compiled by Dee Finney

2-13-06 - DREAM - I was in England. There was a man there who said he could magically produce two black snakes , just by using his mind, but he didn't think they would be able to get out and harm anyone. So we sat there and he conjured up these two black snakes, but the snakes 'did' manage to get out and went into two other men who were watching. Then the black snakes began working on those two men to produce two more black snakes each and reproduce themselves.
Coincidentally, on the evening of 2-13-06, Joe and I watched the video by Sun Bear (now deceased) who spoke the prophecies of his own tribe and of the Hopis. When he told the prophecy of the black serpent, I knew it was about the black snake I had dreamed the night before.

Leon Shenandoah Speaks Supreme Sachem of the Iroquois, Successor to the Original Tododaho, Speaker of the Hotinoshonee/Haudenosaunee Iroquois Confederacy. Another prophecy that has come to at least partial fulfillment is from the Iroquois people. This prophecy was spoken of by the Tuscarora Holy Wallace "Mad Bear" Anderson sometime before 1973. Slightly differing versions have previously been published by Zula Brinkerhoff in her book "God's Chosen People in America" and by Sunbear and Wabun, in their book "Black Dawn - Bright Day" and by Scott Peterson in his book, "Native American Prophecies" - see article below. For those of you that don't know Zula, she is an adopted daughter of the late Keeper of the Hopi Prophecy, David Monongye. David was the author of the Hopi Nation Newsletter: "Techqua Ikachi" - that eventually resulted in the publication of the recent book by Thomas E. Mails, "The Hopi Survival Kit". Zula is a courageous lady, who braved Dickie Wilson's roadblocks 5 times to carry supplies into Wounded Knee during the F.B.I. seige in the 70's. Deganawidah: The Prophecy of the Two Serpents from "Black Dawn Bright Day" by Sunbear, and "God's Chosen People in America" by Zula Brinkerhoff (out of print). Among the Iroquois, (as with many cultures) the spiritual people and their medicine societies have "staffs" resembling walking canes. On some of these staffs, there are three serpents. There's a white and a red serpent with the same tail. This indicates that they have the same purpose towards humanity: domination, conquest, and control. The prophecy given by Mad Bear Anderson says that the white serpent would be the first here in America, and the red serpent come down over the north pole, and would wrestle with the white serpent until the rivers boiled and fish turned up dead. When they locked in battle, the red men would be released from their reservations somehow, and would go to the hilly country, where they would smoke tobacco and get to know each other once again. They would rally around a seer, perhaps just a young man, who would form them into one nation in a single day. Then a black serpent would come out of the ocean and wrestle and defeat both the white and the red serpent. Then he would look around to see if their were other people to fight with. He would see the Native people gathered in the hilly country, along with all the other people gathered with them wanting to understand the spiritual way of the Earth. He would turn as if to fight with them, but then he would see coming the great light of Deganawidah, the great teacher of the Northeast Indian people. He would become frightened, flee and never bother the people again. They would go back into the ocean from whence they came, never to return again. The interpretation given to Sunbear by the Spirit, is that the white and red serpents represent the United States and Russia. They wrestled for a long time until the rivers boiled and the fish turned dead from their atomic weapons testing. They wrestled in the cold war, supplying armaments to get other people to fight against each other. They wrestled, they exhausted almost all their resources, until they were in so much debt from wrestling they couldn't afford to continue anymore. This is the stage we're at right now. (In the version published by Zula, the battle takes place here in America - perhaps a future invasion. The young choice seer, also spoken of in the Bible, is only in the versions told to Zula by Mad Bear, and in the version published by Scott Peterson in his book "Native American Prophecies" - scroll down see that version below, or click here.) Then the black serpent comes into the battle. The black serpent is the Moslem Nations with control of the world's oil supplies. The Moslem nations have gotten both the United States and Russia into wars they didn't know how to fight. Vietnam was really fought over control of vast oil reserves. They defeated the U.S. in Lebanon and the Soviets in Afghanistan. Neither country knows how to battle the black serpent, because they are holy warriors. Now we're coming into the second stage of the wrestling of the serpents: the war of the Moslem Nations. This war can affect all the nations of the world. In it, the battlefield will be the gas pumps. It will drain the last dollar from those countries that have become overly dependent on oil for the life blood of their economies. The Moslem nations control most of the world's petroleum; they can make quite a noose for Western Civilization from their fuel lines. Mohawk Prophecy of the Seventh Generation.


Then there would come across the land a great heat. It would swell from the Mothers belly and move across the land in great clouds of fire. It would appear as if the bowels of the Earth were opening and spilling forth this great fire everywhere. This heat would last a long time, so long that it would cause the stench from all the death to become intolerable. Even the Serpents who would continue to battle for they loved war would themselves begin to sicken from the stench of death. Then one day a warrior who was standing lookout from the hilly country watching the Serpents battle, would see from his lookout post the Red Serpent reach around the neck of the White Serpent and pull from him a feather as he tore open his throat. This feather would be carried by the wind to the South. Here it would find its way to a Great Black Serpent that would have appeared from some mysterious place where it had been hiding in the darkness. It would have been awakened from all the commotion and warring in the North. The Black Serpent, upon studying the white feather, would be astounded, as the hair would begin to dance upon the currents of the wind as it turned itself into a white bird and then into a white-skinned woman.

This white-skinned woman would have power and wisdom. She would be skilled in the ancient arts of the People, and she would speak to him in their ancient language, which he understood. She would tell him stories as she danced upon the wind shape shift before his eyes. She would tell the Black Serpent stories of great sickness that was upon the land and in the hearts of the People. Stories of death and horror going on in the North. These things he would know somehow to be true, but again he would have been asleep deep within the belly of the Earth for a long time.

He would ask her to tell him the stories once again, for it would be unbelievable to him that such things could be occurring upon this Earth. Then, when the woman was through with her tales, he would ever so gently place her down upon a rock, with great love and respect for her purity of spirit and her personal powers.

He would then turn to the North and let loose a great roar, filling the winds with his furry over the horrors he had heard. The winds and the sound of the great roar they carried would be felt over the whole of the Earth. It would rise up from the belly of the Earth, and even be heard in the heavens. With great speed the Black Serpent would then head towards the North to find the other two.

The two Serpents would already be weary from the firestorms, and the stench of death. They would be sickened to the point that they would weak and exhausted. They would rise in horror and shock at the sudden appearance of the Black Serpent, which would seem to come from nowhere. They would recognize him but not believe his appearance possible.

The Black Serpent would attack the Red and White Serpents with a great vengeance, and he would defeat the Red Serpent entirely. Then he would stand upon the chest of the White Serpent, letting out a horrible and boastful roar as he tore him into two pieces. The battle would be short; it would not be too long before the Black Serpent would begin to look for yet another Serpent to conquer, filled with the energy of war and killing. He would have taken on the evil of both serpents and become a power of darkness that defies description. It would appear that he intended to devour the whole of the Earth, even the heavens in his furry.

The Great Black Serpent would look in all the directions for a formidable foe. When he turned towards the direction of the hilly country, he would see the People standing noble and erect, with their arms open, having fearless hearts, facing the winds of change. He would know that this was not where his fight was to be found; he would turn and look elsewhere. For a time the whole of the world would be in darkness. Great clouds will have formed from the battle and the spewing of smoke from the Mother belly. It would be as if time itself had stopped.

The Black Serpent would then turn towards a sound coming from the heavens and, for a moment become blinded by a great and mysterious light that would appear from the heavens. This light would be many, many times brighter than the Sun. This Great Light would be travelling east, coming from the West, over the great waters. It would appear in the skies for the passing of twelve of our days. When it arrives there will be no night and day. This would terrify the Black Serpent to such a degree that he would slither into the ocean, trying to hide himself from the great light. He would sink beneath the Great Waters and never be seen by the People again.

A part of the White Serpent would have survived. Although weak, he too, would see this light and make a feeble attempt to gather himself up and go towards that light. Suffering greatly from the wound received in battle with the Black Serpent, this portion of the White Serpent would find its way to the hilly country. Here it would be taken in and helped by the People, as it is their way to nurture the weak. This portion of the White Serpent would take on the ways of the People, but for a long time after, he would shake with fear whenever he again witnessed a great light.

Then, as if rising from the ground itself, the form of the Red Serpent would appear. He would also witness the strange Light shining like a great star, and he would tremble with fear. He would also try to crawl towards the North Country, but would die along the journey from his wounds. Leaving behind him a bloody trail that would split the Earth into a shaky canyon. This trail would split this land of the Turtle in two, and then into four pieces.

To the south where the Black serpent had vanished the Ice would begin melt, great pieces of ice would begin to fall from the sky, putting much of the land to the East into the deep sleep of winter. There it would be purified from the death that it had known. In these times we will witness other strange occurrences with the weather. The seas would become violent and rise covering much of the old shoreline. New cliffs would rise from the sea, as well as new lands.

The trail left behind by the Red Serpent would be washed clean as it filled with the waters from the North. New mountains would form along where the body of the Red Serpent lay still and cold in its death. This would form a new sea in the North Country, which would forever remind the people of the dark times through which they had passed.

The mysterious light would be as a mist and would engulf the entire Earth much like a giant cloud. We will be lifted from the wheel of time, and we will be unable to determine its passing. Death will cease to be. Our dream will blend and become many realities, all different yet all truth. As we experience the unravelling of the dream. We will witness the force that which allows our perceptions to manifest and express as our reality. For within this great light the nature of all things is dreamlike

From the centre of the mysterious light the Great Star would begin to emerge. The light from this star would swell and eventually become brighter even than our Sun. It would appear to take form an eight pointed star as it came closer and closer to the Earth. It would become so large that it would block out much of the heavens from our view. Its presence would cause many things to be effected and we will witness much phenomena as the new world is born before our eyes

There will appear in the heavens a great bow having the twelve colours of creation. From this bow would be heard the sound of all people, all who ever were and all that would be. Then there would be a shifting of the sound like a great harmonic. It would then appear as if they were all one voice, singing the sound of the new Creation. The sound of what had been heard so long ago when this world was itself created. When we first walked upon the Earth and wondered at the newness of her.

When the Star emerges from within the light many of the People who will have been hiding will come forth from their seclusion. Many will come from their refuge in the hills and mountains. They will be strange as if they were walking for the first time. There will be many new colours and species of life that will come forth from the great void. For they will have lifted their voices to join with the voices of the heavens.

Man and beast all manner of life form upon this plane will recognize and acknowledge their part in the spider web of life. They shall know their part in the dream for life will have become in a moment the expression of each of their visions of how things would be. There shall come a day like no other for all the creatures of the Earth in that moment of forever shall be as one, and man and beast shall communicate as it was long ago, for fear shall be a no thing. A sound shall come forth from the great star.

The people who will be coming forth in little bands from all throughout the hilly country will witness the appearance of Daganaweda, as if walking right out of this Great Star, returning to the People. The Peacemaker would be joined by many others as the dream of horror would come to a close. With his return there would be much rejoicing, and the people would feel like they had awakened from a dream. They would once again walk the way of the Great Peace, Kia ëneri Kowa, and form a new and great civilization that will continue into forever, creating a new world from the essence of the old. In this world even the eldest of us would be as children, yet possess the wisdom of experience of the ages that had come before.

We will join once again with our brothers from the stars. No one shall be denied, and no one shall be untouched in this time. No dream shall not come to pass, and no thought shall go unrealised. To speak more of it would serve no purpose for it will be beyond our comprehension what will occur. The way of the Kia neri Kowa shall help create the new world you seek. That which is created shall be born of the heart.

The time for the need for darkness will have passed. You will once again be as you were in the beginning children of the Sun and you will feel as if you have awakened from a dream. Your need for death and dying shall no longer serve the purpose it did before, for you will be walking upon the pathway of your foreverness. Man and spirit shall be as one in the Great Peace.



August 9, 1992, the Black Serpent Cult was flamboyantly displayed in the closing exercises at the Olympiad in Barcelona, Spain under the direction of King Juan Carlos.

Quoting from an American Information Newsletter: "The closing spectacle at the Olympic games this summer in Barcelone, Spain, was an exercise in demonic / pagan symbolism which ended with the mating of a Black Serpent and the Greek goddess of love and fertility, the multi-breasted Artemis who then gave birth to the "Great Dragon," the head of which rose 75 feet above the top of the stadium. The alleged them of the pageant was the birth of the world in fire and it was represented by "250 'happy'" devils.. who began the 'festival of fire.' Giant wooden structures including two caped figures of Satan and grinning goat's head, were set a ablaze and constantly moved through the cavorting devils. A group of devils, one dressed in the robes of a kind, danced frenziedly around a fiery maypole.. Weird tones, underlaid with constant 'jungle' drumming, were sporadically joined by eerie wails, long sighs and howling." Occult symbols were everywhere. Well represented were the Baphomet (goat's head of witchcraft), the pentagram or "devil's star," the maypole, which is an ancient pagan phallic symbol, and demonic faces well endowed with horns. As expected, television network commentators were "awed" by the spectacle and competed with one another to compliment its "creativity." At times, the audience joined the celebration, swaying to the demonic music with arms outstretched to heaven." Charles Taylor and his wife watched it on television.

King Juan Carlos I was born in Rome, Italy January 5, 1938. He is a graduate of Spain's Military Academy, its Naval Academy and also of its Air Force Academy. He is highly qualified by land, sea and air as "King of Jerusalem, DEFENDER og Catholic Holy Land interests," and could well be seen as coming on the world scene as the biblical rider on "the white Horse" of Rev. 6:2 right after the Rapture of the Church as evidenced in Rev. 5:9

November 27, 1975, Los Angeles Herald and Examiner: MADRID, Spain (AP) Flanked by European royalty and three Common Market presidents, King Juan Carlos received his highest blessing of the Roman Catholic Church and the cheers of thousands of countrymen as Spain paid homage to its new leader. Vincente Cardinal Enrique Tarancon, the liberal archbishop of Madrid, celebrated Mass of the Holy Spirit.. This extraordinary even was the Coronation of the King. King Carlos kissed the Pope's ring. The King became an honorary citizen of Rome.

Here is the reason the Pope does not recognize any state of Israel. He has a secret agreement with Arabs who pledged that they would fight for the Roman Catholic Church if the Pope would agree to NEVER recognize any state of Israel. The Arab-Vatican agreement still stands.

King Juan Carlos made a strange statement in Argentine. Defending democracy, he stated: NEVER MUST ANY IDEA OF THE STATE OR ANY MESSIANIC DELIVERER COME TO WREST FROM US OUR DIGNITY AS FREE MEN"

On a visit from the President of Israel KIng Carlos wore a skull cap in a Synagogue in Madrid and was blessed by a rabbi in a Ceremony of Reconciliation. (The Antichrist King - Juan Carlos, by Charles R. Taylor, Today in Bible Prophecy, Inc.
With this in mind read the following message:

In a message dated 03/17/2004 6:28:05 AM Pacific Standard Time, writes:

Date:03/17/2004 6:28:05 AM Pacific Standard Time
Sent from the Internet


(Many of the following concepts will be unfamiliar to those who have not been following my research steadily. It is the author's contention that Spain is playing a central, though covert, role in Middle East diplomacy, believing it has a God-given, if Medieval, right to rule Israel and especially Jerusalem. Its Jesuit King, Juan Carlos, owns the title, Protector Of The Holy Places Of Jerusalem, and he takes the responsibility seriously, as do his superiors in Rome. For an overview of the hidden role of Spain, visit

The Spanish people are clamoring to know who was responsible for the March '04 bombings which killed over 200 of their people. They will not receive a true answer. They will be told Al Qaida did the deed in retaliation for Spain's support of the Iraq invasion and will display some Moslem bombers as proof. The more conspiratorial analyses places the blame on the Bush/Blair New World Order gang who fomented another atrocity to justify their war on terror and give a boost to its flagging popularity. All such proponents point to the conveniently found van with the Koranic audiotape beside the unignited bombs as a set-up, like the 9-11 van with the Koran and 767 flight manual found in Boston.

The Spanish government lied to its people, claiming ETA, the Basque separatists, were the main suspects and were thrown out of power in national elections a few days later, which seemed to be a motive for the outrage in the first place.

The lie was formulated to keep the public off the real trail of the bombings, which leads to Spain's secret role in the Middle East, as well as its goal of eliminating Israel by shoving a suicidal "peace" process down its throat. The leaders of the Middle East know Spain controls their fate, and that all diplomatic roads pass through Madrid. But the rest of humanity remains ignorant of Spain's covert power. Let us try and clear the fog with the events that led to the slaughter in Madrid as seen through the media. My commentary will begin and end with two stars **.

We begin the journey that led to the bombings on Aug. 18 '03. On that day, the PA prime minister Abbas, and his foreign minister Shaat, announced they would be visiting Damascus on September 8. The announcement was made as Spain's Foreign Minister is in Damascus announcing that his king will be visiting Syria that autumn. So, the story begins as the PA, Syria and King Juan Carlos plot to coordinate diplomacy.

Abbas to meet with al-Assad in Syria in September
Syria-Palestine, Politics, 8/18/2003
Palestinian foreign affairs minister Nabil Shaath said that the Palestinian prime minister Mahmoud Abbas will visit Damascus in September.

Shaath explained following his talks with the Syrian foreign minister Farouk al-Shara in Damascus that the Palestinian leadership wants to deepen consultation and coordination with each of Syria and Lebanon concerning the peace process in the region.

The Palestinian minister said that Abbas will meet during the forthcoming visit with President Bashar al-Assad.

Spain's King to visit Syria

Spain's economy minister announces King Juan Carlos, Queen Sofia are to visit Syria in autumn.

DAMASCUS - King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia of Spain are to visit Syria in the autumn, Spanish Economy Minister Rodrigo Rato said here Monday. Rato told a news conference that he had informed Syrian President Bashar al-Assad of the visit. Assad and his wife Asma paid an official visit to Spain in May 2001 - the couple's first to a Western country after Assad took power in July 2000. Rato, who arrived in Damascus Sunday night, said his own visit also aimed to "strengthen economic relations" between the two countries, particularly in the tourism, transport and industry sectors.
He said Spain supports Syria "economically and politically", adding that Damascus is important in the quest for peace in the Middle East. Spain also supports talks to broker a partnership agreement between Syria and the European Union, the minister said. A Syrian-Spanish accord giving Damascus five million dollars was signed Monday, Rato added.

** Now why would Spain commit itself to pushing for a Syrian partnership agreement with the EU? What could Syria offer the EU but some canned dates and its fine human rights record? Note the $5 million bribe to Assad and ask what was behind it. The PA's prime minister lands in Damascus on September 8 and look at the reaction on September 9. **

Powell, Palacio Discuss Middle East, Iraq, UN

Tuesday, 9 September 2003, 9:34 pm
Press Release: US State Department

Spanish Foreign Minister Says Israeli Threat To Expel Arafat Is A Big Mistake
....."We (the Spanish government) have always said that Arafat has been part of the solution and the decision by the Israeli government (to expel him) is a big mistake," she told reporters.

...Palacio spoke at a joint press conference with Syrian counterpart Farouk al-Sharaa after arriving in Damascus on the first leg of a three-nation tour, which includes Iraq and Kuwait.

...Palacio said her talks with al-Sharaa focused on Israel's threat to expel Arafat, plus Iraq.

...She said Syria and Spain shared some basic principles, including the role some regional players could have in Iraq's reconstruction and returning that country to its rightful place in the international community.

Al-Sharaa said Syria and Spain have identical views on Iraq, including the maintenance of its integrity and "getting rid of the foreign occupation as soon as possible."

He said both states also believed in the formation of a legitimate Iraqi government elected by Iraqi people.

** The PA prime minister has just left and a day later Spain's Foreign Minister announced that he will be meeting with Colin Powell of the Council On Foreign Relations (CFR). And where was the announcement made but in Damascus? But look what else is in the Spanish FM's repartee. First comes the defence of Arafat against Israeli threats to expel him for his direction of terror against their country. Then come what have to be huge lies. Do Spain and Syria really hold "identical views" on Iraq? Is Spain really in favor of "getting rid of the foreign occupation" or its American and British partners, in Iraq?

Or was Spain threatened by Syria with terrifying violence?

When Palacio met Powell did he pass on the message that if American troops don't get out of Iraq, Syria would pulverize us at home? He most certainly did, but since the troops are still there, Powell obviously didn't pay heed, or care.
However, Powell and his CFR backers must have given Spain still another assignment...Libya. **



Case Study: Yezidi identity in the last century: Ethnic, national or religious?
London protest: Calls for arrests

Signs calling for death denounced as 'disgraceful'


LONDON, England -- London police were under pressure to arrest Muslim protesters who carried signs threatening death and terrorist attacks at a demonstration over cartoons depicting the Prophet Mohammed.

Scotland Yard received more than 100 complaints after Friday's protest outside the Danish Embassy, the UK's Press Association reported.

Police said they would study video of the demonstrators taken by specialist officers, The Sun newspaper reported, and a police spokeswoman told PA that any arrests would be made "at the appropriate time."

Conservative opposition spokesman David Davis said slogans such as "Massacre those who insult Islam" and "Europe you will pay, your 9/11 will come" amounted to incitement to murder and that police should take a "no tolerance" approach to them.

On Monday British PM Tony Blair criticized the behavior of the demonstrators as "completely unacceptable." He also condemned attacks on European interests.

Blair said he spoke Monday morning with Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen of Denmark, where the cartoons were first published, to offer Britain's full support and say that they stand together in solidarity.

"The attacks on the citizens of Denmark and people of the European community were completely unacceptable, as is the behavior of some of the demonstrators in London over the past few days," Blair said in a statement read by his spokesman.

A range of British Muslim organizations condemned the London protest, including the moderate Muslim Council of Britain to the more radical Hizb-ut-Tahrir, which Prime Minister Blair wants to outlaw because of claims it supports terrorism.

"While strongly condemning the publication of these caricatures, we also unequivocally condemn those who are urging violent protests or inciting hatred against others," Hizb-ut-Tahrir spokesman Imran Waheed told PA.

The organization held a less incendiary protest in London on Saturday, which passed off without incident.

Muslim Council of Britain spokesman Inayat Bunglawala said the Muslim community would welcome eventual arrests and prosecutions of those brandishing the placards.

"The placards that were on display were quite disgraceful and in our opinion seemed to constitute a clear incitement to violence, even murder," Bunglawala told Reuters.

Meanwhile, a Muslim man who dressed as suicide bomber at Friday's protest apologized for his actions after first being reported as defending them.

Omar Khayam, 22, met reporters outside his home in Bedford, north of London, and said he "wholeheartedly" regretted causing offense.

Earlier, he was quoted by the Daily Express newspaper as saying he wanted to highlight "double standards."

"I can't make any apologies for it. I didn't go there to cause anyone any harm. I went along just to attend a protest. Yet I have almost been branded a suicide bomber overnight," Khayam was quoted as saying.

"Did I say, 'Kill Jews'? No. Did I have racist signs on me? No. So why this reaction?

"I would do it again to make a point. I could have gone and held up banners or something, but this made the point better. If certain people have the right to do what they want and other people don't, then that is double standards."

The British government has called in the row over the cartoons after a third embassy was torched by protesters in the Middle East.

Foreign Secretary Jack Straw said the burning of the Danish mission in the Lebanese capital Beirut, following similar attacks on Danish and Norwegian embassies in Syria, was "absolutely outrageous and totally unjustified."

The cartoons were originally published by a Danish newspaper last September.

CNN has chosen to not show the cartoons out of respect for Islam.

Tuesday, 31 January 2006
( by Kameel Ahmedi - During his recent trip to South Kurdistan, Kurdish journalist and activist, Kameel Ahmedi, has investigated the cultural and political life of the Yezids. Yezidis are a Kurdish sect, named after their supposed founder Yezid, the Umayyad Caliph. Their political representatives succeeded in winning one seat in the Iraqi parliament during the recent Iraqi elections. 

The Yezidi depiction of God takes the form of a peacock, symbolising the colour and beauty of the natural world. The village of Lalash, an important site for Yezidi ritual and a symbol of the distinctiveness of the people. 

The traditional Yezidi livelihood of semi-nomadic herding persists Yezidis have been persecuted historically for their 
‘devil worship’, partly due to the importance of the symbol of the black snake and the use of fire to their 
rituals and beliefs.

The Yezidi depiction of God takes the form of a peacock, symbolising the colour and beauty of the natural world. 
The village of Lalash, an important site for Yezidi ritual and a symbol of the distinctiveness of the people
The Yezidi depiction of God takes the form of a peacock, symbolising the colour and beauty of the natural world. The village of Lalash, 
an important site for Yezidi ritual and a symbol of the distinctiveness of the people

The traditional Yezidi livelihood of semi-nomadic herding persists Yezidis have been persecuted historically for their perceived ‘devil worship’, partly due to the importance of the symbol of the black snake and the use of 
fire to their rituals and beliefs.

The The aim of this paper is to explore how identity and ethnicity as distinct from other groups in the area has been seen by Yezidi Kurds throughout the last century. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the division of its lands into a number of countries where Yezidis live there have been many political and social changes which have had direct impact on the lives of the community, and the ways they practice and express their faith. Lalash and Jayia shangar where I spend some days to do filed work and document what you read . 

In Iraq, the birth place of Yezidism, where current religious leaders and pilgrim sites are based, Yezidis have been forced to show their loyalty and acceptance of the government’s political demands to form a sort of coalition with the central government. After the fall of Saddam once again the Yezidis have changed their sense of affiliation, and now publicly announce that they are of Kurdish descent. 

There have been seventy two genocides ordered by the Muslim rulers in the past, before the fall of the Ottomans, in order to wipe out the Yezidi community, who were often viewed as devil worshipers. After the creation of the modern states in the Middle East, these practices stopped. Therefore, Yezidis viewed the creation of these nation states, unlike their fellow Kurds or ethnically oriented minorities, as bringing a sense of security for their religious rights. It is true that these developments served to protect them from local warlords and Muslim rulers. Also, the political situation and the centralised government created opportunities in which the Yezidis began to freely express their religious ceremonies in terms of Haj and large annual gatherings attended by thousands. The government even assisted with this, allowing Yezidis to build shrines and pilgrim sites in Sanjar, a place called Lalash where the teaching of Yezidi religion takes place. The physical isolation of the place, along with its ritual significance, has helped the Yezidi communities there to develop a sense of identity separate from their neighbours which is also acceptable for the regimes in power. 

Yezidi Kurds from Iraq are mostly based in an area call Jayi Sanjar (Sanjar Mountain) which was the battle ground in the war between Kurdish militias and the Iraqi regime in the past. Yezidis were in a perfect position to be manipulated in a ‘divide and rule’ approach to maintaining power in the area. Throughout the recent historical eras since the fall of the Ottomans, the Yezidi community has kept itself closely aligned with the changing powers in the area, Arab or Kurdish, and regardless of their particular focus on religion in the public domain. This strategy has enabled them to survive as a coherent and bounded group, and kept them safe from local religious antagonisms.(Fuccuro,1997:565) As Islam is the predominant religion in the countries where Yezidis reside and practise, the hostility between Yezidi and Muslim communities discouraged Yezidis from engaging with surrounding social and political developments. This has meant the community largely maintained traditional tribal structures, and in terms of education for example, they remain largely illiterate. As the schools did not allowed the religion of Yezidi thought into the curriculum, communities have often responded by not sending their children to schools. Endogamy is practised by these Yezidi communities, and intermarriage with any one out side yezidi religion is strictly forbidden. On occasions, acting in contradiction to this has even carried death orders from the Yezidi religious leadership.

The traditional Yezidi livelihood of semi-nomadic herding persists Yezidis have been persecuted historically for their perceived ‘devil worship’, partly due to the importance of the symbol of the black snake and the use of fire to their rituals and beliefs. 

Given the religious differences between Yezidi Kurds and other Muslim Kurds, which worked to their advantage, the government started by ‘Arabising’ the Yezidi Kurds, encouraging them to change their identity on their Iraqi ID cards from Kurdish to Arab ethnicity. Their religious book was published in Arabic, and their religious leader offered a seat in the Iraqi National Parliament. As well, financial development grants have been offered to the area in a bid to ensure the loyalty of the Yezidi Kurds to the government. 

After the fall of Saddam, past developments with respect to Yezidis which had taken place under his regime began to unravel. The Yezidis begun to reinvent themselves as Kurds, to the extent that changes to their formal dress code (which used to be Arabic in style) in a Kurdish style have begun in a few short years. Also, their religious books are now printed in Kurdish by the Iraqi Kurdish authorities, and the community has now been giving special treatment socially and politically by the new regime. 

Cohen, in Two-Dimensional Man talks about the power order and the symbolic order as interdependent, and points out that this symbiotic nature has often been overlooked by wider social and political science. His explanation suggests that power and symbolism function together to maintain social institutions, and that adaptations in either system can be affected by changes in the other. (Cohen, 1974:23-24)

In the case of the Yezidi community in Iraq,
we in fact see that there is a close parallel between political events and the ways their ritual and symbolic order respond or adapt to wider political events. Their position of privilege has always been maintained by a creative manipulation of religious identity, by aligning it at times with Arab leadership, at times with Kurdish ethnicity. Therefore, by creating a distinct boundary of “Yezidi identity” they can operate in relation to the changing power order regardless of who fills the role of Iraqi leadership. 

Political powers, the economic and political, are indistinguishable one from the other. They certainly differ in a number of respects. The relationships which they govern are formally regulated by different mechanisms. Political power is ultimately maintained by physical coercion. Economic power is ultimately maintained by reward and deprivation.  

Similarly, the institutions of kinship and ritual, though distinct in form, have a great deal in common, and the separation between them is often arbitrary and sometimes misleading. They are both normative, governed by categorical imperatives, or ‘oughts’ that are rooted in the psychic structure of men in society through continuous socialisation. 

Cohen’s discussion of the relationship between the ‘two dimensions’ can be a useful tool in looking at the case of the Yezidis. Throughout the last century, Yezidis have not been a politically oriented community, and traditionally kept distance from active political participation. At the same time, they have been present in the political arena by using their alignments to gain privilege, siding with those who were in power. While there has been number of political changes and shifts of power in the area, the Yezidis have maintained they loyalty to the power order. In this way, their symbolic systems have always remained relevant and powerful as a source of identity to the Yezidi population, while being adapted as a useful political resource in managing relations with other power groups.

Emile Durkheim, on the other hand, says that church members (who here we can understand as any religiously based community), find

“…the beliefs and practices of his religious life ready-made at birth; their existence prior to his own implies their existence outside of hime self. The system of signs I use to express my thought, the system of currency I employ to pay my debts, the instruments of credit I utilize in my commercial relations, the practices followed in my profession, etc function independently of my own use of them”. (Durkheim 1909:85)  

Recent political changes mean the Yezidis have changed from Arabic to Kurdish styles in their material culture, including style of dress and script in religious texts.The recent Iraqi free elections brought a change in power to the Yezidi areas in the north. The Kurds are in power and the Yezidi interests themselves have been voiced. Kurdish identity, in language and other areas, has re-emerged as a factor in the lives. 

Durkheim argues that social facts are real because their effects can be felt. People are compelled to live according the rules of their society and violate them at their peril. While Cohen’s ideas about the power order and politics suggest that they always work together, Durkheim’s  ideas seems to view religion as fixed in society, and not necessarily associated with other aspects of life. Looking at the case of Yezidis in present day Iraq, we see that while the image of this community is one of isolation and cultural distinctness, they have also adapted to changing social and political situations. Yezidi identity has even been used as a way to maintain good relations with those in power. This can be observed in material culture as much as beliefs, as in the example of the changes to religious texts and dress codes of contemporary Yezidis. We might say that from the perspective of the Yezidis themselves, Durkhiem’s ideas seem most accurate, however if we look at things from an external perspective, we see that the close interaction between power order and behaviours surrounding religious practice illustrates Cohen’s ideas about the ‘two dimensions’ of man. Each act and belief is a political one and a symbolic one.    

The Yezidi pir, leaders of the Yezidi temples, are both unmarried men andwomen who officiate at rituals, including sacrifice. They belief includes many folk traditions such as way to request for blessing and luck.Yezidis believe the bridge symbolises ascent to the heavens.  


Fuccuro, Nelida (1997) Ethnicity, and state formation: the case of yezidi Kurds of sanjar in International Journal of Middle East Studies vol, 29, No. 4 pp 559-580

Maclver (1947) in Cohen, Abner (1974) Two-Dimensional Man London: Routledge Publishing 

Cohen, Abner (1974) Two-Dimensional Man London: Routledge Publishing 

Durkheim, Emile (1909) What is a Social Fact

Islam Awareness Week, 2005

Islam Awareness Week enters its twelfth year in 2005, and is set to be the biggest yet.

The organisers of this year's IAW face the daunting challenge of educating people about the previously little known history of Islam and Britain, in a bid to demonstrate that being British and Muslim is not a new concept.

The events of 7/7 put the British Muslim community in the spotlight, after it was revealed that the bombers were raised and educated on English soil. While questions are being asked about the loyalty and role of Muslims in Britain, organisers of Islam Awareness Week (IAW) seek to remind people that Islam is not an alien culture and Muslims have been living in and trading with Britain for centuries.

The theme, '1,000 years of Britain in Islam', continues past themes, which have included 'Your Muslim Neighbour' and 'Muslim Heritage'. This year's theme draws heavily upon the history of white Muslim converts in Britain and the wider contributions from Islam and Muslims to British culture.

Julie Siddiqui, deputy co-ordinator of IAW, explains the importance of the week. 'Islam Awareness Week is about putting as much focus as possible into dispelling myths and building bridges with the community. We don't always give that as much focus throughout the year, so IAW is a perfect opportunity. And it's more important now than it ever has been. Since 7/7, in terms of people's perception of Islam, we've moved back about hundred steps.'

'The notion of history is important because we all presume, Muslims included sometimes, that Islam arrived in the 60s, with the textile community. It didn't. As I was looking at some of the resources for this week, I was amazed by some of the links that Britain had with Islam. I saw photos of families who were, to all intents and purposes, typical white English families, but they were actually Muslims. There have been whole communities of white Muslims for over a hundred years.'

Paul Rippingale, organiser of the IAW national cinema listings, says: 'The history of Islam in Britain has been completely whitewashed, which has led to a sense of alieness. People think Muslims have been invading since the 1960s, but Islam has influenced Britain since the 11th Century and been present in the country since the 16th century. If people recognise that Islam has shaped and formed Britain's past, then they can't look at Muslims and think it is something that is alien and different from themselves.'

Terrorism in the name of Islam used to be seen as perhaps a foreign thing, but since 7/7, the British Muslim community have had to face a number of challenges in their everyday life. Shafeeq Sadiq, project co-ordinator said 'A handful of people have taken actions that have demonised the entire community. Muslims have received verbal and physical abuse, and most can tell you about the feeling of being under a microscope of suspicion. But the response to IAW has been great from the wider community, and each year it gets bigger and bigger. For example, last year we launched from the Globe Theatre, this year we're launching in London City Hall.

'People have realised there are problems facing Muslims and they see it as a societal problem, not just a Muslim problem.'


New terror law will harm race relations

By John Tummon

5 January 2006

We reproduce here the letter sent by the Director of Oldham Race Equality Partnership to Tony Blair on proposed anti-terror laws and the damage they are likely to cause.

The Executive Committee of the Oldham Race Equality Partnership has asked me to write to government, local MPs and others who are in a position to affect the above proposed legislation and to set out our concerns, particularly about provisions in clauses 1, 2 and 21 which we believe will be discriminatory and / or cause further damage to race relations.

Our overall concern is that government has no joined-up strategy on the post 7/7 situation in the sense that it has developed policy on the security implications of 7/7 quite separately from considering its race relations implications. Specifically, it seems, in our view, to have given no consideration within the Terrorism Bill to its effects on race relations and, in effect, acted as if the race relations implications of 7/7 are of little comparative interest to government - when the Task Force published its report (Preventing Extremism Together), this was allowed to slip away almost unnoticed.

This is entirely against the spirit of the government's own Race Relations Act (as amended in 2000), which requires new policies to be assessed for their impact on race relations. While this requirement does not extend, legally, to new legislation, there can be no doubt that the intention of parliament in amending the Race Relations Act was that it should guide government towards looking for the impact on race relations when it is carrying out its function of legislating.

It also flies in the face of the March 2005 recommendation of the Home Affairs Committee on Terrorism and Community Relations, that 'the Home Office review the links between its work on community cohesion and anti- terrorism'.

The race relations implications of 7/7 have been given a much lower priority than the security implications and yet there has been no community consultation on the Terrorism Bill even roughly comparable to the visits to Oldham and other places by Hazel Blears and other ministers to hear from us on what could be done locally to reduce inter-racial tensions in the aftermath of 7/7. There has been no national Task Force with representatives of Muslim organisations and no consultative process asking us what we wanted by way of protection against bombers. The Task Force's Terms of Reference were steered away from a definition of security which encompassed the issues being simultaneously developed, quite separately, within the Terrorism Bill.

We can see no justification for this inconsistency or for the artificial separation of community relations from security - in November, the police launched a national consultation on policing, asking the public how we want to be protected from criminals, so why is it apparently inappropriate to ask us what we want by way of protection against bombers?

This failure to consult on the race relations implications of the Terrorism Bill will lead in practice to undermining the work of the Task Force, the considerable race relations work being carried out by such as ourselves at a local level in response to 7/7 and, more generally, the work carried out up and down the country since 2001 to improve community cohesion in the aftermath of the riots of that year and the attack on New York.

Government is well aware that the British Muslim community has been increasingly alienated since 9/11 from British foreign policy in the middle east in general and the role of Britain in President Bush's so-called 'War on Terror' in particular. Against the background also of the 2001 riots in Oldham, Bradford and Burnley and the consequent increase in support for the BNP among adjacent white communities, the British Muslim community has increasingly been required to demonstrate its loyalty to the UK at precisely the same time that it has felt under increasing pressure from the tone of government foreign policy statements and from sections of the white population who continue to vote in large numbers for the BNP and to carry out racist attacks on Muslim individuals as well as on Mosques.

The 6th report of the Home Affairs Committee on Terrorism and Community Relations endorsed this view in its conclusion that 'community relations have deteriorated, although the picture is by no means uniform, and that there are many positive examples to set against our overall assessment. International terrorism and the response to it have contributed to this deterioration, particularly in relations between the majority community and the Muslim community'.

OREP works in a borough in which there can be no doubt that community relations have deteriorated as a result of terrorism AND the response to it.

More specifically, British Foreign Policy has over the past 4 years involved a military invasion of two Muslim countries, which have led to repeated allegations that British soldiers have tortured Muslims. The government has done little to prevent the United States' unlawful incarceration of many hundreds of Muslims, including British Muslims, in Guantanamo and elsewhere. In these circumstances, and bearing in mind too the fourfold increase in stop and search operations carried out among British Asians by the police, under section 44 of the Terrorism Act 2000, it has never been harder for British Muslims to feel British than it is right now. This response to terrorism puts a particular strain on race relations, or on community cohesion, as it is more fashionably called today. This is the context with which OREP and our partners grapple in Oldham and which makes our work in helping the borough recover from the Riots so much harder than it should be.

It is no accident that the BNP, both through its leaflets and its website, has become more and more a single-issue, islamaphobic, organisation over the past 4 years. In simple terms, the 'War on terror' provides a context which helps them to further deteriorate race relations whereas it harms our attempts to improve race relations.

All these processes have been accelerated since 7/7 and the Terrorism Bill is ratcheting this up still further. In particular, we wish to draw your attention to the following proposed provisions and their likely effect on race relations:

Proposals in Clause 1 of the Bill to create new offences of encouragement to terrorism and dissemination of terrorist publications are very broad in scope. Despite the government's amendment, the crown would still not need to prove intent to incite others in order to secure a conviction. This poses a serious threat to legitimate free expression, particularly free expression within the Muslim community. The obvious concern is that people who express support for armed resistance to the occupation of Iraq - resistance that many people around the world feel is legitimate - could be caught-up in the new laws. To vocalise one's support for the Iraqi resistance may constitute 'glorification' for the purposes of the legislation. Simply stating that one can understand what leads some people to become suicide bombers may also lay people open to prosecution. It is clear that Muslims feel particularly exposed to the possibility of being criminalised as a consequence of this provision in Clause 1.

It has been pointed out by the Association of University Lecturers and others that this provision would severely restrict the legitimate study of controversial historical events, terrorist activity, the motivation of those who use terrorist means and the use of violence for political ends. If, during such study, students are required to read, listen to or watch texts and statements that do indeed glorify terrorism or could be seen to encourage it, their lecturer could be committing an offence if he/she had reasonable grounds to believe that a student was likely to understand this study material as a direct or indirect encouragement or other inducement to the commission, preparation or instigation of acts of terrorism. The fear is that a Muslim lecturer addressing a class which included a group of Muslim students might well be targeted under this provision, whereas a white lecturer addressing a group of largely white students would not be likely to come under surveillance of this nature in the first place.

The Home Affairs Committee Inquiry already referred to these type of concerns in its observation about the existing anti-terrorist legislation that 'we accept that there is a clear perception among all our Muslim witnesses that Muslims are being stigmatised by the operation of the Terrorism Act: this is extremely harmful to community relations..........we believe that special efforts should be made by the police and Government to reassure Muslims that they are not being singled out unfairly'.

Instead, Hazel Blears' comments to the Committee confirm the perception of stigmatisation among Muslims. She said that 'the threat is most likely to come from those people associated with an extreme form of Islam, or who are falsely hiding behind Islam. It means that some of our counter-terrorism powers will be disproportionately experienced by the Muslim community. I think that is the reality and I think we should recognise that. If a threat is from a particular place then our action is going to be targeted at that area.' (Our emphasis).

Hence the fears that Muslim lecturers, alongside Muslims active in protests against the government's Iraq policies, will be disproportionately targeted for surveillance, arrest and detention without trial under the provisions of the Terrorism Bill.

It is already a criminal offence to:

  • 'encourage, persuade or endeavour to persuade any person to murder any other person'
  • 'counsel or procure' any other person to commit any indictable offence
  • 'solicit or incite' another person to commit any indictable offence
  • incite another person to commit an act of terrorism wholly or partly outside the UK
  • conspire with others to commit offences outside the UK
  • invite support for a proscribed terrorist organisation

Is this not sufficient to protect the public? What sort of people who constitute an actual terrorist threat could be apprehended by widening the net in the way proposed in Clause 1? Our concern, based on ministerial comments such as the above, is that the sort of people who will be targeted will be Muslim activists and academics, many with a lot of credibility and support within the wider Muslim community either nationally or locally, and that the campaigns which will inevitably arise in their support will further polarize the Muslim community in places like Oldham from adjacent white communities, who get their information about race relations almost exclusively from a tabloid press which frequently reports such matters in a way which plays into the hands of more overt islamaphobes on the far right. This is the kind of development we refer to through when we say that the legislation will 'ratchet up' the problematical race relations which we are already grappling with.

Similarly, a 'terrorist publication' is defined under Clause 2 to include any item which contains 'information of assistance' to someone planning a terrorist attack, meaning presumably that an A-Z map of Oldham and Rochdale may be a 'terrorist publication' for the purpose of this offence. The clause provides that a person may be guilty of disseminating a terrorist publication merely by making such a publication available in the knowledge that someone somewhere may regard it as useful for terrorism. It is enough under the provisions of the Bill to be simply 'reckless' as to whether members of the public who see or read such a publication would understand it as such, regardless of whether the publisher of the statement foresaw any risk that it would be. It is also irrelevant, under Clause 2, whether any person was actually encouraged to attempt or to commit an act of terrorism as a consequence of what was published; instances in which no-one was will not count as a defence. This is a recipe for witch-hunting.

Crucially, it is likely in practice that it will be considered 'reckless' to circulate some documents among Muslims whereas it will not be regarded as 'reckless' to circulate the same documents among non-Muslims. For anyone to email a copy of an article from Hizb-ut-Tahrir's website may place them in breach of Clause 2 if those receiving it believe that it glorifies those who die fighting against injustice; in practice the test of 'recklessness' is likely to differentiate sharply between Muslim and non-Mulsim recipients of such an email.

Extension of the grounds for proscription in Clause 21 will criminalise membership of non-violent political organisations on the basis of their opinions. If Hizb-ut-Tahrir is to be proscribed for speaking out against British foreign policy, which some ministerial comments suggest to be government's intention, then what of the 2 million British people who have marched against the invasion of Iraq, including members of OREP's staff and Executive Committee? If Hizb-ut-Tahrir is to be proscribed for criticising despotic rulers throughout the Muslim world, then how will the government deal with Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and other NGOs who routinely condemn these regimes? If it is for calling for the uniting of Muslim lands under one Caliphate that Hizb-ut-Tahrir is to be proscribed, then how will the government deal with other Muslims in Britain who share this belief? There is not one instance to date in British history of a non-violent group ever being proscribed. Even Sinn Féin, at the height of the Troubles in Northern Ireland, was never proscribed, despite the belief within successive governments of the day that is was operationally linked to the Irish Republican Army.

To proscribe Hizb-ut-Tahrir would therefore be to follow the tradition of dictatorial regimes around the world which do not tolerate political dissent and proscribe non-violent organisations with alternative viewpoints. This is not only fundamentally undemocratic but it runs the serious risk of adversely affecting race relations, in that it will be seen by the Muslim community as aimed at Muslim-based organisations at a time when their own concerns about the activities of the British National Party are frequently brushed aside by public agencies on the grounds that the BNP is a legitimate political party. This lack of even-handedness can only play into the hands of the very organisations and ideologies against which this proposal is aimed, who will be able to portray it as an attack not on Hizb-ut-Tahrir or even on their aspiration for a Caliphate but as an attack on the Muslim 'Umma', which is a key concept for all Muslims.

Overall, the view of OREP is that Clauses 1, 2 and 21 of this Bill will harm race relations and thereby undermine other aspects of the government's response to 7/7. Kofi Annan, the UN's Secretary General has taken the same view of overly-expansive anti-Terrorist measures - 'compromising human rights cannot serve the struggle against terrorism. On the contrary, it facilitates achievement of the terrorist's objective - by ceding to him the moral high ground, and provoking tension, hatred and mistrust of government among precisely those parts of the population where he is most likely to find recruits. Upholding human rights is not merely compatible with a successful counter-terrorism strategy. It is an essential element in it.' So is upholding the conditions in which good race relations can flourish.

Consequently, it is unrealistic for the government to pass the Terrorism Bill in its current form and expect any significant cooperation from Muslims by way of providing community intelligence information about people who might be involved in actively supporting terrorist attacks. It will simply be a waste of time for the police to create new community cohesion posts within Special Branch for the purpose of facilitating this intelligence, which has just been done in the North West of England. Like the Nationalist community in Northern Ireland in the 1970s and 1980s, British Muslims have a different identity to the majority community and are discriminated against in employment to the extent that they are virtually absent from whole sectors of mainstream employment. In the case of Muslims in Oldham, this means being consigned mostly to marginal self-employment as taxi-drivers, take-away workers and off-licensees, too alienated and lacking in trust for the police to bother reporting racial attacks against themselves and, just like the Nationalist community in Northern Ireland, highly unlikely to 'shop' one another in an atmosphere which allows for extended internment without trial or recourse to effective legal advice.

OREP agrees with others that an appropriate strategy would to increase the resources available to the police and security services to focus on apprehending those who are actually committed to carrying out terrorist outrages rather than criminalising ever-widening circles of people and communities around them. There have been a number of well-publicised security blunders in respect of the threat which this bill seeks to address and dealing with any resourcing or structural issues which have contributed to these blunders would seem to offer better protection to the public than the Terrorism Bill as it stands.

Those of us engaged in trying to improve race relations have watched while British Foreign Policy initiatives have put an enormous strain on race relations. We have watched and listened to the increasing alienation of young men who feel keenly the suffering of the Muslim victims of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and have become angered by reported atrocities from Abu-Graib prison to Guantanamo Bay. This 'War on Terror' is making it harder for me, my colleagues and OREP's partners to do our jobs than it should be.

For all the above reasons, our considered view is that, if the Bill goes ahead with these clauses in it, race relations in places like Oldham will, in effect, have been subjugated to the overriding priority of the 'War on Terror'.

We therefore ask government to re-think the relative importance of its domestic and foreign policy objectives, to give race relations the importance it merits in practice, to carry out what amounts to an impact assessment of the Terrorism Bill on British race relations and to withdraw those clauses which will cause foreseeable harm to race relations.

The Institute of Race Relations is precluded from expressing a corporate view: any opinions expressed are therefore those of the authors.