("Great Prince of Heaven") and KI.SHAR.GAL, ("Great Princess of Firm Ground"). As their names indicate, they were not the reigning couple on Nibiru: rather, the father was the Great Prince, meaning the heir apparent; and his spouse was a great princess, the firstborn daughter of the ruler (by a different wife) and thus a half-sister of Anshargal.

"In these genealogical facts lies the key of the understanding of the events on Nibiru before the landing on Earth, and on Earth thereafter.

"Sending Ea to Earth for gold implies that the Nibiruans had already been aware of the metal’s availability on Earth well before the landing was launched. How?

"One could offer several answers: They could have probed Earth with unmanned satellites, as we have been doing to other planets in our Solar System. They could have surveyed Earth by landing on it, as we have done on our Moon. Indeed, their landing on Mars cannot be ruled out as we read texts dealing with the space voyages from Nibiru to Earth.

"Whether and when such manned premeditated landings on Earth had taken place, we do not know. But there does exist an ancient chronicle dealing with an earlier landing in dramatic circumstances: when the deposed ruler of Nibiru escaped to Earth in his spacecraft!

"The event must have happened before Ea was sent to Earth by his father, for it was through that event that Anu became Nibiru’s ruler. Indeed the event was the usurpation of the throne on Nibiru by Anu.

"The information is contained in a text whose Hittite version has been titled by scholars Kingship in Heaven. It throws light on life at the royal court of Nibiru and tells a tale of betrayal and usurpation worthy of a Shakespearean plot. It reveals that when the time for succession arrived on Nibiru - through natural death or otherwise - it was not Anshargal, Anu’s father and the heir apparent, who had ascended the throne. Instead a relative named Alalu (Alalush in the Hittite text) became the ruler.

"As a gesture of reconciliation or by custom, Alalu appointed Anu as his cup-bearer, an honored and trusted position also known to us from several Near Eastern texts and royal depictions. But after nine Nibiruan years, Anu (Anush in the Hittite text) "gave battle to Alalu" and deposed him.

"....It was then, the ancient text tells us that the dramatic flight to Earth had occurred:

Alalu was defeated , he fled before Anush -
Down he descended to the dark-hued Earth.
Anush took his seat upon the throne.

"While it is quite possible that much about Earth and its resources may have been known on Nibiru even before Alalu’s flight, the fact is that we do have in this tale a record of the arrival on Earth of a spaceship bearing Nibiruans before Ea’s mission to Earth. The Sumerian King Lists report that the first administrator of Eridu was called Alulim - a name that could have been yet another epithet for Ea/Enki, or the Sumerian rendering of Alalu’s name; the possibility thus comes to mind that, though deposed, Alalu was sufficiently concern about Nibiru’s fate to advise his deposer that he had found gold in Earth’s waters. That this is indeed what had happened might be indicated by the fact that a reconciliation between deposer and deposed did ensue; for Anu went ahead and appointed Kumarbi, a grandson of Alalu, to be his royal cup-bearer.

But Kumarbi could not forget that Anu had usurped the throne off his grandfather.
This fact brought strife for Anu.
So when Anu left Nibiru for Earth, to inspect the mission, he took Kumarbi with him.

Mr. Sitchin continues:

"The decision to bring Enlil to Earth and put him in charge led to heated arguments with Enki.... The angry Enki threatened to leave Earth and return to Nibiru, but could he be trusted not to usurp the throne there? If, as a compromise, Anu himself were to stay on Earth, appointing Enlil as surrogate ruler on Nibiru, could Enlil be trusted to step down when Anu returned? Finally it was decided to draw lots: let chance determine how it shall be. One of the longest Earth Chronicles, a text called The Atra-Hasis Epic, records the drawing of lots and its outcome:

The gods clasped hands together,
then cast lots and divided:
Anu to heaven went up;
To Enlil the Earth was made subject;
That which the sea as a loop encloses,
they gave to the prince Enki.
To the Abzu Enki went down,
assumed the rulership of the Abzu.

"Believing that he had managed to separate the rival brothers, "Anu to Heaven went up." But in the skies above Earth, an unexpected turn of events awaited him. Perhaps as a precaution, Kumarbi was left on the space platform orbiting Earth; when Anu returned to it, ready to take off to the long voyage back to Nibiru, he was confronted by an angry Kumarbi.

They fought face to face, and Kumarbi was victorious.

"Disgraced and in pain, Anu took off on his way to Nibiru, leaving Kumarbi behind with the astronauts manning the space platform and shuttlecraft.

"After Anu had left, Earth Mission was launched in earnest.... There, additional settlements were established in accordance with a master plan laid out by Enlil, as part of a complete organizational plan of action and clear-cut procedures:

"Each of these pre-Diluvial settlements in Mesopotamia had a specific function, revealed by its name:

  • E.RI.DU "House in Faraway Built" - the gold extracting facility by the water’s edge.

  • BAD.TIBIRA "Bright Place Where the Ores Are Made Final" - the metallurgical center for smeltering and refining.

  • LA.RA.AK "Seeing the Bright Glow" - was a beacon-city to guide the landing shuttlecraft.

  • SIPPAR "Bird City" - was the Landing Place

  • SHU.RUK.PAK "The Place of Utmost Well-Being" - was equipped as a medical center; it was put in the charge of SUD ("She Who Resuscitates"), a half sister of both Enki and Enlil.

  • LA.AR.SA ("Seeing the Red Light"), was also built, for the complex operation depended on close coordination between the Anunnaki who had landed on Earth and 300 astronauts, called IGI.GI ("Those Who See and Observe"), who remained in constant Earth orbit.

Acting as intermediaries between Earth and Nibiru, the Igigi stayed in Earth’s skies on orbiting platforms, to which the processed ores were delivered from Earth by shuttlecraft, thereafter to be transferred to proper spaceships, who could ferry the gold to the Home Planet as it periodically neared Earth in its vast elliptical orbit. Astronauts and equipment were delivered to Earth by the same stages, in reverse.

Enlil proceeded to build and equip a Mission control Center:

  • "NIBRU.KI ("The Earth-Place of Nibiru") - Nippur in Akkadian. There, atop an artificially raised platform equipped with antennas - the prototype of the Mesopotamian "Towers of Babel" - was a secret chamber, the DIR.GA ("Dark, Glowing Chamber") where space charts ("the emblems of the stars") were displayed and where the DUR.AN.KI (Bond Heaven-Earth") was maintained.

"The Chronicles have asserted that the first settlements of the Anunnaki on Earth were "laid out as centers." To this enigmatic statement was added the puzzle of the claim by post-Diluvial kings that in reestablishing in Sumer the cities wiped out by the Flood, they had followed,

The everlasting ground plan,
that which for all time
the construction has determined.
It is the one which bears
the drawing from the Olden Times
and the writing of the Upper Heaven.

"The puzzle will be solved if we mark those first cities established by Enki and Enlil on the region’s map and connect them with concentric circles. They were indeed "laid out as centers": all were equidistant from the Mission control Center in Nippur. It was indeed a plan "from Upper Heaven," for it made sense only to those who could view the whole Near East from high above Earth. Choosing the twin-peaked Mount Ararat - the area’s most conspicuous feature - as their landmark, they placed the space port where the north line based on Ararat crossed the visible Euphrates River. In this "everlasting ground plan," all the cities were arranged as an arrow, marking out the Landing Path to the Spaceport at Sippar.

"The periodic deliveries of gold to Nibiru mitigated the concerns, even the rivalries, on that planet, for Anu stayed on as its ruler for a long time thereafter, but on Earth all the main actors were present on the "dark-hued" stage to give vent to every imaginable emotion and to incredible conflicts.


Chapter Five

"Anu’s first visit to Earth and the decisions then reached set the course of events on Earth for all the millennia that followed. In time they led to the creation of The Adam - Man as we know him, Homo sapiens; they also planted the seeds of future conflict on Earth between Enlil and Enki and their descendants.

"But first there were the lingering and bitter struggles between the House of Anu and the House of Alalu, an enmity that burst out on Earth into the War of Titans. It was a war that pitted "the gods who are in heaven" against the "gods who are upon dark-hued Earth", it was, in its last climactic phase, an uprising of the Igigi!

"That it had taken place in the early days of the settlement of the Nibiruans on Earth and in the aftermath of Anu’s first visit to Earth, we know from the Kingship in Heaven text....

It is augmented and continued in several other Hittite/Hurrian texts, which scholars call collectively The Kumarbi Cycle.

"....We do learn that after the passage of some time.... Kumarbi came down to Earth. For reasons that may have been explained in missing parts of the texts, he went to Ea in the Abzu.

There was conflict between Kumarbi and the Storm God Teshub, who according to the Sumerians was Enlil’s younger son Ishkur/Adad. Kumarbi went to consult Ea.

"Ea suggested that Kumarbi "ascend to heaven" and seek the help of Lama, who was "mother of the two gods" and thus, apparently, an ancestral matriarch of the two contesting dynasties. With some self-interest, Ea offered to transport Kumarbi to the Celestial Abode in his MAR.GID.DA (celestial chariot) which the Akkadians called Ti-ia-ri-ta, "the flying vehicle." But the goddess, having found out that Ea was coming without the permission of the Assembly of the Gods, sent "lightning winds" against Ea’s spacecraft, forcing him and Kumarbi to return to Earth.

"But rather than go down all the way, Kumarbi chose to stay with the orbiting gods whom the Hittite/Hurrian text calls Irsirra ("Those Who See and Orbit"), the Sumerian IGI.GI.

The essence of his thoughts was that he should be proclaimed "the father of all the gods," the supreme deity!

"Gaining the backing of the orbiting Irsirra gods, Kumarbi "put swift shoes on his feet" and flew down to Earth. There he sent his emissary to the other leading gods, demanding that they recognize his supremacy.

"It was then that Anu decided that enough was enough. To vanquish once and for all the grandson of his adversary Alalu, Anu ordered his own grandson, the "Storm God" Teshub, to find Kumarbi and kill him.

After terrible battles between terrestrial gods led by Teshub and the sky-borne gods led by Kumarbi, Teshub prevailed. But according to additional Hittite epic tales in the Kumarbi Cycle, it is said that he impregnated a goddess of the mountain, and the child "Stone God" Ullikumi was borne and instructed to destroy Teshub and to take the throne by force on Nibiru.

As Ullikumi grew up he made ready to attack Teshub. He had assumed giant proportions.

"Realizing there was no alternative to battle, Teshub readied his chariot for combat; the Hittite text calls it by its Sumerian name ID.DUG.GA, "The Flowing Leaden Rider."

The instructions for outfitting the celestial chariot, for which the Hittite text heavily employed the original Sumerian terminology, merit quoting. They called for revving up the vehicle with the "Great Cracker"; attaching the "Bull" (power-plant) that "Lights Up" in front and the "Bull for Lofty Missile" in the back end; installing the radarlike or navigational device "That Which Shows The Way" in the forepart; activating the instruments with the powerful energy "Stones" (minerals); and then arming the vehicle with the "Storm Thunderer," loading it with no less than eight hundred "Fire Stones."

"....After the initial unsuccessful attacks, Ninurta, the brother of Teshub/Adad, joined the battles. But the Stone god remained unharmed and carried the battle to the very gates of Kummiya, the Storm God’s city.

There, Hebat, Teshub’s spouse had been listening to the messages of Teshub, and all the gods, and the progress of the battle, but Ullikummi’s missiles forced her out. Believing her husband was dead, she sent her messenger where all the gods were assembled to bring news back of the battle.

"....But Teshub had not been killed. Advised by his attendant to hide at some mountainous sites, he refused: If we do that, he said, "there will be no king in Heaven!" The two then decided to go to Ea in the Abzu, to seek there an oracle according to "the old tablets with the words of fate."

"Realizing that Kumarbi had brought forth a monster that was getting out of hand, Ea went to Enlil to warn him of the danger: "Ullikummi will block off the Heaven and the god’s holy houses!" An assembly of the Great Anunnaki was called. With all at a loss for a solution, Ea had one: From the scale storehouse of the "stone cutters," let them bring out a certain Olden Metal Cutter and let them cut under the feet of Ullikummi the Stone God.

"When this was achieved, the Stone God was crippled.... But Ullikummi was still defiant, declaring: "Kummiya I shall destroy, the Sacred House I shall take over, the gods I shall drive out... up to Heaven I shall go to assume Kingship!"

"The closing lines of the Hittite epic are completely damaged; but can we doubt that they told us the Sanskrit tale of the final battle between Indra and the "demon" Vritra?

And then was seen a dreadful sight,
when god and demon met in fight.
His sharpened missiles Vritra shot,
his thunderbolts and lightnings hot . . .
The lightnings then began to flash,
the direful thunderbolts to crash,
by Indra proudly hurled . . .
And soon the knell of Vritra’s doom
was sounded by the clang and boom
of Indra’s iron shower.
Pierced, cloven, crushed, with horrid yell
the dying demon headlong fell . . .
And Indra smote him with a bolt
between the shoulders.

"These, we believe, were the battles of the "gods" and the Titans of the Greek tales. No one has yet found the meaning of "Titans"; but if the tales had a Sumerian origin, and if so did these gods’ name, then TI.TA.AN in Sumerian would have literally meant "Those Who in Heaven Live" - precisely the designation of the Igigi led by Kumarbi; and their adversaries were the Anunnaki "Who are on Earth."

"Sumerian texts indeed record an olden life-and-death battle between a grandson of Anu and a "demon" of a different clan; the tale is known as The Myth of Zu. Its hero is Ninurta, Enlil’s son by his half-sister Sud; it could well have been the original tale from which the Hindu tales were borrowed.

"....In Nippur, there, atop a raised platform was the DIR.GA room, the most restricted "holy of holies" where the vital celestial charts and orbital data panels - the "Tablets of Destinies" - were installed.

"It was into this sacred chamber that a god named Zu gained access, seizing the vital tablets and thereby holding in his hands the fate of the Anunnaki on Earth and of Nibiru itself.

"By combining portions of Old Babylonian and Assyrian versions of the Sumerian text, a good deal of the tale has been restored. But damaged portions still held the secret of Zu’s true identity, as well as an explanation of how he had gained access to the Dirga....

"....In Sumerian the name Zu meant "He Who Knows," one expert in certain knowledge. Several references to the evil hero of this tale as AN.ZU - "He Who Knows the Heavens" suggest a connection with the space program that had linked Earth with Nibiru; and the now-restored beginning of the chronicle indeed relates how Zu, an orphan, was adopted by the astronauts who manned the shuttlecraft and orbiting platforms, the Igigi - learning from them the secrets of the heavens and of space travel.

Continuing with the subject of the Igigi....

"The action begins as the Igigi, "being gathered from all parts," decided to make an appeal to Enlil. Their complaint was that "until that time for the Igigi a break-taking place had not yet been built." In other words, there simply was no facility on Earth for the rest and recreation of the Igigi, where they could relax from the rigors of space and its weightlessness. To voice their complaint they selected Zu to be their spokesman, sending him to Enlil’s center in Nippur.

"Enlil, "the father of the gods , in the Dur-An-Ki, saw him, and thought of what they [the Igigi] said." As "in his mind he pondered" the request, "he studied the heavenly Zu closely."

Who, after all, was this emissary, not one of the astronauts and yet wearing their uniform? As his suspicions grew, Ea - aware of Zu’s true ancestry - spoke up; he suggested to Enlil that a decision on the request of the Igigi could be postponed if Zu were delayed at Enlil’s headquarters. "Your service let him enter," Ea said to Enlil; "in the sanctuary, to the innermost seat, let him be the one to block the way."

"....And so it was, with Ea’s connivance, that an adversary god - a secret descendant of Alalu - was admitted to Enlil’s innermost and most sensitive chamber. We read that there Zu "constantly views Enlil, the father of the gods, the god of Bond-Heaven-Earth . . . his celestial Tablet of Destinies Zu constantly views." And soon a scheme took shape: "the removal of the Enlilship he conceives in his heart."

"....Zu saw his chance one day as Enlil went to take a cooling swim. "He seized the Tablet of Destinies in his hands" and in his Bird "took off and flew to safety in the HUR.SAG.MU" ("Mountain of the Sky-Chambers"). No sooner had this happened than everything came to a standstill:

Suspended were the divine formulas;
The lighted brightness petered out;
Silence prevailed.
In space, the Igigi were confounded;
The sanctuary’s brilliance was taken off.

"....Anu on Nibiru was also informed. It was clear that Zu must be captured and the Tablet of Destinies restored to the Dir-ga. But who will do it?

"....Ninurta, Enlil’s legal heir, stepped forth to undertake the task, for - as his mother Sud had pointed out, Zu deprived not only Enlil but also Ninurta of the "Enlilship."

Ninurta and Zu engaged in a "terrifying war, a fierce battle":

Zu and Ninurta met at the mountainside. (Mount Hazzi)
When Zu perceived him, he broke out in rage.
With his Brilliance, he made the mountain
bright as daylight;
He let loose rays in a rage.

"....But Ninurta continued to "advance aggressively" against Zu."

Ninurta, however, was not able to vanquish Zu in his attempt.

"....Stalemated, Ninurta asked his younger brother Ishkur/Adad to obtain the advice of Enlil. "Ishkur, the prince, took the report, the news of the battle he reported to Enlil."

"Enlil instructed Ishkur to go back and tell Ninurta: "In the battle do not tire, prove thy strength!" More practically, he sent Ninurta a tillu - a missile to attach to the Stormer that shoots the projectiles.

With this Ninurta "attacked Zu as suggested by his father.... by aiming at the "pinions" of Zu’s Whirlwind.... Zu was captured and brought back before Enlil in Nippur; the Tablet of Destinies was reinstalled where it belonged; "Lordship again entered the Ekur, the Divine Formulas were returned."

"The captured Zu was put on trial before a court-martial consisting of the Seven Great Anunnaki; he was found guilty and sentenced to death; Ninurta, his vanquisher "cut his throat."

"....The defeat of Zu lingered in the memory of the Anunnaki as a great deliverance. Perhaps because of the assumption that the spirit of Zu - representing betrayal, duplicity, and all evil in general - persists in causing ill and suffering, the trial and execution of Zu were transmitted to mankind’s generations in the form of an elaborate ritual. In this annual commemoration a bull was chosen to stand for Zu and atone for his evil deed.

"Long instructions for the ritual have been found in both Babylonian and Assyrian versions, all indicating their earlier Sumerian source. After extensive preparations, a "great bull, strong bull who treads upon clean pastures," was brought into the temple and purified on the first day of a certain month. It was then whispered into the bull’s left ear through a reed tube: "Bull, the guilty Zu are you"; and into the right ear: "Bull, you have been chosen for the rite and the ceremonies." On the fifteenth day the bull was brought before the images of "the Seven Gods Who Judge" and the symbols of the twelve celestial bodies of the Solar System.

"The trial of Zu was then reenacted, the bull was put down before Enlil, "the Great Shepherd." The accusing priest recited rhetorical accusasional questions, as though addressed to Enlil: How could you have given "the store treasure" to the enemy? How could you have let him to come and dwell in the "pure place"? How could he gain access to your quarters? Then the play acting called for Ea and other gods to beseech Enlil to calm himself, for Ninurta had stepped forward and asked his father: "Point my hands in the right direction! Give me the right words of command!"

"Following this recital of the evidence given at the trial, judgment was passed. As the bull was being slaughtered in accord with detailed instructions, the priests recited the bull’s verdict: his liver was to be boiled in a sacrificial kettle; his skin and muscles were to be burned inside the temple; but his "evil tongue shall remain outside."

"Then the priests playing the role of the other gods, broke out in a hymn of praise to Ninurta.

"....The conspiracy of Zu and his evil plotting remained also in mankind’s memory, evolving into a fear of birdlike demons who can cause affliction and pestilence. Some of these demons were called Lillu, a term that played on the double meaning "to howl" and "of the night"; their female leader, Lillitu - Lillith - was depicted as a naked, winged goddess with birdlike feet. The many shurpu ("purification by burning") texts that have been found were formulas for incantations against these evil spirits - forerunners of the sorcery and witchcraft that had lasted throughout the millennia.

"In spite of the solemn vows taken after the defeat of Zu to honor and respect Enlil’s supremacy and Ninurta’s position as second-in-command, the basic factors causing rivalry and contentions had remained - breaking into the open from time to time in the ensuing millennia. Realizing that this would be so, Anu and Enlil provided Ninurta with new, marvelous weapons. Anu gave him the SHAR.UR ("Supreme Hunter") and the SHAR.GAZ ("Supreme Smiter"); Enlil gave him several weapons, of which the unique IB - a weapon with "fifty killing heads" - was the most awesome, leading to references in the chronicles to Ninurta as "The Lord of the Ib." Thus armed, Ninurta became the "Foremost Warrior of Enlil," ready to fight off all challenges to the Enlilship.

"The next such challenge came in the shape of a mutiny of the Anunnaki who were working in the gold mines of the Abzu. The mutiny, and the events that had led to it and followed it, are fully described in a text called by scholars The Atra-Hasis Epic - a full-fledged Earth Chronicle which, inter alia, records the events that led to the creation of Homo sapiens - Man as we know him.

"The text informs us that after Anu had gone back to Nibiru and Earth was divided between Enlil and Enki, the Anunnaki toiled in the mines of Abzu for "forty counted periods" - forty orbits of their planet, or 144,000 Earth-years. But the work was difficult and backbreaking....

"....The mining operations, deep inside the earth, were never interrupted: the Anunnaki "suffered the toil day and night."

....Dissatisfaction grew: "They were complaining, backbiting, grumbling in the excavations."

Ninurta went to the Abzu, but this strained relations with Enki even more.

Enlil went to the Abzu, and the Anunnaki took their opportunity to mutiny.

"....As Enlil remained a prisoner in his own quarters, he sent a message to Anu and asked that he come to Earth. When Anu arrived, the Great Anunnaki assembled for a court-martial. Anu ruled in favor of the Anunnaki.

But a solution to the hard toil was needed. And Enki found one:

"....While the Chief Medical Officer, their sister Sud, was here in the Abzu with them:

Let her create a Primitive Worker;
And let him bear the yoke. . .
Let the Worker carry the toil of the gods,
Let him bear the yoke!

"In the following one hundred lines of the Atra-Hasis text, and in several other "Creation of Man" texts that have been discovered in various states of preservation, the tale of the genetic engineering of Homo sapiens has been told in amazing detail. To achieve the feat Enki suggested that a "Being that already exists" - Apewoman - be used to create the Lulu Amelu ("The Mixed Worker") by "binding" upon the less evolved beings "the mold of the gods." The goddess Sud purified the "essence" of a young male Anunnaki, she mixed into the egg of an Apewoman. The fertilized egg was then implanted in the womb of a female Anunnaki, for the required period of pregnancy. When the "mixed creature" was born, Sud lifted him up and shouted:

"I have created! My hands have made him!"

"The "Primitive Worker" - Homo sapiens - had come into being. It happened some 300,000 years ago; it came about through a feat of genetic engineering and embryo-implant techniques which mankind itself is beginning to employ. There has undoubtedly been a long process of evolution; but then the Anunnaki had taken a hand in the process and jumped the gun on evolution "creating" us sooner than we might have evolved on our own. Scholars have been searching for a long time for the "missing link" in man’s evolution. The Sumerian texts reveal that the "missing link" was a feat of genetic manipulation performed in a laboratory. . . It was not a feat over and done with in an instant. The texts make clear that it had taken the Anunnaki considerable trial and error to achieve the desired "perfect model" of the Primitive Worker, but once achieved, a mass-production process was launched: fourteen "birth goddesses" at a time were implanted with the genetically manipulated Apewoman eggs: seven to bear males and seven to bear female Workers. As soon as they grew up, the Workers were put to work in the mines; and as their numbers grew, they assumed more and more of the physical chores in the Abzu.

"The armed clash between Enlil and Enki that was soon to take place, however, was over these same slave laborers.

"The more the production of ores improved in the Abzu, the greater was the work load on the Anunnaki that had remained to operate the facilities in Mesopotamia. The climate was milder, rains were more plentiful, and the rivers of Mesopotamia were constantly overflowing. Increasingly the Mesopotamian Anunnaki "were digging the river," raising dykes and deepening canals. Soon they too began to clamor for the slave workers, the "creatures of bright countenance" but with thick black hair.

"....It is understood that Enki refused Enlil’s request for the transfer of Primitive Workers to Mesopotamia. Deciding to take matters into his hands, Enlil took the extreme step of disconnecting the communications with the home planet: "In the ’Bond Heaven-Earth’ he made a gash. . . verily did he speed to disconnect Heaven from Earth." Then he launched an armed attack against the Land of the Mines.

"The Anunnaki in the Abzu assembled the Primitive Workers in a central compound, strengthening its walls against the coming attack. But Enlil fashioned a marvelous weapon, the AL.A.NI ("Ax That Produces Power") equipped with a "horn" and an "earth slitter" that could drill through earth and earthworks. With these weapons Enlil drove a hole through the fortifications. As the whole widened Primitive Workers were breaking out toward Enlil. He eyed the Black-headed Ones in fascination."

"Thereafter the Primitive Workers performed the manual tasks in both Lands: in the Land of the Mines they "bore the work and suffered the toil"; in Mesopotamia, "with picks and spades they built gods’ houses, they built the big canal banks; food they grew for the sustenance of the gods."

"Many ancient drawings engraved on cylinder seals depicted these Primitive Workers performing their tasks, naked as the animals of the field. Various Sumerian texts recorded this animal like stage in human development:

When mankind was first created,
They knew not the eating of bread,
Knew not the dressing of garments,
Ate plants with their mouth like sheep,
Drank water from the ditch . . .

"How long, however, could young female Anunnaki be asked (or forced) to perform the role of "birth goddesses"? Unbeknownst to Enlil, and with the connivance of Sud, Enki contrived to give the new creature one more genetic twist: granting to the hybrid beings - incapable of procreating, as all hybrids are - the ability to have offspring, the sexual "Knowing" for having children. The event is echoed in the tale of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, and although the original Sumerian text of the tale has not yet been found, a number of Sumerian depictions of the event were indeed discovered. They show different aspects of the tale: the Tree of Life; the offering of the forbidden fruit; the angry encounter that ensued between the "Lord God" and the "Serpent." Yet another shows Eve girdled in a garment around her loins while Adam is still naked, another detail related in the Bible.

Mr. Sitchin draws his attention to a particular depiction (page 107, figure 30 of his book):

"While the Serpent God features in all these ancient depictions, the illustration reproduced here is of particular significance as it writes out in archaic Sumerian the god’s epithet/name as (a star and a triangular symbol). The "star" spells "god" and the triangular symbol reads BUR, BURU, or BUZUR - all terms that make the epithet/name mean "God Who Solves Secrets," "God of the Deep Mines," and variations thereof. The Bible (in the original Hebrew) calls the god who tempted Eve Nahash, translated "Serpent," but literally meaning "He Who Solves Secrets" and "He Who Knows Metals," the exact parallels of the god’s names in the Sumerian depiction. This depiction is of further interest because it shows the Serpent God with his hands and feet in tethers, suggesting that Enki was arrested after his unauthorized deed.

"In his anger Enlil ordered the expulsion of the Adam - the Homo sapiens Earthling - from the E.DIN ("The Abode of the Righteous Ones"). No longer confined to the settlements of the Anunnaki, Man began to roam the Earth.

""And Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore Cain. . . and she bore his brother Abel." The gods were no longer alone on Earth.

"Little did the Anunnaki then know the role that the Primitive Worker would play in the wars between them.


Chapter Six

"Ever since George Smith found and reported in 1876 (The Chaldean Account of Genesis) detailed Mesopotamian tales of Creation, followed by L.W. King’s The Seven Tablets of Creation, scholars and theologians alike have come to recognize that the Creation Tales of the Old Testament (Genesis chapters 1 through 3) are condensed and edited versions of original Sumerian texts. A century later, in our work, The 12th Planet (1976), we have shown that these texts were no primitive myths, but depositories of advanced scientific knowledge with which modern scholars are only now beginning to catch up.

"The unmanned space probes of Jupiter and Saturn confirmed many "incredible" facets of the Sumerian knowledge regarding our Solar System, such as that the outer planets have numerous satellites and that water is present in some of them. Those distant planets, and some of their principal satellites, were found to have active cores that generate internal heat; some radiate out more heat than they can ever receive from the distant Sun. Volcanic activity provided those celestial bodies with their own atmospheres. All the basic requirements for the development of life exist out there, just as the Sumerians had said 6,000 years ago.

"What then of the existence of a twelfth member of our Solar System - a tenth planet beyond Pluto, the Sumerian Nibiru (and Babylonian Marduk) - a planet whose existence was a basic and far-reaching conclusion in The 12th Planet?

"In 1978, astronomers at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington determined that Pluto - being smaller than formerly believed - could not by itself account for perturbations in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune; they postulated the existence of yet another celestial body beyond Pluto. In 1982 the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announced its conclusion that there indeed exists such a body; whether or not it is another large planet, it planned to determine by deploying in a certain manner its two Pioneer spacecraft that had been hurtling into space beyond Saturn.

"And at the close of 1983, astronomers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California announced that IRAS - the infrared telescope mounted on a spacecraft and launched under NASA’s auspices with the cooperation of other nations - had discovered beyond Pluto a very distant "mystery celestial body" about four times the size of Earth and moving toward Earth. They have not yet called it a planet; but our Earth Chronicles leave the ultimate finding in no doubt.

"In 1983, rocks were found in Antarctica and elsewhere which are undoubtedly fragments of the Moon and Mars; and the scientists are totally baffled as to how that could have happened. The Sumerian tale of the Creation of the Solar System, the collision between Nibiru’s satellites and Tiamat, and the rest of the cosmogony in the celebrated Epic of Creation offer a comprehensive explanation.

"And how about the texts describing how Man was created through genetic manipulation: in vitro fertilization and reimplantation?

"....After relating how "The Adam" (literally "the Earthling") was granted the ability to procreate, the book of Genesis moves from recounting the general events on Earth to the saga of a specific branch of mankind: the person named Adam and his descendants.

""This is the Book of the Generations of Adam," the Old Testament informs us. Such a book, we can safely assume, had surely existed. The evidence strongly suggests that the person whom the Bible called Adam was the one whom the Sumerians called Adapa, an Earthling "perfected" by Enki and deemed to have been genetically related to him. "Wide understanding Enki perfected for him, to disclose the designs of the Earth; to him he gave Knowing; but immortality he did not give him."

"Portions of the "Tale of Adapa" have been found; the complete text might have well been the "Book of the Generations of Adam" to which the Old Testament refers.

"....The Book of Genesis relates that the first son of Adam and Eve, Cain, "was a tiller of the earth," and his brother Abel "was a herder of sheep."

"Cain had a son whom he named Enoch, and built a city called likewise, the name meaning "Foundation." The Old Testament, having no particular interest in the line of Cain, skips quickly to the fourth generation after Enoch, when Lamech was born.

"....The pseudepigraphical Book of Jubilees, believed to have been composed in the second century B.C. from earlier material, adds the information that Cain espoused his own sister Awan and she bore him Enoch "at the close of the fourth Jubilee. And in the first year of the first week of the fifth Jubilee, houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city and called its name Foundation, after the name of his son." Where did this additional information come from?

"It has long been held that this part of the Genesis tale stands alone, without corroboration or parallel in the Mesopotamian texts. But we have found that it is just not so.

"First we have come upon a Babylonian tablet in the British Museum (No 74329), catalogued as "containing an otherwise unknown myth." Yet it may in fact be a Babylonian/Assyrian version from circa 2000 B.C. of a missing Sumerian record of the Line of Cain!

"As copied by A.R. Millard and translated by W.G. Lambert (Kadmos, vol. VI), it speaks of the beginnings of a group of people who were ploughmen, which corresponds to the biblical "tiller of the land." They are called Amakandu - "People Who In Sorrow Roam"; it parallels the condemnation of Cain: "Banned be thou from the soil which hath received thy brother’s blood . . . a restless nomad shalt thou be upon the earth." And, most remarkably, the Mesopotamian chief of these exiled people was called Ka’in!

He built in Dunnu
a city with twin towers
Ka’in dedicated to himself
the lordship over the city.

"....After the death (or murder) of Ka’in, "he was laid to rest in the city of Dunnu, which he loved." As in the biblical tale, the Mesopotamian text records the history of four following generations: brothers married their sisters and murdered their parents, taking over the rulership in Dunnu as well as setting in new places, the last of which was named Shupat ("Judgment").

"....We also find among traditional Assyrian eponyms of royal names the combination Ashur-bel-Ka’ini ("Ashur, lord of the Ka’inites"); and the Assyrian scribes paralleled this with the Sumerian ASHUR-EN.DUNI ("Ashur is lord of Duni"), implying that the Ka’ini ("The people of Kain") and the Duni ("The people of Dun") were one and the same; and thus reaffirming the biblical Cain and Land of Nun or Dun.

"Having dealt briefly with the line of Cain, the Old Testament turned its full attention to a new line descended of Adam: "And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son, and called his name Seth, for [she said] the Lord hath granted me another offspring instead of Abel, whom Cain had slain."

"....The name of Seth’s son and the next pre-Diluvial patriarch in which the Bible was interested was Enosh; it has come to mean in Hebrew "Human, Mortal," and it is clear that the Old Testament considered him the progenitor of the human lineage at the core of the ancient chronicles. It states in respect to him, that "It was then that the name of Yahweh began to be called," that worship and priesthood began.

"There are a number of Sumerian texts that shed more light on this intriguing aspect. The available portions of the Adapa text state that he was "perfected" and treated as a son by Enki in Enki’s city Eridu. It is likely then, as William Hallo (Antediluvian Cities) had suggested that the great-grandson of Enosh was named Yared to mean "He of Eridu." Here, then, is the answer: While the Bible loses interest in the banished descendants of Adam, it focuses its attention on the patriarchs from Adam’s line who had stayed in Eden - southern Mesopotamia - and were the first to be called to priesthood.

"In the fourth generation after Enosh the firstborn son was named Enoch; scholars believe that here the name’s meaning stemmed from a variant of the Hebrew root, connoting "to train, to educate." Of him the Old Testament briefly states that he "had walked with the Deity" and did not die on Earth, "for the Deity had taken him." The sole verse in Genesis 5:24 is substantially enlarged upon in the extra-biblical Books of Enoch. They detail his first visit with the Angels of God to be instructed in various sciences and ethics. Then, after returning to Earth to pass the knowledge and the requisites of priesthood to his sons, he was taken aloft once more, to permanently join the Nefilim (the biblical term meaning "Those Who Had Dropped Down") in their celestial abode.

There is another indication of priests who were able to approach the gods:

"The Sumerian King Lists record the priestly reign of Enmeduranki in Sippar....

Enmeduranki [was] a prince in Sippar,
Beloved of Anu, Enlil and Ea.
Shamash in the Bright Temple appointed him.
Shamash and Adad [took him] to the assembly [of the gods]. . .
They showed him how to observe oil on water,
a secret of Anu, Enlil and Ea.
They gave him the Divine Tablet,
the kibdu secret of Heaven and Earth . . .
They taught him how to make calculations with numbers.

"The tablet concludes with a postscript: "Thus was the line of priests created - those who are allowed to approach Shamash and Adad."

"By the time of the seventh generation after Enosh, on the Eve of the Deluge, the Earth and its inhabitants were gripped by a new Ice Age. The Mesopotamian texts detail the sufferings by mankind, the shortages of food, even cannibalism.... The biblical version tells us little about Noah ("Respite"), apart from the fact that he was "righteous and of pure genealogy." The Mesopotamian texts inform us that the hero of the Deluge lived in Sharuppak, the Medical Center run by Sud.

"The Sumerian texts relate that as mankind’s hardships were increasing, Enki suggested, and Enlil vehemently opposed, the taking of measures to alleviate the suffering. What upset Enlil no end was the increasing sexual relationships between the young male Anunnaki and the Daughters of Man....

"....This growing togetherness between the young astronauts and the descendants of the Primitive Worker was not to Enlil’s liking. The Sumerian texts tell us that "as the Land extended and the people multiplied," Enlil became increasingly "disturbed by Mankind’s pronouncements" and its infatuation with sex and lust. The gets together between the Anunnaki and the daughters of Man caused him to lose sleep. "And the Lord said: "I will destroy the Earthling whom I have created off the face of the Earth."

"The texts inform us that when it was decided to develop the deep mines in the Abzu, the Anunnaki also proceeded to establish a scientific monitoring station at the tip of Africa. It was put in charge of Ereshkigal, a granddaughter of Enlil....

"....Enlil now saw his chance to get rid of the Earthlings when this scientific station at the tip of Africa began to report a dangerous situation: the growing icecap over Antarctica had become unstable, resting upon a layer of slippery slush. The problem was that this instability had developed just as Nibiru was about to make its approach to Earth’s vicinity; and Nibiru’s gravitational pull could upset the ice cap’s balance and cause it to slip into the Antarctic Ocean. The immense tidal waves that this would cause could engulf the whole globe.

"When the Igigi orbiting Earth confirmed the certainty of such a catastrophe, the Anunnaki began to assemble in Sippar, the spaceport. Enlil, however, insisted that mankind be kept unaware of the coming Deluge; and at a special session of the Assembly of the Gods, he made all of them, especially Enki, swear to keep the secret.

"The last part of the Atra-Hasis text, a major part of the Epic of Gilgamesh, and other Mesopotamian texts describe at length the events that followed - how the catastrophe of the Deluge was used by Enlil to achieve the annihilation of mankind; and how Enki, opposed to the decision which Enlil forced upon the Assembly of the Gods, contrived to save his faithful follower Ziusudra ("Noah") by designing for him a submersible vessel that could withstand the avalanche of water.

"The Anunnaki themselves, on a signal, "lifted up" in their Rakub Ilani ("chariots of the gods"), the fired-up rocket ships "setting the land ablaze with their glare." Orbiting the Earth in their shuttlecraft, they watched in horror the onslaught of the tidal waves below. All that was upon the Earth was swept off in one colossal avalanche of water: A.MA.RU BA.UR. RA.TA - "The flood swept thereover." Sud, who had created Man with Enki, "saw and wept. . . .Ishtar cried out loud like a woman in travail. . . the gods, the Anunnaki, weep with her." Rolling back and forth, the tidal waves swept the soil away, leaving behind vast deposits of mud: "All that had been created turned back to clay."

"In The 12th Planet we have presented the evidence for our conclusions that the Deluge, bringing about an abrupt end to the last Ice Age, had occurred some 13,000 years ago.

"As the waters of the Deluge "went back from off the land"....the Anunnaki began to land on Mount Nisir ("Mount of Salvation") - Mount Ararat.... Enlil was outraged to discover that "the seed of Mankind" was saved; but Enki persuaded him to relent.

"The Old Testament, focusing its interest on the line of Noah alone, lists no other passengers in the rescue ship. But the more detailed Mesopotamian Deluge texts also mention the Ark’s navigator and disclose that at the last moment friends or helpers of Ziusudra (and their families) also came on board. Greek versions of the account by Berossus state that after the Deluge, Ziusudra, his family, and the pilot were taken by the gods to stay with them; the other people were given directions to find their way back to Mesopotamia by themselves.

"The immediate problem facing all that were rescued was food. To Noah and his sons the Lord said: "All the animals that are upon the earth, and all that flies in the skies, and all that creepeth on the ground, and all the fishes of the sea, into your hands are given; all that teemeth and that liveth, shall be yours for food." And then came a significant addition: "As grassy vegetation all manner of grain have I given you."

Mr. Sitchin explains at this point the origin of "vegetation" as producing "grain," fruits and vegetables, after the Deluge, and how they grew in the high land rather than the plains, which were not suitable until the earth dried after many years.
Domestication of animals which provided meat, milk, and wool.

"How did it all come when it did? Modern science has yet to find the answer; but the Sumerian texts had already provided it millennia ago. Like the Bible, they relate how agriculture began after the Deluge, when (in the words of Genesis) "Noah began as a husbandman"; but like the Bible, which records that there had been tilling of the land (by Cain) and shepherding (by Abel) long before the Deluge, so do the Sumerian chronicles tell of the development of crop-growing and cattle-rearing in prehistoric times.

"....The Myth of Cattle and Grain states:

When from the heights of Heaven to Earth
Anu had caused the Anunnaki to come forth,
Grains had not yet been brought forth,
had not yet vegetated . . .
There was no ewe,
a lamb had not yet been dropped.
There was no she-goat,
a kid had not yet been dropped.
The ewe had not yet given birth to her lambs,
the she-goat had not yet given birth to her kid.
Weaving [of wool] had not yet been brought forth, had not yet been established.

"Then, in the "Creation Chamber" of the Anunnaki, their laboratory for genetic manipulation, Lahar ("wooly cattle") and Anshan ("grains") "were beautifully fashioned."

In those days,
in the Creation Chamber of the gods,
in the House of Fashioning, in the Pure Mound,
Lahar and Anshan were beautifully fashioned.
The abode was filled with food for the gods.
Of the multiplying of Lahar and Anshan
the Anunnaki, in their Holy Mound, eat -
but were not satiated.
The good milk from the sheepfold
the Anunnaki, in their Holy Mound, drink -
but are not satiated.

By the time the Anunnaki had fashioned grains and cattle in their Creation Chamber, before the Deluge

"The Primitive Workers - those who "knew not the eating of bread . . . who ate plants with their mouths" - were already in existence:

After Anu, Enlil, Enki and Sud
had fashioned the black-headed people,
Vegetation that luxuriates they multiplied in the Land.
Four-legged animals they artfully brought into existence;
In the E.DIN they placed them.

"So, in order to increase the production of grains and cattle to satiate the Anunnaki, a decision was made: Let NAM.LU.GAL.LU -"civilized mankind"- be taught the "tilling of the land" and the "keeping of sheep . . . for the sake of the gods":

For the sake of the satiating things,
for the pure sheepfold,
Civilized Mankind was brought into existence.

"Just as it describes what was brought into existence at that early time, so does this text also lists the domesticated varieties that had not then been brought forth:

That which by planting multiplies,
had not yet been fashioned;
Terraces had not yet been set up . . .
The triple grain of thirty days did not exist;
The triple grain of forty days did not exist;
The small grain, the grain of the mountains,
the grain of the pure A.DAM, did not exist . . .
Tuber-vegetables of the field had not yet come forth.

"These, as we shall see were introduced on Earth by Enlil and Ninurta some time after the Deluge.

"....Fortunately specimens of the domesticated cereals had been sent to Nibiru; and now "Anu provided them, from Heaven, to Enlil...." The only place that seemed suitable (after the Deluge) was "the mountain of aromatic cedars." We read in a fragmented text reported by S. N. Kramer in his Sumeriche Texte aus Nippur:

Enlil went up the peak and lifted his eyes;
he looked down: there the waters filled as a sea.
He looked up: there was the mountain of aromatic cedars.
He hauled up the barley, terraced it on the mountain.
That which vegetates he hauled up,
terraced the grain cereals on the mountain.

"The selection of the Cedar Mountain by Enlil and its conversion into a Restricted ("Holy") Place was, most likely, not accidental. Throughout the Near East - indeed, worldwide - there is only one unique Cedar Mountain of universal fame: in Lebanon. It is the location, to this very day (at Baalbek: in Lebanon), of a vast platform supported by colossal stone blocks that are still a marvel of technology. It was, as we have elaborated in The Stairway to Heaven, a Landing Place of the Anunnaki; a platform that persistent legends hold to have been built in pre-Diluvial times, even as early as the days of Adam. It was the only place, after the Deluge, immediately suitable for handling the shuttlecraft of the Anunnaki: the spaceport at Sippar was washed away and buried under layers of mud.

Therefore after the Deluge....we read this description in a Sumerian text:

Famine was severe, nothing was produced.
The small rivers were not cleaned,
the mud was not carried off . . .
In all the lands there were no crops,
only weeds grew.

"The two great rivers of Mesopotamia, the Euphrates and Tigris, were also not functioning: "The Euphrates was not bound together, there was misery; the Tigris was confounded, jolted and injured." The one who rose to the task of buildings dams in the mountains, digging new channels for the rivers, and draining off the excess water was Ninurta: "Thereon the lord sets his lofty mind; Ninurta, the son of Enlil, brings great things into being."

To protect the land, a mighty wall he raised.
With a mace he smote the rocks;
The stones the hero heaped, made a settlement . . .
The waters that had been scattered, he gathered;
What by the mountains had been dispersed,
he guided and sent down the Tigris.
The high waters it pours off the farmed land.
Now, behold -
Everything on Earth rejoiced at Ninurta,
the lord of the land.

"....We know from the Sumerian texts that first to be cultivated on the mountain slopes were fruit trees and bushes and most certainly grapes. The Anunnaki, the texts state, gave mankind "the excellent white grapes and the excellent white wine; the excellent black grapes and the excellent red wine." No wonder we read in the Bible that when "Noah began as a husbandman, he planted a vineyard; and he drank of the wine and became drunken."

"When the drainage works carried out in Mesopotamia by Ninurta made cultivation possible in the plains, the Anunnaki "from the mountain the cereal grain they brought down," and "the Land [Sumer] with wheat and barley did become acquainted."

"In the millennia that followed mankind revered Ninurta as the one who had taught it farming....

"....While Enlil and Ninurta were credited with granting agriculture to mankind, the credit for the introduction of domesticated herds was given to Enki. It was after the first grains were already in cultivation but not yet "the grain that multiplies," the grains with the doubled, tripled, and quadrupled chromosomes; these were created by Enki artificially, with Enlil’s consent:

At that time Enki spoke to Enlil:
"Father Enlil, flocks and grains
have made joyful the Holy Mound,
have greatly multiplied in the Holy Mound.
Let us, Enki and Enlil, command:
The woolly-creature and grain-that-multiplies
let us cause to come out of the Holy Mound."

"Enlil agreed and abundance followed....

"....The revolutionary agricultural tool - a simple, but ingeniously designed, wooden implement - the plow, was at first pulled, as the above text states (appears in the book) by putting a yoke on the farm workers. But then Enki "brought into existence the larger living creatures" - domesticated cattle - and bulls replaced people as pullers of the plow. Thus, the texts conclude, did the gods "increase the fertility of the land."

"....Enki returned to Africa to assess the damage the Deluge had caused there.

"....As Enki surveyed Africa it was evident to him that the Abzu alone - the continent’s southern part - was insufficient. Just as in Mesopotamia "abundance" was based on riverine cultivation, so it had to be in Africa; and he turned his attention, planning, and knowledge to the recovery of the valley of the Nile.

"The Egyptians, we have seen, held that their gods had come to Egypt from Ur (meaning "the olden place"). According to Manetho, the reign of Ptah over the lands of the Nile began 17,900 years before Menes; i.e., circa 21,000 B.C. Nine thousand years later Ptah handed over the Egyptian domain to his son Ra; but the latter’s reign was abruptly interrupted after a brief 1,000 years, i.e., circa 11,000 B.C.; it was then, by our reckoning, that the Deluge had occurred.

"Then, the Egyptians believed, Ptah returned to Egypt to engage in great works of reclamation and to literally raise it from under the inundating waters. We find Sumerian texts that likewise attest that Enki went to the lands of Meluhha (Ethiopia/Nubia) and Magan (Egypt) to make them habitable for man and beast:

He proceeds to the Land Meluhha;
Enki, lord of the Abzu, decrees its fate:
Black land, may your trees be large trees,
may they be the Highland trees.
May thrones fill the royal palaces.
May your reed be large reeds,
may they be the Highland reeds . . .
May your bulls be large bulls,
may they be the Highland bulls . . .
May your silver be as gold,
May your copper be tin and bronze . . .
May your people multiply;
May your hero go forth as a bull . . .

"These Sumerian records, linking Enki with the African land of the Nile, assume a double significance: they corroborate the Egyptian tales with Mesopotamian tales and link Sumerian gods - especially the Enki-gods - with the gods of Egypt; for Ptah, we believe, was none other than Enki.

"After the lands were made habitable again, Enki divided the length of the African continent between his six sons.

  • The southernmost domain was regranted to NER.GAL ("Great Watcher") and his spouse Ereshkigal.

  • To his north, in the mining regions, GIBIL ("The One of Fire") was installed, having been taught by his father the secrets of metalworking.

  • NIN.A.GAL ("Prince of Great Waters") was, as his name implied, given the region of the great lakes and the headwaters of the Nile.

  • Farther north, in the grazing plateau of the Sudan, the youngest son, DUMU.ZI ("Son Who is Life"), whose nickname was "The Herder," was given reign.

"The identity of yet another son is in dispute among the scholars (we shall offer our own solution later on). But there is no doubt who the sixth son - actually Enki’s firstborn and legal heir - was: He was MAR.DUK ("Son of the Pure Mound"). Because one of his fifty epithets (as "All Powerful" or "Awesome") were applied to diverse deities, and Asar meaning "All Seeing" was also the epithet-name of the Assyrian god Ashur.

"In fact, we find more similarities between the Babylonian Marduk and the Egyptian god Ra: the former was the son of Enki, the latter of Ptah, being in our view one and the same, whereas Osiris was great-grandson of Ra and thus of a much later generation than either Ra or Marduk. In fact there is found in Sumerian texts scattered, but persistent, evidence supporting our belief that the god called Ra by the Egyptians and Marduk by the Mesopotamians was one and the same deity. Thus, a self-laudatory hymn to Marduk (tablet Ashur/4125) declares that one of the epithets was "The god IM.KUR.GAR RA" - "Ra Who Beside the Mountainland Abides."

"Indeed, as we shall soon show, Marduk’s rise to prominence began in Egypt, where its best-known monument - the Great Pyramid of Giza - had played a crucial role in his turbulent career. But the Great God of Egypt, Marduk/Ra, yearned to rule the whole Earth, and to do so from the olden "Navel of the Earth" in Mesopotamia. It was this ambition that led him to abdicate the divine throne of Egypt in favor of his children and grandchildren.

"Little did he know that this would lead to two Pyramid Wars and to his own near death.





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Abu (m.; Lagash)

# The Saviour-Son is variously called Ninib (Nippur), Ningirsu or Abu (Lagash), Nergal (Kutha), Esmun (Sidon), Melqart (Tyre).


Aja = Aia (f.)

• Shamash’ wife was Aja.


Alaparos (m.)

• Alaparos was an antediluvian king (Babylonia).

• Alaparos’ name is derived from alap, ‘bull’, and ur, ‘foundation’: he is the ‘bull of foundation’.


Amurru (m.)

• On the procession to Bit Akitu: For the procession represented the victorious army of the gods who, on the eve of Creation, went out against Tiamat and destroyed her force. A figure of Assur, going to battle against Tiamat, carrying the bow, on his chariot holding the ‘weapon of the storm’ (abubu), and Amurru, who goes with him as charioteer (besides) the gods who march in front and the gods who march behind him, those who ride in chariots and those who go on foot (and) Tiamat and the creatures (that were) in her (Sanherib).. Note the phrase ‘the creatures within Tiamat’.


Anű (Akkadian) = An (Sumerian) = Anu (Akkadian) = Anum (Akkadian) (m.; Uruk, Mesopotamia)

# According to Cardona, the names of Janus, Uranus, Varuna, and Anu would be related.

# Janus’ name is compared to the names of An, Ouranos, Oannes and Varuna by Cardona.

# Osiris was also known as On or Ani, which name may be cognate with Anu.

# Enki, Ninurta and Damuzi were only aspects of An.

# Enki or Ea compared to An.

# Tammuz compared to An.

# Ningirsu compared to An.

# Ninurta is compared to An.

# Ninurta is like Anu.

# Ninurta is identified as a form of Anu.

# Sin and Anu are identical.

# An must be equated with Shamash.

# An was comparable to Brahma.

# The moon is during the period of his visibility, in the first five days, the god Anu; from the sixth to the tenth day, the god Ea; from the eleventh to the fifteenth day, the god En-Lil (early text).

They called Adad, the canal-controller, Anű’s son, the decision-maker spoke to him, ‘Powerful Adad, ferocious Adad, your attack cannot be deflected; strike Anzu with lightning, your weapon! (Anzu epic, tablet 1).

In dem S. 236 zitierten astrologische Texte wird Nabű gleich Anu in dem göttlich verehrten Pol des Himmels (kakkabMU.SIR.KEŠ.DA ilni-ru rak-su) lokalisiert. Das stimmt zu seiner Eigenschaft als ‘Aufseher der Welt’.

The pole star was addressed in prayer: O star of Anu, prince of the heavens.

Mars was not identified with the god An, at least in the 8th or 7th centuries BCE.

The ghost of Anu is a wolf (KAR 307 rev. 11-16). = da-nu, ‘The Wolf-Star is Anu’ (VR 46. 2).

… a red bird with a white patch on his head is identified as the ‘bird of Anu’ (Šumma-Alu, CT 40. 49. 29f.).

• The equilateral cross was a representation of Anu.

• Anu appears to have been linked with the plane of the ecliptic and Enlil with the higher latitudes to the north.

Der Wohnsitz Anus heißt Ešarra … Ešarra ist als Bergheiligtum gedacht ….

The planet Mars was identified as Anu (170 BCE).

AN, zuerst ohne Determinativ, zuweilen mit MUL2 Gewöhnlicher Name des 5. Planeten Mars in den rein astron. Texten der SÄ; sonst albatânu ….

… when this 'Heaven-and-Earth' emerged from the primal sea, its form was of a mountain whose summit, Heaven (An), was male, and lower portion, Earth (Ki), female; further, that from this dual being the air-god Enlil was born, by whom the two were separated … Enlil, who brings up the seed of the land from the earth, / Took care to move away Heaven from Earth, / Took care to move away Earth from Heaven (Late Sumerian text, ca. 2000 BCE).

Der Tempel des Anu-Adad hatte zwei Tempeltürme.

In den älteren babylonischen Texten der letzten 6 Jahrh. v. Chr. geht den Namen der einzelnen Planeten nicht die Bezeichnung LU.BAT, sondern das Ideogramm für ‘Gott, Himmel’, nämlich An voraus und in den eigentlich astronomischen Inschriften fehlt auch dieses Determinativ fast immer ….

In den späteren (astronomischen) Tafeln, nämlich von etwa 400 bis auf Chr. Anu is the planet Mars.

Was die Bezeichnung Anu für Mars betrifft, so findet sie sich schon vereinzelt in assyrischer Zeit ….

An was the planet Mars.

• … Anu, which in the later astronomical texts is the common designation of Mars Note that mulA-nu is found also in astrological texts ….

• Anu is the deity of the waters above the earth, pouring those fertilising waters down from heaven, bringing forth vegetation.

• Anu, En-Lil and Ea are three aspects of a triune god.

• Enlil was the son of Anu.

• Marduk, having received the sceptre, throne and palu from Anu, sets out to conquer Tiamat. Marduk’s chief weapon is always ‘the net’, ‘the gift of his father Anu’ (Enuma Elish, IV. 29, 49).

• The star-ideogram was pronounced dingir, ‘god’, or ana, anu, ‘sky, high being’.

An is also used in the meaning ‘rain, rainy sky’.

• Anu was the main god.

• Anu was not a creator and was rarely invoked.

• Anu dwells in the sky. His palace, standing at the high peak of the vault, was not touched by the waters of the flood (Epic of Gilgamesh, XII. 155).

• Anu’s temple at Uruk is E-an-na, ‘sky house’.

• Anu sits on a throne in the sky, with sceptre, diadem, headdress, staff.

• Symbolically, the king gets his power directly from Anu.

• Only kings invoke Anu.

• Anu is abu ilani, ‘father of the gods’ and ‘king of the gods’.

• Anu is called il shame, ‘sky god’, ab shame, ‘sky father’, shar shame, ‘sky king’.

• The stars are Anu’s army.

• Ishtar is variously mentioned as daughter of Anu, spouse of Anu, female counterpart of En-Lil and daughter of Ea.

• Anu is a warrior god.

• Anu’s principeal feast occurs at the beginning of the New Year, when the creation of the world is commemorated.

• Anu is invoked as ‘king of the Anunnaki’ (Codex Hammurabi).

• An created by means of his word and his son Enlil.

• Anum married with Antum.

• Anum was the sky god, as his name indicates.

• An was separated from Ki by Enlil.

... Babylon corruptly to sin went and small and great mingled on the mound. The King of the holy mound... In front and Anu lifted up... Their (work) all day they founded to their stronghold in the night entirely an end he made. In his anger also the secret counsel he poured out to scatter (abroad) his face he set he gave a command to make strange their speech. In (that day) he blew and... For future time the mountain.... Nu-nam-tir went... Like heaven and earth he spake. His ways they went... Violently they fronted against him. He saw them and to the earth (descended).

• The ideogram depicting ‘An’, ‘star’ and ‘god’ is the same and it also means ‘king’.

• Anu was the chief of the gods who came to him for refuge when danger threatened them during the deluge.

• Anu and Enlil were responsible for the deluge.

• The northern stars were held sacred to Anu.

• Anu was identical with heaven.

• He was one of the lips of Anu.

• The four-rayed star is the ideogram for An, the oldest and loftiest of the Sumerian gods.

• An or Anu was the father of the gods.

• An was the central light at the universe summit, a god of terrifying splendor who governed heaven from his throne in the cosmic sea Apsu.

• An’s foremost epithet was lugal, ‘king’.

• The institution of kingship descended from ‘the heaven of An’.

when An engendered the year of abundance.

• An encompasses the entire heaven.

• An’s name means ‘heaven’.

• An signified Saturn.

• The celestial pole was addressed as O star of Anu, prince of the heavens.

the terror of the splendour of Anu in the midst of heaven.

Poseidon therefore appears as a Lord of the Deep, especially as a Lord of the Waters of the Deep, comparable to the Sumerian ‘Lord of Below’, Enki, who with the Sky God Anu and the Storm God Enlil forms the great Mesopotamian trio of gods.

• Anu was the high one of the enclosure of life.

• Anu’s dwelling was the brilliant enclosure.

• Anu has androgynous aspects.

To... Inanna... the good wild cow of An... With An she takes her seat upon the great throne...

• An rules in the Ekur, the ‘earth’.

• Gilgamesh said to his mother: There the stars of heaven gather around me, like the citadel of Anu does it collapse upon me (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Lamashtu is called daughter of Anu.

• An rules the pure place.

• Dumuzi was called the shining offspring of An.

• King Etana of Kish begged the sun and Anu to give him the ‘herb of life’ so that his wife could provide him with an heir. Then he was taken up into the sky by an eagle, which had, by the trick of a serpent, been cast into a ditch.

• An dwelt in the uru-ul-la, ‘the city of former times’.

Nergal came up the long stairway of heaven. When he arrived at the gate of Anu, Ellil and Ea, Anu, Ellil and Ea saw him and said ‘The son of Ishtar has come back to us’ (Nergal and Ereshkigal).

• A prominent concept was the AN.SA.TA/ kirib šame, ‘heart of An’ or ‘midst of An’.

• Nergal is said to have defeated the agents of chaos upon the mountain of sunrise, whereupon he replaced An and temporarily assumed the reins of heaven.

• An was the hero of the sacred city on high.

• There was a city founded by An... Place where the great gods dine, filled with radiance and awe.

• An’s city was the place where the sun rises.

• An brought forth and begat the fourfold wind within the womb of Tiamat, the cosmic sea.

Erech, the handiwork of the gods, The great wall touching the sky, The lofty dwelling place established by Anu.

• The oldest Mesopotamian image of divinity was the sun-cross, symbol of An.

• The temple was called pure place, earth of An.

• The waters of Apsu descended from a vase, regarded as the mother womb. The vase is in the heaven of Anu, called the place of the flowing forth of the waters which open the womb.

• Asag was son of An and Ki.

• An resides within the folds of a serpent, dragon, fish or crocodile.

• The glyph for An is a pillar.

• About Anu it is said: The judge of heaven in the centre is bound.

• Anu was standing on top of the illustrious Mound.

• Anu possessed radiant horns.

• Anu was the horned one.

• About Ninurta it is said Anu in the midst of Heaven gave him fearful splendour.

• Ninurta invokes the sickle of my Anu-ship.

Where is the Mēsu tree, the flesh of the gods, the ornament of the king of the universe? That pure tree... whose roots reached as deep down as the bottom of the underworld... whose top reached as high as the sky of Anum (Poem of Erra).

[O Nergal], warrior of the gods, who possesses the lofty strength of Anu.

• The cuneiform ideogram for the fourfold šaru, ‘wind’ is a cross, they radiate from Anu.

• Anu would have been the bull killed by Gilgamesh.

• Nibiru was ferryman, associated with the ‘way of Anu’.

• Inanna assaulted her father An: She was making heaven tremble, the earth shake. Inanna was destroying the cowpens, burning the sheepfolds, crying ‘Let us berate An, king of the gods’.


Anšar = Anshar (m.; Sumerian)

# Anshar is also called Ilu Shar.

The older gods hated and envied the vigorous young weather god as he rose to power, and so they revolted against the reigning Anshar.

• Anshar was the pole star.

• Anshar’s wife was Kishar.

• Anshar and Kishar came forth from Apsu and Tiamat.


Antum = Antu (f.; Uruk)

# Innin is called Antu.

• Antum was married with Anu.

• Antum was a lip of Ninurta’s.


Anunnaki (non Annunaki) (m. pl.)

• A fire-rain preceded the flood, constituted by the Annunaki, who rushed through the heavens with their torches uplifted (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Ut-Napishtim tells Gilgamesh: When the early dawn appeared there came up from the horizon a black cloud. Ramman thundered in the midst thereof, the gods Mujati and Lugal went before. Like messengers they passed over mountain and land; Irragal tore away the ship’s post. There went Ninib and he made the storm to burst. The Anunnaki lifted up flaming torches, with the brightness thereof they lit up the earth. The whirlwind of Ramman mounted up into the heavens, and all light was turned into darkness.’ A whole day the tempest raged, and the waters rose on the mountains (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Ut-Napishtim tells Gilgamesh: In heaven the gods were afraid of the deluge, they drew back, they climbed up into the heaven of Anu. The gods crouched like dogs, they cowered by the walls. Ishtar cried out like a woman in travail, loudly lamented the queen of the gods with her beautiful voice: ‘Let that day be turned to clay, when I commanded evil in the assembly of the gods! Alas, that I commanded evil in the assembly of the gods, that for the destruction of my people I commanded battle! That which I brought forth, where is it? Like the spawn of fish it filleth the sea.’ The gods of the Anunnaki wept with her, the gods were bowed down, they sat down weeping. Their lips were pressed together (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Anu is invoked as ‘king of the Anunnaki’ (Codex Hammurabi).

• Inanna set out to release her brother Dumuzi from the land of no return. The Anunnaki, the seven judges, pronounced judgement before her, they fastened their eyes upon her, the eyes of death, at their word, the word that tortures the spirit, the sick woman was turned into a corpse, and the corpse was hung from a stake. After three days and nights her messenger Ninshubur compelled the gods to help her. Enki then brought forth two sexless creatures, who bestowed food and water upon Inanna and she revived (Inanna’s descent).


Apsū = Apsu (m.)

When heaven above had not yet been named / earth below had not yet been called by name, / Apsu, the first, their progenitor, / Creative Tiamat who bore them all,/ they mixed their waters together … (Enuma elish, I. 1-6).

The earth is a flat disc overlaying the Apsū, which was the body of sweet water from which all springs drew their supplies. This earth was the domain of Enlil.

Apsu and Tiamat, in the continuation of the story, are represented in control, with Mummu as the messenger and an army of monsters as followers. The description of these monsters as “huge serpents, sharp of tooth and with merciless fangs, their bodies filled with poison instead of blood, dragons, raging hounds, scorpion-men, fish-men, devastating tempests, and fish-goats, all bearing cruel weapons and fearless of spirit”, reminds us of the Cyclops and the Hekatocheiron (the hundred-handed monster), who in Hesiod’s Theogony form part of the progeny of Gaia and Uranus by the side of the Titans.

• Apsu had his abode in Kur.

• Apsu and Tiamat were the parents of heaven and earth.

• Ea ‘binds’ Apsu and Mummu by magic incantations so as to kill them afterwards (Enuma Elish, I, 60-74).

Babylon was built upon bab-apsi, ‘gate of Apsu’.

• The primordial ocean consisted of apsu, the fresh water on which the earth was later to float, and tiamat, the salty and bitter sea inhabited by monsters.

When the heavens on high were not yet named, and the earth beneath was not yet called a name, and the primordial Apsu, who gave them birth, and Mummu, and Tiamat, the mother of them all, mingled all their waters into one … (Enuma Elish, I. 1-5).


Arallu (f.)

• Arallu is the dark aspect of the queen of heaven, as ruler of the dead.


Asag = Asakku (m.)

• Langdon discusses tablets which contain interpretations of the festival. The commentary then says that the fire which (the king?) lights, is Marduk, who in his youth The next act commented upon concerns certain participants who hurl firebrands. These persons represent the gods In the ritual a fire is kindled before Ninlil Firebrands are lighted from the oven and these mean the arrows from the quiver of Bęl-Marduk, and the gods his fathers who bound iluZű and iluAsakku in their midst. The king lifts a dumaki (weapon?) above his head; this means Marduk, who lifted his weapons above his head and consumed the sons of Enlil and Ea with fire. The king breaks a vessel with a lisnu; this means Marduk, who bound Tiamat (?) in his victory (?).

• After Ninurta’s destruction of Asag in the Kur, the waters of the Kur caused a flood. Now Ninurta heaps up a wall of stones over the Kur to hold back the waters, and proceeds to gather the flood into a river. ‘What had been scattered he gathered …’ This heap of stones became the hursag.

• Ninurta seems to have been a young god, who won his first laurels by defeating Asag.

• Ninurta had a net or snare in which he caught Asag. He was armed with bow and arrows and two bludgeons, Sharur and Shargaz.

• Asakku was a demon.

• Asag was probably identified with the Tigris.

• Asag lived on a mountain.

• Asag was a demon of storm and wind.

• Asag was son of An and Ki.


Assergi (m.; Kes, Adab)

• Assergi was married with Ninkhursaga.


Aššur = Asshur = Assur = Ašer = Ašur = Ashur (m.; Assyria, in Aššur)

# Asshur is compared to Mahadeva.

# Asshur assimilated to Shamash.

A bas-relief shows the national gods of Assyria, Ashur, floating in mid-air over the king as he goes into battle, and holding his bow in exactly the same position as the king.

• The Egyptian winged sun-disc is compared to Assur’s winged disc.

• On the procession to Bit Akitu: For the procession represented the victorious army of the gods who, on the eve of Creation, went out against Tiamat and destroyed her force. A figure of Assur, going to battle against Tiamat, carrying the bow, on his chariot holding the ‘weapon of the storm’ (abubu), and Amurru, who goes with him as charioteer (besides) the gods who march in front and the gods who march behind him, those who ride in chariots and those who go on foot (and) Tiamat and the creatures (that were) in her (Sanherib).. Note the phrase ‘the creatures within Tiamat’.

• Assur is invoked as Assur, the mighty god, who dwells in the temple of Kharsak Kurra, Kharsak Kurra being the world mountain.

... thus Assur is sometimes depicted in the act of shooting the lightning from his bow:....

• Assur was the divine protector of the town Assur.

Enuma Elish was read in Babylon on the fourth day of the New Year before Marduk, but in Assyria before Assur.

• Asshur was winged.

• Asshur’s skirt was identical with his tail feathers.

• The pole star, Regulus, Arcturus and Orion were identified with Ashur.

• Asshur’s emblems were ring and rod.

• Asshur had a sacred marriage.

• Asshur was a penis: Anu was the right testicle and Ea the left.

• Asshur’s name means ‘the erect one’.

• Asshur was worshiped as an upright stone.


Atrakhasis = Adrahasis = Hasisadra (m.)

# Adrahasis or Hasisadra, ’the wise’ or ‘the pious’, was an epithet of Ut-napishtim.

• Ut-Napishtim tells Gilgamesh: Now when Enlil drew nigh, he saw the ship; then was Enlil wroth. He was filled with anger against the gods, the Igigi (saying), ‘Who then hath escaped with his life? No man shall live after the destruction.’ Ea defends himself and says I caused Atrakhasis to see a dream, and thus be heard the purpose of the gods.’ And Ut-Napishtim is made a god (Gilgamesh Epic).


‘Bacchus’ (m.; Chaldean)

• Beltis is given as the name of the spouse of the Chaldean ‘Bacchus’.

• On the birthday of the Chaldaean ‘Bacchus’, a voice was heard to proclaim: ‘The lord of all earth is born’, and in this character he was styled ‘king of kings and lord of lords’.


Bau = Ba’u = Baba (f.; Lagash)

# Baba, Ma or Ninma, Nana, Nintu and Ninursanga all merged into Ishtar.

With the Phoenicians, according to the Sanchoniathon fragments, the Great Mother (Βααύ, Ba’u, the Babylonian Gula) was the wife of νεμος Κολπία, that is, Kol-pi-Yah, ‘the voice of the mouth of Yah’, the Semitic Creator.

The ship of the brilliant offspring was an epithet of Bau (Babylonia).

• The consort of Bau or Nin-Karrak is called by various names, among which Ninurta and Ningirsu.

In Eridu there grows a black kiskanu, it was made in a holy place; its radiance is of shining lapis-lazuli, it stretches towards the apsu; it is the walking place of Ea in rich Eridu, its dwelling is a place of rest for Bau … Kiskanu was obviously a sacred tree.

• Bau was Ea’s mother.

• Bau was the goddess of plenty, flocks and agriculture.


Belit-Ili (f.)

• She was a lid of Ninurta’s eyes.


Beltu = Belit = Beltis = Balthi (f.)

# Beltis was the same as Ishtar.

Der Venus-Morgenstern repräsentierte dort die Ištar-kakkabē, ‘Ištar der Sterne’ und ist als zikarat ‘männlich’ gedacht - im Gegensatz zum Venus-Abendstern, der Belit-ilē, ‘Götterherrin’ ….

Ningalla is generally invoked as Beltu or Belit, ‘mistress’.

• Beltis is given as the name of the spouse of the Chaldean ‘Bacchus’.

• Friday was sacred to Beltis (Sabians of Harran).

Instead of Saturn your image, the Hebrew and Greek say, the star of your god Refan. The name of Refan is Egyptian; but Refan and Kewan and Kronos and the star Venus, are the same. What some say of `Uzza is declared not to be true, because `Uzza and Nanaea and Balthi and Astarte and the Morning Star are the same (‘Išo`dad on Acts VII: 43).


Bilgi (m.?)

• Nusku’s twin was Bilgi.

Brilliant Bilgi was the Evening Star.


Bilulu (m.)

• Tammuz fought Bilulu.


Damqina (f.)

• Enki and his wife Damkina governed the lost paradise of Dilmun, the ‘pure place’ of man’s genesis. They alone reposed in Dilmun; Where Enki and his wife reposed, That place was pure, that place was clean... In Dilmun the raven croaked not. The kite shrieked not kite-like. The lion mangled not. The wolf ravaged not the lambs.

• Two bulls are serving as temple guardians: two bulls of the gate of the temple of E-Shakil, two bulls of the gate of Ea, two bulls of the gate of the goddess Damkina.


Dilbat (f.)

# Dilbat was a name for Ishtar.

• The star Medusa is called Dilbat.


Enki (Sumerian: Eridu) = Ea (Akkadian) = Hea (old fashioned) = Hoa (old fashioned) (m.; Dilmun, Eridu)

# El has been compared to Enki-Ea by scholars.

# Koshar can be identified with Ea.

# Oannes was the Greek name for the Babylonian Ea (the Sumerian Enki).

# Ninurta compared to Enki.

# Enki, Ninurta and Damuzi were only aspects of An.

# Osiris is compared to Enki, Yama, Kronos, Huang-ti, Quetzalcoatl, Manabozo.

# Enki or Ea is translated as Kronos by the Greeks.

# Enki-Ea was equivalent to El, Elos.

# Oannes’ name was explained as Hoa-ana, the god Hoa, which is Ea.

# Among the stars, Hea was known under the name Kimmut.

# Ea was identical with Oannes (Berossos).

# Ea was identical with Enki.

# Ea was connected with Dagan.

# Enki is comparable to Vishnu.

# Ea is stated to be the same as Sinn.

# The moon is during the period of his visibility, in the first five days, the god Anu; from the sixth to the tenth day, the god Ea; from the eleventh to the fifteenth day, the god En-Lil (early text).

In Eridu a dark pine grew. It was planted in a holy place. Its crown was crystal white, which spread towards the deep vault above. The abyss of Hea was its pasturage in Eridu, a canal full of waters. Its station was the centre of this earth. Its shrine was the couch of Mother Zikum. The (roof) of its holy house like a forest spread its shade. There were none who entered not within it. It was the seat of the mighty Mother (Sumerian).

Ea appears with streams of water in which fish swim, flowing from his shoulders, or from a vase which he holds (seal cylinders).

Ea is ‘the lord of the earth’ and his path is filled with fruitfulness.

• Langdon discusses tablets which contain interpretations of the festival. The commentary then says that the fire which (the king?) lights, is Marduk, who in his youth The next act commented upon concerns certain participants who hurl firebrands. These persons represent the gods In the ritual a fire is kindled before Ninlil Firebrands are lighted from the oven and these mean the arrows from the quiver of Bęl-Marduk, and the gods his fathers who bound iluZű and iluAsakku in their midst. The king lifts a dumaki (weapon?) above his head; this means Marduk, who lifted his weapons above his head and consumed the sons of Enlil and Ea with fire. The king breaks a vessel with a lisnu; this means Marduk, who bound Tiamat (?) in his victory (?).

• Anu, En-Lil and Ea are three aspects of a triune god.

• Ea is the god of water and wisdom.

In Eridu there grows a black kiskanu, it was made in a holy place; its radiance is of shining lapis-lazuli, it stretches towards the apsu; it is the walking place of Ea in rich Eridu, its dwelling is a place of rest for Bau … Kiskanu was obviously a sacred tree.

• The kiškanu -tree was planted in Eridu by Enki.

• Ea or Oannes was the serpent Tiamat identified with the waters of life, and he was the great Fish.

• Bau was Ea’s mother.

• Ea ‘binds’ Apsu and Mummu by magic incantations so as to kill them afterwards (Enuma Elish, I, 60-74).

• Marduk was the son of Ea (Enuma Elish, I. 83).

• Ea had a ship, on which Innab was skipper, and there was a crew.

• Ea was called ‘god of the house of water’.

• Ea was a goat.

• Ea was a fish god, rising from the Persian Gulf and bringing civilisation.

• Ea was half fish half man.

• Ea had a dragon form.

• Ea killed the marsh worm demon who caused tooth ache, an avatar of Tiamat.

• Ea drew a circle around the younger gods to protect them from the evil Apsu and Tiamat.

Poseidon therefore appears as a Lord of the Deep, especially as a Lord of the Waters of the Deep, comparable to the Sumerian ‘Lord of Below’, Enki, who with the Sky God Anu and the Storm God Enlil forms the great Mesopotamian trio of gods.

• Ea subjugated Mummu.

• Ea married Damqina and sired Marduk.

• Ea conferred his name upon his son Marduk.

• Enki was married with Nintur or with Ninki.

• Enki married his mother Nammu.

• Enki gave the me ’s to Inanna, archetypal laws, which could be worn in some way.

• Enki saved Inanna from the underworld: he stayed three days in the underworld.

• Enki’s name means ‘lord of the earth’.

The gigantic star of the god Ea in the constellation Vela of the god Ea (list of star names).

• Sumerian AN-HA, originally written HA-AN, means ‘fish of heaven’. It was one of the epithets of Ea, who was the southern sea and sky god.

• Ea was a god of rain.

Ullikummi tried to topple the gods from their thrones. Ea severed the monster from his support by means of a magic cleaver and he crashed forthwith to his doom.

• The heavenly Euphrates was Enlil: With water which the lord [Ea] has guided from the great mountain [Enlil], water which down the pure Euphrates he has guided, the product of the Apsu, for the purpose of lustration.

Nergal came up the long stairway of heaven. When he arrived at the gate of Anu, Ellil and Ea, Anu, Ellil and Ea saw him and said ‘The son of Ishtar has come back to us’ (Nergal and Ereshkigal).

• Enki and his wife Damkina governed the lost paradise of Dilmun, the ‘pure place’ of man’s genesis. They alone reposed in Dilmun; Where Enki and his wife reposed, That place was pure, that place was clean... In Dilmun the raven croaked not. The kite shrieked not kite-like. The lion mangled not. The wolf ravaged not the lambs.

• Ut-Napishtim tells Gilgamesh: Shurippak … the gods within it, their heart prompted the great gods to send a flood … The lord of Wisdom, Ea, sat also with them, he repeated their word to the hut of reeds, saying, ‘O reed hut, reed hut, O wall, wall, O reed hut hearken, O wall attend. O man of Shurippak, son of Ubara-Tutu, pull down thy house, build a ship, forsake thy possessions, take heed for thy life! Thy gods abandon, save thy life, bring living seed of every kind into the ship. As for the ship which thou shalt build, well planned must be its dimensions, its breadth and its length shall bear proportions each to each, and thou shalt launch it in the ocean.’ … ‘Thus shalt thou answer and say unto them: Because Enlil hates me, no longer may I abide in your city nor lay my head on Enlil’s earth. Down into the deep sea must I go with Ea, my lord, to dwell.’‘ So Ut-Napishtim obeyed the god Ea … (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Ea is the primal ocean, Tiamat, and the Ancient Serpent, Oannes, the fish-god.

• Ishtar is variously mentioned as daughter of Anu, spouse of Anu, female counterpart of En-Lil and daughter of Ea.

• Enki introduced civilisation to mankind, founded the first cities and temples, and set down the first laws.

• Enki was called the creator.

• Enki’s home was the cosmic sea Apsu, the celestial waters of fire, rage, splendour and terror.

• From a Sumerian text we learn that Ziugiddu, or rather Ziudsuddu, was at once a king and a priest of the god Enki, … To reward him for his piety Enki informs him that at the request of Enlil it has been resolved in the council of the gods to destroy the seed of mankind by a rain-storm. Before the holy man receives this timely warning, his divine friend bids him take his stand beside a wall, saying, ‘Stand by the wall on my left side, and at the wall I will speak a word with thee.’ … The part of the tablet which probably described the building of the ship and Ziudsuddu’s embarkation is lost, and in the remaining we are plunged into the midst of the deluge. The storms of wind and rain are described as raging together. Then the text continues: ‘When for seven days, for seven nights, the rain-storm had raged in the land, when the great boat had been carried away by the wind-storms on the mighty waters, the Sun-god came forth, shedding light over heaven and earth.’ When the light shines into the boat, Ziudsuddu prostrates himself before the Sun-god and sacrifices an ox and a sheep … Ziudsuddu receives the boon of immortality and the gods cause him to dwell on a mountain, perhaps the mountain of Dilmun, though the reading of the name is uncertain.

• Ea was the first king and ancestor.

• Enki was deemed Mummu, the creative ‘Word’.

• Inanna set out to release her brother Dumuzi from the land of no return. The Anunnaki, the seven judges, pronounced judgement before her, they fastened their eyes upon her, the eyes of death, at their word, the word that tortures the spirit, the sick woman was turned into a corpse, and the corpse was hung from a stake. After three days and nights her messenger Ninshubur compelled the gods to help her. Enki then brought forth two sexless creatures, who bestowed food and water upon Inanna and she revived (Inanna’s descent).

• Enki brought forth the secondary gods through his own speech.

• Enki is the motionless lord and the god of stability.

• Enki has androgynous aspects.

• Enki rules in the Ekur, the ‘earth’.

• Enki is ruling Dilmun.

The path of Ea was in Eridu, teeming with fertility. His seat (there) is the centre of the earth; his couch is the bed of the primeval mother.

• Ea was a god of fertilising water.

• Ea is a god of binding.

• The Engur, ‘river’, surrounded Enki: Thou River, creatress of all things, When the great gods dug thee, on thy bank they placed mercy. Within thee Ea, King of the Apsu, built his abode. They gave thee the flood, the unequalled. Fire, rage, splendor, and terror... O great river, far-famed river...

• Ea was a god of four eyes that behold all things.

• The city of Eridu is described as The house built of silver, adorned with lapis lazuli... The abyss, the shrine of the goodness of Enki, befitting the divine decrees, Eridu, the pure house having been built.

After the water of creation has been decreed, After the name hegal (Abundance), born of heaven, Like the plant and herb had clothed the land, The lord of the abyss, the King Enki, Enki, the lord who decrees the fates, Built his house of silver and lapis lazuli: Its silver and lapis lazuli, like sparkling light, The father fashioned fittingly in the abyss.

• Enki had a far-famed house built in the bosom of the Nether sea.

• Enki’s house was the good temple built on a good place... floating in the sky... heaven’s midst. It floats like a cloud in the midst of the sky.

• Enki had a clear-seeing eye.

• Enki held the bond of the all.

• Ea’s sanctuary was represented by a serpent or fish.

The abundance of the goddess of flocks and of the Grain goddess, The Anunnaki in ‘the holy chamber’ Ate and were not filled... The Anunnaki in ‘the holy chamber’ Drank and were not filled. In the holy park, for their (the gods’) benefit, Mankind with the soul of life came into being. Then Enki said to Enlil: ‘Father Enlil, flocks and grain In ‘the holy chamber’ have been made plentiful. In ‘the holy chamber’ mightily shall they bring forth.’ By the incantation of Enki and Enlil Flocks and grain in ‘the holy chamber’ brought forth. Pasture they provided for them abundantly, For the Grain goddess they prepared a house.

• Enki ruled the Ekur, ‘mountain house’, or the mountain of Dilmun.

• Inanna abandoned Eanna to journey to the underworld, where she is raped by the gardener Sukalletuda. It is, in part, through the magical devices of Enki that she eventually succeeds in returning to Eanna.

• Enki had a clear-seeing eye.

• Of Enki’s temple it is said: The holy foundation made with skill rises from the nether-sea.

• Enki possessed radiant horns.

• Two bulls are serving as temple guardians: two bulls of the gate of the temple of E-Shakil, two bulls of the gate of Ea, two bulls of the gate of the goddess Damkina.

• Ea or Enki rode the ship of the antelope of the Apsu.

(In) Eridu a stalk grew over-shadowing: in a holy place did it become green; its root was of white crystal which stretched toward the deep; (before) Ea was its course in Eridu, teeming with fertility; its seat was the central place of the earth; its foliage was the couch of Zikum (the primeval mother). Into the heart of its holy house which spread its shade like a forest hath no man entered... In the midst of it was Tammuz.

• Ea was known as the Lord of Eridu.

• Eridu would have been connected with the constellation Eridanus, Argo or Vela, which all border on each other, and which was also characterised by a sacred star mulNun-ki.

• Eridu was identical to Apsu.

• Ea-Enki must have been the planet Saturn.


Enkidu (m.)

Enkidu cut off Humbaba's head with his sword (Hittite version).

the dead Enkidu appears like a puff of wind before his friend Gilgamesh ….

• Gilgamesh wrestled with Enkidu: Enkidu blocked the gate with his foot, not permitting Gilgamesh to enter. They grappled with each other, snorting like bulls; they shattered the doorpost, that the wall shook (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Enkidu was very hairy and had long hair.

• Gilgamesh, mourning the death of his friend Enkidu, sets out to attain immortality and travels to his ancestor Ut-napishtim.

• When his friend Enkidu has died and he himself is sick, Gilgamesh resolves to seek out his remote ancestors Ut-napishtim, son of Ubara-Tutu, and to inquire of him how mortal man can attain to eternal life … He passes the mountain, guarded by a scorpion man and woman, where the sun goes down: he traverses a dark and dreadful road never trodden before by mortal man: he is ferried across a wide sea: he crosses the Water of Death by a narrow bridge, and at last he enters the presence of Ut-napishtim (Gilgamesh Epic).


Enkimdu (m.)

# Enkimdu was probably identical with Enkidu.

• Enkimdu was a farmer.

• Enkimdu was a brother of Dumuzi.


Enlil (Sumerian) = En-Lil = Ellil (Akkadian) (m.; Nippur)

# Bel was used as an epithet of Enlil.

# Enlil is compared to Varuna and to Shiva.

# The moon is during the period of his visibility, in the first five days, the god Anu; from the sixth to the tenth day, the god Ea; from the eleventh to the fifteenth day, the god En-Lil (early text).

• Langdon discusses tablets which contain interpretations of the festival. The commentary then says that the fire which (the king?) lights, is Marduk, who in his youth The next act commented upon concerns certain participants who hurl firebrands. These persons represent the gods In the ritual a fire is kindled before Ninlil Firebrands are lighted from the oven and these mean the arrows from the quiver of Bęl-Marduk, and the gods his fathers who bound iluZű and iluAsakku in their midst. The king lifts a dumaki (weapon?) above his head; this means Marduk, who lifted his weapons above his head and consumed the sons of Enlil and Ea with fire. The king breaks a vessel with a lisnu; this means Marduk, who bound Tiamat (?) in his victory (?).

• Anu appears to have been linked with the plane of the ecliptic and Enlil with the higher latitudes to the north.

• Ishtar is variously mentioned as daughter of Anu, spouse of Anu, female counterpart of En-Lil and daughter of Ea.

… when this 'Heaven-and-Earth' emerged from the primal sea, its form was of a mountain whose summit, Heaven (An), was male, and lower portion, Earth (Ki), female; further, that from this dual being the air-god Enlil was born, by whom the two were separated … Enlil, who brings up the seed of the land from the earth, / Took care to move away Heaven from Earth, / Took care to move away Earth from Heaven (Late Sumerian text, ca. 2000 BCE).

• The earth is a flat disc overlaying the Apsū, which was the body of sweet water from which all springs drew their supplies. This earth was the domain of Enlil.

En-Lil, the original Bel and Marduk, was a deity of the earth.

• En-Lil is said to be ‘the Lord of the Heavenly Earth’.

• En-Lil is represented in a clay shrine from Nippur as standing in the vault of heaven, surrounded by the stars.

• Enlil was called šadū rabū, ‘big mountain’.

Grosser Berg des Inlil, Imarsag, dessen Gipfel den Himmel erreicht, dessen Fundament im Ocean gegründet ist.

• En-Lil is the father of the moon, which is called ‘the calf of Lil’.

Poseidon therefore appears as a Lord of the Deep, especially as a Lord of the Waters of the Deep, comparable to the Sumerian ‘Lord of Below’, Enki, who with the Sky God Anu and the Storm God Enlil forms the great Mesopotamian trio of gods.

• Enlil is ‘the master of the wind’, ‘the king of storms’, and a god of waters.

• Anu, En-Lil and Ea are three aspects of a triune god.

• Sin, the moon god, was called the powerful calf of Enlil.

• Nannar, the moon god, was described as ‘powerful young bull of the sky, most wonderful son of Enlil’ or ‘the powerful one, the young bull with strong horns’.

• From a Sumerian text we learn that Ziugiddu, or rather Ziudsuddu, was at once a king and a priest of the god Enki, … To reward him for his piety Enki informs him that at the request of Enlil it has been resolved in the council of the gods to destroy the seed of mankind by a rain-storm. Before the holy man receives this timely warning, his divine friend bids him take his stand beside a wall, saying, ‘Stand by the wall on my left side, and at the wall I will speak a word with thee.’ … The part of the tablet which probably described the building of the ship and Ziudsuddu’s embarkation is lost, and in the remaining we are plunged into the midst of the deluge. The storms of wind and rain are described as raging together. Then the text continues: ‘When for seven days, for seven nights, the rain-storm had raged in the land, when the great boat had been carried away by the wind-storms on the mighty waters, the Sun-god came forth, shedding light over heaven and earth.’ When the light shines into the boat, Ziudsuddu prostrates himself before the Sun-god and sacrifices an ox and a sheep … Ziudsuddu receives the boon of immortality and the gods cause him to dwell on a mountain, perhaps the mountain of Dilmun, though the reading of the name is uncertain.

• Enlil’s name means ‘lord of the violent wind’, lil being the hurricane.

• Enlil is called lugal amaru, ‘king of the wind and hurricane’, and umu, ‘storm’, En-ug-ug-ga, ‘master of storms’.

• Enlil governs the waters and produced the flood.

• Enlil’s temple at Nippur is called ‘the house of the mountain’.

• Enlil was the son of Anu.

• Enlil is called alim, the powerful one, god of the horn, master of the universe, king of heaven and earth, Father Bel, and the great warrior.

• Enlil’s wife is Ningalla, ‘the great cow’, umum rabetum, ‘the great mother’.

• Ningalla is generally invoked as Beltu or Belit, ‘mistress’.

• The storm-god Enlil-Bel became the supreme god.

• Enlil was married with Ninlil.

• Enlil married with Ki after he had separated An and Ki.

• The ‘word of Enlil’ brings destruction.

• Enlil was the creative word of his father An.

• Enlil brought the flood.

• Enlil was a god of wind or breath.

• Enlil lived inside the mountain.

• Enlil set his foot on earth as a big bull.

In those days there was no snake, there was no scorpion, there was no fox... There was no fear, no terror. Man had no rival. In those days the land of Shubur, the place of plenty, of righteous decrees. Harmony tongues Sumer... The whole universe, the people in unison, to Enlil in one tongue gave praise.

• A hymn to Enlil says: Your me is a me which does not manifest as light; your appearance is a divine (presence) which cannot be seen.

• Enlil had an epithet salummatu or salummati, ‘brightness’ or ‘splendour’.

• Anu and Enlil were responsible for the deluge.

Nergal came up the long stairway of heaven. When he arrived at the gate of Anu, Ellil and Ea, Anu, Ellil and Ea saw him and said ‘The son of Ishtar has come back to us’ (Nergal and Ereshkigal).

• Enlil was an eye of Ninurta’s.

Ekur, the house of Enlil on the cosmic sea Apsu, means both ‘temple’ and ‘earth’.

• Enlil was Imhursag, ‘great mountain’.

• Enlil was the wind of the netherworld mountain.

• Ut-Napishtim tells Gilgamesh: Shurippak … the gods within it, their heart prompted the great gods to send a flood … The lord of Wisdom, Ea, sat also with them, he repeated their word to the hut of reeds, saying, ‘O reed hut, reed hut, O wall, wall, O reed hut hearken, O wall attend. O man of Shurippak, son of Ubara-Tutu, pull down thy house, build a ship, forsake thy possessions, take heed for thy life! Thy gods abandon, save thy life, bring living seed of every kind into the ship. As for the ship which thou shalt build, well planned must be its dimensions, its breadth and its length shall bear proportions each to each, and thou shalt launch it in the ocean.’ … ‘Thus shalt thou answer and say unto them: Because Enlil hates me, no longer may I abide in your city nor lay my head on Enlil’s earth. Down into the deep sea must I go with Ea, my lord, to dwell.’‘ So Ut-Napishtim obeyed the god Ea … Then the Lady of the gods drew nigh, she lifted up the great jewels which Anu had made according to her wish. She said, ‘Oh ye gods here, as truly as I will not forget the jewels of lapis lazuli which are on my neck, so truly will I remember these days, never shall I forget them! Let the gods come to the offering, but Enlil shall not come to the offering, for he took not counsel and sent the deluge, and my people he gave to destruction.’ Now when Enlil drew nigh, he saw the ship; then was Enlil wroth. He was filled with anger against the gods, the Igigi (saying), ‘Who then hath escaped with his life? No man shall live after the destruction.’ Ea defends himself and says I caused Atrakhasis to see a dream, and thus be heard the purpose of the gods.’ And Ut-Napishtim is made a god (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Enlil was the bright-eyed.

• Between heaven and earth the Sumerians recognised a substance which they called lil, a word whose approximate meaning is wind (air, breath, spirit).

• The heavenly Euphrates was Enlil: With water which the lord [Ea] has guided from the great mountain [Enlil], water which down the pure Euphrates he has guided, the product of the Apsu, for the purpose of lustration.

• Enlil was the man of the river of the netherworld, the man devouring river.

• Enlil says to his wife: The water of my king, let it go toward heaven, let it go toward earth.

• Enlil possessed radiant horns.

• Hursag was personified with Enlil: O great Enlil, im-hur-sag [GreatMountain], whose head rivals the heavens, whose foundation is laid in the pure abyss, whose horns gleam like the rays of the sun-god.

• The sickle of Sin was the two arms of Enlil.

• Enlil had been king of the gods.

• Enlil was the bull god of fertility.

Lightning: Weapon of Baal, Enlil, Jove, Jupiter, Merodach, Zeus.


Enmešarra (m.)


Ensag = Inzak (m.)

# Ensag was equated with Nabu.

• Ensag was the son of Enki.


Ereškigal = Ereshkigal (Sumerian) = Irkalla (Akkadian) (f.)

• The nether world is ruled by Inanna’s sister Ereshkigal.

• Ereshkigal lived in the underworld.

• Ereshkigal was a sister of Inanna.


Erra (Babylonian) = Irra (Hittite) (m.)

# Erra was an alter ego of Nergal.

• Irra was probably identical to Erra.

• Erra led an armed insurrection against the assembly of the gods, on which occasion the foundations of heaven were threatened (Poem of Erra).

• Erra attacks Šuanna, the kingdom of Marduk.

• Erra says: I will make prince Marduk wrathful: I will cause him to rise from his seat and I will fell the men (Poem of Erra).

• As a result of Erra’s oppression, Marduk is enfeebled and the world temporarily thrown out of kilter and plunged into darkness (Poem of Erra).

• As a result of Erra’s assault, the world was plunged into darkness and Marduk forced to descend to the Netherworld. Erra says: I want to annihilate the brilliance of Šulpa’ea (an epithet of Marduk)... I want to attain the seat of the king of the gods so that his counsel be not forthcoming (Poem of Erra).

• Erra says: I shall quench the glory of the beams of Šamas (sic!)... To the king of the gods I shall say ‘Dwell in Esagila’ (the underworld) I shall destroy the cities and turn them into barren land... I shall get into the house of the gods, there where the evil man has no access. At the abode of princes I shall let the rogue dwell (Poem of Erra).

• Erra held the nose-rope of heaven (serretum): Hero Erra, you are holding the nose-rope of heaven. You dominate the whole earth. You lord it over the country. You convulse the sea, you destroy the mountains... You control Suanna... You gather all the divine powers to yourself. The gods fear you (Poem of Erra).

• Erra said: Until you enter that house, prince Marduk, and Girra purifies your garment, and you return to your place, till then I shall rule in your stead and keep strong the government of heaven and earth (Poem of Erra).

• Erra said to Marduk: What happened to your attire, to the insignia of your leadership, magnificent as the stars in the sky? It has been dirtied! What happened to the crown of your lordship... its surface is shrouded over!.

I shall cut off the life of the righteous man who acts as intercessor. The evil man, who cut throats, him I shall put in the highest place. I shall so change men’s hearts that father will not listen to son and daughter will talk to mother with hatred. I shall cause them to speak ill and they will forget their god and speak blasphemy to their goddess (Poem of Erra).

Of all the countries what is there left steady? He has taken the crown of his lordship: kings and princes... forget their ordinances... the bond between god and man is undone: difficult it is to knot again (Poem of Erra).

• Erra was a warrior.

• Erra’s name may be connected with the Semitic root *hrr, ‘to scorch’. His relation to igneous phenomena is proverbial.

• Era and/or Irra, is described as the direct cause of a deluge.

• Erra injured the wall of the gods with an arrow (Poem of Erra).

The hero Erra turned his face towards Suanna, the city of the king of the gods. Entered Esagila, the palace of heaven and earth, and stood in his (Marduk’s) presence (Poem of Erra).

You girded on your weapons and made your entrance into it (Poem of Erra).

To the dwelling of the king of the gods I shall betake me - there is none who can oppose me.

• Erra’s consort was Mami.

• Erra resided in Meslam.

• Erra is associated with war, pestilence and fire.

• Erra was identified with the planet Mars (Babylonian astronomy).

• The Poem of Erra became an amulet against plague and pestilence.

• Irra wore a bow (Hittite).

• Erra says: Like a scorcher of the earth, I slew indiscriminately good and evil. One would not snatch a carcass from the jaws of a ravening lion, so too no one can reason where one is in a frenzy.

• A flood is mentioned (Poem of Erra).

• Erra’s epithet is qaradu, ‘warrior, hero’.

It is you, hero Erra, who did not fear prince Marduk’s name! You have undone the bond of Dimkurkurra, the city of the king of the gods, the bond of all the countries (Poem of Erra).

• After Erra’s attack Marduk laments: Of all the countries what is there left steady? He has taken the crown of his lordship: kings and princes... forget their ordinances... the bond between god and man is undone: difficult it is to knot again (Poem of Erra).

• On Erra it says: The hero reached MountHehe. He raised his hand and levelled the mountain... He destroyed the cities and turned them into deserts... He devastated reed and rush thickets and burned them like fire.


Etana (m.)

• A fight between eagle and snake occurs in the Etana myth. The eagle is first overpowered by the snake of the night, but Etana frees the bird and is carried up to heaven by it, with reference to E. J. Harper, Beiträge zur Assyriologie, 1894, II. 390ff.; Jastrow, Journal of the American Oriental Society, XXX, 1910: 101ff.


Gatumdug (Sumerian) (f.)

You have taken my seed into the womb, have given birth to me in the shrine, says king Gudea to the goddess Gatumdug.


Geštinanna = Gestinanna = Geshtinanna (f.; Sumerian)

• Geshtin-anna, ‘vine of heaven’, was sister and wife of Tammuz.

• Geshtinanna, Dumuzi’s sister, announces in the wake of his death that my hair will whirl around in heaven for you like a hurricane.... Gestinanna cried toward heaven, cried toward earth. (Her) cries covered the horizon completely like a cloth and were spread out like linen (Dumuzi’s Dream).

• Every year Geshtinanna stayed half a year in the underworld (and Dumuzi stayed the other half).

• Geshtinanna was a mother goddess.


Gilgamesh = Gilgameš (m.; Mesopotamia).

# Gilgamesh is Nergal (a late text).

# Gilgamesh is compared to Tammuz.

Gilgamesh is described as a giant, nearly 5 meters tall.

• The killing of Humbaba apparently took place in heaven, as Humbaba said to Gilgamesh: I shall carry you off and cast you down from the sky, smash you on the head (?) and drive you down into the dark earth (Hittite version).

When his friend Enkidu has died and he himself is sick, Gilgamesh resolves to seek out his remote ancestors Ut-napishtim, son of Ubara-Tutu, and to inquire of him how mortal man can attain to eternal life … He passes the mountain, guarded by a scorpion man and woman, where the sun goes down: he traverses a dark and dreadful road never trodden before by mortal man: he is ferried across a wide sea: he crosses the Water of Death by a narrow bridge, and at last he enters the presence of Ut-napishtim (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Gilgamesh comes upon a miraculous tree in a garden, and near it the goddess Siduri, ‘maiden’, described as sabitu, ‘the woman with wine’. The tree was placed between seven mountains (Epic of Gilgamesh).

• Gilgamesh, mourning the death of his friend Enkidu, sets out to attain immortality and travels to his ancestor Ut-napishtim. His dwelling stands at the mouth of the rivers. He lives on an island surrounded by the waters of death. Ut-napishtim reveals to Gilgamesh the existence of a ‘thorny’ herb at the bottom of the sea, which will prolong the youth and life of the eater. Gilgamesh fastens stones to his feet and goes down to search the bottom of the sea. Having found the herb, he pulls a sprig from it, then unfastens the stones, and rises again to the surface. On the road to Uruk, he stops to drink at a spring; drawn by the scent of the plant, a snake draws near and devours it, thus becoming immortal.

• Gilgamesh searched for the herb of life. He found it on an island, but it was taken away from him by a snake, who was an appearance of the earth-lion.

• On his search for the herb of life Gilgamesh entered the mount Mashi and entered a garden where gemstones grew on trees: in this garden was the palace of the goddess Sabitu, who told him whereabouts the island was where Ut-Napishtim lived.

• Gilgamesh visited the islands, where he met Ut-napištim.

For fear of the king, the guardians threw the child down from the acropolis, where the royal daughter was imprisoned. The eagle, with his keen eyes, saw the boy’s fall, and before the child struck the earth, he caught it on his back, bore it into a garden, and set it down with great care. When the overseer of the place saw the beautiful boy, he was pleased with him and raised him. They boy received the name Gilgamesh, and became the king of Babylonia (Aelian).

• Gilgamesh killed a snake.

• Gilgamesh oppressed Uruk.

• Gilgamesh was represented kneeling with one knee bent.

• Gilgamesh journeys to the Mashu Mountain upon which the vault of heaven rests. Through its gate Shamash comes forth (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Gilgamesh was of mixed divine and mortal blood: 2/3 god and 1/3 man.

• Gilgamesh was sexually prodigious.

• Gilgamesh was depicted wearing the skin of a lion.

• Gilgamesh is a mighty hunter.

• Gilgamesh is a restless wanderer.

• Gilgamesh battled with the celestial bull.

• Ishtar cursed Gilgamesh because of his murder of the celestial bull.

The onslaught of his weapons has no equal... Gilgamesh leaves no son to his father; Day and night his outrageousness continues unrestrained... Gilgamesh leaves no virgin to her lover. The daughter of a warrior, the chosen of a noble. Their lament the gods heard over and over again (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Gilgamesh combats with Huwawa (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Gilgamesh diminished Huwawa’s sevenfold halo, rendering him powerless.

• Gilgamesh traveled along the road of the sun (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Gilgamesh must have been a celestial body.

• Gilgamesh said to his mother: There the stars of heaven gather around me, like the citadel of Anu does it collapse upon me (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Gilgamesh was a typical solar hero.

• Gilgamesh had really lived as a king on earth.

• Gilgamesh was a supreme hero.

• Gilgamesh constructed the walls of Uruk.

• Gilgamesh’ city had seven walls or rather: the foundations of the walls had been laid by seven divine sages.

• Gilgamesh might have been the planet Mars.

• Gilgamesh was king of the underworld (Old Babylonia).

• … the dead Enkidu appears like a puff of wind before his friend Gilgamesh ….

• Gilgamesh was celebrated in ritual.

• Gilgamesh traveled on arran Shamash, the ‘road of Shamash’, when performing his heroic exploits.

• Gilgamesh was judge of the underworld (omen texts).

Gilgamesh is Nergal, who resides in the underworld (a late text).

• Gilgamesh crosses the ‘Waters of Death’ and reaches the island where Ut-Napishtim lives with his wife. On another island he finds the ‘plant of life’, but the guardian serpent-dragon takes it away from him.

• Gilgamesh was invoked as meslamtae or meslamtaea, ‘he who issues forth from the Mēsu-tree’.

• Gilgamesh was described as a judge: Gilgamesh, perfect king, [judge of the Anunnaki], wise prince... ruler of the earth... Thou art the judge, like a god who perceivest (everything). Thou standest in the underworld (and) givest final decision. Thy judgment is not changed, [thy] word is not forgotten.

• Gilgamesh was in coma, induced by Huwawa upon the felling of the sacred cedar trees.

• Gilgamesh is stricken with a leprosy-like disease upon offending the gods: And see! The king (Gilgamesh) leans fainting ‘gainst the mast, with glaring eyeballs, clenched hands, - aghast! behold! that pallid face and scaly hands! A leper white, accurst of gods, he stands!.

• Urshanabi addressed Gilgamesh as follows: Why are thy cheeks so emaciated, and why is thy face downcast? Why is thy heart so sad, and why are thy features so distorted? (Gilgamesh Epic).

• The name of the Mesu -tree would have been present in Gilgamesh’s name.

• As Gilgamesh sets out to battle with Huwawa, he pauses before Shamash and digs a well of some sort. The namburbi -ritual, concerned with the digging of wells, contained reference to the ‘well of Gilgamesh’.

• Gilgamesh begins his assault upon Huwawa by climbing the Cedar Mountain.

• Gilgamesh wrestled with Enkidu: Enkidu blocked the gate with his foot, not permitting Gilgamesh to enter. They grappled with each other, snorting like bulls; they shattered the doorpost, that the wall shook (Gilgamesh Epic). There was a wrestling ritual associated with Gilgamesh immediately outside the city gate.

• At the gate, Gilgamesh had an encounter with the barmaid. He says: I shall smash thy door and break thy gate (Gilgamesh Epic).

• In the forest Gilgamesh lost his dark-light duad, Pukku and Mikku.

• Gilgamesh uprooted a huluppu -tree which supplied him with the materials to make his pukku and mikku.

• Gilgamesh’ pukku and mikku may have been his ‘drum’ and ‘drumstick’.

• Ut-napishtim taught Gilgamesh of a wonderful plant, called ‘the old man becomes young’ and obtained it, but while he was having a bath in preparation for renewing his life, a serpent stole it from him and became immortal (Gilgamesh Epic).


Girra (f.?)

• Erra said: Until you enter that house, prince Marduk, and Girra purifies your garment,... (Poem of Erra).


Gula (f.)

# Gula is identical with Ishtar.

With the Phoenicians, according to the Sanchoniathon fragments, the Great Mother (Βααύ, Ba’u, the Babylonian Gula) was the wife of ''Ανεμος Κολπία, that is, Kol-pi-Yah, ‘the voice of the mouth of Yah’, the Semitic Creator.

• The day of Gula is the day of wrath. On that day weeping and lamentation filled the land.

• Gula’s epithet is mother-womb.

• Gula was one of the lids of the eyes of Ninurta.


Gušea = Gushea (f.; Mesopotamia)

# Gushea was identified with Ištar.

• Gushea was a goddess of combat.

• Gushea was a destroying torch.


Gutira (f.)

Ruler of weapons, arbiter of the battle! Framer of all decrees, wearer of the crown of dominion! O lady, majestic is thy rank, over all the gods is it exalted! Thou art the cause of lamentation, thou sowest hostility among brethren who are at peace!... Thou art strong, o lady of victory, thou canst violently attain my desire. O Gutira, who are girt with battle, who art clothed with terror... Terrible in the fight, one who cannot be opposed, strong in the battle! O whirlwind, that roarest against the foe and cuttest off the mighty (Akkadian hymn).


Huwawa = Humbaba = Khumbaba = Huban (Elamite) = Humban (Elamite) = Humba (Elamite) = Hanubani (Elamite) = Hamban (Elamite) = Umman (Elamite) = Amman (Elamite) = Imbi (Elamite) (m.)

# Huwawa was probably identical with Shamash.

# Huwawa was perhaps related to the Elamite Huban or Humban.

# Huwawa was identical with Kombabos.

# Huwawa was perhaps related to the Elamite Huban or Humban.

# Humban is compared to Ninib.

# Humbaba is identical to the Iranian Kombabos.

# Amman-ka-sibar, which would be derived from Chumban-uk-Sinarra, is equated with Ninib.

The killing of Humbaba apparently took place in heaven, as Humbaba said to Gilgamesh: I shall carry you off and cast you down from the sky, smash you on the head (?) and drive you down into the dark earth (Hittite version).

• Humbaba was clothed in seven layers of terrifying radiance and spouted fire when he talked.

• Enkidu cut off Humbaba's head with his sword (Hittite version).

The name of the Umman-Manda is linked with the planet Saturn.

• Huwawa was the god of the cedar forest (Sha Naqba Imuru).

• Humbaba would mean "Hum-is-the father", where " hum " would mean "creator".

• Huwawa was going to be slain by Gilgamesh and Enkidu.

• Huwawa is described with the roaring of a flood-storm. His mouth is fire, his breath is death.

• Humba shares the epithet ‘the prevalent, the strong’ not only with Procyon but also with the planets Mercury and Jupiter.

• Humbaba's face is depicted in art as being composed of winding entrails.

• Elamite Humba appears in a star list with the star determinative mul.

• Huwawa was an ogre-like guardian of the Cedar Forest.

• Huwawa’s nether world domain is recalled as the mountain of the cedars, the dwelling-place of the gods and the throne of Ishtar (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Huwawa was surrounded by a sevenfold splendour or halo (pu-ul-i-a-tim), sometimes translated as a ‘terror’.

• Gilgamesh combats with Huwawa (Gilgamesh Epic).

• Gilgamesh diminished Huwawa’s sevenfold halo, rendering him powerless.

• Gilgamesh was in coma, induced by Huwawa upon the felling of the sacred cedar trees.

• Huwawa was called god of the fortress of intestines.

• Huwawa was a lord of the underworld (later texts).

• Huwawa is by some identified with the planet Saturn.

• When he was slain, his visage was fashioned of intestines.

• Huwawa has been identified with Procyon, Mercury and Jupiter by scholars.

• Huwawa was described as being labyrinthine-faced.

• Huwawa was a terrifying monster of Molochian appetites and may have been bovine in form.


Ib (m.)

# The god Ib is my god Yau (Babylonian private text).


Ilabrat (m.)

• Ninshubur is also called Papsukkal, ‘chief messenger of the gods’, and Ilabrat, ‘the god of wings’.


Imdugud = Im Dugud = Im Gig (m.)

# Imdugud was the Akkadian Zu.

# Imdugud was a form of Ningirsu or Ninurta.

In Pl. XIX c this god, characterised by the bow, is shown in the act of destroying an enemy upon the mountain from which the captive god is set free. This adversary is represented in Pl. XIX a by the bird of prey, in accordance with the ritual of the New Year’s festival in which references to the defeat of the storm-bird Zu abound In Pl. XIX b the champion carries no weapons but is identified by the lion-headed eagle Imdugud who assists him. For Imdugud is the best-known symbol of the Fertility-god in his warlike aspect, Ningirsu, or, later, Ninurta.

Sharur is Ninurta’s weapon. Its name means ‘the one who lays low multitudes’, and it is termed ‘flood storm of battle’. Consonant, with its storm character it was envisioned as a bird, in this tale even as a bird with a lion’s head, which makes it indistinguishable from the thunderbird, Imdugud or Anzu, Ninĝirsu / Ninurta’s old form as personification of the thunder cloud.

• Ningirsu is described in a vision of Gudea: Sein Wuchs reicht vom Himmel zur Erde, dem Kopf nach ein Gott, an seiner Seite der Vogel Imdugud (= Zű), zu seinen Füßen abűbu, zu seiner Rechten und Linken je ein Löwe gelagert.

The Sumerians spoke of a winged demon of the storm named “Heavy Wind” (Im. Dugud) or “Flashing Wind” (Im. Gig) ….

The name of Imdugud was composed of imi, 'rain', and dugud, 'cloud'.

Lugalbanda encounters Imdugud, the thunder bird and addressed it: as to your ribs, you are a very serpent god multicolored .

‘Imdugud (Anzű)’ Envisaged as bird-like but having the head of a lion, and of gigantic size so that the flapping of its wings could cause whirlwinds and sand-storms, the Imdugud was probably originally a personification of an atmospheric force … And he is identified with Anzű.

• Imdugud was a monstrous bird hovering over the primeval waters, its wings outstretched.

• Imdugud looks down upon the mountain.

• Imdugud had his home on the northern mount Masius.


Im-gi(g) (m.?)

• … Der (heilige) Pfahl, festgestellt im Tempel, war gleich dem göttlichen Vogel Im-gi(g), welcher mit der Schlange des Gebirges … (Gudea of Lagash cylinder A, 27. 18f.).


Innin (f.; Uruk)

# Innin is called Antu.

• Innin married with some man.


Irragal (m.)

• Ut-Napishtim tells Gilgamesh: When the early dawn appeared there came up from the horizon a black cloud. Ramman thundered in the midst thereof, the gods Mujati and Lugal went before. Like messengers they passed over mountain and land; Irragal tore away the ship’s post. There went Ninib and he made the storm to burst. The Anunnaki lifted up flaming torches, with the brightness thereof they lit up the earth. The whirlwind of Ramman mounted up into the heavens, and all light was turned into darkness.’ A whole day the tempest raged, and the waters rose on the mountains (Gilgamesh Epic).


'Isis' (f.)

• The inhabitants of Mesopotamia revere the star of Venus under the name of Isis, and that of Saturn as Mithras Helios (Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, II. 3. 66ff.).


Iškur (m.?)

Iškur: his attributes are a club and shafts of lightning (Hittite).

• Ishkur was associated with the imdugud, the thunderbird with lion’s head.

On the monuments Adad is represented standing upon a bull, hurling a thunderbolt in his right hand and holding forked lightning in his left. A crouching bull with a two forked bolt of lightning rising from his back, a figure consisting of three forks of lightning, are his symbols. A Sumerian hymn describes Adad in the following verses:... The lightning thy messenger goeth before (thee) (this hymn actually lauds Iškur, MAS).


Kaiun (m.)

# Chiun is equivalent to Babylonian Kaiun.

Kaiun refers to Saturn.


Khaldi (m.; Urartaeans)

• Khaldi was the moon-god.


Ki (f.; Uruk)

# Inanna was equated with Ki.

# Ki was identified with Ninkhursag and Bēlit-ili.

• Asag was son of An and Ki.

• Ki was the earth.

• Ki was the earth, as her name indicates.

… when this 'Heaven-and-Earth' emerged from the primal sea, its form was of a mountain whose summit, Heaven (An), was male, and lower portion, Earth (Ki), female; further, that from this dual being the air-god Enlil was born, by whom the two were separated … Enlil, who brings up the seed of the land from the earth, / Took care to move away Heaven from Earth, / Took care to move away Earth from Heaven (Late Sumerian text, ca. 2000 BCE).

Ki was separated from An by her son Enlil, whom she married.


Kingu (m.)

# Kingu was identical with Tammuz.

Our conjecture that a religious drama was performed at the akîtu festival in which Marduk, as in Enuma eliš, conquered Tiamat and Kingu, the enemies of the gods, has thus been temporarily corroborated … And in what follows Pallis conclusively corroborates it. The drama was performed a-mimetically, the king taking the part of the leading character.

• A detailed description of the Babylonian New Year is given. Das babylonische Neujahrsfest gilt als die alljährliche Wiederholung der einstmaligen ersten Weltneujahrsfeier Es wurden im Verlauf des Neujahrsfestes auch Festspiele aufgeführt die ihren dramatischen Inhalt aus dem Weltschöpfungsepos entnahmen, und bei denen der König und die Priester die Rolle Marduks, Kingus, Tiamats usw. übernahmen.

• Tiamat created a host of demons: Strong warriors, creating great serpents, sharp of tooth, merciless in attack, with poison in place of blood, she filled their bodies, furious vipers she clothed with terror, filled them out with awful splendour, made them of high stature, that their countenance might inspire terror and rouse horror. Kingu was among these. She has exalted Kingu; in their midst she has raised him to power to march before the forces, to lead the host to give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack, to direct the battle, to control the fight, to him she has entrusted.

• Kingu married his mother Tiamat.

• From Kingu’s blood man was made.

• Kingu-Tammuz is the son-lover whom Tiamat calls her husband but who is also the child sitting in her womb.

• Tammuz-Kingu dwells within the serpentine coils of Tiamat.


‘Kronos’ = ‘Cronus’ (m.)

The great flood took place in the reign of Xisuthrus, the tenth king of Babylon. Now the god Cronus appeared to him in a dream and warned him that all men would be destroyed by a flood on the fifteenth day of the month Daesius, which was the eighth month of the Macedonian calendar (Berosus, in Alexander Polyhistor).


Kur (m.; Sumeria)

• Kur was the ancient Sumerian dragon, but kur also means ‘mountain’.

• Ninurta defeated the dragon of chaos Kur. Once subdued Kur becomes the celestial dwelling of the gods, the E-Kur.


Labbu (m.)

• After the defeat of the Labbu, his blood flowed for three years, three months, a day, and a night.

• Labbu was brought forth by the sea.

• Labbu was a snake. The name means ‘lion’. With wings he looks like Zu.


Lakhmu and Lakhamu (m., f.)

• Lakhmu and Lakhamu came forth from Apsu and Tiamat.


Lamaštu = Lamashtu (f.; Mesopotamia)

# Lamashtu was an avatar of Inanna/Ishtar.

• Lamashtu was thrown from heaven, whereupon she displayed wildly disheveled hair.

• Lamashtu is described as follows: She is a haunt, she is malicious, offspring of a god, daughter of Anu. For her malevolent will, her base counsel, Anu her father dashed her down from heaven to earth, for her malevolent will, her inflammatory counsel. Her hair is askew, her loincloth is torn away.

• A hymn to Lamashtu says: Great is the daughter of Anu... She is cruel, raging, wrathful, rapacious... Her head is the head of a lion.

• A hymn to Lamashtu runs: She is furious, she is fierce, she is uncanny, she has an awful glamour... the daughter of Anu!... The face of a ravening lion is her face. She came up from the reed bed, her hair askew.

• Lamashtu made off with children.

• Lamashtu was black.


Lugal (m.)

• Ut-Napishtim tells Gilgamesh: When the early dawn appeared there came up from the horizon a black cloud. Ramman thundered in the midst thereof, the gods Mujati and Lugal went before. Like messengers they passed over mountain and land; Irragal tore away the ship’s post. There went Ninib and he made the storm to burst. The Anunnaki lifted up flaming torches, with the brightness thereof they lit up the earth. The whirlwind of Ramman mounted up into the heavens, and all light was turned into darkness.’ A whole day the tempest raged, and the waters rose on the mountains (Gilgamesh Epic).


Mami (f.)

• Nergal’s consort was Mami.

The goddess Mami made fourteen clay wombs, seven of which would create men, and seven of which would create women (Atrahasis epic).

Erra’s consort was Mami.


Maras (Amorite) (m.)

# Maras’ name may be related to Mars’.

• Maras was a god who brought disease and plague and also removed them.

• His name may be related to Akkadian marsu, Ugaritic mrs, ‘disease’.


Marduk = Meroduch = Merodach (m.; Babylon)

# Mordecai’s name is derived from Marduk’s.

# Apollo is compared to Marduk.

# The name Shamash is applied to Marduk.

# Marduk is identified with Nibiru.

# Ninurta was replaced by Marduk in myth.

# Marduk may be identified with the Chinese dragon, Indra, Zeus, Tarku and Thor as well as with Susanowo.

# Marduk was identified with Bēl.

# Marduk is compared with Shiva.

# Jeremias compares Marduk with Quetzalcoatl.

• On Marduk: He was the loftiest of the gods, surpassing was his stature, / His members were enormous, he was exceeding tall (Enuma Elish, I. 97-100).

• Nabu was Marduk's word of destiny.

• Langdon discusses tablets which contain interpretations of the festival. The commentary then says that the fire which (the king?) lights, is Marduk, who in his youth The next act commented upon concerns certain participants who hurl firebrands. These persons represent the gods In the ritual a fire is kindled before Ninlil Firebrands are lighted from the oven and these mean the arrows from the quiver of Bęl-Marduk, and the gods his fathers who bound iluZű and iluAsakku in their midst. The king lifts a dumaki (weapon?) above his head; this means Marduk, who lifted his weapons above his head and consumed the sons of Enlil and Ea with fire. The king breaks a vessel with a lisnu; this means Marduk, who bound Tiamat (?) in his victory (?).

In one of the hymns Marduk is called: the lord who dwells at the New Year’s festival in the midst of Tiamat, and the dramatic performances of the New Year merely re-enacted what had happened on the first New Year’s day of all, at the creation of the world. The emergence of the Sun-god is also in accordance with the text, for the Epic states that, after killing Tiamat: The Lord rested beholding the cadaver; As he divided the monster, devising cunning things, He split her into two parts, like an oyster. As it happens, we have conclusive proof that the Ancients could symbolise this cutting-up of Tiamat by the two wings of Pl. XVIII k. For a commentary on the New Year ritual explains one act in the following terms: The pigeon which is thrown is Tiamat. It is thrown and cut into two halves.

In the inscription of I-kher-nofret, a high Egyptian official of the time of the Twelfth Dynasty, occurs the passage: ‘I avenged Un-Nefer on the day of the Great Battle, I overthrew all his enemies on the dyke (?) of Netit … In the Babylonian New Year Festival the ritual takes the form of a foot-race between Zu and Ninurta, in which Zu is defeated and afterwards, apparently, slain. In the myth the counterpart of the ritual is the story of the struggle between Horus and Set, between Marduk and Tiamat, or between Jahweh and the dragon.

• … Marduk is called ‘the one who crushed the skull of Zu’.

• Marduk crushed Tiamat’s skull.

Since each new year threatened to bring back the watery chaos that prevailed when the primeval battle between Marduk and Tiamat … was fought, it is by no means improbable that this crucial event was celebrated in a sacred drama in which the king played the role of Marduk.

As noted, the association between Jupiter and Marduk must be understood to be basic, and it is tempting to speculate that with the assignation of gods to the Moon, Sun and Venus taking place at least by the third millennium BC, the next brightest body in the sky would likely have been linked with the new top god of southern Mesopotamia.

Marduk was endowed with four eyes and four ears (Enuma elish, I. 97f.).

The name Marduk was given to the planets Jupiter and Mercury both.

In the mystical work SAA3039: r.5 it states that the inside of dutu is damar.utu, which is Marduk.

The combat between Marduk and Tiamat was reactualised at the Akîtu ceremony. Likewise the combat between Tešup and Illuyankaš among the Hittites.

1) Ceremonies in which fire comes into use, either in the form of a burnt offering (Obv. 7), or as a fire which is kindled (Obv. 3), or in the form of battle scenes in which burning darts or the like play a prominent part (Obv. 9, 27-32) … In the second place, several passages in the mythological text show us a contest between gods (among which Marduk plays the main part) and their antagonists.

• Marduk created dry land on a raft floating upon and surrounded by the cosmic sea (CT 13. 35-37).

• Marduk heaped up a mountain over Tiamat (VII. 70).

Marduk buried Tiamat's head under a mountain, whereupon springs burst forth and water flowed, her eyes being the source of the Euphrates and the Tigris.

• Marduk decapitated himself (a version of the Tiamat myth).

• Marduk buried the head of Tiamat under a mountain.

In the fourth place, the king represents Marduk in Obv. 14-20.

Our conjecture that a religious drama was performed at the akîtu festival in which Marduk, as in Enuma eliš, conquered Tiamat and Kingu, the enemies of the gods, has thus been temporarily corroborated … And in what follows Pallis conclusively corroborates it. The drama was performed a-mimetically, the king taking the part of the leading character.

In the first place, Marduk’s victory over Chaos was celebrated … at the New Year’s festival. This follows, not only from the connection between creation and the New Year which we have discussed, but from an explicit epithet of Marduk: ‘The Lord who sits in the midst of Tiamat at the Akitu festival.’ This is a clear reference to the Epic of Creation ….

• Marduk: Als solcher gilt per excellentiam der Planet Jupiter; aber auch Merkur kann Mardukstern genannt werden ….

That this commemoration of the Creation was in effect a reactualization of the cosmogonic act is proved both by the rituals and by the formulas recited during the course of the ceremony. The combat between Tiamat and Marduk was mimed by a struggle between two groups of actors, a ceremonial that is also found among the Hittites (again in the frame of the dramatic scenario of the New Year), among the Egyptians, and at Ras Shamra.

• A detailed description of the Babylonian New Year is given. Das babylonische Neujahrsfest gilt als die alljährliche Wiederholung der einstmaligen ersten Weltneujahrsfeier … Es wurden im Verlauf des Neujahrsfestes auch Festspiele aufgeführt die ihren dramatischen Inhalt aus dem Weltschöpfungsepos entnahmen, und bei denen der König und die Priester die Rolle Marduks, Kingus, Tiamats usw. übernahmen.

• Part of the New Year festival was a mimetic combat, mythologized as the battle of the divine champion against the Dragon or similar monstrous adversary (e. g. Marduk against Tiamat, Ninurta against Zű, etc.).

In the Accadian versions there seems likewise to have been a tendency to identify the weapon of Marduk with the cyclone or stormwind.

• On the Akîtu festival: The people, in the meantime, wanted to have a more active part in the tragedy which concerned them so vitally: ‘After Marduk went into the mountain the city fell into a tumult because of him, and they made fighting within it.’.

• Marduk’s temple was a cosmic centre and a mountain.

Then the lord (Marduk; MAS) raised the thunderbolt, his mighty weapon … (Creation Epic, IV. 49). The word used for ‘thunderbolt’ is abubu.

• Marduk’s symbol is the lance, as exemplified in an illustration, in which Marduk is placed within an enclosure apparently representing the zodiac.

The struggle between two groups of actors not only commemorated the primordial conflict between Marduk and Tiamat; it repeated, it actualized, the cosmogony, the passage from chaos to cosmos.

• Marduk is Jupiter, Ninib is Mars, and Nergal is Saturn.

• Nabu was associated with Marduk.

• Bel-Marduk was associated with Jupiter.

• Marduk was a city god, introduced in civic observances.

• None but a woman was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies of Bal-Marduk.

A Sumerian seal dated about 2500 B.C. shows the lightning goddess Zarpenib accompanying her consort Bel-Meroduch in battle, riding on the wind and carrying a bundle of thunderbolts in each hand.

• The fight between Marduk and Tiamat was annually commemorated.

Enuma Elish was read in Babylon on the fourth day of the New Year before Marduk, but in Assyria before Assur.

• Marduk, having received the sceptre, throne and palu from Anu, sets out to conquer Tiamat. Marduk’s chief weapon is always ‘the net’, ‘the gift of his father Anu’ (Enuma Elish, IV. 29, 49).

• The priestesses of Bel-Marduk were called ‘the brides of the god’ (Code of Hammurabi, 110, 127, 178f.).

• Marduk ‘binds’ Tiamat, ‘chains him up’ and kills him (Enuma Elish IV. 95, 104).

• En-Lil, the original Bel and Marduk, was a deity of the earth.

• Marduk chains all the gods and demons who helped Tiamat and casts them into prisons and caves (Enuma Elish, IV. 111-114, 117, 120).

• Marduk was the son of Ea (Enuma Elish, I. 83).

• Marduk was a creator.

• Later the feast of the New Year was consecrated to Marduk.

• Marduk battled with the sea-monster Tiamat and killed her.

• Marduk created the world out of Tiamat’s body.

• Mummu-Tiamat gave birth to everything. Her name means ‘sea water, sea chaos’. Marduk had the winds and the seadragon behind him. He carried the thunderbolt and slew Tiamat (Enuma Elish).

• Marduk marched with Cyrus’ army as a friend and companion.

• Marduk originally was a god of agriculture and magic.

• Marduk was called Bel Marduk, ‘lord Marduk’.

• In the battle of Marduk with Tiamat he created the evil wind, and the tempest, and the hurricane, and the fourfold wind, and the sevenfold wind, and the whirlwind, and the wind which had no equal (Seven Tablets of Creation, IV).

• Nabu was the son of Marduk.

• Marduk battled Tiamat.

• Marduk is pictured with lightning in his hands.

• At the akitu, the New Year festival, lasting for twelve days, Enuma Elish was recited in the temple of Marduk, as to commemorate the creation of the world. The combat between Marduk and Tiamat was acted out by a conflict between two groups of men. Also the zakmuk, the ‘feast of lots’, was celebrated, in which lots were drawn for every month of the year. Marduk’s descent to hell was connected with the humiliation of the king, the driving out of ills in the form of a scapegoat, and the marriage of the god with Sarpanitum, a temple handmaid.

• Marduk cuts Tiamat in two and makes from one part a cover or veil for the sky.

• Marduk, the head of the Babylonian pantheon, was identified with the sun, Jupiter, Mercury, and Mars at various times.

• Marduk replaced Enlil in the religious reforms initiated by Hammurabi.

• The word for Marduk’s attire, sipru, designates an enclosure.

• Marduk was the child of the holy chamber.

In the chamber of fate, the abode of destinies, A god was engendered, most able and wisest of gods. In the heart of the Apsu was Marduk created.

• Marduk wielded the thunderbolt.

• Marduk makes man of mud mixed with his own blood: he forms the earth by laying a reed on the water to collect mud : hence the offering of blood to clay images of deities.

• Tiamat became the throne of Marduk.

The hero Erra turned his face towards Suanna, the city of the king of the gods. Entered Esagila, the palace of heaven and earth, and stood in his (Marduk’s) presence (Poem of Erra).

• Marduk was a very young god, who in a single day had grown to maturity after his birth.

• Marduk was armed with thunderbolt, bow and arrows, a net, a mace called abubu when he set out to fight. He filled his body with flame, rode a four-horsed chariot. Seven terrible winds helped him.

• Marduk heaped up a mountain over Tiamat.

• Tiamat opened her mouth to swallow Marduk when he had her enmeshed in his net.

• Marduk announces that should he rise from his seat, flood and dissolution of the government of heaven would result: I rose from my seat, and the government of heaven and earth dissolved. And the sky, lo!, it shook: the stations of the stars in the sky were altered, and I did not bring (them) back to their (former) positions or, in an alternative translation, When I stood up from my seat and let the flood break in, then the judgement of earth and heaven went out of joint... The gods, which trembled, the stars of heaven - their position changed, and I did not bring them back (Poem of Erra).

• Erra said: Until you enter that house, prince Marduk, and Girra purifies your garment, and you return to your place, till then I shall rule in your stead and keep strong the government of heaven and earth (Poem of Erra).

• Erra said to Marduk: What happened to your attire, to the insignia of your leadership, magnificent as the stars in the sky? It has been dirtied! What happened to the crown of your lordship... its surface is shrouded over!.

• Marduk was enfeebled because his sarraru, his splendour, was extinguished.

It is you, hero Erra, who did not fear prince Marduk’s name! You have undone the bond of Dimkurkurra, the city of the king of the gods, the bond of all the countries (Poem of Erra).

• Marduk slew the dragon Tiamat.

• Marduk was equipped with a bow.

• Erra attacks Šuanna, the kingdom of Marduk.

• Erra says: I will make prince Marduk wrathful: I will cause him to rise from his seat and I will fell the men (Poem of Erra).

• As a result of Erra’s oppression, Marduk is enfeebled and the world temporarily thrown out of kilter and plunged into darkness (Poem of Erra).

Lightning: Weapon of Baal, Enlil, Jove, Jupiter, Merodach, Zeus.

• As a result of Erra’s assault, the world was plunged into darkness and Marduk forced to descend to the Netherworld. Erra says: I want to annihilate the brilliance of Šulpa’ea (an epithet of Marduk)... I want to attain the seat of the king of the gods so that his counsel be not forthcoming (Poem of Erra).

• As a consequence of Marduk’s discomfiture the Mesu Tree became disturbed and permanently relocated.

• After Erra’s attack Marduk laments: Of all the countries what is there left steady? He has taken the crown of his lordship: kings and princes... forget their ordinances... the bond between god and man is undone: difficult it is to knot again (Poem of Erra).

• Marduk had an epithet Shulpae, ‘young one’.

• Marduk had a role in the production of the flood.

• Marduk set the thunderbolt in front of him (Enuma Elish, IV. 39).

• Marduk married with Sarpanitum.

• Marduk was a god of agriculture.

• Marduk was a weather god.

• The lightning and ring were among the regalia Marduk received.

• Marduk was a son of Ea and Damqina.

• Marduk slew Tiamat, after which he divided the meat of ku-pu, the meaning of which is unknown.

• Marduk commanded the seven winds to follow him when he set out to kill Tiamat.

• Marduk caused the stars to disappear and reappear.

• Marduk became king and received sceptre and throne.

• Marduk fashioned sky and earth from Tiamat’s body.

• Bel-Marduk was called ‘the lord of lamentations’.


Marmar = Mermer = Mer (m.; Akkadian)

# Akkadian Marmar may be related to Mars.

• Marmar was a god of war and storm.

• The name is derived from Sumerian mer, ‘wind’.


'Mithras Helios' (m.)

• The inhabitants of Mesopotamia revere the star of Venus under the name of Isis, and that of Saturn as Mithras Helios (Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, II. 3. 66ff.).


Muhra (m.)

# Muhra was an alter ego of Nergal.

• Muhra was gatekeeper of the celestial habitation of the gods.


Mujati (m.)

• Ut-Napishtim tells Gilgamesh: When the early dawn appeared there came up from the horizon a black cloud. Ramman thundered in the midst thereof, the gods Mujati and Lugal went before. Like messengers they passed over mountain and land; Irragal tore away the ship’s post. There went Ninib and he made the storm to burst. The Anunnaki lifted up flaming torches, with the brightness thereof they lit up the earth. The whirlwind of Ramman mounted up into the heavens, and all light was turned into darkness.’ A whole day the tempest raged, and the waters rose on the mountains (Gilgamesh Epic).


Mummu (f.)

# Mummu is identified with Tiamat.

… Apsu and Tiamat, in the continuation of the story, are represented in control, with Mummu as the messenger and an army of monsters as followers. The description of these monsters as “huge serpents, sharp of tooth and with merciless fangs, their bodies filled with poison instead of blood, dragons, raging hounds, scorpion-men, fish-men, devastating tempests, and fish-goats, all bearing cruel weapons and fearless of spirit”, reminds us of the Cyclops and the Hekatocheiron (the hundred-handed monster), who in Hesiod’s Theogony form part of the progeny of Gaia and Uranus by the side of the Titans.

When the heavens on high were not yet named, and the earth beneath was not yet called a name, and the primordial Apsu, who gave them birth, and Mummu, and Tiamat, the mother of them all, mingled all their waters into one … (Enuma Elish, I. 1-5).

• Ea ‘binds’ Apsu and Mummu by magic incantations so as to kill them afterwards (Enuma Elish, I, 60-74).

• Mummu-Tiamat gave birth to everything. Her name means ‘sea water, sea chaos’. Marduk had the winds and the seadragon behind him. He carried the thunderbolt and slew Tiamat (Enuma Elish).


Mummu (m.)

• Enki was deemed Mummu, the creative ‘Word’).

• Mummu existed with Apsu and Tiamat in the primeval beginning. It may mean ‘mother’ or ‘originator’ or ‘form’ or ‘word’.

• Mummu was a servant of Apsu.


Mylitta (f.; Babylonia)

• Mylitta was a birth goddess.

• Mylitta was a fertility goddess.

• Mylitta was married to Baal.

• Mylitta was a love goddess.

• Mylitta was the mother of the universe.

• Mylitta’s name may be derived from Mu’allidatu.


Nabű = Nabu = Nabiu = Nebo (m.; Orsippa)

# Nusku is sometimes identified with Nebo.

# Anbaj will have been a parallel to Babylonian Nabiu (Kataban).

# Hermes, Thoth, Nabu, Vohu mano, Spenta Armaiti, Mithras, Saoshyant and the logos were all comparable figures.

• Nabu was Marduk's word of destiny.

In dem S. 236 zitierten astrologische Texte wird Nabű gleich Anu in dem göttlich verehrten Pol des Himmels (kakkabMU.SIR.KEŠ.DA ilni-ru rak-su) lokalisiert. Das stimmt zu seiner Eigenschaft als ‘Aufseher der Welt’.

• The planet Mercury was called Nabű or mušaznin zunnim, ‘rainmaker’.

• Barnabas’ name may originally have been Bar-Nabu, ‘son of Nebo’ (Acts IV. 36).

• The planet Mercury was represented by Nebo or Nabu.

• The name Nabu is closely related to Arabic naby, ‘prophet’.

• Nabu was the companion of Bel.

• Nabu was associated with Marduk.

• Kings used his name in their names.

• Enlil had an epithet salummatu or salummati, ‘brightness’ or ‘splendour’.

• His name is compared to Greek nephos, ‘cloud’, Latin nebula, ‘cloud’ as well as Greek ‘grandson’ and Sanskrit napat by Jueneman.

• Nabu’s name might be related to Hebrew nabi, ‘seer, messenger’ and is compared to Icelandic nabbi, ‘peak’ and Germanic words for nebula by Jueneman.

• Nebo was identified as the planet Mercury (Ptolemy, Tetrabyblos; Assyro-Babylonians).

• Nebo as the Morning Star announced the new age.

• Nebo’s symbols included a sceptre and a stylus; he was the god of writing.

• Nabu was the son of Marduk.

• Nabu married with Tašmetum.


Nammu (f.)

# Nammu was comparable with Tiamat, the Indian Ananta and Sophia.

… the name of the goddess-mother of the universe, Nammu, is denoted by an ideogram signifying 'sea', and she is given praise as 'the mother who gave birth to Heaven-and-Earth [ama tu an-ki] (Late Sumerian text, ca. 2000 BCE).

Nammu gave birth to the celestial mountain, to An and to Ki.

• Nammu married her son Enki.

• Nammu originally probably was a snake goddess.

• Nammu was the goddess of the abyss.

• Nammu was the mother who gave birth to heaven and earth, the mother of all the gods.


Namtar (m.)

Namtar ascended the length of the Stairway of Hea[ven.] (SST. 28. 13'-16').


Nana = Nanaea (Greek) = Nane (Armenian) (f.)

# Anaitis was also called Nanaea (II Maccabees 1: 13, 15; Sassanian coins).

# Nana was identical with Inanna.

# Baba, Ma or Ninma, Nana, Nintu and Ninursanga all merged into Ishtar.

# Ishtar was called in older times Nana or Innini.

• Nana was the goddess of the planet Venus.

Instead of Saturn your image, the Hebrew and Greek say, the star of your god Refan. The name of Refan is Egyptian; but Refan and Kewan and Kronos and the star Venus, are the same. What some say of `Uzza is declared not to be true, because `Uzza and Nanaea and Balthi and Astarte and the Morning Star are the same (‘Išo`dad on Acts VII: 43).


Nanna = Nannar (m.; Ur)

# Nannar was identical with Sin.

# Sinn appears under the names of Uru-ki, Nannar, and allied forms of those words.

• Ur was the sacred city of Nanna.

• The sun is called the offspring of Nannar.

• Nannar, the moon god, was described as ‘powerful young bull of the sky, most wonderful son of Enlil’ or ‘the powerful one, the young bull with strong horns’.

• Shamash/Utu, Nanna/Sin and Inanna/Ishtar were considered a great triad in the sky : They installed Sin, Shamash and Ishtar to keep the firmament in order (utukku lemnutu -text).

Father Nannar, heavenly lord,... moon god... lord of Ur... lord of the brillliant crescent... O strong bull, great of horns.

• Nannar, esteemed as the bull with the glistening horns, is also the shining bark of the heavens.

• The crescent of Nannar or Sin was called the lofty plant, magnificent, whose abundance never ceases.

• Nanna was the son of Enlil and Ninlil.

• Nanna married Ningal and with her gave birth to Utu and Inanna.


Nanše = Nanshe (f.)


Nergal = Nirgal (m.; Kutha)

# The Saviour-Son is variously called Ninib (Nippur), Ningirsu or Abu (Lagash), Nergal (Kutha), Esmun (Sidon), Melqart (Tyre).

# Mars’ cult is close to Nergal’s.

# Moloch and Chemosh appear as epithets of Nergal (Assyria).

# Shu is compared to Indra and Nergal.

# The same ideogram was used for the names of Melqart and Nergal (Assyria).

# Melqart’s name may have been a Phoenician translation of ‘Nergal’.

# Melqart was explicitly identified with Nergal.

# Erra was an alter ego of Nergal.

# Nergal's myth and iconography are compared to those of Kronos.

# Reseph is identified with Nergal (Ugarit).

# Reseph may have split off from Nergal, rashpu being one of the latter’s epithets.

# Heracles and Nergal were considered identical and joint cults to Heracles-Nergal have been found at Hatra, Palmyra and elsewhere.

# The name ‘Heracles’ would have derived from Sumerian Eragal, a name of Nergal.

# Gilgamesh is Nergal (a late text).

# Nergal’s cult bears close resemblance to Apollo’s.

# Nergal was identified with Shamash. As such he was the fire who battled with the inimical darkness.

# Muhra was an alter ego of Nergal.

# Ninurta is called lugal ud melambi nergal.

# Nergal is compared with Susanowo.

# ‘Agniš’: dA-ag/k-ni-iš, eine Gottheit des atti-Reiches von zerstörendem Charakter. Sie ist bisher nur in dem Omentexte KUB VIII Nr. 28, I Z. 16; II Z. 7 in einem Zusammenhange belegt, wo akkadische Texte ähnlicher Art den Nergal nennen..

Samas vor mir, Sin hinter mir, Nergal zu meiner Rechten, Ninurta zu meiner Linker (prayer).

• Nirgal was associated with Saturn.

• Ninib was Mars and Nergal was Saturn.

• On Nergal: As god of the dead he has a host of demons at his command, and it may be these who do his behests in spreading pestilence and war.

• The planet Mars is called ulNa-ka-ru, ‘the rebel’, ulSar-ru, ‘the evil one’, and ulalbatanu, ‘the violent one’, and is identified with dNergal, who is mulSi-mu-ud, ‘teeming with blood’.

Die Zwillinge im Tierkreis, birdu und sarrapu, hätten als zwei Manifestationen des Nergal gegolten und seien als zwei um eine Stange gewickelte Schlangen dargestellt gewesen.

• Nergal was repeatedly invoked together with Sin: You Nergal are exalted in the pure sky, your position is high, with Sin in the sky you watch over everything.

• The Assyrian monarchs traced their descent through Nergal.

• Nergal’s birth is alluded to (litany).

Shine of horror, god Nergal, prince of battle, thy face is glare, thy mouth is fire, raging flame-god, god Nergal thou art anguish and terror, great sword-god, lord who wanderest in the night, horrible, raging flame-god... whose storming is a storm flood.

• Nergal slew the demon Asakku.

• Marduk is Jupiter, Ninib is Mars, and Nergal is Saturn.

• Nergal was invoked as the leader and sender of evil demons.

• Nergal was the planet Mars.

Prayers were addressed to Nergal with the lifting of hands toward the star Mars.

• Temples were built for Nergal.

• Nergal was associated with fear and terror and splendor (Esarhaddon).

• Nergal was the most violent among the gods.

• Nergal was called lord of destruction.

Nergal.. causes the earth to shudder.

• Nergal was responsible for earthquakes.

• Nergal was the perfect warrior and king of battle.

• Warriors, kings, priests, cattle traders and criminals used Nergal’s name in their own names.

• Nergal was named qarradu rabu, ‘the great warrior’.

• Nergal was the pre-eminent hero.

• Nergal was the lord of the storm.

• Nergal is called Lord.

• Nergal was called the raging fire-god.

• Nergal was called Sharappu, ‘burner’, and light that flames from heaven.

• It is said of Nergal: the heaven he makes dark, he moves the Earth off its hinges.

• Nergal is called Lord who wanderest in the night.

• Nergal is called great sword-god.

• For Nergal’s name is usually used the ideogram namsaru, ‘sword’.

• Nergal was invoked as lugal-gal-abzu, ‘great king of the ocean’.

• Nergal was invoked as lugalsig’a, ‘green lord’.

• Nergal was intimately associated with the hur-sag-ki-a or the hursag-ki-a-un-gu-si-a, the world mountain upon which the sun-god rises.

• Nergal was called En-ki-kur-ra, ‘lord of mountainland’.

• It is said of Nergal that he rises in the mountain (or land) where the sun rises, kur-utu-e.

• Nergal was called Bel-sar-be, ‘king of the mulberry tree’. Other epithets associate him with the tamarisk and laurel.

• Nergal is invoked as follows: You are horrifying like a flood, rising on the mountain where the sun rises (kur-u-e).

• The hur-sag-ki-a, ‘earth-mountain’, was regarded as Nergal’s special province.

• Nergal was known as lugal-ki-gu-la, ‘king of the great earth’.

• Nergal is said to have defeated the agents of chaos upon the mountain of sunrise, whereupon he replaced An and temporarily assumed the reins of heaven.

• Nergal was invoked as Lugal-uru-bar-ra, ‘king of the foreign city’.

• Nergal’s word causes pestilence.

• About Nergal it is said: Great giants, raging demons, with awesome members, run at his right and at his left. They bring pestilence and cause earthquakes.

• Statues were erected to Nergal.

• He was the white of Ninurta’s eye.

Gilgamesh is Nergal, who resides in the underworld (a late text).

• Nergal is identified with the planet Mars.

• On Nergal it is said: You hurl the towering stone, shattering all plants. You hurl the stone in fury, shattering the plants in rage.

• Nergal was addressed as the avenger of his father.

• Nergal was a god of war and pestilence.

• Nergal was called lugal-kes-da, ‘king of the netherworld’.

• Nergal’s name means ‘lord of the great dwelling’ or ‘underworld’.

• Nergal was the god of the netherworld.

• Nergal usurped the throne of the underworld at the expense of Ereshkigal.

• Nergal was invoked as meslamtaea or meslamtaea, ‘he who issues forth from the Mēsu-tree’ or ‘luxuriously sprouting Meshu-tree’.

• Nergal is referred to as the poplar of Gilgamesh.

• Nergal is depicted equipped with club and bow.

• Nergal’s name was frequently employed as a synonym for war.

• Nergal is invoked as follows: Warrior! Raging storm-tide, who flattens the lands in upheaval, warrior! Lord of the underworld... raging storm-tide, who has no rival, who wields the weapon, who raises the troops.

• Nergal’s aid is invoked in battle by several kings.

May Nergal, the strong one among the gods, the fighter without peer, who achieves victory for me, burn his [i.e., the enemy’s] people in his great power, like the great raging fire of swamp-reeds (Codex Hammurabi).

May Nergal, mighty amongst the gods, the warrior whom none can resist, who has fulfilled my eager desire, by his great power consume his people like a fire raging amongst the rushes, may he cleave him asunder with his mighty weapon and shatter his limbs as of a statue of clay (Codex Hammurabi).

• A hymn to Nergal runs: O warrior, splendid one... Mighty of arms, broad of chest, perfect one without rival among all the gods, who grasps the pitiless deluge-weapon, who massacres the enemy, lion clad in splendor, at the flaring-up of whose fierce brilliance, the gods of the inhabited world took to secret places.

• Nergal is associated with war, pestilence, fire, famine, and the grave.

• Nergal is assigned to a position at the head of a special pantheon of the lower world where the dead dwell.

• Nergal’s city Cutha becomes a designation for the great gathering place of the dead.

[O Nergal], warrior of the gods, who possesses the lofty strength of Anu, [lion] with gaping maw, marauding lion monster, who takes his place nobly in the height of heaven, [who holds] lordship, whose features ever glow in heaven... of the gods, long of arms, whose divine splendor is sublime in heaven, [star] ever shining, sublime of features.

• Nergal’s consort was Mami.

• Nergal resided in Meslam.

• One of the oldest images of Nergal was a swor