CORRUPTION IN THE NGO WORLD
WHERE DOES YOUR MONEY GO
DO YOU KNOW WHERE YOUR CHILDREN ARE?
ARE YOU CERTAIN?????
READ ALL THE WAY TO THE BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE!!
compiled by Dee Finney
THIS STARTED OUT AS A MEDITATION IN WHICH MY SPIRIT GUIDE
INSISTED THAT I SIT UP!
I DIDN'T WANT TO BECAUSE WAS SO TIRED... HE INSISTED
"SIT UP" SO I DID!
APPARENTLY THIS WILL BE IN THE NEWS SHORTLY:
9-4-15 - MEDITATION - The woman looks like a reporter.
She has short dark hair. She says "They tell me the diapers
are not washed." (Full of shit?) "This is political!"
I then see numbers like a countdown - 1-5
1-4 1-3 1-2
I was trying to write them down between a lot of other numbers
I THEN WENT INTO A DREAM:
9-4-15 - DREAM - I was getting dressed for work, and I
looked nice in a dark green pant suit, then realized I had been wearing it for
three days and that wouldn't do, so I changed to a dark blue pant suit.
I was getting ready to go to my car, when I saw out the
window, an older man carrying a little boy like he was hurt and he was trying to
shove him into the window in another building and he looked desperate.
Then I saw a female neighbor doing the same thing with her
little girl in another building and immediately thought - disaster - and ran
over to the woman who had finally got her little girl into the window and closed
herself inside as well.
As I ran over to the woman's apartment to ask her what was
going on, she opened her door and told me that the old man was trying to get
compensation from some organization and that had happened over a year ago and he
was trying to get her involved as well.
I wondered what was going on. Then I realized the whole
thing was intra-regime and they were both trying to do the same thing.
NOTE: I never heard the word 'intra-regime' before so I
looked it up on google along with the word 'children' and this is what came up.
CORRUPTION IN THE NGO WORLD - WHAT IT IS AND WHAT TO TACKLE
ISSUE 52 OCTOBER 2011
HUMANITARIAN EXCHANGE MAGAZINE
Corruption in the NGO world: what it is and how to tackle it
Corruption is a sensitive issue in the NGO world. Humanitarian actors need to
understand what corruption is, recognise the forms it can take in humanitarian
response, determine its true scale and better understand the conditions which
lead to it. They also need to identify what mechanisms need to be put in place
or strengthened to guard against corruption, even in the most difficult
contexts. Mitigating against corruption is necessary if NGOs are to achieve both
operational efficiency and accountability to their stakeholders. However, it is
also important to recognise that adopting a proactive and transparent approach
to dealing with corruption may involve short-term risks to an NGO’s reputation.
What is corruption?
Transparency International (TI) defines corruption as ‘the abuse of power or
position for private gain’. This
covers ‘active corruption’, such as bribery, and ‘passive corruption’, or
allowing oneself to be bribed, as well as misappropriation. The exact scale of
the problem in the humanitarian aid sector is by its nature very difficult to
determine, but is assumed to be at much lower levels than corruption in the
private commercial sector.
Another model of corruption takes into account the sources from which these
risks emanate. ‘Contextual’
corruption is linked to the environment surrounding the intervention (corrupt
regimes, governments, police forces). ‘Systemic’ corruption refers to the
humanitarian system, with its multiple, interacting and interdependent actors.
‘Intra-organisational’ corruption is linked to the constraints inherent within
each NGO (human resources, active prevention strategies against corruption
risks, verification procedures). This more operational model can help in
prioritising and identifying NGOs’ scope of action in light of these risks.
Thus, while NGOs have little hope of eradicating contextual corruption, they can
and should take steps to prevent or address corruption within their own
A number of factors which can lead to corruption in humanitarian operations have
also been identified. These
include lack of planning (or even the impossibility of planning), the number of
humanitarian actors present and the financial resources at stake. The way in
which the international humanitarian system has developed in recent years,
including the exponential growth in the number of NGOs and the development of
the humanitarian ‘industry’, has also been a contributing factor. Finally, we
should not forget that corruption exists in developed countries, as well as
Corruption and humanitarian aid: new dilemmas?
The number of NGOs has grown exponentially over the last 20 years, as has the
scale of resources available. In 2010, it was estimated that humanitarian
spending reached just shy of $17 billion. Some
NGOs have become transnational, with very large budgets. One American NGO, World
Vision International, has a budget topping $2.6bn.
NGOs are often reluctant to talk about corruption for fear that it will lead to
bad publicity and, consequently, a loss of funding. Working across borders to
reach people in need can also give rise to allegations of corruption. The degree
of confidentiality necessary to negotiate with those who control access can
sometimes make transparency difficult to achieve. Moving clandestinely across
borders to access affected populations, as NGOs have done over the years in many
conflict situations, can also raise questions about the legitimacy and legality
of such action. During the Afghan war in the 1980s, for instance, the
Soviet-allied government in Kabul did not want humanitarian actors in
Afghanistan, particularly in areas controlled by resistance factions. In this
context, humanitarian NGOs had no choice but to cross the Pakistan–Afghanistan
border illegally (without permission), through Peshawar and the North West
Frontier Province. When humanitarian personnel were captured and held hostage by
Soviet or Afghan forces, NGOs argued that the illegality of their actions did
not decrease their legitimacy.
Humanitarian organisations cannot ignore the possible consequences of paying
bribes or illegal taxes, especially in armed conflicts. Choosing to pay an
illegal tax or bribe (in cash or in kind) when confronted by armed guards at a
checkpoint may enable the organisation to access people in need, but can be
misinterpreted as corruption. Choosing not to pay can mean that humanitarian
needs go unmet and that lives may be lost or the risk of harm increased for NGO
NGOs must widen the scope of risk assessment to consider whether their
programmes are vulnerable to corruption, such as theft or misappropriation of
funds or in-kind goods by warring parties, real or perceived inequities in the
distribution of aid and sexual abuse and exploitation of beneficiaries by agency
or partner staff. While every situation is different, in all cases NGOs have to
balance their commitment to humanitarian principles with the need to control the
risk of corruption so as to be truly accountable to their beneficiaries and
donors. They should also be transparent with stakeholders about these
challenges, and how they may affect decisions about whether or not to continue
Still a taboo?
Some NGOs, particularly in Nordic countries, have chosen to publicise the
results of corruption cases as well as the anti-corruption policies that they
have implemented. For example, DanChurchAid (DCA) has a website page detailing
corruption cases within the organisation and how they were dealt with. Despite
the financial crisis that began in 2008, DCA increased its 2009 budget to 498
million DKK (about $123m), a third of which came from private donors (the same
proportion as in 2008). Being transparent about corruption does not appear to
have negatively affected donor perceptions of DCA. Nonetheless, many NGOs
believe that reporting cases of corruption is a major risk with potentially
irreversible consequences for humanitarian organisations and their activities.
They fear that such cases can undermine their credibility and reputation
(particularly with the media), as well as discouraging public and private
donations. In France, the Prometheus Foundation, a group of the largest French
private companies, including oil, health insurance and pharmaceutical firms, has
issued an ‘NGO Transparency Barometer’. The methodology, based only on available
public data from NGOs’ websites, has been openly criticised by Coordination Sud,
the French NGO forum.
To open up the debate on corruption and to promote preventive measures, Médecins
du Monde (MDM) led a study in 2008 which aimed to interview the 17 largest
French NGOs regarding their perceptions of corruption, their approaches to field
work and appraising and managing risks, and the procedures they had in place to
minimise and prevent such risks. Surprisingly,
11 of the 17 NGOs contacted refused to participate in this (strictly
confidential) study. Among NGOs that agreed to take part, most recognised that
cases of corruption were part of the significant operational challenges around
humanitarian aid. The study confirmed what TI had already demonstrated: that
humanitarian operations are most vulnerable to corruption in the procurement,
transport and distribution of medicines, food, building materials and other
consumables, particularly in large, rapid-onset emergencies.
It is also important to remember that most emergency situations occur in
countries where corruption is already widespread. The great majority of agency
staff questioned in the 2008 study believed that corruption was primarily
contextual in origin. Over half had witnessed incidents of corruption, been
offered bribes or asked to pay them or had been invited to participate in
NGOs need to ensure that they are well-informed about the nature and level of
corruption in the countries in which they operate. This can be done by using,
among other sources, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) and TI reports on corruption levels. Although NGOs are unlikely to be
able to address the root causes of ‘contextual’ corruption at a country level,
individually or directly, by working with other NGOs and civil society it may be
possible to mitigate the impact on humanitarian operations and local governance.
In Bangladesh, for instance, 66.7% of households experienced some form of
corruption when trying to access public services. Forty-eight percent of those
interviewed encountered corruption in the health service, primarily bribery and
nepotism. The most obvious examples were doctors charging for prescriptions and
referring patients to their private clinics, and patients having to pay extra
fees for tests in government hospitals. Community action at field level resulted
in the creation of Committees of Concerned Citizens (CCCs), which acted as
watchdogs on local governance and attitudes in both the education and health
sectors. This led to dramatic improvements in the quality of care, and
significantly reduced bribery, nepotism and negligence.
At the international level, TI has just finalised a practical guide to
identifying the weak links in the humanitarian response system in order to
improve awareness and as far as possible prevent corrupt practices. The
guide also devotes significant attention to how to monitor and evaluate
anti-corruption measures. Several NGOs, notably from English-speaking countries,
participated in the development of this document, which is more technical than
In 1997, the Ethics and Transparency Committee of Coordination Sud drafted a
charter of good practice. Most
large French NGOs are members of the Comité de la Charte, an independent
organisation whose aim is to promote financial transparency. NGOs belonging to
the committee are required to have their activities (financial and operational)
audited each year by a certified auditor. NGO programmes and accounts are also
subject to various external audits (several per year) commissioned by donors
including EUROPAID and ECHO, as well as by the Cour des Comptes (the government
audit office). In addition, most French NGOs have established internal control
mechanisms which enable information from the field to be verified and
One of the lessons of the MDM study, which has also been confirmed by TI, is
that it is extremely important for field teams to have appropriate and clearly
defined intervention strategies, good knowledge of the field context and
training on how to identify and reduce the risks of corruption, particularly
operational risk factors associated with the procurement, transport, storage and
distribution of relief goods.
As a complex global phenomenon with significant local consequences, corruption
is a critical aspect of humanitarian thinking and action. Good governance and
transparency are at the heart of NGO legitimacy. NGOs must work with
Transparency International, the OECD and other institutional partners and
private donors in order to fight corruption effectively. Strengthening community
involvement in the implementation and evaluation of humanitarian (and
development) programmes improves the ‘acceptance’ of NGOs by the beneficiary
population and helps to mitigate against corruption and promote better local
governance. We need an open debate on the risks of corruption and how to address
them, without undermining donor funding to and beneficiary confidence in NGOs.
As well as strictly operational considerations, corruption constitutes an
important ethical and political challenge for humanitarian NGOs.
Jérôme Larché is
a doctor, Associate Researcher at the Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique
and Delegate Director of Grotius International. He is a former board member of
Médecins du Monde-France.
 Transparency International, Global
Corruption Report, 2006.
 Nicholas Stockton, Preventing
Corruption in Humanitarian Relief Response, ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption
Initiative for Asia and the Pacific, September 2005,http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/63/49/35592702.pdf.
 Daniel Maxwell et al., Preventing
Corruption in Humanitarian Assistance: Final Research Report,
Feinstein International Center, Humanitarian Policy Group and TI, 2008.
 Development Initiatives, GHA
 See http://www.danchurchaid.org/about-us/quality-assurance/anti-corruption/cases.
 See http://www.promethee.fr/main.php.
 MDM in partnership with Sciences-Po Paris, Analyse
de la corruption dans le secteur de l’aide humanitaire et perspectives,
2008. The 17 NGOs approached account for more than 80% of French
 See Preventing
Corruption in Humanitarian Assistance.
 Michael Sheridan, ‘Massive Fraud Hits Tsunami Aid’, Times
 C. Knox, ‘Dealing with Sectoral Corruption in Bangladesh:
Developing Citizen Involvement’, Public
Administration and Development, 29, 2009.
 TI, Preventing
Corruption in Humanitarian Operations, 2010.
 See http://www.coordinationsud.org/wp-content/uploads/csud_charte.pdf.
WHAT IS AN NGO?
NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION
organization (NGO) is an organization that
is neither a part of a government nor
a conventional for-profit
Usually set up by ordinary citizens, NGOs may be funded by governments,
foundations, businesses, or private persons. Some avoid formal funding
altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse
groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take
different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable
status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on
recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political,
religious, or other interests.
The number of NGOs in the United
States is estimated at 1.5
million. Russia has
277,000 NGOs. India is
estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per
600 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health
centres in India.
NGOs are difficult to define, and the term 'NGO' is not
always used consistently. In some countries the term NGO is applied to an
organization that in another country would be called an NPO,
and vice-versa. There are many different classifications of NGO in use. The most
common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation
refers to the type of activities it takes on. These activities might include
human rights, environmental, improving health, or development work. An NGO's
level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as
local, regional, national, or international.
The term "non-governmental organization" was first coined
in 1945, when the United Nations (UN) was created. The
UN, itself an inter-governmental
organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized
international non-state agencies — i.e.,
non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies
and some of its meetings. Later the term became used more widely. Today,
according to the UN, any kind of private organization that is independent from
government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit,
nonprevention, and not simply an opposition political party.
One characteristic these diverse organizations share is
that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial
objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which
occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention or
a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs often enjoy a high
degree of public trust, which can make them a useful – but not always sufficient
– proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders.
NGO/GRO (governmental related organisations) types can be understood by their
orientation and level of operation.
involves a top-down paternalistic effort with little participation by the
"beneficiaries". It includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting
the needs of the poor peoples.
- Service orientation includes
NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or
education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people
are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the
- Participatory orientation is
characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved
particularly in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, tools,
land, materials, labour etc. In the classical community development project,
participation begins with the need definition and continues into the
planning and implementation stages.
- Empowering orientation aims
to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political
and economic factors affecting their lives, and to strengthen their
awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is
maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators.
arise out of people's own initiatives. They can be responsible for raising
the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights
in accessing needed services, and providing such services.
- City-wide organizations include
organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of
business, ethnic or educational groups, and associations of community
- 'National NGOs include
national organizations such as the YMCAs/YWCAs, professional
associations, and similar groups. Some have state and city branches and
assist local NGOs.
- International NGOs range
from secular agencies such as
Ducere Foundation and
Save the Children organizations,
Ford Foundation, and
Rockefeller Foundation to
religiously motivated groups. They can be responsible for funding local
NGOs, institutions and projects and implementing projects.
Apart from "NGO", there are many alternative or overlapping terms in use,
third sector organization (TSO),
non-profit organization (NPO),
voluntary organization (VO),
civil society organization (CSO),
grassroots organization (GO),
social movement organization (SMO),
private voluntary organization (PVO),
self-help organization (SHO) and
non-state actors (NSAs).
In Spanish, French, Italian and other Romance
languages, the 'mirrored' abbreviation "ONG" is in use, which has the same
meaning as "NGO" (for example Organización
no gubernamental in Spanish).
Governmental related organizations / non-governmental organizations are a
heterogeneous group. As a result, a long list of additional acronyms has
'Business-friendly international NGO' or 'Big international NGO'
- SBO: 'Social Benefit Organization,' a
positive, goal-oriented designation as an substitute for the negative,
- TANGO: 'Technical assistance NGO'
- TSO: 'Third-sector organization'
GONGO: 'Government-operated NGOs' (set up by governments to look like
NGOs in order to qualify for outside aid or promote the interests of
- DONGO: 'Donor organized NGO'
INGO: 'International NGO'
QUANGO: 'Quasi-autonomous NGO,' such as the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO).
(The ISO is actually not purely an NGO, since its membership is by nation,
and each nation is represented by what the ISO Council determines to be the
'most broadly representative' standardization body of a nation. That body
might itself be a nongovernmental organization; for example, the United
States is represented in ISO by the American
National Standards Institute, which is independent of the federal
government. However, other countries can be represented by national
governmental agencies; this is the trend in Europe.)
- National NGO: A non-governmental
organization that exists only in one country. This term is rare due to the
globalization of non-governmental organizations, which causes an NGO to
exist in more than one country.
CSO: 'Civil Society
ENGO: 'Environmental NGO,' such as Greenpeace and WWF
- NNGO: 'Northern NGO'
- PANGO: 'Party NGO,' set up by parties and
disguised as NGOs to serve their political matters.
- SNGO: 'Southern NGO'
- SCO: 'Social change organization'
- TNGO: 'Transnational NGO.' The term
emerged during the 1970s due to the increase of environmental and economic
issues in the global community. TNGO includes non-governmental organizations
that are not confined to only one country, but exist in two or more
- GSO: Grassroots
- MANGO: 'Market advocacy NGO'
- NGDO: 'Non-governmental development
to NGOs as private voluntary
organizations. However, many scholars have argued that this definition is highly
problematic as many NGOs are in fact state- or corporate-funded and -managed
projects and have professional staff.
GRO/NGOs exist for a variety of reasons, usually to further the political or
social goals of their members or founders. Examples include improving the state
of the natural
environment, encouraging the observance of human
rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a
corporate agenda. However, there are a huge number of such organizations and
their goals cover a broad range of political and philosophical positions. This
can also easily be applied to private schools and athletic organizations.
Track II dialogue, or Track II diplomacy, is transnational coordination that
involves non-official members of the government including epistemic
communities as well as former
policy-makers or analysts. Track II diplomacy aims to get policymakers and
policy analysts to come to a common solution through discussions by unofficial
means. Unlike the Track I diplomacy where government officials, diplomats and
elected leaders gather to talk about certain issues, Track II diplomacy consists
of experts, scientists, professors and other figures that are not involved in
government affairs. The members of Track II diplomacy usually have more freedom
to exchange ideas and come up with compromises on their own.
There are also numerous classifications of NGOs. The
typology the World
Bank uses divides them into
Operational and Advocacy:
NGOs do vary in their methods. Some act primarily as
lobbyists, while others primarily conduct programs and activities. For instance,
an NGO such as Oxfam,
concerned with poverty alleviation, might provide needy people with the
equipment and skills to find food and clean drinking
water, whereas an NGO like the FFDA helps
through investigation and documentation of human rights violations
and provides legal assistance to victims of human rights abuses. Others, such as Afghanistan
Information Management Services, provide specialized technical products and
services to support development activities implemented on the ground by other
NGOs were intended to fill a gap in government services,
but in countries like India and China, NGOs are slowly gaining a position in
decision making. In the interest of sustainability, most donors require that
NGOs demonstrate a relationship with governments. State
Governments themselves are vulnerable because they lack economic resources, and
potentially strategic planning and vision. They are therefore sometimes tightly
bound by a nexus of NGOs, political bodies, commercial organizations and major
donors/funders, making decisions that have short term outputs but no long term
affect. In India, for instance, NGOs are under
regulated, political, and recipients of large government and international donor
funds. NGOs often take up responsibilities outside their skill ambit.
Governments have no access to the number of projects or amount of funding
received by these NGOs. There is a pressing need to regulate this group while
not curtailing their unique role as a supplement to government services.
Operational NGOs seek to "achieve small-scale change
directly through projects." They mobilize financial
resources, materials, and volunteers to create localized programs. They hold
large-scale fundraising events
and may apply to governments and organizations for grants or contracts to raise
money for projects. They often operate in a hierarchical structure; a main
headquarters being staffed by professionals who plan projects, create budgets,
keep accounts, and report and communicate with operational fieldworkers who work
directly on projects. Operational NGOs deal with a
wide range of issues, but are most often associated with the delivery of
services or environmental issues, emergency relief, and public welfare.
Operational NGOs can be further categorized by the division into relief-oriented
versus development-oriented organizations; according to whether they stress
service delivery or participation; whether they are religious or secular; and
whether they are more public- or private-oriented. Although operational NGOs can
be community-based, many are national or international. The defining activity of
operational NGOs is the implementation of projects.
Campaigning NGOs seek to "achieve large-scale change
promoted indirectly through influence of the political system." Campaigning
NGOs need an efficient and effective group of professional members who are able
to keep supporters informed, and motivated. They must plan and host
demonstrations and events that will keep their cause in the media. They must
maintain a large informed network of supporters who can be mobilized for events
to garner media attention and influence policy changes. The defining activity of
campaigning NGOs is holding demonstrations. Campaigning
NGOs often deal with this issues relating to human rights, women's rights,
children's rights. The primary purpose of an Advocacy NGO is to defend or
promote a specific cause. As opposed to operational project management, these
organizations typically try to raise awareness, acceptance and knowledge by
lobbying, press work and activist event.
It is not uncommon for NGOs to make use of both activities.
Many times, operational NGOs will use campaigning techniques if they continually
face the same issues in the field that could be remedied through policy changes.
At the same time, Campaigning NGOs, like human rights organizations often have
programs that assist the individual victims they are trying to help through
their advocacy work.
Non-governmental organizations need healthy relationships with the public to
meet their goals. Foundations and charities use sophisticated public relations
campaigns to raise funds and employ standard lobbying techniques with
governments. Interest groups may be of political importance because of their
ability to influence social and political outcomes. A code of ethics was
established in 2002 by The World Association of Non Governmental Organizations.
There is an increasing awareness that management techniques
are crucial to project success in non-governmental organizations. Generally,
non-governmental organizations that are private have either a community or
environmental focus. They address varieties of issues such as religion,
emergency aid, or humanitarian affairs. They mobilize public support and
voluntary contributions for aid; they often have strong links with community
groups in developing countries, and they often work in areas where
government-to-government aid is not possible. NGOs are accepted as a part of the
international relations landscape, and while they influence national and
multilateral policy-making, increasingly they are more directly involved in
Some NGOs are highly professionalized and rely mainly on paid staff. Others are
based around voluntary labour and are less formalized. Not all people working
for non-governmental organizations are volunteers.
Many NGOs are associated with the use of international
staff working in 'developing' countries, but there are many NGOs in both North
and South who rely on local employees or volunteers. There is some dispute as to
whether expatriates should
be sent to developing countries. Frequently this type of personnel is employed
to satisfy a donor who
wants to see the supported project managed by someone from an industrialized
country. However, the expertise of these employees or volunteers may be
counterbalanced by a number of factors: the cost of foreigners is
typically higher, they have no grassroot
connections in the country they
are sent to, and local expertise is often undervalued.
The NGO sector is an essential employer in terms of
numbers. For example, by the end of 1995, CONCERN
worldwide, an international Northern NGO working against poverty, employed
174 expatriates and just over 5,000 national staff working in ten developing
countries in Africa and Asia,
and in Haiti.
Whether the NGOs are small or large, various NGOs need
budgets to operate. The amount of budget that they need would differ from NGOs
to NGOs. Unlike small NGOs, large NGOs may have annual budgets in the hundreds
of millions or billions of dollars. For instance, the budget of the American
Association of Retired Persons (AARP)
was over US$540 million in 1999. Funding such large
budgets demands significant fundraising efforts on the part of most NGOs. Major
sources of NGO funding are membership dues, the sale of goods and
services, grants from international institutions or national governments, and
Several EU-grants provide funds accessible to NGOs.
Even though the term "non-governmental organization"
implies independence from
governments, many NGOs depend heavily on governments for their funding. A
quarter of the US$162 million income in 1998 of the famine-relief organization Oxfam was
donated by the British government and the EU. The Christian relief and
development organization World
Vision United States collected
US$55 million worth of goods in 1998 from the American government.
Government funding of NGOs is controversial, since,
according to David Rieff, writing in The
New Republic, "the whole point of humanitarian intervention was precisely
that NGOs and civil society had both a right and an obligation to respond with
acts of aid and solidarity to people in need or being subjected to repression or
want by the forces that controlled them, whatever the governments concerned
might think about the matter." Some NGOs, such as Greenpeace do
not accept funding from governments or intergovernmental organizations.
the amount of money that is spent on running an NGO rather than on projects. This
includes office expenses, salaries, banking and
bookkeeping costs. What percentage of overall budget is spent on overhead is
often used to judge an NGO with less than 4% being viewed as good. The
World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations states that ideally more
than 86% should be spent on programs (less than 20% on overhead). The
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has
specific guidelines on how high overhead can be to receive funding based on how
the money is to be spent with overhead often needing to be less than 5-7%. While
World Bank typically allows 37%. A
high percentage of overhead to total expenditures can make it more difficult to
generate funds. High overhead costs may also
generate criticism with some claiming the certain NGOs with high overhead are
being run simply to benefit the people working for them.
While overhead costs can be a legitimate concern, a sole
focus on them can be counterproductive. Research
published by the Urban
Institute and the Center
for Social Innovation at Stanford
University have shown how rating agencies create incentives for nonprofits to
lower and hide overhead costs, which may actually reduce organizational
effectiveness by starving organizations of the infrastructure they need to
effectively deliver services. A more meaningful rating system would provide, in
addition to financial data, a qualitative evaluation of an organization’s
transparency and governance: (1) an assessment of program effectiveness; (2) and
an evaluation of feedback mechanisms designed for donors and beneficiaries; and
(3) such a rating system would also allow rated organizations to respond to an
evaluation done by a rating agency. More generally,
the popular discourse of nonprofit evaluation should move away from financial
notions of organizational effectiveness and toward more substantial
understandings of programmatic impact.
In the March 2000 report on United Nations Reform
priorities, former U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan wrote in favor of
international humanitarian intervention, arguing that the international
community has a "right to protect" citizens
of the world against ethnic cleansing, genocide, and crimes against humanity. On
the heels of the report, the Canadian government launched the Responsibility to
Protect R2P project, outlining the issue of
humanitarian intervention. While the R2P doctrine has wide applications, among
the more controversial has been the Canadian government's use of R2P to justify
its intervention and support of the coup in
after R2P, the World
Federalist Movement, an organization which supports "the creation of
democratic global structures accountable to the citizens of the world and call
for the division of international authority among separate agencies", has
launched Responsibility to Protect – Engaging Civil Society (R2PCS). A
collaboration between the WFM and the Canadian government, this project aims to
bring NGOs into lockstep with the principles outlined under the original R2P
The governments of the countries an NGO works or is
registered in may require reporting or other monitoring and oversight. Funders
generally require reporting and assessment, such information is not necessarily
publicly available. There may also be associations and watchdog organizations
that research and publish details on the actions of NGOs working in particular
geographic or program areas.
In recent years, many large corporations have increased
social responsibility departments
in an attempt to preempt NGO campaigns against certain corporate practices. As
the logic goes, if corporations work with NGOs,
NGOs will not work against corporations.
Greater collaboration between corporations and NGOs creates inherent risks of
co-optation for the weaker partner, typically the nonprofit involved.
In December 2007, The United States Department of Defense
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) S.
Ward Casscells established an International
Health Division under Force
Health Protection & Readiness. Part of International
Health's mission is to communicate with NGOs in areas of mutual interest.
Department of Defense Directive 3000.05, in 2005,
requires DoD to regard stability-enhancing activities as a mission of importance
equal to combat. In compliance with international
law, DoD has necessarily built a capacity to improve essential services in
areas of conflict such as Iraq,
where the customary lead agencies (State
Department and USAID)
find it difficult to operate. Unlike the "co-option" strategy described for
corporations, the OASD(HA) recognizes the neutrality of health as an essential
service. International Health cultivates collaborative relationships with NGOs,
albeit at arms-length, recognizing their traditional independence, expertise and
honest broker status. While the goals of DoD and NGOs may seem incongruent, the
DoD's emphasis on stability and security to reduce and prevent conflict
suggests, on careful analysis, important mutual interests.
International non-governmental organizations have a history
dating back to at least the late eighteenth century. It
has been estimated that by 1914, there were 1083 NGOs.International
NGOs were important in the anti-slavery
movement and the movement for women's
suffrage, and reached a peak at the time of the World
Disarmament Conference. However, the phrase
"non-governmental organization" only came into popular use with the
establishment of the United
Nations Organization in 1945 with
provisions in Article 71 of Chapter
10 of the United Nations Charter for a
consultative role for organizations which are neither governments nor member
Consultative Status. The definition of "international NGO" (INGO) is first
given in resolution 288 (X) of ECOSOC on February 27, 1950: it is defined as
"any international organization that is not founded by an international treaty".
The vital role of NGOs and other "major groups" in sustainable
development was recognized in
Chapter 27 of
Agenda 21, leading to intense arrangements for a consultative relationship
between the United
Nations and non-governmental
organizations. It has been observed that the number
of INGO founded or dissolved matches the general "state of the world", rising in
periods of growth and declining in periods of crisis.
Rapid development of the non-governmental sector occurred
in western countries as a result of the processes of restructuring of the welfare
state. Further globalization of
that process occurred after the fall of the communist system and was an
important part of the Washington
Globalization during the 20th century gave rise to the
importance of NGOs. Many problems could not be solved within a nation. International
treaties and international
organizations such as the World
Trade Organization were centered
mainly on the interests of capitalist enterprises. In an attempt to
counterbalance this trend, NGOs have developed to emphasize humanitarian
aid and sustainable
development. A prominent example of this is the World
Social Forum, which is a rival convention to the World
Economic Forum held annually in
January in Davos, Switzerland.
The fifth World Social Forum in Porto
in January 2005 was attended by representatives from more than 1,000 NGOs. In
terms of environmental issues and sustainable development, the Earth
Summit in Rio in 1992 was the
first to show the power of international NGOs, when about 2,400 representatives
of NGOs came to play a central role in deliberations. Some have argued that in
forums like these, NGOs take the place of what should belong to popular
movements of the poor. Whatever the case, NGO transnational networking is now
Another issue which has brought NGOs to develop further is
the inefficiency of some top-heavy, global structures. For instance, in 1994,
former UN envoy
to Somalia Mohamed
Sahnoun published a book entitled "Somalia: The Missed Opportunities", in
which he clearly shows that when the United Nations tried to provide
humanitarian assistance, they were totally outperformed by NGOs, whose
competence and dedication sharply contrasted with the United Nations' excessive
caution and bureaucratic inefficiencies, their main Somalia envoys operating
from the safety of their desks in Nairobi.
The refusal of Boutros
Boutros-Ghali, then UN
Secretary General to accept this
criticism led to the early end of Mohamed Sahnoun's mission in Somalia.
The legal form of NGOs is diverse and depends upon
homegrown variations in each country's laws and practices. However, four main
family groups of NGOs can be found worldwide:
of Europe in Strasbourg drafted
Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International
Non-Governmental Organizations in
1986, which sets a common legal basis for the existence and work of NGOs in
Europe. Article 11 of the European
Convention on Human Rights protects
the right to freedom of association, which is also a fundamental norm for NGOs.
that NGOs have great influence and power in global affairs. Service-delivery
NGOs provide public goods and services that governments from developing
countries are unable to provide to society, due to lack of resources.
Service-delivery NGOs can serve as contractors or collaborate with democratized
government agencies to reduce cost associated with public goods.
Capacity-building NGOs influence global affairs differently, in the sense that
the incorporation of accountability measures in Southern NGOs affect "culture,
structure, projects and daily operations." Advocacy
and public education NGOs affect global affairs in its ability to modify
behavior through the use of ideas. Communication is the weapon of choice used by
advocacy and public-education NGOs in order to change people's actions and
behaviors. They strategically construct messages to not only shape behavior, but
to also socially mobilize communities in promoting social, political, or
Issa G. Shivji is
one of Africa's leading experts on law and development issues as an author and
academic. His critique on NGOs is found in two essays: "Silences in NGO
discourse: The role and future of NGOs in Africa" and "Reflections on NGOs in
Tanzania: What we are, what we are not and what we ought to be". Shivji argues
that despite the good intentions of NGO leaders and activists, he is critical of
the "objective effects of actions, regardless of their intentions". Shivji
argues also that the sudden rise of NGOs are part of a neoliberal paradigm
rather than pure altruistic motivations. He is critical of the current
manifestations of NGOs wanting to change the world without understanding it, and
that the imperial relationship
continues today with the rise of NGOs.
James Pfeiffer, in his case study of NGO involvement in
Mozambique, speaks to the negative effects that NGO's have had on areas of
health within the country. He argues that over the last decade, NGO's in
Mozambique have "fragmented the local health system, undermined local control of
health programs, and contributed to growing local social inequality".
He notes further that NGO's can be uncoordinated, creating
parallel projects among different organizations, that pull health service
workers away from their routine duties in order to serve the interests of the
NGO's. This ultimately undermines local primary health care efforts, and takes
away the governments' ability to maintain agency over their own health sector. J.
Pfeiffer suggested a new model of collaboration between the NGO and the DPS (the
Mozambique Provincial Health Directorate). He mentioned the NGO should be
'formally held to standard and adherence within the host country', for example
reduce 'showcase' projects and parallel programs that proves to be
Jessica Mathews wrote
Affairs in 1997: "For all their
strengths, NGOs are special interests. The best of them … often suffer from
tunnel vision, judging every public act by how it affects their particular
interest". Since NGOs have to worry about policy
trade-offs, the overall impact of their cause might bring more harm to society.
Vijay Prashad argues
that from the 1970s "The World Bank, under Robert McNamara, championed the NGO
as an alternative to the state, leaving intact global and regional relations of
power and production."
Others argue that NGOs are often imperialist in
nature, that they sometimes operate in a racialized manner
world countries, and that they
fulfill a similar function to that of the clergy during the high colonial era.
The philosopher Peter
Hallward argues that they are an
aristocratic form of politics. He also points to the
fact that NGOs like Action
Aid and Christian
Aid "effectively condoned the
[2004 US backed] coup" against an elected government in Haiti and argues that
they are the "humanitarian face of imperialism." Popular
movements in the global South such as the Western
Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign in South
Africa have sometimes refused to
work with NGOs arguing that this will compromise their autonomy. It
has also been argued that NGOs often disempower people by allowing funders to
push for stability over social justice.
Another criticism of NGOs is that they are being designed
and used as extensions of the normal foreign-policy instruments of certain
Western countries and groups of countries. Russian
Putin made this accusation at the
Conference on Security Policy in
2007, concluding that these NGOs "are formally independent but they are
purposefully financed and therefore under control." Also,
Michael Bond wrote "Most large NGOs, such as Oxfam, the Red Cross, Cafod and
Action Aid, are striving to make their aid provision more sustainable. But some,
mostly in the US, are still exporting the ideologies of their backers."
NGOs have also been accused of using white lies or
misinformed advise to enact their campaigns, i.e., accusations that NGOs have
been ignorant about critical issues because, as chief scientist at Greenpeace Doug
Parr said, these organizations appear to have lost their efforts in being truly
scientific and now seem to be more self-interested. Rather than operating
through science so as to be rationally and effectively practical, NGOs have been
accused of abusing the utilization of science to gain their own advantages. In
the beginning, as Parr indicated, there was "a tendency among our critics to say
that science is the only decision-making tool … but political and commercial
interests are using science as a cover for getting their way." At
the same time, NGOs can appear to not be cooperative with other groups,
according to the previous policy-maker for the German branch of Friends
of the Earth, Jens Katjek. "If NGOs want the best for the environment, he
says, they have to learn to compromise."
The issue of the legitimacy of NGOs raises a series of
important questions. This is one of the most important assets possessed by an
NGO, it is gained through a perception that they are an “independent voice”. Their
representation also emerges as an important question. Who bestows
responsibilities to NGOs or INGOs and how do they gain the representation of
citizens and civil society is still not scrutinized thoroughly. For instance, in
the article, it is stated, "To put the point starkly: are the citizens of
countries of the South and their needs represented in global civil society, or
are citizens as well as their needs constructed by practices of representation?
And when we realize that INGOs hardly ever come face to face with the people
whose interests and problems they represent, or that they are not accountable to
the people they represent, matters become even more troublesome."
Moreover, the legitimacy and the accountability of NGOs on
the point of their true nature are also emerging as important issues. Various
perceptions and images on NGOs are provided, and usually implemented in an image
as 'non-state actors' or 'influential representatives of civil society that
advocate the citizen.' Accountability may be able to provide this and also be
able to assist activities by providing focus and direction As
non-state actors with considerable influence over the governance in many areas,
concerns have been expressed over the extent to which they represent the views
of the public and the extent to which they allow the public to hold them to
The origin of funding can have serious implications for the
legitimacy of NGOs. In recent decades NGOs have increased their numbers and
range of activities to a level where they have become increasingly dependent on
a limited number of donors. Consequently,
competition has increased for funding, as have the expectations of the donors
themselves. This runs the risk of donors adding
conditions which can threaten the independence of NGOs; for example, an
over-dependence on official aid has the potential to dilute “the willingness of
NGOs to speak out on issues which are unpopular with governments”. In
these situations NGOs are being held accountable by their donors, which can
erode rather than enhance their legitimacy, a difficult challenge to overcome.
Some commentators have also argued that the changes in NGO funding sources has
ultimately altered their functions.
Corporate funding has also brought criticism. Joel Binda
writes that corporations seek to partner with NGOs as part of their Corporate
Social Responsibility (CSR) programs. This provides marketing and public
relations benefits for businesses. These partnerships between corporations and
NGOs allows corporations to claim some credit for the work of NGOs. Since NGOs
receive funding from corporations, they may be reluctant to criticize
corporations. In order to satisfy corporate donors and attract more funding,
NGOs may tailor their activities to serve corporate interests. For example, by
focusing on projects that look good to a corporation's consumers.
NGOs have also been challenged on the grounds that they do
not necessarily represent the needs of the developing world, through diminishing
the so-called “Southern Voice”. Some postulate that the North–South
divide exists in the arena of
NGOs. They question the equality of the
relationships between Northern and Southern parts of the same NGOs as well as
the relationships between Southern and Northern NGOs working in partnerships.
This suggests a division of labour may develop, with the North taking the lead
in advocacy and resource mobilisation whilst the South engages in service
delivery in the developing world.The potential
implications of this may mean the needs of the developing world are not
addressed appropriately as Northern NGOs do not properly consult or participate
in partnerships. The real danger in this situation is that western views may
take the front seat and assign unrepresentative priorities.
The flood of NGOs has also been accused of damaging the
public sector in multiple developing countries, e.g. accusations that NGO
mismanagement has resulted in the breakdown of public health care systems.
Instead of promoting equity and alleviating poverty, NGOs have been under
scrutiny for contributing to socioeconomic inequality and disempowering services
in the public sector of third world countries.
The scale and variety of activities in which NGOs
participate has grown rapidly since the 1980s, witnessing particular expansion
in the 1990s. This has presented NGOs with a need to
balance the pressures of centralisation and decentralisation. By centralising
NGOs, particularly those that operate at an international level, they can assign
a common theme or set of goals. Conversely it may also be advantageous to
decentralise as this can increase the chances of an NGO responding more flexibly
and effectively to localised issues by implementing projects which are modest in
scale, easily monitored, produce immediate benefits and where all involved know
that corruption will be punished.
Gasp! The Benefits Of Child Labor In The Developing World
By Lindsay Melnick:
Child labor is a sensitive subject with a negative connotation in our society.
While the topic of this article appears provocative, that is not my intention. I
initially set forth to write an anti-child labor piece to promote awareness of
the government mandated child labor issue in Uzbekistan. That country is the
second-largest cotton exporter in the world and half of the country’s cotton
harvest is said to come from child labor.
Why did this article take such a drastic turn? Because I found the reasoning
behind the existence of child labor in modern day society a much more compelling
and less touched upon topic that I believe needs to be acknowledged. As an
apparel industry insider, I have experienced my fair share of factory travel.
With each visit, the morality of the (behind the scenes) utilization of children
in these factories has weighed heavily on my conscience.
If asked, most people in our society will tell you that they are dead set
against the concept of child labor. They look disapprovingly at developing
countries where young children perform manual labor for long hours when they
should be in school learning. Yes, children should be in school. Yes, they
should be out playing with friends and enjoying their childhood.
However, we do not live in a perfect world. Child labor is pervasive for the
simple reason that impoverished households who cannot meet their basic needs may
depend on the income of their children for survival. In many cases, these
families are so poor that every member of their family needs to work. It is
likely that these families cannot afford the cost of education for their
children. Even when schooling is ostensibly ‘free’ studies have shown that
parents incur other direct costs such as activity fees, uniforms, paper and
pens, text books, transport, lunches and others which often result in the
exclusion of poor children from school. I am stating the obvious to say that
child labor creates a trade-off between labor and education. However, if their
choice is either starving or going to school, isn’t survival the obvious choice?
While the majority of NGO’s work towards saving children from labor is seen as
commendable, it has the potential to cause more harm than good. Foreign
governments and organizations working toward making it illegal for these
children to earn an honest income may in turn, force them down dangerous paths.
It is common for homeless children or those without parents or adult supervision
to be pushed into the sex trade or towards other criminal activities in order to
earn money to survive. In this context, working in sweatshops is a far better
The evils of child labor are as indisputable, as is its economic necessity. I
believe that child labor has a place in the world economy. Those of us in the
developed world need to foster empathy for the families who have to put their
children to work in order to survive. Organizations should not be spending their
time fighting to abolish child labor but rather work alongside it. They need to
be realistic about the challenges these families face.
child-laborers can still get an education is the answer.
NGO’s should use their resources to provide schools in factories, so that for a
few hours a day, the children can stop working and learn basic skills. In a
daunting situation this would be a commendable solution, as it is after all
tackling the real issue by being pragmatic and empathetic to why these children
are working in the first place.
Education is broadly used as an instrument for social change and widely regarded
as the route to economic prosperity. These children deserve the opportunity to
pull themselves out of poverty and education is a vehicle for achieving this
hese articles were created as part of the course work for “Live Exchange” the
foundational course on communication for The
MBA Design Strategy Program at California College of the Arts. Read
more about the project here.
A Canadian NGO has posted its shortcomings online in a bold
attempt to learn from them and encourage others to do the same
NGOs battle for media attention, devoting considerable effort and energy into
getting that crucial eyeball contact. Usually that means making the message as
stark and sensationalist as possible, with the implicit message that the NGO
knows exactly how to sort out the problem – whether that is tax havens, Aids or
educating 10-year-olds in Tanzania.
So I'm full of admiration for a Canadian NGO that is breaking all the rules by
publishing a failure
report. Engineers Without Borders has bravely catalogued various mistakes in
its projects. Project officers come clean in a series of snapshots of what they
did wrong . So Owen Scott confesses that he thought he knew exactly what was
needed in Malawi, where he was working on a water project. He secured the
funding and got it sorted: an updated survey. But it only postponed the problem,
which was that the district government didn't have the money to regularly update
the survey. Scott admitted "prioritising tangible activities" and effectively
using money as bribery.
Another project officer, in Ghana, confesses that she had a "humbling
realisation" when she saw that she was just adding to the existing problem.
While working in a project in Zambia, Mark Hemsworth thought his task to support
local enterprise was straightforward – a carpentry business needed a planing
machine. He supplied the machine but it was badly damaged when fitted. Like
plenty of unused machinery lying around rural Zamiba, parts and repairs were
hugely difficult to arrange.
This is brave stuff. Anyone who has ever worked in aid projects will recognise
all of it. The confidence with which aid workers can think they know what they
are doing, plunge in and make countless mistakes. But this is the knowledge that
NGOs keep well clear of their marketing departments. It's an ugly dishonesty
that runs through almost all aid work, a painful underbelly to the very obvious
idealism and good intentions.
Engineers Without Borders is boldly suggesting that we learn from failure, and
by putting itself on the line, it is hoping to encourage plenty of other NGOs to
do the same. It has set up a website admittingfailure.com and
has already got promises from three NGOs to share their failures over the next
week. The idea is to kickstart a more honest conversation with the public (who,
after all, provide a lot of NGO funding) about what their money is doing.
In his contribution to the report, a long time development worker, Ian Smillie,
points out that "development enterprise is notoriously risk averse; donors
demand results and punish failure". Other experts argue that
monitoring and evaluation is
often so inadequate, that we simply don't know what works.
The current trends in UK and US aid agencies is to insist on value for money and
clear evidence of results. So here is a counterblast which says that we must
recognise the truth of that old proverb, that we can learn from our mistakes.
But it's risky. What happens when an aid sceptic such as Bill
Easterly starts using these
cameos of aid failure to buttress their arguments? This innovative approach
could provide fuel for the increasingly powerful anti-aid lobby.
On balance, it's probably a risk worth taking. A more grown-up conversation
about NGOs and their work is overdue. BBC Radio 4's Ed Stourton did a very
thought-provoking programme last week, arguing that "the aid sector is facing a
crisis of identity" over its impact and effectiveness. In 60 years of aid, it
hasn't delivered what people expected, he said. A range of interviewees pointed
out how NGOs have grown into bureaucratic organisations that are often very
distant from the people they claim to be empowering. Many have "internalised the
logic of the marketplace", keen to get their hands on as much money as possible,
creating tensions with their ethical commitments. One of the interviewees was
Linda Polman, whose excellent book War
Games raises many of these
issues, and in particular shows how the media and NGOs use one another – and in
the process often disastrously distort the reality on the ground.
So are we ready for a grown-up conversation about what NGOs do? Are they the
force for good portrayed in their marketing? Or are we all colluding in wanting
to believe their wild promises … saving babies' lives for a fiver?
NGO leaders learn how to influence social policies to benefit children
A training workshop on 'Public
Policy and Advocacy' for
the Alliance of Active NGO's in the field of child and family social protection
(APSCF) was organized in Chisinau. The
event was held by Expert-Grup with the support of UNICEF Moldova and
the Government of Sweden.
February 5, 2015– The
policy cycle, cost
measurement, and use
of data to influence social policies –
theseare some of the key topics covered in the workshop 'Public
Policyand Advocacy', organized on 5-6 February 2015 in
Chisinau. The training gathered 20 non-governmental
particular NGO’s and
opinion leaders in the field of child and family protection,
from Chisinau and
other districts of the country.
The event was attended by Nune Mangasaryan, UNICEF
Representative in Moldovaband Henrik Huitfeldt, Counsellor/Head of Reform
Cooperation, from the Embassy of Sweden.
is undergoing a number of reforms for improving the lives of children and their
families. However, there are many inequities affecting children’s
well being. It is
important that all children benefit from there forms, while civil society’s
voice is very strong in this process," saidUNICEF
Representative in Moldova.
“Civil society is a key actor
in promoting public policies and plays a key role in every democratic society”,
Henrik Huitfeldt from the Embassy of Swedensaid. “ NGOs need to be strong enough
to influence public policies. This is even more relevant for social policies for
the protection of children and families”.
Stela Vasluian, President of APSCF,
added that NGOs want to be an important dialogue partner for decision makers and
their voice to be heard. "By 2020 we
want to ensure that 0 children
live in residential institutions, all children with
special needs are enrolle
din education and more investments are made in capacity
building of the specialists to have an effective child protection system".
APSCF brings together 89 non-governmental
organizations throughout the country, including
Transnistrian region and Gagauzia. Among the organizations participating at the
workshop were "Partnerships for Every Child", "CCF Moldova", "Child
Rights Information and Documentation Centre", "National Centre for Child Abuse
Prevention, “Ave Copiii",
The workshop was
organized with the support of UNICEF Moldova within a partnership
project between UNICEF, Parliament and Expert-Grup, to
promote evidence-based policies, as part of the program "Parliament &
Democracy", funded by the
For further contact:
Constanța Popescu, Programme
List of children's rights organizations
is a list of children's
rights organizations by
List of United Nations Agencies, Programmes, NGOs and Foundations working on
Contemporary Forms of Slavery
All contemporary forms of slavery
Amnesty International http://amnesty.org
Human Rights Watch www.hrw.org
Derechos Human Rights http://www.derechos.org
Front Line, The International Foundation for the Protection of Human Rights
Human Rights Internet http://www.hri.ca
Human Rights Network International database http://www.hrni.org
Human Rights Resource Center http://hrusa.org
Human Rights Web http://hrweb.org
New Internationalist http://www.newint.org
Anti-slavery society www.anti-slaverysociety.com
American Anti-Slavery Group (ASSG) www.iAbolish.org
Free the Slaves www.freetheslaves.net
Save a slave www.saveaslave.com
The Wyndham Charitable Trust http://uk.geocities.com/wyndham_ct
Polaris Project www.PolarisProject.org
Committee Against Modern Slavery http://www.esclavagemoderne.org
SOS Esclaves Mauritania www.sosesclaves.org
Trafficking and sexual slavery
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: www.unodc.org
The emancipation Network www.emancipationnetwork.org
Coalition against Trafficking in Women www.catwinternational.org
Project to end Human Trafficking www.endhumantrafficking.org
People Against Trafficking Humans http://www.orgsites.com/mi/people-against-trafficking-humans/
Ban-Ying (Germany) www.ban-ying.de
Bangladesh National Women Lawyer’s Association www.bnwla.org
Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women www.gaatw.org
Global Rights, Initiative Against Trafficking in Persons www.globalrights.org/trafficking
Human Trafficking Search (National Multicultural Institute) www.humantraffickingsearch.net
International Organization for Migration, Prevention of Trafficking in Women in
the Baltic States project www.refocusbaltic.net/en
La Strada International www.lastradainternational.org
Perm Center Against Violence and Human Trafficking (Russia) www.cavt.ru
Stop Albanian Slavery www.stopalbanianslavery.blogspot.com
The Barnaba Institute www.barnabainstitute.org
Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking www.castla.org
Bilateral Safety Corridor Coalition www.bsccoalition.org
Shared Hope International www.sharedhope.org
Action to End Exploitation www.endexploitation.org
Protection Project www.protectionproject.org
Forced labour and migrant exploitation
International Labor Organisation www.ilo.org
International Labor Rights Fund www.laborrights.org
International Organization for Migration www.iom.int
Kalayaan – Justice for migrant workers www.kalayaan.org.uk
Matahari Eye of the Day www.eyeoftheday.org
Global Workers Justice Alliance www.globalworkers.org
Human Rights for workers www.senser.com/index.htm
Irish Congress of Trade Unions www.ictu.ie
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions www.icftu.org
Trades Union Congress UK www.tuc.org.uk
Instituto Sindicale per la Cooperazione et lo Sviluppo www.iscos.cisl.it
Coalition of Labor Union Women www.cluw.org
International Organization of Employers www.ioe-emp.org
World Confederation of Labour www.ituc-csi.org
Children (forced labour and sexual slavery
International Initiative to End Child Labor www.endchildlabor.org
ECPAT International (child prostitution and trafficking of children for sexual
Justice for Children International www.jfci.org
Save the children www.savethechildren.org
Child Labor Coalition www.stopchildlabor.org
World Tourism Organization – Task to Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation
in Tourism www.world-tourism.org//protect_children/index.htm
South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude http://bbasaccs.org
Child Rights Information Network http://www.crin.org/resources/index.asp
Action Against Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children (ALTEN) http://atsec.tripod.com/atsecbangladeshchapter/id1.html
Association pour la lutte Contre le Travail des Enfants au Niger (ALTEN) http://alten.apinc.org
Butterflies Programme for Street and Working Children (India) www.childrightsindia.org
Casa Alianza Latina America www.casa-alianza.org
Casa Alianza UK www.casa-alianza.org.uk
Child Labour Awareness http://childlabour.typepad.com
Child Rights Information Network www.crin.org
Child Workers in Asia www.cwa.tnet.co.th
Child Workers in Nepal www.cwin.org.np
Child Watch www.phuket.com/island/child.htm
Concerned for Working Children www.workingchild.org/htm/cwc.htm
Free the Children www.freethechildren.org
Free the Children India www.ftcindia.org
Global March Against Child Labour www.globalmarch.org
HAQ: Centre for Child Rights and Campaign to Stop Child Labour www.haqcrc.org
International Federation of Free Trade Unions (Child labour section) www.icftu.org
ILO – International Programme of the Elimination of Child Labour www.ilo.org/ipec/index.htm
Child Trafficking Digital Library www.childtrafficking.com
World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children http://www.csecworldcongress.org
The World Bank- Child Labour www.worldbank.org
Understanding Children’s Work: An inter-agency research cooperation project on
child labour http://www.ucw-project.org/
ECLT Foundation – addressing the challenge of child labour in tobacco growing www.eclt.org
World Congress against Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) www.csecworldcongress.org
RugMark Foundation www.rugmark.org
A list of 20 Foundations Supporting Projects on Children
July 25, 2014 By
Millions of children around
the world are born into a stark reality: will they work in markets and
mines, or go to school? Will they be trafficked into slavery, or be
free? Will they be child soldiers, or students? Many children grow up in
a daily life marked by violence; the images of war, abuse, persecution
and loss of family. These traumatized children suffer depression,
nightmares, loss of self-worth and often are the source of future
aggression. Each year an estimated 15 million children die of hunger.
All children around the globe, no matter where they come from, have the
rights to education,
rights to health,
rights to nutritive diet, rights to water,
rights to care, and all other rights associated to human. The children
who have the access to their rights grow as an independent individual
who can break through the cycle of poverty be empowered to take their
future into their own hands and play an active part in shaping it.
There are 800+ grant giving foundations supporting the projects on Child
Rights in our donor database. If you are an organization focusing on any
sector of Child Rights, be benefited with this list of 20 Foundations
supporting Projects on Children.
The Global Fund for Children
The Global Fund for Children (GFC) invests in undercapitalized
organizations that provide critical services to vulnerable children. The
Fund finds and supports grassroots organizations worldwide to transform
the lives of children on the edges of society – trafficked children,
refugees, child laborers – and help them regain their rights and pursue
their dreams. Primary goal of the Fund is to invest early, help the
partner organizations increase capacity, and leave them bigger and
stronger than before. It also provides management assistance, capacity
building, networking opportunities, and additional strengthening
services for the lasting change.
The Global Fund for Children has supported 9 million children so far.
The impact is thousands of children are going to school instead of to
work; thousands more protecting themselves from HIV,
escaping the bonds of slavery, and getting the childhood they deserve.
Grant applications generally fall between $25,000 and $75,000 range.
Areas of Interest
Education – primary education, vocational education
Youth & Adolescents
East and South East Asia, Europe and Eurasia, Latin America and the
Caribbean, Middle East and NorthAfrica,
North America, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Applicants must be in the early stage of development and their
annual budget should not exceed $200,000.
Applicants must work directly with children and youth. Advocacy and Research projects
are not considered for funding.
Applicants must be able to ensure a responsible management of fund
(must have basic accounting and reporting systems; phone and email
Applicant organization must be led by individuals who live and work
in the community. Priority is given to organizations whose leaders
were born and raised in the community. Local offices or affiliates
of national or international organizations are not supported.
Applicants must be registered with the local or national government
as a nonprofit organization. If the political context makes legal
registration unfeasible, the organization must demonstrate nonprofit
How to Apply for Grant?
Submit a Letter of Inquiry (please remember to check the eligibility
GFC will invite full proposal if the project is
Submit Full Proposal
Be selected for the fund and proceed
For more details about this Foundation,
including contact information, you can download
the PDF version if you are a
fundsforNGOs Premium Member. Not a Premium Member? Click
here to learn the amazing benefits of fundsforNGOs Premium Membership.
Child Rights Foundation
Child Rights Foundation (CRF) is a local
Cambodian, child-focused, non-profit, non political and non-religious
Agir pour les Femmes en Situation Precaire (AFESIP)
AFESIP is a non-governmental,
non-partisan, and non-religious organization established at the
grass-root level in Cambodia in 1996.
Cambodian Bar Association (CBA)
Created with the assistance of the
University of San Francisco School of Law program, the Cambodian Bar
Association assists persons within Cambodia in becoming skilled human
rights lawyers and advocates.
Cambodian Center for the Protection of Children's
The Cambodian Center for the Protection
of Children's Rights (CCPCR) was established as a local,
non-governmental organization in 1994, with its main goal to implement
the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of Children (CRC).
Cambodian Defenders Project (CDP)
The Cambodian Defenders Project (CDP)
was established in 1994 in Cambodia as a project of the International
Human Rights Law Group (based in the United States, now called Global
Rights) as an international non-governmental organization.
Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association
The purpose of ADHOC's Women's Rights
program is to provide knowledge on women's rights to both women and men,
so that they may regard women's rights as human rights and be aware of
women's rights violations.
Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of
Human Rights (LICADHO)
The Cambodian League for the Promotion
and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO) is a non-governmental organization
(NGO) working to promote and defend human rights in Cambodia.
Cambodian National Project Against Trafficking in
Women and Children
Monitors general operations of local and
international NGOs and IGOs directly involved with human trafficking
issues and assesses fiscal needs of these organizations for UN funding.
Cambodian Women's Crisis Centre (CWCC)
The Cambodian Women's Crisis Center
(CWCC), a non-profit organization, was established in March 1997.
Cambodian Women's Development Association (CWDA)
The Cambodian Women's Development
Association (CWDA) is an indigenous, non-profit, non-government
organisation with no religious or political affiliations but a strong
Coalition to Address Sexual Exploitation of
Children in Cambodia (COSECAM)
COSECAM was established in 2001.
Digital Divide Data
When women are rescued from brothels
they have almost no career possibilities. Digital Divide Data
(DDD) believes that they can give victims of trafficking and/or
prostitutes an opportunity to make a new life for themselves and gain
the self confidence of which they had been robbed through a Sex
Trafficked Women's Program.
Goutte D'eau (Damnok Toek)
The activities in Neak Loeung include: A
24 hour children's shelter for abused and neglected children located at
the ferry terminal for children on their way to Phnom Penh.
Hagar focuses its efforts on assisting
the women and children in Cambodia who are dealing with serious crises
in their lives, as well as those who are the most vulnerable and at
Healthcare Center for Children
Healthcare Center for Children (HCC)
deters women and children from seeking assistance from traffickers by
supplying healthcare, educational support, social and economic
development, technical support, training, and advocacy for children and
young women in Cambodia.
Khmer Women's Voice Center (KWVC)
The Khmer Women's Voice Center (KWVC)
emerged from the Cambodian Women's Committee for Non-violence and The
Elections (CWCNVE) which promoted women's participation in the 1993
Legal Aid of Cambodia (LAC)
Legal Aid of Cambodia (LAC) is a
non-profit, non-governmental Khmer-administered association of lawyers
dedicated to serving the legal needs of Cambodia's poor in all types of
civil and criminal matters.
Legal Support for Children and Women (LSCW)
LSCW aims to prevent and eliminate all
forms of human trafficking and abuse as well as discrimination of
children and women in Cambodia. LSCW is committed to legally
protecting, assisting and supporting all persons trafficked, abused,
including Cambodian migrant workers in destination countries, through
existing legal mechanisms, and to gain recognition of and respect for
their rights. Goal: For vulnerable groups to enjoy increased
access to justice and basic human rights through transparent legal
Mith Samlanh / Friends
Mith Samlanh / Friends assists homeless
and vulnerable street children and adolescents, including their
families, who are at high risk of exploitation and physical and
emotional abuse, especially through forced commercial sex and violence
in the streets.
NGO Committee on the Rights of the Child (NGOCRC)
The NGO Committee on the Rights of the
Child (NGOCRC) is a coalition of national and international
non-government organizations (NGOs) working together to advocate for the
rights of children and monitor the implementation of the Convention on
the Rights of the Child in Cambodia (CRC).
NYEMO Cambodia Organization
NYEMO Cambodia Organization is a
Cambodian non-governmental organization established in early 1998, which
works to improve the quality of life of vulnerable women and their
children by strengthening and empowering them with the partnership of
all stakeholders in the society.
Protection of Juvenile Justice (PJJ)
The Protection of Juvenile Justice (PJJ)
was established and officially recognized on 5 May 2001 by the Council
of Ministers and Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia.
The Protection of Juvenile Justice (PJJ) provides legal assistance,
legal training, research and child rehabilitation for children and their
families who have suffered from exploitation.
SABORAS is a Cambodian Non-Governmental
Organization (CNGO), a grass-roots, non-profit and non-political agency
implementing development activities throughout Cambodia.
Chab Dai Coalition
Chab Dai (Joining Hands) is a coalition of Christian Organizations
committed to ending sexual abuse and trafficking.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING MUST BE STOPPED
Jul 21, 2015 ... JUST
WATCHED. How easily are children recruited in Human
Trafficking. Replay .... U.S. releases human
trafficking report. children
for sale ...
Jul 22, 2015 ... Shandra
Woworuntu is a survivor of human
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founder of Mentari, a New York-based nonprofit organization
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[ More results from www.cnn.com ]
We're working hard to stop human
trafficking—not only because of the ... Interview onHuman
Trafficking ... U.S. Department
of Health & Human Services
https://www.dosomething.org/facts/11-facts-about-human-traffick... - Similarto
11 Facts About Human
Trafficking | DoSomething.org
The National Human
Trafficking Hotline receives
more calls from Texas than any other state in the US.
15% of those calls are from the Dallas-Fort Worth area.
Aug 7, 2015 ... Overview.
The term "human trafficking" is used in common parlance to
describe many forms of exploitation of human beings. While these
- Similarto Child
Trafficking Statistics - Ark
of Hope for Children
Feb 22, 2014 ... Ark
of Hope for Children has compiled the following U.S. and
international statistics on human
trafficking and sex
20 Ways You Can Help Fight Human
Trafficking - US Department
After first learning about human
trafficking, many people want to help in some way but do not
know how. Here are just a few ideas for your consideration.
children by terrorists in the Middle East, the sex
trafficking of girls ... This year's Report places a special
emphasis on human
trafficking in the global
[ More results from www.state.gov ]
www.ice.gov/factsheets/human-trafficking - Similarto Human
Trafficking and Smuggling |
and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the largest investigative agency
... security, including investigations of human smuggling and human trafficking.
www.vanityfair.com/news/2011/05/sex-trafficking-201105 - Similarto
Sex Trafficking of
Americans: The Girls Next Door | Vanity Fair
And, as Amy Fine Collins shows, human
trafficking is much closer to
home than ... Krishna Patel, assistant U.S. attorney
in Bridgeport, Connecticut, invokes the ...
Human Trafficking is
a serious crime that is punishable by both New York State ...
100,000-300,000 U.S. citizen
children are currently involved in sex trafficking.
- Similarto Human
Trafficking at the US Southwest
Border | Amnesty ...
Click on the image to view the graphic at full size. Learn More.
Read Report: In Hostile Terrain: Human rights
violations in immigration enforcement in the US ...
Child Labor, Forced Labor, & Human
Trafficking - US ...
Everyday, millions of men, women, and children around
the world are vulnerable to abuse and exploitation in the
workplace. Global estimates also put the ...
USCSAHT ad that appeared in American Airlines and USAirways
in-flight magazine in December 2014. U.S. Catholic
Sisters Against Human
Trafficking with ...
Jul 30, 2015 ... In
the US, poverty,
deprivation and exploitation draw thousands of its ownchildren down
into a dark underworld that offers few ways out.
Awareness Against Human
Trafficking (HAART) is
non-governmental .... (NGO) that works in the red-light
districts of Mumbai, India to protect children vulnerable ...
www.polarisproject.org/ - Similarto
Polaris | Combating Human
Trafficking and Modern-day
This organization works on all forms of human
trafficking and serves
victims of slavery and human
- Similarto Human
Experts, and NGOs
Human Trafficking Resources. Human
Experts, & NGOs ...
of 25non-governmental organizations that
provide services to, and advocate for ...
MISSING CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES
www.fugitivehunter.org/Statemissing.html - Similarto Missing
Children by State
Missing Children, Missing
persons, missing, lost kids,
lost children, family abductions, child abductions,
www.cnn.com/2013/10/22/us/missing-children-fast-facts/ - Similarto Missing
Children Fast Facts - CNN.com
Oct 22, 2013 ... All
50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin
Islands have AMBER Alert plans in place to help find missing
children in ...
AMBER Alert System; International Kidnapping; Missing
Children; Report Child ... in all 50 states, the Commonwealth of
Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin
www.childfindofamerica.org/missing.htm - Similarto
Child Find of America, Inc.
If you have seen any of these children,
or know of their location, please call Child Find,
toll-free, at 1-800-I-AM-LOST (1-800-426-5678.
Nov 17, 2014 ... RadarOnline
joins forces with the Center of Missing
Children in ... HelpUs Find
Children – 19 Unsolved
www.slate.com/articles/news.../800000_missing_kids_really.html - Similarto
How many children go missing every
year? - Slate Magazine
Jan 17, 2007 ... Local
police departments register missing
children with the federal ...
to the Donald tells us a
lot about what kind of presidents they would be.
https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196465.pdf - Similarto
National Estimates of Missing
Children: An Overview
many reasons, and the problem of missing
children is far more complex
than the ... the Census-based U.S. population
of children ages 10–18. All of the adult.
Home • Most Wanted • Kidnappings & Missing
Persons .... USA.gov
| White House FBI.gov is an official site of the U.S. government, U.S. Department
NCIC Missing Person File – Yearly Totals and Percent
Change - NCIC Unidentified ... statistical report.
Totals) 2014 ...... White House FBI.gov is an
official site of the U.S. government, U.S. Department
[ More results from www.fbi.gov ]
www.usatoday.com/story/.../missing-persons-children.../16110709/ - Similarto
By the numbers: Missing
persons in the USA -
Sep 25, 2014 ... At
any given moment, there are as many as 90,000 missing
persons in the U.S. (
Photo: USA TODAY). 02_adults. 60% of missing people
www.missingpersonsofamerica.com/ - Similarto Missing
Persons of America
News and information about missing people
and those who have been found.
www.justice.gov/actioncenter/report-and-identify-missing-person... - Similarto
Report and Identify Missing
Persons - US Department
Sep 18, 2014 ... ACT
IMMEDIATELY if you believe that your child is missing.
Call local law enforcement first, then call the National
Center for Missing ...
Apr 21, 2015 ... It's
a similar story with one widely used statistic about missing
children in the US -
it is not quite what it may seem. A television news
channel in ...
www.mfia.state.mi.us/awol/ - Similarto
Help Us Locate
Help Us Locate
Children! This web site contains information about , and
when available, pictures of Michigan Children who have
been reported to ...
Schools are part of the network to help find missing
children, not only ... in the U.S.Department
of Justice's National Missing
Children's Day Poster
Contest, pdf ...
www.vsp.state.va.us/MissingChildren.shtm - Similarto Missing
Children - Virginia State
Home > Missing
Children ... 2014 Poster
Contest "Bring Our Missing
Children Home" logo and link
to related ... website lists missing
children from all U.S. states.
www.fdle.state.fl.us/MCICSearch/ - Similarto
Florida Missing Endangered Persons Search
Search for Missing
Children in Florida. ... and
crimes against children. For more information about our
services, visit the about us section
of this website.
www.namus.gov/ - Similarto
NamUs - National Missing and
Unidentified Persons System
NamUs - National Missing and
Unidentified Persons System.
Cornell University Law SchoolSearch Cornell. Toggle navigation.
Support Us! ... U.S. Code
Toolbox. Law about... Articles from Wex · Title 42 USC, RSS
Texas Missing Persons Clearinghouse
Online Bulletin, Browse photos and searchable bulletins of missing
persons, abductors, and unidentified persons, a central
repository for information and pictures of missing and ...
Employment · About Us.
When trying to understand how to find and protect missing
children, it is important ... for Missing & Exploited Children
in the US, Child Focus in Belgium, and The ...
www.criminaljustice.ny.gov/missing/ - Similarto Missing
Persons Clearinghouse - NY
The Missing Persons Clearinghouse
is responsible for providing assistance to law enforcement
agencies handling cases involving children, college students ...
When trying to understand how to find and protect missing
children, it is important ... for Missing & Exploited Children
in the US, Child Focus in Belgium, and The ...
Jul 7, 2011 ... According
in a study by the U.S. Department
of Justice, an average of ... Grace's Anthony-fueled jump in
ratings to former missing
child case ...
www.therideformissingchildren.com/about-us - Similarto
About Us »
The Ride For Missing
Children - Central New York
About Us. What
started as a small group of bicyclists that hoped to raise
awareness for the plight of one missing
child has grown into the
biggest annual ...
Texas Missing Persons Clearinghouse
Online Bulletin, Browse photos and searchable bulletins of missing
persons, abductors, and unidentified persons, a central
repository for information and pictures of missing and ...
Employment · About Us.
https://www.iowaonline.state.ia.us/mpic/ - Similarto
Iowa Missing Persons
May 25th was proclaimed National Missing
Children's Day by President
Ronald Reagan in 1983. The U.S. Department
of Justice commemorates Missing ...
May 10, 2013 ... Most missing
children have been abducted
by strangers. Stranger ... Read more from Outlook, friend us on
Facebook, and follow us on
Jul 29, 2013 ... The
FBI says they've recovered 105 missing and
exploited children over
the weekend by orchestrating a massive crackdown on crime