compiled by Dee Finney


NASA orbiter returns first shots of Apollo moon sites

NASA's lunar orbiter has returned its first pictures of the Apollo moon landing sites. The images — showing the missions' lunar module descent stages accented by their shadows from a low sun angle — may at least prove to die-hard conspiracy theorists that NASA went to considerable lengths to relocate its secret movie studio in the Nevada desert.

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) was able take pictures of five of the six Apollo sites between July 11 and 15. The yet un-depicted Apollo 12 site is expected to be photographed in coming weeks.

The initial pictures are somewhat lacking in detail because they were taken before the spacecraft reached its final mapping orbit. NASA says future images of the Apollo sites will have two to three times greater resolution.

Apollo 11 landing site, courtesy NASA/Arizona State University

"The LROC team anxiously awaited each image," said LROC chief investigator Mark Robinson of Arizona State University. "We were very interested in getting our first peek at the lunar module descent stages just for the thrill — and to see how well the cameras had come into focus. Indeed, the images are fantastic and so is the focus."

NASA explains that LRO's elliptical orbit made the image resolution for each site slightly different but were all around four feet per pixel. With the deck of the Apollo decent stage at about 12 feet in diameter, they fill a total of about nine pixels. But because the sun was low to the horizon at the time, small variations to the Moon's topography create long shadows, allowing the relics to better stand out.

The Apollo 14 landing site had particularly advantageous lighting conditions at the time, allowing details such as the astronaut footpath between the module and instrument package to be visible.

Apollo 14 landing site, courtesy NASA/Arizona State University

To view the complete collection of the first Apollo landing site images, check here or here. ®

  • Did the Vatican suppress hidden 'Galileo Cryptogram'?
  • NASA promises 'greatly improved' Moon landing footage
  • Buzz Aldrin weighs into NASA
  • Apollo 11 moon mission reincarnated as website
  • NASA orbiter returns first shots of Apollo moon site
  • Buzz Aldrin weighs into NASA


    Former astronaut takes control of NASA

    Charles Bolden gets Senate nod

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    The US Senate yesterday confirmed former astronaut Charles Frank Bolden as the new NASA head, with Lori Beth Garver occupying the deputy administrator's office.

    Charles BoldenBolden, 62, is a former Marine Corp pilot who flew over 100 combat mission in Vietnam and eventually rose to the rank of major general before retiring from the service in 2003.

    He was selected as an astronaut candidate in 1980 and went on to command two of the four space shuttle flights he enjoyed between 1986 and 1994 (STS-61C, STS-31, STS-45, and STS-60), which included the 1990 deployment of the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Bolden said of his new post: "It is an honor to have been nominated by President Obama and confirmed by the Senate to lead this great NASA team. Today, we have to choose. Either we can invest in building on our hard-earned world technological leadership or we can abandon this commitment, ceding it to other nations who are working diligently to push the frontiers of space."

    He continued: "If we choose to lead, we must build on our investment in the International Space Station, accelerate development of our next generation launch systems to enable expansion of human exploration, enhance NASA's capability to study Earth's environment, lead space science to new achievements, continue cutting-edge aeronautics research, support the innovation of American entrepreneurs, and inspire a rising generation of boys and girls to seek careers in science, technology, engineering and math."

    Garver, meanwhile, starts her second stint at NASA, having previously served five years in administrative capacities at the agency.

    The 48-year-old enthused: "I am very excited about the opportunity to serve under Charlie Bolden's leadership. My previous five years at NASA exposed me to the incredible talent of the workforce there. The unbelievable achievements of this team over its 50-year history are unmatched. I look forward to working with Charlie and the NASA team to make our agency work as effectively as it can for the American people."

    NASA has full biogs for Bolden and Garver here and here, respectively. ®


    NASA releases enhanced Aussie moon landing videos

    Rodney Gedda
    17.07.2009 kl 14:59 | IDG News Service

    It may be 40 years since man first set foot on the moon, but only now will people see the 'real life' quality footage of Apollo 11 moonwalk thanks to NASA and CSIRO's Parkes Radio Observatory.

    It may be 40 years since man first set foot on the moon, but only now will people see the 'real life' quality footage of Apollo 11 moonwalk thanks to NASA and CSIRO's Parkes Radio Observatory.

    To celebrate the 40th anniversary of the mission, NASA has released enhanced and digitally re-mastered copies of television recordings of the Apollo 11 moonwalk taken from Australian telescopes on July 21, 1969.

    NASA's video collection can be viewed online at its Web site.

    The videos released today show Apollo 11 mission commander Neil Armstrong's first step on the moon's surface, Buzz Aldrin's descent of the lunar module ladder, the plaque reading and the raising of the US flag.

    They ware taken from CSIRO's Parkes Radio Observatory and the Honeysuckle Creek tracking station outside Canberra.

    According to the CSIRO, the new enhancements transform the blurry footage that was relayed by live television to an estimated 600 million people in 1969.

    The new footage has surfaced after a three-year search by a team of Australian and American Apollo 11 Mission researchers for the original high-quality video recordings of the Moonwalk.

    At the time of the landings, engineers recorded the video onto 1-inch magnetic data tapes at the three tracking stations == Honeysuckle Creek, Parkes and NASA's Goldstone station in California.

    The tapes ended up at the Washington National Records Center (WNRC) in Maryland, but, according to NASA, the original recordings of the event may be lost forever as it is "likely" they were erased and reused.

    However, the search did uncover the best available television recordings of the moonwalk from which the digitally re-mastered footage was sourced.

    John Sarkissian, the CSIRO scientist who initiated the search, has raised the possibility that backup tapes of the mission recorded at Parkes might still exist.

    Sarkissian said his interest in the whereabouts of the original tapes was triggered in 1997 when he started researching the role the Parkes Observatory (know as "The Dish") had played in the Apollo 11 Mission.

    "I realised very quickly that the data tapes contained video recordings that were superior to the footage broadcast "live" to the world and which were the best currently available to the public," Mr Sarkissian said.

    His 2006 report led to NASA announcing an official search for the missing tapes.

    Sarkissian said he was then alerted by a letter, written in the early 1990s by The Dish's former director John Bolton, to the existence of a set of backup video tapes made at Parkes.

    Subsequent talks with the engineer responsible for making those recordings confirmed the backup tapes' existence.

    "[We] have spent the last few years looking for those tapes and, although we haven't found them yet, we are still hopeful particularly as there is no record or other evidence that they were destroyed or lost," Sarkissian said.

    "They could still be stored somewhere and, with a bit of luck, the publicity about the release of details of NASA's report on the official search for the tapes might jog someone's memory."


    NASA releases digital moonwalk video

    by Staff writers  on Jul 17, 2009
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    NASA has released digitally restored broadcast footage of the Apollo 11 moonwalk but the one-inch telemetry tapes recorded at tracking stations in Australia and the U.S. remain lost

    The restored video, which commemorates the 40th anniversary of the moon landing mission, combines broadcast-format video from a variety of sources, including the Parkes radio observatory in Western New South Wales.

    The remastered footage also includes shots from the CBS News Archive recorded via direct microwave and landline feeds from NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston and kinescopes found in film vaults at Johnson that had not been viewed for 36 years.

    Because the video camera on the lunar module used a non-standard scan format that commercial TV couldn't broadcast, NASA had to use a scan converter to adapt the images to a standard broadcast signal.

    This was done at tracking stations including Honeysuckle Creek near Canberra and the video switching centre in Sydney.

    The converted signals were then transmitted to mission control using a mix of microwave, satellite and analogue links, and re-broadcast to the world. But the final broadcast image quality was degraded, NASA said.

    The tracking stations also recorded video separately onto a series of one-inch telemetry tapes as a backup in case live transmission failed, or for review at a later date.

    Each tape contained 14 tracks of data, including bio-medical, voice, and other information.

    One channel was reserved for video, NASA said, but the location of these high-quality back-up tapes remains a mystery, despite three years of searching by a team of engineers in the US and Australia.

    The CSIRO cited NASA sources today saying the tapes "may be lost forever, as it is likely that these tapes were erased and reused."

    But at least one of the CSIRO scientists involved in the search, John Sarkissian, has raised the possibility that backup tapes recorded at Parkes might still exist.

    He said the tapes, if found, would be far superior in quality to the original broadcast images.

    Sarkissian said a letter written in the early 1990s by former Parkes director John Bolton and "subsequent talks" with the engineer responsible for making the recordings confirmed the tapes existed.

    "I and my search team colleagues have spent the last few years looking for those tapes and, although we haven't found them yet, we are still hopeful particularly as there is no record or other evidence that they were destroyed or lost," Sarkissian said.

    "They could still be stored somewhere and, with a bit of luck, the publicity about the release of details of NASA's report on the official search for the tapes might jog someone's memory."

    A final report on the investigation is anticipated "in the near future".


    NASA Lost Original Moon Video

    Existing Footage Gets a Hollywood Makeover

    posted: 13 HOURS 53 MINUTES AGO
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    WASHINGTON (July 17) - NASA could put a man on the moon but didn't have the sense to keep the original video of the live TV transmission.
    In an embarrassing acknowledgment, the space agency said Thursday that it must have erased the Apollo 11 moon footage years ago so that it could reuse the videotape.
    Skip over this content
    But now Hollywood is coming to the rescue.
    The studio wizards who restored "Casablanca" are digitally sharpening and cleaning up the ghostly, grainy footage of the moon landing, making it even better than what TV viewers saw on July 20, 1969. They are doing it by working from four copies that NASA scrounged from around the world.
    "There's nothing being created; there's nothing being manufactured," said NASA senior engineer Dick Nafzger, who is in charge of the project. "You can now see the detail that's coming out."
    The first batch of restored footage was released just in time for the 40th anniversary of the "one giant leap for mankind," and some of the details seem new because of their sharpness. Originally, astronaut Neil Armstrong's face visor was too fuzzy to be seen clearly. The upgraded video of Earth's first moonwalker shows the visor and a reflection in it.
    The $230,000 refurbishing effort is only three weeks into a monthslong project, and only 40 percent of the work has been done. But it does show improvements in four snippets: Armstrong walking down the ladder; Buzz Aldrin following him; the two astronauts reading a plaque they left on the moon; and the planting of the flag on the lunar surface.
    Nafzger said a huge search that began three years ago for the old moon tapes led to the "inescapable conclusion" that 45 tapes of Apollo 11 video were erased and reused. His report on that will come out in a few weeks.
    The original videos beamed to Earth were stored on giant reels of tape that each contained 15 minutes of video, along with other data from the moon. In the 1970s and '80s, NASA had a shortage of the tapes, so it erased about 200,000 of them and reused them.
    How did NASA end up looking like a bumbling husband taping over his wedding video with the Super Bowl?
    Nafzger, who was in charge of the live TV recordings back in the Apollo years, said they were mostly thought of as data tapes. It wasn't his job to preserve history, he said, just to make sure the footage worked. In retrospect, he said he wished NASA hadn't reused the tapes.
    Outside historians were aghast.
    "It's surprising to me that NASA didn't have the common sense to save perhaps the most important historical footage of the 20th century," said Rice University historian and author Douglas Brinkley. He noted that NASA saved all sorts of data and artifacts from Apollo 11, and it is "mind-boggling that the tapes just disappeared."
    The remastered copies may look good, but "when dealing with historical film footage, you always want the original to study," Brinkley said.
    Smithsonian Institution space curator Roger Launius, a former NASA chief historian, said the loss of the original video "doesn't surprise me that much."
    "It was a mistake, no doubt about that," Launius said. "This is a problem inside the entire federal government. ... They don't think that preservation is all that important."
    Launius said federal warehouses where historical artifacts are saved are "kind of like the last scene of `Raiders of the Lost Ark.' It just goes away in this place with other big boxes."
    The company that restored all the Indiana Jones movies, including "Raiders," is the one bailing out NASA.
    Lowry Digital of Burbank, Calif., noted that "Casablanca" had a pixel count 10 times higher than the moon video, meaning the Apollo 11 footage was fuzzier than that vintage movie and more of a challenge in one sense.
    Of all the video the company has dealt with, "this is by far and away the lowest quality," said Lowry president Mike Inchalik.
    Nafzger praised Lowry for restoring "crispness" to the Apollo video. Historian Launius wasn't as blown away.
    "It's certainly a little better than the original," Launius said. "It's not a lot better."
    The Apollo 11 video remains in black and white. Inchalik said he would never consider colorizing it, as has been done to black-and-white classic films. And the moon is mostly gray anyway.
    The restoration used four video sources: CBS News originals; kinescopes from the National Archives; a video from Australia that received the transmission of the original moon video; and camera shots of a TV monitor.
    Both Nafzger and Inchalik acknowledged that digitally remastering the video could further encourage conspiracy theorists who believe NASA faked the entire moon landing on a Hollywood set. But they said they enhanced the video as conservatively as possible.
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    11 photos
    1. The Moon Smells: Astronaut Neil Armstrong described it as "wet ashes in a fireplace" while Buzz Aldrin said the smell was "metallic." Above is a close-up view of an astronaut's boot print in the lunar soil.
    Skip over this content
    Besides, Inchalik said that if there had been a conspiracy to fake a moon landing, NASA surely would have created higher-quality film.
    Back in 1969, nearly 40 percent of the picture quality was lost converting from one video format used on the moon — called slow scan — to something that could be played on TVs on Earth, Nafzger said.
    NASA did not lose other Apollo missions' videos because they weren't stored on the type of tape that needed to be reused, Nafzger said.
    As part of the moon landing's 40th anniversary, the space agency has been trotting out archival material. NASA has a Web site with audio from private conversations in the lunar module and command capsule. The agency is also webcasting radio from Apollo 11 as if the mission were taking place today.
    The video restoration project did not involve improving the sound. Inchalik said he listened to Armstrong's famous first words from the surface of the moon, trying to hear if he said "one small step for man" or "one small step for A man," but couldn't tell.
    Through a letter read at a news conference Thursday, Armstrong had the last word about the video from the moon: "I was just amazed that there was any picture at all."
    Copyright 2009 The Associated Press.




    Details about the landing

    Several books indicate early mission timelines had Buzz Aldrin rather than Neil Armstrong as the first man on the Moon.[1]

    Armstrong claims to have said "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind" when he first set foot on the lunar surface. The "a" is not clear in NASA recordings but the audio and video links back to earth were somewhat intermittent, partly because of storms near Parkes Observatory. More recent digital analysis of the tape by NASA revealed the "a" may have been spoken but obscured by static.[2][3]

    Neil Armstrong's PPK (Personal Preference Kit) carried a piece of wood from the Wright Brothers' 1903 airplane's left propeller and a piece of fabric from its wing,[4] along with a diamond-studded astronaut pin originally given to Deke Slayton by the widows of the Apollo 1 crew. This pin had been intended to be flown on Apollo 1 and given to Slayton after the mission but following the disastrous launch pad fire and subsequent funerals, the widows gave the pin to Slayton and Armstrong took it on Apollo 11.[5]

    In Aldrin's book Men from Earth he wrote, "We discovered during a long checklist recitation that the ascent engine's arming circuit breaker was broken off on the panel. The little plastic pin (or knob) simply wasn't there. This circuit would send electrical power to the engine that would lift us off the moon...We looked around for something to punch in this circuit breaker. Luckily, a felt-tipped pen fit into the slot."

     Presidential telephone call during moonwalk


    President Nixon spoke to Aldrin and Armstrong during their first walk on the surface of the moon.

    Houston: ...We'd like to get both of you in the field-of-view of the camera for a minute. (Pause) Neil and Buzz, the President of the United States is in his office now and would like to say a few words to you. Over.

    Armstrong: That would be an honor.

    Houston: All right. Go ahead, Mr. President. This is Houston. Out.

    Nixon: Hello, Neil and Buzz. I'm talking to you by telephone from the Oval Room at the White House, and this certainly has to be the most historic telephone call ever made. I just can't tell you how proud we all are of what you (garbled). For every American, this has to be the proudest day of our lives. And for people all over the world, I am sure they, too, join with Americans in recognizing what an immense feat this is. Because of what you have done, the heavens have become a part of man's world. And as you talk to us from the Sea of Tranquility, it inspires us to redouble our efforts to bring peace and tranquility to Earth. For one priceless moment in the whole history of man, all the people on this Earth are truly one; one in their pride in what you have done, and one in our prayers that you will return safely to Earth. (Pause)

    Armstrong: Thank you, Mr. President. It's a great honor and privilege for us to be here representing not only the United States but men of peace of all nations, and with interests and the curiosity and with the vision for the future. It's an honor for us to be able to participate here today.

    Nixon: And thank you very much and I look forward....All of us look forward to seeing you on the Hornet on Thursday.

    Aldrin: I look forward to that very much, sir.

    Apollo 11 goodwill messages

    Apollo 11 Goodwill Messages were statements from leaders of 73 countries around the world on a disc about the size of a 50-cent piece made of silicon that was left on the Moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts.

    Contingency television address

    William Safire prepared a speech called In Event of Moon Disaster for President Nixon to read on television if the Apollo 11 astronauts were stranded on the Moon.[6] According to the plans, Mission Control would "close down communications" with the LEM and a clergyman would have commended their souls to "the deepest of the deep" in a public ritual likened to burial at sea. Presidential telephone calls to the astronauts' wives were also planned. The speech originated in a memo from Safire to Nixon's chief of staff H. R. Haldeman in which Safire suggested a protocol the administration might follow in reaction to such a disaster.[7][8] The last line of the prepared text contained an allusion to Rupert Brooke's First World War poem, The Soldier.[8]

    Acknowledgments and monuments

    The United States of America (U.S.) acknowledged the immense success of Apollo 11 with a national day of celebration on Monday, July 21, 1969. All but emergency and essential employees were allowed a paid day off from work, in both government and the private sector. Ironically the last time this had happened was the national day of mourning on Monday, November 25, 1963 to observe the state funeral of President John F. Kennedy who had set the political goal to put a man on the moon by the end of sixties.

    A replica of the footprint left by Neil Armstrong is located at Tranquility Park in Houston, Texas. The park was dedicated in 1979, a decade after the first moon landing.

     Portrayal in media


    During the mission, another major news story in the US media was the Chappaquiddick incident.

     Movies and television

    On September 16, 1962, the date Armstrong's selection as an astronaut was announced, his parents were flown to New York to appear on the television game show I've Got A Secret. After their secret was guessed, host Garry Moore commented "Wouldn't it be something if your son were the first man on the moon?" The episode has been shown on Game Show Network although Armstrong himself never saw it until his biographer brought him a copy of the tape.

    The Australian movie, The Dish (2000), tells the (slightly fictionalised) story of how the images of the moon-walk were received by the radio telescope at Parkes Observatory, New South Wales.

    The 1996 television movie Apollo 11 depicted the mission.[9]

    Portions of the Apollo 11 mission are dramatized in the HBO mini-series From the Earth to the Moon episode entitled "Mare Tranquilitatis". In that episode, Michael Collins made the following suggestion as to what Armstrong should say upon stepping onto the lunar surface: "If you had any balls, you'd say 'Oh, my God, what is that thing?' then scream and cut your mic."

    In the British sitcom My Hero, the son of George and Janet chooses the name Apollo 11 (or Ollie for short) for himself because "It shows a link between two worlds," his father George being an alien on the show.

    In the American animated television series Exosquad, the Able Squad briefly visits Tranquility Base during and after the Battle for the Moon.[10]

    The opening scenes of the 1996 movie Independence Day[11] show an alien mothership passing low over the Apollo 11 landing site. The vibration of its passing erases the famous bootprint left on the soft lunar surface. (This is a scientific error, as the the Moon's atmosphere, so thin it is often considered nonexistent, is unable to transmit sound, vibration or pressure waves.)

    The 2008 animated film Fly Me to the Moon in centered around a fictional story of three flies that stow away on the Saturn V Rocket and manage to land on the moon.


    Soon after the mission a conspiracy theory arose that the landing was a hoax but this notion is widely discounted by historians and scientists. It may have gained more popularity after the movie Capricorn One (1978) portrayed a fictional NASA attempt to fake a landing on Mars.

    An urban legend suggests that they were being 'watched' while on the Moon and had seen alien vehicles in space. This grew in popularity after the book Someone else is on our Moon was published.[12] Aldrin did spot an unidentified object travelling relative to them late in the third day of the mission. After learning from Mission Control that it couldn't be the S-IVB stage, since that was 6,000 nautical miles away, they concluded that it was most likely one of four panels that had linked the spacecraft and the upper stage.[13] Later popular accounts often described this as a "UFO sighting" or claimed the widely reported incident had been "covered up."

    At age 76, astronaut Buzz Aldrin said in a television documentary, "There was something out there, close enough to be observed, and what could it be?... Now, obviously the three of us weren't going to blurt out, 'Hey, Houston, we've got something moving alongside of us and we don't know what it is, you know?... We knew that those transmissions would be heard by all sorts of people and somebody might have demanded we turn back because of aliens or whatever the reason is."[14] [15][16] They may have seen the Luna 15 spacecraft which the Soviet Union had launched at about the same time as Apollo 11.[17]

    There is a humorous and ribald urban legend that when Armstrong was a child, the wife of a neighbour named Gorsky, when asked by her husband to perform oral sex, had ridiculed him by saying "...when the kid next door walks on the moon!" and then decades later whilst walking on the moon Armstrong supposedly said "Good luck Mr. Gorsky" but nothing about this anecdote is true. In 1995 Armstrong said he first heard the story in California when comedian Buddy Hackett told it as a joke.[18] This urban legend quote has been used in a humorous reference at the opening scene of Watchmen (film).


    1. ^ Chaikin, Andrew (1998). A Man on the Moon. Penguin Group. ISBN 0-14-027201-1. 
    2. ^ Adams, Cecil. "Did astronaut Neil Armstrong muff his historic "one small step" line?". 
    3. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara & David P. "One Small Step" at Snopes: Urban Legends Reference Pages.
    4. ^ Hansen, James R. (2005). First Man. p. 527. 
    5. ^ Deke!: An Autobiography, Deke Slayton, p.191-2
    6. ^ "Scanned copy of the "In event of moon disaster" memo". The Smoking Gun. 
    7. ^ Jim Mann (1999-07-07). "The Story of a Tragedy That Was Not to Be". L.A. Times. p. 5. Retrieved on 2007-10-27. 
    8. ^ a b William Safire (1999-07-12). "Essay; Disaster Never Came". New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-10-27. 
    9. ^ Apollo 11 at the Internet Movie Database
    10. ^ Danner, Patrick. "Exosquad episode 2.34 summary". The ExoSquad Universe. Retrieved on 2006-08-27. 
    11. ^ Independence Day at the Internet Movie Database
    12. ^ "". 
    13. ^ "UFOs and Aliens in Space".  - section 6.40
    14. ^ "Buzz had to fix Moon Lander with Biro". 
    15. ^ "Man on Moon : we saw a UFO". 
    16. ^ Mike Swain, Science Editor 24/07/2006 (2006-07-24). "BUZZ HAD TO FIX MOON LANDER WITH BIRO" (HTML). News. Retrieved on 2007-12-22. 
    17. ^ "Apollo 11". Modern Marvels (The History Channel). 
    18. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara & David P. "Good luck, Mr Gorsky!" at Snopes: Urban Legends Reference Pages.
    Or one of the best hoax...EVER. I will give a couple of reasons.

    Reason 1: Those who think that the U.S. manned moon landings were faked will love this. The reason why you see things like monolith, robot face, U.S. flag waving, strange lighting, and other anomalies is because the U.S manned moon landings were actually filmed on the same MGM set used by Stanley Kubrick for the movie, 2001 Space Odyssey released in 1968. Richard Nixon who was president at that time was losing the Vietnam conflict and Cold War tension between the former U.S.S.R wanted to win public support for the next election concocted a plan to boost public morale and prove that Americans were superior to Soviets in technology by landing on the moon, first. Is it hard to believe that a President who perpetrated Watergate scandal to be above carrying out such hoax. Now, a smoking gun evidence would disgrace a great American legacy. What would be that smoking gun evidence? Simply, a film of the Apollo 13 crew hopping around on the Moon. Where is this film? Missing...Why Apollo 13 because it never made it to the Moon.

    Reason 2: NASA for national security reasons could not show the real moon landing footage due to certain anomalies in the background. People like Richard Hoagland who have exposed artificiality on the Moon and send the public into cultural meltdown at that time. Evidence of artificiality would have destroyed people's fundamental beliefs and disrupt the economy and what was already a shaky government, unpopular because of the Vietnam conflict. At the time, Richard Nixon had to hold the country together amidst a massive pending public rebellion. This pending rebellion could have caused the destruction of a great Nation...the U.S.A. Therefore, Nixon was not a crook but a hero, he did what had to be done for best interest of preserving the U.S.A.

    This is for entertainment only. Don't ask for sources of something that will get you disassembled.