Below is mail from Jerry Iuliano pointing out a correspondence between the 27 levels of the electron and various mythologies of various civilizations. Concerning the originator of some of this information, it is still open to debate by Jerry and others. Also included is information about the fine-structure constant and many other interesting correspondences.

Date: Sun, 4 Mar 2001 19:24:20 EST

Subject: Complete factorization of Geatron

Sir:

At this webpage: http://www.2xtreme.net/boris/physics.htm is an article by Eugene B. Pamfiloff who believes that the electron is comprised of 27 individual units of energy called a Geatron which is according to Pamfiloff exactly expressed by the value .018926578 Mev/(c^=2).

Brown University physicist proposes that electron may be split in two parts.

Brown University professor of physics and engineering, Humphrey Maris proposes that it is possible to split the electron. A paper describing the theory appears in the Aug. 1 Journal of Low Temperature Physics. Maris presented his research at the International Conference on Quantum Fluids and Solids, held in June at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.

Several colleagues have suggested that I bring the public up to date with some new developments related to my work in particle physics. It appears that the results of several recent experiments at Brown University have proven major aspects of my work.

Dr. Humphrey Maris and his team, while zapping liquid He4 with infrared light obtained an unexpected result. It appeared that an electron split into two parts, with each part suspended in separate bubbles.

These experiments and results were announced on August 1, 2000. Naturally, this observation was shocking, as it not only defied The Standard Model Theory, but also placed quarks into a new category, that of the Non-existent.

Moreover, the results have proven that the electron is a composite entity rather than a virtual finite entity, which is one of the major principles of my work. According to statements by Maris, Modern Theory has no explanation for these results. However, my work not only predicted these results many years ago, but easily explains the products, as follows:

Electron Composition: The Electron is composed of 3-Stages, with each Stage composed of 9 Geatron particles of energy, with each particle possessing a Mass of: m =3D 0.018926578 MeV/c2 Pfc, for a total of 27 fundamental Geatron particles of energy contained within the electrons' configuration. Each Stage has a Mass of: m =3D 0.170339202 MeV/c2

During Maris experiment, after exposure to low frequency Infrared Light, the electron split into two as described by the Geatron principles:

Stage I and II remained intact yielding a Mass of m =3D 0.340678404 MeV/c2 and possessing a neutral charge due to the cancellation of charges between Stages I and II.

Stage III, which is loosely held or bound, as compared to Stages I & II, dislodged yielding a Mass of m =3D 0.170339202 MeV/c2 and possessing a negative electric charge. The experiments of Dr. Maris yielded an unexpected result leading to an obvious conclusion, "the composite nature of the electron".

However, my work predates that of Dr. Maris by several years and not only predicted the results he obtained, but also is capable of explaining the exact results in terms of resultant mass and electric charge, and the exact sequence of electron fragmentation that will occur at various input energy levels. As a result, many of my friends and colleagues who are familiar with my work and these new developments are now very excited about the prospects of work recognition.

The 82944 form expresses this energy exactly as follows:

letting a(em)=3Dfine-structure constant=3D1/137.= 036000986

Then it can be demonstrated:

[a(em)*4*37*(10^13)]/(82944^3)=3D.01= 8926578 Mev/(c^2)

by substituting the factors of a(em) into the formula one gets:

[(e^2)*32*37*(Pi^2)*E*(c^3)]/10/h/(8= 2944^3)=3D.018926578 Mev

where using NIST values:

e=3Delementary charge=3D1.602176471*= (10^-19)

E=3Delectric constant=3D8.8541878*(1= 0^-12)

c=3Dspeed of light=3D299792458 m/s

h=3DPlanck's constant=3D6.626068757*= (10^-34)

The only whole numbers in the formula are 82944 (Abrahams number) and

32*37=3D1184 or 1 / 2 Christ's number from the book THEOMATICS by Jerry Lucas, page 63.

The number 37*64=3D2368 has many strange properties , for example:

log(2368+log2368)*32=3D108.000003962= which is a representation of the Kali-Yuga form 108.

Using Fermat modular constant 35: [3= 5+(1/37)]*2368=3D82944

Again using the Fermat coefficent form 32/9=3D3.55555555

3.5555555*666=3D2368

Using the following equalities:

AZTEC ALAUTUN number......2304

SUMERIAN :INANNA number......252

KALI -YUGA number.....108

GEMATRIC .....144

GEMATRIC.....1152.....(2304/2)

GEMATRIC.....576

GEMATRIC......82944

GEATRON value........0189265784 Mev/(c^2)

Complete factorization of the Geatron particle is through the Gematric bases: 144, 1152 and 576 as follows:

Letting values =3D using NIST standards 1998:

E=3Delectric constant=3D8.85418781*(=10^-12)

c=3Dspeed of light metric=3D29979245=.8 m/s

h=3DPlanck's constant=3D6.626068757*= (10^-34) Joules

a(em)=3DFine-structure constant=3D13= 7.035999935^-1

then it can be shown:

[37*a(em)*6.4*(E^2)*(Pi^2)*(c^4)]/(8= 2944^3)=3D.0189265784 gtron

[37*a(em)*57.6*(E^2)*(Pi^2)*(c^4)]/(= 82944^3)= 3D.170339207 stge

[37*a(em)*115.2*(E^2)*(Pi^2)*(c^4)]/=(82944^3)= 3D.3406784 1+2

Factoring a(em): e^2/[2*E*h*c)

e=3Delementary charge=3D1.602176471*= (10^-19) Columb

it can be shown:

[37*3.2*E*(c^3)*(e^2)*(Pi^2)]/(82944=^3)/h= 3D.018926578 gtron

[37*28.8*E*(c^3)*(e^2)*(Pi^2)]/(8294=4^3)/h= 3D.170339207 stge

[37*57.6*E*(c^3)*(e^2)*(Pi^2)]/(8294=4^3)/h=3D.340678403 1+2

Where:

57.6*2=3D115.2

57.6/2=3D28.8

2*115.2=3D230.4 (aztec)

230.4*360(sumerian)=3D82944

Sacred Tetrakys=3D(10)=3D4+3+2+1..(4=^4)+(3^3)+(2^2)+(1^1)=3D288

115.2/2.88=3D40

Goddess Inanna(252)..Kali-Yuga(108)

108+252=3D144

108+(252*5)=3D1152=3D2304 (aztec)

In a message dated 3/17/01 10:50:23 PM Eastern Standard Time, JerryIuliano@aol.com writes:

Formula as follows:

(ERC) 20.62994267 inches=[186282.0245*(10^10)*5280/299792458]^(1/8)

Here one has inches, feet, miles,metric,and Egyptian Royal Cubit in one equation.

J.Iuliano

"The notion that physical, which is to say phenomenal, considerations have a share in dictation of absolutes, contrary as it may seem to our custom of honoring theoretical criteria, suggests a higher authority than either, a very exciting idea."

Arthur M. Young from Thoughts on a Science of Life

Mr. Iuliano's stunning formula appeared as I was reading Chapt. 4 of Barron's on-line book. While it is particularly unfair to the overall thesis to pull snatches of text out of context, I do so merely to illuminate a point. The following is a long quote from Chapt.4:

Although Penrose is perfectly well aware that number. or mathematical Platonism, is "a product of the intellect alone", he fails to draw the obvious conclusion from his insight; if "dead" number does not exist in the universe per se, then this fact by itself means that it will be impossible to arrive at a viable GUT in terms of a mathematical physicists model!

To get to the point, when we question Einsteins theory of general relativity (which gives the same predictions as Newtons theory of gravitation provided the velocities involved are small compared with that of light, and the gravitational fields are not excessively strong) -- as Einstein himself had once questioned the Absolute Space and Time of Newton -- we begin to wonder why space-time should be treated as comprising three dimensions of space -- yet only one of time. There simply seems to be a curious psychological inconsistency in speaking of only a single time dimension. For is not time, too, in a sense, multidimensional? As space comprises height, breadth, depth, does not time possess dimensionality in relation to past, present, and future?

If space-time -- in which all the fields and particles in the cosmos reside has, according to the theory of relativity, a variable structure that itself directly describes gravity (with the effect that the 'arena' of space-time joins in the very action taking place within itself!) then the realisation that there is more than one time dimension invites new psycho-logical ways of considering the psycho-physical categories of space and time, 'good' and 'bad'. [See Note below for an interpretation of the expression 'good' in terms of the ambiguity between rotation/oscillation (as encountered in thermodynamics).]

SACRED GEOMETRY.

New Discoveries.

Linking The Great Pyramid to the Human Form.

Copyright 1997 - 2000 CHARLES R. HENRY

Mail to Charles Henry from Jerry Iuliano

Mathematics seeks to eliminate any living component from the objects it examines. But to do this is to restrict the psychesoma's -- and indeed the universe's --own experience of "space" to that of dead geometry. Because every aspect of geometry is inseparable from the notion of dimensionality, we now need to define precisely what a 'dimension' means.

If number is relational to consciousness in an unsuspected manner that is 'natural' versus the split-off abstraction characterized as 'dead,' then we indeed have a new paradigm. Since Young too sees the aspect of quality that arises from the three-dimensionality of time, I forward the following article that also flows or blends with the formula.

http://www.arthuryoung.com/discovering.HTML

Regards, Robert Friend

Message: 2

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 10:53:34 EST

From: TomBuoyed@aol.com

Subject: fine structure constant

Jerry,

Many thanks for your wonderful research into the mathematical basis of modern physics and ancient wisdom. I am intrigued by your statement that the fine structure constant is the "carrier of the collective unconscious." This conclusion is in direct agreement with the cosmology of Arthur M. Young, in which he sees the fine structure constant as the transition from the first level of the photon, outside of space and time, with no substance and no form, to the second level of nuclear particles which are still not in space, but do enter the stream of time. Thus they have substance, but still no form, and therefore cannot yet be objectified.

(Level 3 is that of Atoms which are in space but not in time, with form but not substance, and therefore atoms are conceptual entities (just as the architect's drawing of a house is a concept of the house itself). Finally Level 4 is that of Molecules, which combine substance and form and are in space and time. )

Each of these 4 levels expresses a different ontological category, going from:

(1) SPIRIT to (2) SOUL to (3) MIND to (4) BODY.

Thus the fine structure constant is the transition from the level of the spirit to the level of the soul. The soul exists in time but not in space, whereas the spirit is neither in space nor in time.

If, as you say, the fsc is the "carrier of the collective unconscious," then that indicates the soul-like nature of the unconscious as it "precipitates" into time from out of the spirit. I would appreciate any more insights you may have in this area, especially concerning the critical distinction between soul and spirit.

Tom Mellett

Dept. of Physics

Vanderbilt University

Nashville, TN

Message: 3

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 23:00:51 EST

From: peace2go@aol.com

Subject: Re: fine structure constant

In a message dated 3/20/01 12:22:29 PM Eastern Standard Time,

TomBuoyed@aol.com writes:

Thus the fine structure constant is the transition from the level of the spirit to the level of the soul. The soul exists in time but not in space, whereas the spirit is neither in space nor in time.

If, as you say, the fsc is the "carrier of the collective unconscious," then that indicates the soul-like nature of the unconscious as it "precipitates" into time from out of the spirit. I would appreciate any more insights you may have in this area, especially concerning the critical distinction between soul and spirit.

For the record, my last quote from Barron's book was from Chap. 3, here is a relevant quote from Chap. 4:

Furthermore, in addition to looking at number merely in a 'psycho' fashion (i.e. in a way that just gives ratio/measure and which leads only to what Bohm calls 'transformations'), it is interesting to look at it psychophysically. Too -- since according to the present model such an activation of number creates what Bohm refers to as a 'metamorphosis', e.g. from caterpillar to butterfly. Thus, if we think of the third-dimension as the domain of psychophysical number or 'memes' -- Richard Dawkins term for "units of information" that propagate like viruses, as in the case of political or religious ideologies (or alternatively as a template that facilitates the transition from caterpillar to butterfly!) -- we suddenly begin to realise the relationship between linear "Euclidean" transformations and the nonlinear metamorphosis that can occur in the switch from the third-to the fourth-dimension.ÊOr put differently, as a consequence of nonlinearity (and quantum nonlocality) small changes (of number or memes) in the third-dimension can lead to evolution and so metaphorphosis, to the fourth-dimension (although this could strictly only be seen in conjunction with the "observer" mode of the seventh-dimension as well as the fact that in the ascent from the third- to fourth-dimension there also occurs a switch in handedness from, say, left to right -- see below). [end quote]

Re-reading the above it just struck me that "carrier of the collective unconscious" and the 'memes as virus' analogy may have some relation.

Also, it is requisite for understanding Barrow's thesis that Time is "precipitated" by guilt. I'm early into the book so I'll hold off comment other than to say that I look forward to the strategy for expiation.

Which leads into a suggestively religious area where it's also refreshing to see Tom mention the "critical distinction between soul and spirit," something little noted in contemporary thought. (must be his Steiner background.~) For a contemporary gloss on this critical subject, one that features the logic of RH/LH lateralization see:

http://www.geocities.com/~divisiontheory

Also, the EarthMatrix site may be familiar to most, http://www.earthmatrix.com/ as it has grown rapidly in the past year as the number correlations begin to pile up. I wrote to Mr. Johnson a few months back regarding the work of Leahy but he didn't mention him in his reply. There is certainly a different vibe in their approach even though the subject is similar. If one reads the article Presentation, the difference between the two is even more striking. Unlike Leahy (and Burrow?), Johnson is not willing to proclaim the Absolute because for him the m-value of quantum physics is still humbling. I say that with all due respect for the work of Prof. Leahy and Mr. Burrow, before who's revelations I stand humbled.

Lifting the cloud of modesty, let us remember that the subject of psychoanalysis is the ego function and it can get quite messy. The ontology of dimensions produces guilt? or produced by guilt? The first day of Creation in the Bible has God in the 'good/bad' business as observer:Ê"And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." [Gen. 1:4]

Racing way ahead of myself, I have to mention that if aesthetics is a valid key to quality, then the logic of A Course in Miracles does a good a job of explaining the ego function within the universe in psychoanalytical terms. It is at its best, though, in describing the strategies of denial that the ego goes through to protect its creation: time & space.

http://www.facim.org/acim/lh001101.htm

This is, of course, the exact "fall-back" position that Leahy expressly claims to blast through with the new "thinking now occurring for the first time."ÊThe two masterpieces lead to a classic fork in the road.Ê And as our new President said recently in quoting a famous American Yogi:ÊWhen you come to a fork in the road -- take it.

Best Regards,

Robert Friend

Thanks for the new information. I know I am on the right track now because I have never heard of the Ma'at, Stechini's work nor Tompkins. (Jungian collective unconscious or sychronicity). The formula I derived comes from pure physical constants with 10 th order accuracy. So this is what I would call as proof of the "collective unconscious" effect noted by Jung and others. There is order of human mind and the physical constants that makes up the matter that makes the mind that imagines the form that rules the matter that creates the universe as a pure mathematical net of modular forms which obey very restrictive laws (edgeness) and these laws can be broken only through the complex form (i) imaginary. This means complex mathematics is useless as a tool to express the Euclidian form of reality. The Egyptians knew this. All of the Euclidian particles of Nature can be derived from normal mathematics that is derived from the Cheops pyramid constructs. We're talking, that I can prove that the EXACT values (NIST) of the Euclidian particles: Proton,Neutron and Electron and the mysterious constant that governs their actions, fine-structure constant (137.035999935), are derived in mathematical detail by using only 2 number constants, the height and base leg of the Cheops pyramid at Giza. This is as simple as it gets. 1+1=2. The Cheops pyramid is the equivalent to the monolith from Arthur C. Clarke's 2001 a Space Oddessy.

J.Iuliano

The following formula shows the orbits of the Pi variables that influence the action of the electron (.510998902 Mev...NIST 1998) on the shells of the proton mass (938.271998 Mev...NIST 1998):

(938.271998*10)^[((.510998902^(-1/Pi))/Pi]= Cos 137.0360015...in radians

The shells are guarded by the gate-keeper only allowing possesion of a fine-structure key (angle) to gain entry. 137.035999935 is entry key, the inverse of fine-structure. The square of this inverse (distance) is the collective unconscious link to spiritual ...mind. This is the metric 37 degee Celsius heat of sentient mind-body, the amplitude of a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon, or electron shell changing key. The action allowed by fine-structure on the charged +1 , base weight 938.271998 is only through the total weight of the electron to the power of negative inverse Pi. This total weight .510998902^(-1/Pi) showing -1/Pi units of freedom is then divided by the ratio of least time Circumference divided by Diameter or Pi. This energy matter form involving Pi actions on the electron can be reduced to a harmonic derivitive that is entwined in the human mind. For example the Mayans of Meso-america and the Druids of Stonehenge England both used the same harmonic (288) in representations of their respective calendars.(Pictun=288=Mayan); (double light=288=Druid):

288^(2/Pi)=(10^2)*Cos 137.036000986

or putting into 1/Pi for exponent:

82944^(1/Pi)=(10^2)*Cos 137.036000986

The pure form can be substituted to the equivalency:

1~.510998902 Mev^(-1/Pi)=unity

82944=10 multiples of proton energy=9382.71998 Mev

Using proton as energy standard then it can be shown::

(938.271998*10)^[((.5109994693^(-1/Pi))/Pi]= 82944^(1/Pi)

factoring out Pi:

(938.271998*10)^(.510999493^(-1/Pi))= 82944= 288^2

So one could say, the proton-electron forms are anagalous to the ancient wisdom form. What makes the 82944 harmonic equal to 10 proton energies? It is the reduction of the actual action on the electron in physical energy terms to one of spiritual reduction to restrictive mathematical symbolism that shows the germ of collective unconscious . This is the uniting of spirit and matter. Even though unity does NOT actualy equal the electon form (1.....510998902^(-1Pi)) nor does 82944 actualy equal the 10 proton energies (82944...938.271998) these inequalities disappear when structured in the action number that regulates the allowances used in chemical shell changes, this number being the fine-structure constant 137.036

MATTER.......ENERGY

(938.271998*10)^[(.5109994693^(-1/Pi))/Pi]= (10^2)*Cos 137.036000986

SPIRITUAL.........MIND

82944^(1/Pi)=(10^2)*Cos 137.036000986

An example of collective unconscious used in this form is the unique linkage that occurs between the Egyptian measurement system standard , the Egyptian Royal Cubit(20.63 inches) and the English foot; link being the fine-structure constant:

Letting 11.70623765=137.035999935^(1/2)...Kinoshita(1998)

Letting .37=Beta=exponent from second-order phase transitions

as in the cosine use of fine-structure forms, the ERC(20.63)-English foot is ruled by cosine also::

((11.70623765*.37)^(1/2))/-10=Cos 20.63000262

This form of fine-structure (11.70623765...the inverse square root) is the spiritual force that connects man's constructed (pyramids,Stonehenge etc) or mans created Religions,art,etc.) collective unconscious mathematical forms and ancient calendar references. For example; the Cheops pyramid ratio: 486.2560047 ft/763.81 ft an a-prori agreed upon dimensional construct that was built to this exact ratio is defined by the factor of the Egyptian Royal Cubit in inches through the fine-structure value:

log(11.70623765*.37)=486.2560047/763.81

Another example is the trance of John , mystical author of Revelations. In the original document (Charles Beatty papyrus) 144 and 666 are underlined in the left hand margin of that particular document. This mystery has been pondered for 1800 years, What do they mean? I discovered a connection to the Cheops pyramid constructs and to John's trance numbers 144 and 666, again as in the ERC through the fine-structure constant:

log[[(10^(143.9999879/37))/666]*.37]=486.2560047/763.81

where:

(10^(143.9999879/37))/666=11.70623765=137.03599935^(1/2)

The Mayan interpretation of this form is: baktun days (144000) divided by Beta(.37). The Hebrew (Abraham number...82944) comes as the link to the Mayan form. Mayan...Calbatun(576)) divided by Hebrew....Abraham(82944):

[(10^((82944/576.00004828)/37)]/666=11.70623765

The Sumerian..(36 circle,Goddess Inanna..252); Christian/Egyptian...666; Hebrew..Abraham(82944); Mayan..(Sacred Alautun..2304);Mayan...(tun..36) connection:

(10^(2303.999807*36/666/32))/666= 11.70623765

Mayan...Kinchiltun(1152); Sumerian..Inanna(252); Christian/Egypt(666)

[10^((1151.999988)-(252*4))/37)]/666=11.70623765

As a corrolary one of two Hindu forms of Kali-Yuga (108) can be shown with a connection to Sumerian(252)::

[10^((251.9999879-108)/37)]/666=11.70623765

The second Hindu form eliminates the Christian/Egyptian(666) value::

((37/1.080008174)^(1/2))*2=11.70623765

Not to be left out of the picture is the Islamic value for total chapters in the Koran(57*2=114) and the Orphic egg or Kundalini serpent windings of 3.5 revolutions::

(3.5^(1/4))*56.99996048]/6.66=11.70623765

All of these cycle numbers are derived from the series: 9*2*n

9*2*n=Religionic link

9=Theosophic Knossis

18=master harmonic

36= Plato's number of the World-Soul; Sumerian circle

72= Gematric number, Biblical Mayan (Katun..7200)

144= Druid (light);Christian (12 squared); Mayan (Baktun)

288= Druid (double light); R. Tomes (harmonics); Leahy (universal consciousness); Mayan (Pictun)

576= Gematric(Biblical); Leahy (triple logic cube);Mayan (Calbatun)

1152=Gematric (Biblical);;Mayan(Kinchiltun)

2304=Mayan (Alautun)

82944/36=2304=Hebrew(82944);Mayan(2304);Sumerian(36)

Sumerian and Hindu are modular to the Mayan/Druid forms:

Druid(288)-Sumerian(36)=Sumerian/Inanna(252)

Sumerian/Inanna(252)-Hindu/Kali-Yuga(108)=Christian/Druid(144)

An example of modern collective unconscious effects that amplify the above phenomena is the case of Prof. Leahy (Philosophy/Theology) Loyola Univ....D.G. Leahy is a philosopher of intense thoughtfullness and penetrating insight into the phenomena of ancient wisdom and modern applications. He leads off his website with a two chapter interpretation of his famous "dream" number (2808) a seemingly generic number with no extraordinary abilities. Leahy knew in his unconsciousness that this number WAS extraordinary and proceeded to prove it by its association to the master harmonic number from his studies of the triple logic cube (82944) and it's association to fine-structure. I was also able to corraborate this numbers(2808) extraordinaryness through a set of formulas that use the same frame work as the collective unconscious used in the linking of Religionic expressions:

[10^((2807.999988/37)-(144/2))]/666=11.70623765

I proved 2808's connection to the 82944 master harmonic through the cosine form, similar to the proton-electron connection::

((82944^2)/2808)/(10^2)/666=Cos 137.0360017

Such that::

(938.271998*10)^[((.510998902^(-1/Pi))/Pi)]= Cos 137.0360015

Prof. Leahy's "dream" number is similar to John's, author of Revelation, writings whose trance numbers:

144.....144000 thousand

70.......10 crowns * 7 horns

666..... beast

1260....days of flight, 3.5 years,

9505.... an hour + a day+ a month + a year (in hours)

are all modularly equal when divided by 37::

144/37=3.891891891....

70/37=1.8918918912...

1260/666=1.891891891...

2808/37=75.891891891...Leahy dream number

The Hindu form for fine-structure is also modulated by 37::

(34.259^(1/2))*2=11.70623765

and::

(34.259/.00037=92591.891891891...

J. Iuliano

... In a message to the Quantum-Mind list of 24th March, Stuart Hameroff once again replies to a critic, J. Sarfatti, who draws attention to the apparently unbridgeable discrepancy between the very weak gravitational force as compared with (electron) energy -- the point being that unless these two forces can be shown to directly correlate, then the case for Orchestrated Collapse of the wave function within microtubules (as constituting the "neural correlate of consciousness") cannot be sustained as a viable solution to the 'hard problem'.

Hameroff then relates the following exchange between himself and mathematical physicist, Jack Sarfatti:

"[Jack]

2. Gravity is simply too damn weak. Penrose [i.e. Hameroff's collaborator in the Orch OR model] has lost his marbles. How can a distance of 10^33 cm influence chemical processes in the brain at 10^-7 cm? That is a difference of 26 powers of 10!"

At this point, Hameroff, after giving his and Penrose own calculations for the forces involved, suddenly concludes thus:

"I gave a talk on this at Starlab in Brussels not too long ago, and was asked this same question by some Russian mathematicians, and I gave the same answer. They objected: "But the energy is instantaneous, not over a Planck time". I replied: "Even better!". Dick Bierman then said, jokingly, "Then the power is infinite!"...............

From the book the " The God Particle" by Richard Lederman, page 93......

" Compared to the electrical force that holds matter together and gives its rigidity, the gravitational force is extremely weak. How weak? I do the following experiment in a physics class I teach. I take a length of wood, say a one foot long piece of two by four.......... Using the equation for the law of gravity, we can calculate the difference between the two gravitational forces. It turns out that the earths gravity on bot wins out by being more than one billion times stronger than top's gravity on bot. Conclusion; the electrical force of top on bot before the saw cut was at least one billion times stronger than the gravitational force of top on bot. That's the best we can do in a lecture hall. The actual number is (10^41) or a one followed by forty-one zeros!! Let's write that out:

100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

The number (10^41) can't be appreciated, no way, but perhaps this will help. Consider an electron and a positron one hundreth of an inch apart. Calculate their gravitational attraction. Now calculate how far apart they would have to be to reduce their electrical force to the value of the gravitational attraction. The answer is some thousand trillion miles(fifty light years). This assumes that the electric force decreases as the square of the distance--just like the gravitational force...... (end quote)

This "unbridgeable discrepancy" can be bridged through the master harmonic of modulation (37) and the fine-structure constant, the amplitude of an electron to emit or absorb a photon.

Letting 1.000027792*(10^41) equal the differences in strength between electrical and gravitational forces, then it can be shown:

[1.000027792*(10^41)]^-(1/37)=.077963542744

The .077963542744 form is the key to the "collective unconscious" number 144/37 as follows:

.077963542744*(10^5)=7796.3542744

The log of this form = (log 7796.35427744)*37=143.9999879

Fine-structure can be shown as:

(10^(143.9999879/37))/666=11.70623765=137.0359994^(1/2).........where 137.0359994 is the inverse of fine-structure.

This shows a "direct correlation" between the strength of the the gravitational force to the electrical force(fine-structure) .....10^41 through the "collective unconscious" ratio 3.891891891 (this is the "neural correlate of consciousness")... the form that links all of the ancient and modern religions of the world and the giant earth structures Teotihuacan pyramids, Cheops and Stonehenge.

J.Iuliano

Using this data for Cheops the fine-structure constant is derived just the same as the Churchward data 1910:

http://users.net2000.com.au/~fmetrol/petrie/c6a.html#21

Petrie data:

Ht of Cheops=5776+-7.0 inches

Base leg Cheops=9068.8+-.5 inches

Using 9068.8 inches as base leg and 5773.370937 inches as ht then it can be shown:

(10^(5773.370937/9068.8))/.37=11.70623765=137.035999935^(1/2)(Kinoshita's number

Petries data is no difference than Churchwards data:

J.Iuliano

Sir:

Here are the values of Dirac's number:

" The theory as a whole does not have the compelling elegance or consistency of the earlier SUPERB theories but it qualifies by virtue of its truly phenomenal accuracy. A particularly noteworthy implication is the value of the magnetic moment of an electron. ... The value 1.00115965246 (in appropriate units- with an allowance for error of about 20 in the last two digits ) is what is calculated from QED for this magnetic moment , whereas the most recent experimental value is 1.001159652193 ( with a possible error of about 10 in the last two digits). As Feynman has pointed out , this kind of accuracy could determine the distance between New York and Los Angeles to within the width of a human hair !)" [Ref.5, Roger Penrose, the Emperor's New Mind; page 152,153]

The new value 1.001159652193 for Dirac's number is corroborated by the folowing formula:

666*144/37/3=864

Note that 666*144/37=2592= Platonic cycle number

The trick is the homothetic correction of the 864 form by the magic ratio 144/37:

[(10^(144/37))/(10^7)]+864=864.000779636

10^7 = 4*Pi*E*(c^2)

where E=Electric constant=8.8541878*(10^-12)1.

c= metric speed of light=299792458 m/s

Pi=3.141592654

Subtracting unity as the divisor from uncorrected form: 864-1=863

Then used in this formula:

864.000779636/863=1.00115965195 (Dirac's number =1.001159652193) a difference of 1 part in 1 billion

J.Iuliano

**99.1.6 TEOTIHUACAN AND EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS**

Sir:

The connection of the Cheops pyramid to the Teotihuacan, Pyramid of the Sun is deep to the true meaning of the "collective unconscious". Most information concerning geometric similarities between the two pyramid structures is one of 4/Pi as the connection. However this is false. The true meaning of the connection between the two pyramidal forms is one of fine-structure constant, (e^2)/2/E/h/c=137.035999935^-5 as follows:

EGYPTIAN(Cheops pyramid)

Height = 486.2560047 ft Base leg = 763.81 ft

The derivation of these geometric measurements as follows:

The following excerpt is reprinted from "Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man" by Albert Churchward, a student of the European Egyptologist Gerald Massey. According to John Henrik Clarke, in his introduction to the volume, "(Massey)" was an agnostic whose intention was to prove that the basis of European culture was created outside of Europe by people that some Europeans later characterized as savages without a history or culture. His search led him to Egypt where he found proof that Western culture was, in fact, African in origin, the larger portion of it coming from the Nile Valley. . ."

About the Pyramid of Giza, built by ancient Africans, Churchward writes:

The Great Pyramid, when understood, far surpasses and ellipses King Solomon's Temple as a building, or any other in the world. . .The base is a true square, and perfectly oriented, set due N.E.S.W., parallel with the equatorial line, absolutely no variation of points; its base on huge rock and that rock perfectly and truly hewn and levelled (sic) to the earth's curvature of 8 inches to the mile, the importance of which is evident-keeping it from convulsive damages as time goes on. The height of the pyramid is 486.256 feet, and each side is 763.81 feet. The height thus measures, with the radius of a circle whose circumference equals the four sides. . .showing that the circle could be squared by these ancient architects which has not been improved on since. Its base side length is 365.242 sacred cubits, showing the number of days and fractional part of a day in a year. . .

Here, in the Great Pyramid, is the one material centre (sic) which gives the standard for those practical things-weights, measures, etc., and these were carried from land to lands, with .......

The EGYPTIAN Cheops pyramid formula as follows:

(10^(486.2560047/763.81))/.37=11.70623765=137.035999935^(1/2)

Concerning the Teotihuacan formula the geometric measurements are as follows:

TEOTIHUACAN(Pyramid of the Sun)

64.46 meters = height

225 meters = base leg

Measurements used are derived from the following article:

From the Encyclopedia Americana 1961 edition ,volumne 18, M to Mexico, page 796.....Due both to their location and dimensions, the most important of the buildings mentioned are the Pyramid of the Sun, the Pyramid of the Moon, and the Temple of Quetzalcoatal. The typical plan of these buildings erected for religious purposes consists of a base formed by the superimposed terraces which supported a small temple. None of the small temples have been preserved. The entire complex is surrounded by a platform on three of four sides. The Pyramid of the Sun, measures 64.46 meters high, with a square base 225 meters on each side, wholly dominates its surrounding platform......

The Teotihuacan Pyramid of the Sun formula as follows:

(10^(64.46*20/225.0080987/9))/.37=11.70623765=137.035999935^(1/2)

Thus both formulas can be shown side by side as:

(10^(486.2560047/763.81))/.37=(10^(64.46*20/225.0080987/9))/.37

The key to the connection is one of height ratios to base leg ratios. This ratio is RATIONAL which infers integers as described by the ratio 20/9. That is to make the numbers equivalent through the fine-structure constant one must have 20 heights (20*64.46) of Teotihuacan pyramid to one height of Cheops pyramid divided by 9 base legs of Teotihuacan pyramid to one base leg of Cheops pyramid. 20 is the base for the Mayan number system while 9 is represented by the radian 180/Pi.

It can be shown that the height in meters (64.46*20) divided by the base leg 225.0080987 equals the radian function (17.99997993/Pi=64.46*20/225.0080987

Take the radian form and divide by the 10th part of 90 degrees :

10*17.99997993/Pi/90=486.2560047/763.81

This shows the primitive root of the geometric connection between the two pyramidal forms: EGYPTIAN=TEOTIHUACAN

64.46*200/225.0080987/90=486.2560047/763.81

There is a second Teotihuacan formula that links directly to the many other ancient religions of the world. This link is through the magic ratio of the collective unconscious 144/37. Upon further study the heights of the Pyramid of the Sun can be measured to the top eave of the temple structure that sits on top of the pyramid. Description as follows:

From the book by Readers Digest," The World's Last Mysteries" page 114......." The city was constructed to a vast geometrical pattern on a grid plan based on two huge avenues which crossed each other at right-angles. The main road was the so-called Avenue of the Dead, running north- south for more than a mile...To the east of the Avenue of the Dead is the Pyramid of the Sun. It has been calculated that the pyramid, which was apparently completed in the 1 st century AD, took at least 50 years to build, with a work force of thousands. About a million cu. yds. of material were used. Faced with the local red volcanic rock, it soars 216 ft above ground and is about 720 ft by 760 ft at its base. The belief that the pyramid was built to represent the center of the universe is associated with its similarity to a number-sign sacred to the ancient Indians-the quincunx. This consisted of four points set at the corners of a square rectangle, with the fifth point as the center......

Using these Temple measurements one can demonstrate the following:

[10^[((215.999999759/740)*1000)-288]]/666=11.70623765

(760+720)/2=740

Which is directly related to the 82944 forms:

[(10^(143.9999879/37))/666]=11.70623765....CHRISTIAN(144 and 666)

[(10^(82943.99305/32/666))=11.70623765....HEBREW(82944 Abraham number)

[(37/1.080008174)^(1/2)]*2=11.70623765.... HINDU (Kali-Yuga 108)

(10^((251.9999879-108)/37))/666=11.70623765... SUMER (Inanna 252)

etc.

The fine-structure constant is the carrier force of the "collective unconscious".

J.Iuliano

**EGYPTIAN ROYAL CUBIT**

This should end any doubt as to the origin of the conversion of metric to feet:

THE ROYAL CUBIT(1550 BC)

http://www.sover.net/~rc/deep_secrets/cubit/

VALUE OF THE CUBIT AND DIGIT

http://www.users.net2000.com.au/~fmetrol/petrie/c20.html

VALUE OF SIR ISAAC NEWTON (20.63 IN)

http://www.geoman.com/jim/pyramid.html

All of the above webpages gives the Egyptian Royal Cubit as 20.63 inches.

The conversion formula uses the metric speed of light as the conversion factor:

metric speed of light (NIST (1998) value=299792458 meter/s)

English mile=5280 ft

English ft speed of light=186282.0245 miles/s

Formula as follows:

(ERC) 20.62994267 inches=[186282.0245*(10^10)*5280/299792458]^(1/8)

Here one has inches, feet, miles,metric,and Egyptian Royal Cubit in one equation.

J.Iuliano

**99.1.7 EGYPTIAN ROYAL CUBIT, 37 AND FINE-STRUCTURE**

The following excerpt is reprinted from "Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man" by Albert Churchward, a student of the European Egyptologist Gerald Massey. According to John Henrik Clarke, in his introduction to the volume, "(Massey)" was an agnostic whose intention was to prove that the basis of European culture was created outside of Europe by people that some Europeans later characterized as savages without a history or culture. His search led him to Egypt where he found proof that Western culture was, in fact, African in origin, the larger portion of it coming from the Nile Valley. . ."

About the Pyramid of Giza, built by ancient Africans, Churchward writes: The Great Pyramid, when understood, far surpasses and ellipses King Solomon's Temple as a building, or any other in the world. . .

The base is a true square, and perfectly oriented, set due N.E.S.W., parallel with the equatorial line, absolutely no variation of points; its base on huge rock and that rock perfectly and truly hewn and levelled (sic) to the earth's curvature of 8 inches to the mile, the importance of which is evident-keeping it from convulsive damages as time goes on. The height of the pyramid is 486.256 feet, and each side is 763.81 feet. The height thus measures, with the radius of a circle whose circumference equals the four sides. . .showing that the circle could be squared by these ancient architects which has not been improved on since. Its base side length is 365.242 sacred cubits, showing the number of days and fractional part of a day in a year. . .

Here, in the Great Pyramid, is the one material centre (sic) which gives the standard for those practical....

http://www.charm.net/~ces/trade/tback.html

Measurements used are Êderived from the following article:

From the Encyclopedia Americana 1961 edition ,volumne 18, M to Mexico ,page 796.....Due both to their location and dimensions, the most important of the buildings mentioned are the Pyramid of the Sun, the Pyramid of the Moon, and the Temple of Quetzalcoatal. The typical plan of these buildings erected for religious purposes consists of a base formed by the superimposed terraces which supported a small temple. None of the small temples have been preserved. The entire complex is surrounded by a platform on three of four sides. The Pyramid of the Sun, Êmeasures 64.46 meters high, with a square base 225 meters on each side, wholly dominates its surrounding platform.....

FINE_STRUCTURE CONSTANT

Ithaca, N.Y.---Nearly fifty years ago, physicists determined the value of one of the fundamental fixed values of physics, the fine-structure constant, using quantum electrodynamics theory. Or did they? Through an interplay of laboratory experiment and theoretical work, physicists have improved on the value of the fine-structure constant seeking ever-increasing accuracy. According to Cornell physicist Toichiro Kinoshita, there is still room for further improvement. Quantum electrodynamics is the basic theory of physics that explains how electrons interact through the electromagnetic force, which is transferred by photons. Electrons absorb and emit photons during their interactions. The probability that this will occur is expressed by the value of the fine-structure constant.

"This constant plays an important role in the theoretical structure of physics and is also important to metrology, the science of weights and measures," Kinoshita explains. His method of measuring this constant is based on the study of a subtle change of the magnetic moment of the electron due to its interaction with photons (the electron anomaly). Updates to the calculation of the fine-structure constant have moved to higher and higher order as experimental techniques in the lab and the speed of the computer have improved. When experimentalists push forward in the accuracy of their measurement systems, theoretical physicists follow in hot pursuit trying to outperform the experimentalists relying only on the first principles of physics. Kinoshita uses the numerical integration method for this purpose. His computational efforts often set the stage for analytic solutions. When an analytic solution (the ultimate goal of the effort) has been confirmed, the challenge moves on to a finer scale. Kinoshita's effort has resulted in the most accurate numerical estimates of the value of the fine-structure constant to date. Using the IBM RS/6000 Scalable POWERparallel Systems (SP) supercomputer at the Cornell Theory Center (CTC), he has achieved a numerical solution for the fourth-order term of the electron anomaly with great statistical confidence. The first-order term in the equation used to describe the electron anomaly is proportional to the fine-structure constant. The original calculation of this term was done by hand in 1947. "A physics graduate student needs about 30 minutes for the calculation," says Kinoshita. "The solution fits on one page of an exam notebook." Moving up in accuracy entailed solving the second-order term (proportional to the square of the fine-structure constant) and adding it to the original value. This required a few years of hard work using paper and pencil. The exact solution was announced in 1957. Kinoshita contributed a numerical solution for the third-order term (proportional to the cube of the fine-structure constant), reporting a crude initial solution in 1972, and finally a highly accurate value in 1995. The analytical solution for this term was determined the next year by a team of Italian physicists. Kinoshita already had more than fifteen years invested at the next level of accuracy. His first crude solution for the fourth-order term was proposed in 1981. "Its precision has improved steadily with the development of more and more powerful computers," he says. Based on Kinoshita's electron anomaly work, the fine-structure constant now has a precision of eight digits. Its value is 1/137.035 999 93. Numerical integration requires that an enormous number of integrals be calculated to achieve a final answer. "Computation is an essential tool at this fundamental level of physics," comments CTC director Malvin H. Kalos, "allowing researchers such as Kinoshita to press against the very fabric of our understanding looking for gaps." Moving a decimal point farther in the accuracy of the known value of the fine-structure constant required several hundred times more work than the numerical integrations for the third-order term. Kinoshita uses 32 to 64 nodes of the SP to run parallel calculations for as much as a hundred hours per run. Then he painstakingly tests the results through further calculations requiring an order of magnitude more computing time. Updates to the estimates of the fine-structure constant are published every ten years in the Adjustment of the Fundamental Constants of Physics. The next edition is due in 1996. Because of its high statistical confidence, Kinoshita's result stands out from the other values vying for acceptance as the next standard. But pushing a decimal point in accuracy is not Kinoshita's only goal; he is looking for places where theory breaks down. So far, it hasn't; although the answers do get more subtle and complex. "I am digging at the roots of physics to see whether there is some treasure there," says Kinoshita with a grin....

http://www.tc.cornell.edu/er/media/1996/kinoshita.release.html

EGYPTIANS AND THE NUMBER 37

A triple six, 666, was the magic number of Triple Aphrodite (or Ishtar). Here's the text from an old essay on 108. The drift is that it represents aform of creative energy identical to that which created the 4-fold cosmos.

What is the significance of the number 108 or 1080? Why is it associated with the moon and both Shiva and Buddha? What is the nature of the force associated with it? A look at the cultural context these numbers appear in gives hints as to what it's about. English antiquarian, John Michell is the author of, City of Revelation, asourcebook on the numerological implications of the City of St. John described in the book of Revelations. As part of his analysis, he asserts that the numbers 108 and 1080 are lunar numbers associated with the pentagon and he contrasts them with the infamous solar number 666, and the hexagon. He points out that the angle of two adjacent sides of a pentagon equal 108 degrees. Furthermore he states that 108 is associated with the waters of the earth. He also points out that the Rigveda has 10800 stanzas of 40 syllables each, that the Hindu fire altar has 10800 bricks and that the Buddhist rosary has 108 beads. In his book Dimensions of Paradise he offers up some more expanded commentary on the symbolism of the number 1080 which is well worth reading--I won't cover his ground--just read it--the part on Durer and Melancholia is very good. The question remains: Why these numbers?

The answer begins to take shape in a Sumerian myth. Enki is the god of the waters on which all creation floats. All creative power resides with him. He is known as The Great Shaman. Enki is moved one day by the sensual beauty of his grand-daughter, Inanna, who is radiant knowing she is the possessor of a magnificent vulva (that's what it says). In an act of drunken generosity, Enki gives her the gift of many "me". These are defined as "the Arts of Civilization". Before Enki can change his mind, this daughter of the goddess, Nanna, and the moon-god, Ningal, makes off with them in a crescent-moon shaped boat. On arriving in port city of mortals, she then gives these "me" to humanity. In the story the number of Enki's "me" are counted. There are (Goddess Inanna ) 252 in all. But when the ship is unloaded extra "me" are found. These are understood to be Inanna's own "me". Their number is not given. But if there were 108, this would produce the number 360, an essential number in the ordering of time and space -- certainly a key to the establishing the Sumerian vision of order in the universe. We still use 360 degrees today in measuring and mapping the earth and the heavens.

In this story the female sexual vitality of Inanna, born of the moon, is identified with 108 and results in benefit to humanity. Its the raising of this energy up the spine to the head as yogi's do in kundalini yoga. Like their early counterparts, both Shiva and Buddha were wandering ascetics who, and by their yoga discipline, made themselves the repositories of this creative sexual energy. Significantly, later images of Shiva replace the ascetic's horns with a crescent moon twined in his hair. I'm presently lacking the iconography I'd like to have linking Buddha to lunar symbols, but the buddhist holidays are set by the lunar rather than the solar calendar. Regarding the 108 rosary beads, they are made of seeds called bodhi-tse, an allusion to the bodhi tree under whose branches Buddha received enlightenment. "Popular belief is that saying mantras with the bodhi-tse increases the mantra's benefit like casting seeds on the ground". Once again 108 is associated with increase and benefit. With the magical substance Soma which is stored in the moon. It is the source of immortality for the gods who drink it each time the moon is full. Thus it is this creative lunar force which sustains the gods is embodied in Shiva.

In the Christian tradition 108 would be linked to the concept of the Holy Ghost. In the Bible it appears that the holy ghost directly engendered Jesus. It impregnated Mary thus demonstrating the fertilizing power we have already encountered in Hindu myth. The birth of Jesus from Mary who is clearly associated with the moon in some of her iconography recreates an already established pattern. Jesus goes on to a career as an ascetic who reveals his divine powers thru life-giving miracles similar to those ascribed to Shiva, such as the multiplication of the fishes and loaves, raising Lazarus from the dead, etc.. The 5 gifts of the pentecost (prophecy, speaking in tongues, etc) which are the cornerstone of the Pentecostal faith are among phenomena related to possession by the energy 108 symbolizes. As emblematic of the creative force, 108 takes its place in the imagery of the center and at the source of creation. Mircia Eliade's books, The Sacred and the Profane, and, The Eternal Return, have a lot to say about the role of the center in cosmology . It was mentioned above that 108 is associated with the pentagon.......

108 figures prominently here. Its connection to the seed numbers for the lengths of the Indian cosmic ages, the yugas, and to some of the numbers which recur throughout Eurasian myth cycles can be examined below. They describe a 4-fold pattern of expansion out from the center to the 4 directions and up and down the vertical axis also by a factor of 4:108x4x1=432108x4x2=864108x4x3=1296108x4x4=1728 The structure of the Rigveda mentioned at the beginning--10800 stanzas of40 syllables, shows 108 and 4 in association with one another in a sacred context. It suggests that the text is symbolically making itself part of the forces of creation in the same way that the Christian Bible as the sacred word of God is also an extension of Logos--the 1st principle of creation substance but it has no single shape. It takes on the form of as many cultural containers as there are cultures who recognize its presence. Apparently it can be directed as well. For example, the earth energy called "Chi" by fung shui practitioners, is also a manifestation of this same energy. Fung shui maintains that while Chi is always present, its flow in some natural settings is more beneficial than in others.

MEANING OF BETA (.37)

In order to get a unified picture of these two transitions, physicists make up a common language.

Instead of rho(liquid)-rho(gas) and magnetization: "order parameter." Instead of compressibility or susceptibility "response function" Instead of critical point or Curie point "Critical Temperature" Specific heat remains the same. So far, I could be accused of "putting the cart before the horse" that is, I have been assumuing that there is a connection between boiling and magnetism. The only evidence I have cited so far is the business about specific heats (which is pretty strange, but could be a coincidence). So, I will turn to experiments to see if I can find any more common features. If we measure the magnetization of a magnetic material as a function of temperature the plot looks something like this:

Now we focus on the area just near the transition, say within 1% of the critical temperature. If we try to fit the M vs T data, we find that the best fit is to a power law: M = M0t0.37 where t = T-Tc/Tc is called the reduced temperature. What is remarkable? As nearly as could be measured, the exponent is nearly the same for iron, nickel, cobalt, gadolinium... all of the ferromagnetic elements. Now the amazing part begins. If we plot the order parameter for our other transition, rho(liquid)-rho(gas), vs T we find the same thing. The difference goes to zero at the boiling point according to a power law in the reduced temperature. The really amazing thing is the exponent is the same, about 0.37.

This is true for both water and carbon dioxide, so it is not a coincidence. Physicists usually use the greek letter beta to symbolize the "order parameter exponent." Furthermore, the other aspects of the transitions all behave like this. If we plot the specific heat versus temperature, it goes to infinity at the transition temperature according to a power law in t, since it goes to infinity instead of zero, the exponent is negative, about -0.1 for both magnetism and the critical point of water. The response functions, susceptibility and compressibility, also both follow power laws with negative exponents, about -1.33 for both systems, and for both water and CO2. The "specific heat exponent" is usually called alpha and the "response function exponent" is called gamma. I won't go into detail, but that there are other thermodynamic quantities that can be measured at the phase transition. In all, six different quantities all obey power laws at the transition. Thus, there are six "critical exponents" in all. These exponents seem to be the same in many disparate systems: water or CO2 or magnetism in iron or nickel or, for that matter, the alignment of Cu and Zn atoms in the crystal lattice of brass.

This is known as "Universality"

http://webphysics.iupui.edu/251/251SP97GFApr28.html

EGYPTIAN ROYAL CUBIT

There is evidence that the measurement unit known as the Royal Cubit was already in use as much as one hundred years prior to the building of the Great Pyramid, and perhaps even somewhat earlier. 45 It was the standard length that was used to measure building dimensions, land holdings, grain quantites, etc., throughout Egyptian antiquity. It would appear, then, that the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt precipitated not only a standardization of the length of the year to 365 days, but also the standardization of the foremost Egyptian unit of measurement. It would stand to reason that given the central importance in ancient Egypt of this unit of measure, a fitting rationale would have been sought for the length assigned to it. A variety of different theories for this have indeed been proposed, with many having as their basis the proportions inherent in the human body. 46 While there is much that is plausible in these approaches, I believe they all fall short as a rationale should it be the case that trigonometric, and Earth size, knowledge had been gained by the Fourth Dynastic period of the Old Kingdom. Since this essay is predicated on these latter assumptions, we will now explore a theory for a Royal Cubit derivation method that flows from the existence of trigonometric knowledge in ancient times. The Royal Cubit, as employed during the Old Kingdom, is generally understood to have been 524 millimeters +/- 2 mm ( 20.63 inches) in length.47 It can be assumed that prior to the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt a number of different standards of measure would have been found in use as one traveled up and down the Nile.

http://www.sover.net/~rc/deep_secrets/cubit/

136. The measurements which have been detailed in the foregoing pages supply materials for an accurate determination of the Egyptian cubit.

From such a mass of exact measures, not only may the earliest value of the cubit be ascertained, but also the extent of its variations as employed by different architects. On the facade of one of the tombs at Beni Hassan there is a scratch left by the workman at every cubit length. The cubit there is a long variety, of 20.7 to 20.8. There is no need to repeat here all the details of each case already given, nor to enter on the principles of the determination of units of measure from ancient remains, which I have fully described in "Inductive Metrology."

© Copyright. Robert Grace. 2001