|Coincidentally, on the evening of 2-13-06, Joe and I
watched the video by Sun Bear (now deceased) who spoke the prophecies of
his own tribe and of the Hopis. When he told the prophecy of the black
serpent, I knew it was about the black snake I had dreamed the night
Leon Shenandoah Speaks Supreme
Sachem of the Iroquois, Successor to the Original Tododaho, Speaker of
the Hotinoshonee/Haudenosaunee Iroquois Confederacy. Another prophecy
that has come to at least partial fulfillment is from the Iroquois
people. This prophecy was spoken of by the Tuscarora Holy Wallace
"Mad Bear" Anderson sometime before 1973. Slightly differing
versions have previously been published by Zula Brinkerhoff in her book
"God's Chosen People in America" and by Sunbear and Wabun, in
their book "Black Dawn - Bright Day" and by Scott Peterson in
his book, "Native American Prophecies" - see article below.
For those of you that don't know Zula, she is an adopted daughter of the
late Keeper of the Hopi Prophecy, David Monongye. David was the author
of the Hopi Nation Newsletter: "Techqua Ikachi" - that
eventually resulted in the publication of the recent book by Thomas E.
Mails, "The Hopi Survival Kit". Zula is a courageous lady, who
braved Dickie Wilson's roadblocks 5 times to carry supplies into Wounded
Knee during the F.B.I. seige in the 70's. Deganawidah: The Prophecy of
the Two Serpents from
"Black Dawn Bright Day" by Sunbear, and "God's Chosen
People in America" by Zula Brinkerhoff (out of print). Among the
Iroquois, (as with many cultures) the spiritual people and
their medicine societies have "staffs" resembling walking
canes. On some of these staffs, there are three serpents. There's a
white and a red serpent with the same tail. This indicates that they
have the same purpose towards humanity: domination, conquest, and
control. The prophecy given by Mad Bear Anderson says that the white
serpent would be the first here in America, and the red serpent come
down over the north pole, and would wrestle with the white serpent until
the rivers boiled and fish turned up dead. When they locked in battle,
the red men would be released from their reservations somehow, and would
go to the hilly country, where they would smoke tobacco and get to know
each other once again. They would rally around a seer, perhaps just a
young man, who would form them into one nation in a single day. Then a
black serpent would come out of the ocean and wrestle and defeat both
the white and the red serpent. Then he would look around to see if their
were other people to fight with. He would see the Native people gathered
in the hilly country, along with all the other people gathered with them
wanting to understand the spiritual way of the Earth. He would turn as
if to fight with them, but then he would see coming the great light of
Deganawidah, the great teacher of the Northeast Indian people. He would
become frightened, flee and never bother the people again. They would go
back into the ocean from whence they came, never to return again. The
interpretation given to Sunbear by the Spirit, is that the white and red
serpents represent the United States and Russia. They wrestled for a
long time until the rivers boiled and the fish turned dead from their
atomic weapons testing. They wrestled in the cold war, supplying
armaments to get other people to fight against each other. They
wrestled, they exhausted almost all their resources, until they were in
so much debt from wrestling they couldn't afford to continue anymore.
This is the stage we're at right now. (In the version published by Zula,
the battle takes place here in America - perhaps a future invasion. The
young choice seer, also spoken of in the Bible, is only in the versions
told to Zula by Mad Bear, and in the version published by Scott Peterson
in his book "Native American Prophecies" - scroll down see
that version below, or click here.) Then the black serpent comes into
the battle. The black serpent is the Moslem Nations with control of the
world's oil supplies. The Moslem nations have gotten both the United
States and Russia into wars they didn't know how to fight. Vietnam was
really fought over control of vast oil reserves. They defeated the U.S.
in Lebanon and the Soviets in Afghanistan. Neither country knows how to
battle the black serpent, because they are holy warriors. Now we're
coming into the second stage of the wrestling of the serpents: the war
of the Moslem Nations. This war can affect all the nations of the world.
In it, the battlefield will be the gas pumps. It will drain the last
dollar from those countries that have become overly dependent on oil for
the life blood of their economies. The Moslem nations control most of
the world's petroleum; they can make quite a noose for Western
Civilization from their fuel lines. Mohawk Prophecy of the Seventh
Then there would come across the land a great heat. It would swell
from the Mothers belly and move across the land in great clouds of fire.
It would appear as if the bowels of the Earth were opening and spilling
forth this great fire everywhere. This heat would last a long time, so
long that it would cause the stench from all the death to become
intolerable. Even the Serpents who would continue to battle for they
loved war would themselves begin to sicken from the stench of death.
Then one day a warrior who was standing lookout from the hilly country
watching the Serpents battle, would see from his lookout post the Red
Serpent reach around the neck of the White Serpent and pull from him a
feather as he tore open his throat. This feather would be carried by the
wind to the South. Here it would find its way to a Great Black Serpent
that would have appeared from some mysterious place where it had been
hiding in the darkness. It would have been awakened from all the
commotion and warring in the North. The Black Serpent, upon studying the
white feather, would be astounded, as the hair would begin to dance upon
the currents of the wind as it turned itself into a white bird and then
into a white-skinned woman.
This white-skinned woman would have power and wisdom. She would be
skilled in the ancient arts of the People, and she would speak to him in
their ancient language, which he understood. She would tell him stories
as she danced upon the wind shape shift before his eyes. She would tell
the Black Serpent stories of great sickness that was upon the land and
in the hearts of the People. Stories of death and horror going on in the
North. These things he would know somehow to be true, but again he would
have been asleep deep within the belly of the Earth for a long time.
He would ask her to tell him the stories once again, for it would be
unbelievable to him that such things could be occurring upon this Earth.
Then, when the woman was through with her tales, he would ever so gently
place her down upon a rock, with great love and respect for her purity
of spirit and her personal powers.
He would then turn to the North and let loose a great roar, filling the
winds with his furry over the horrors he had heard. The winds and the
sound of the great roar they carried would be felt over the whole of the
Earth. It would rise up from the belly of the Earth, and even be heard
in the heavens. With great speed the Black Serpent would then head
towards the North to find the other two.
The two Serpents would already be weary from the firestorms, and the
stench of death. They would be sickened to the point that they would
weak and exhausted. They would rise in horror and shock at the sudden
appearance of the Black Serpent, which would seem to come from nowhere.
They would recognize him but not believe his appearance possible.
The Black Serpent would attack the Red and White Serpents with a great
vengeance, and he would defeat the Red Serpent entirely. Then he would
stand upon the chest of the White Serpent, letting out a horrible and
boastful roar as he tore him into two pieces. The battle would be short;
it would not be too long before the Black Serpent would begin to look
for yet another Serpent to conquer, filled with the energy of war and
killing. He would have taken on the evil of both serpents and become a
power of darkness that defies description. It would appear that he
intended to devour the whole of the Earth, even the heavens in his
The Great Black Serpent would look in all the directions for a
formidable foe. When he turned towards the direction of the hilly
country, he would see the People standing noble and erect, with their
arms open, having fearless hearts, facing the winds of change. He would
know that this was not where his fight was to be found; he would turn
and look elsewhere. For a time the whole of the world would be in
darkness. Great clouds will have formed from the battle and the spewing
of smoke from the Mother belly. It would be as if time itself had
The Black Serpent would then turn towards a sound coming from the
heavens and, for a moment become blinded by a great and mysterious light
that would appear from the heavens. This light would be many, many times
brighter than the Sun. This Great Light would be travelling east, coming
from the West, over the great waters. It would appear in the skies for
the passing of twelve of our days. When it arrives there will be no
night and day. This would terrify the Black Serpent to such a degree
that he would slither into the ocean, trying to hide himself from the
great light. He would sink beneath the Great Waters and never be seen by
the People again.
A part of the White Serpent would have survived. Although weak, he too,
would see this light and make a feeble attempt to gather himself up and
go towards that light. Suffering greatly from the wound received in
battle with the Black Serpent, this portion of the White Serpent would
find its way to the hilly country. Here it would be taken in and helped
by the People, as it is their way to nurture the weak. This portion of
the White Serpent would take on the ways of the People, but for a long
time after, he would shake with fear whenever he again witnessed a great
Then, as if rising from the ground itself, the form of the Red Serpent
would appear. He would also witness the strange Light shining like a
great star, and he would tremble with fear. He would also try to crawl
towards the North Country, but would die along the journey from his
wounds. Leaving behind him a bloody trail that would split the Earth
into a shaky canyon. This trail would split this land of the Turtle in
two, and then into four pieces.
To the south where the Black serpent had vanished the Ice would begin
melt, great pieces of ice would begin to fall from the sky, putting much
of the land to the East into the deep sleep of winter. There it would be
purified from the death that it had known. In these times we will
witness other strange occurrences with the weather. The seas would
become violent and rise covering much of the old shoreline. New cliffs
would rise from the sea, as well as new lands.
The trail left behind by the Red Serpent would be washed clean as it
filled with the waters from the North. New mountains would form along
where the body of the Red Serpent lay still and cold in its death. This
would form a new sea in the North Country, which would forever remind
the people of the dark times through which they had passed.
The mysterious light would be as a mist and would engulf the entire
Earth much like a giant cloud. We will be lifted from the wheel of time,
and we will be unable to determine its passing. Death will cease to be.
Our dream will blend and become many realities, all different yet all
truth. As we experience the unravelling of the dream. We will witness
the force that which allows our perceptions to manifest and express as
our reality. For within this great light the nature of all things is
From the centre of the mysterious light the Great Star would begin to
emerge. The light from this star would swell and eventually become
brighter even than our Sun. It would appear to take form an eight
pointed star as it came closer and closer to the Earth. It would become
so large that it would block out much of the heavens from our view. Its
presence would cause many things to be effected and we will witness much
phenomena as the new world is born before our eyes
There will appear in the heavens a great bow having the twelve colours
of creation. From this bow would be heard the sound of all people, all
who ever were and all that would be. Then there would be a shifting of
the sound like a great harmonic. It would then appear as if they were
all one voice, singing the sound of the new Creation. The sound of what
had been heard so long ago when this world was itself created. When we
first walked upon the Earth and wondered at the newness of her.
When the Star emerges from within the light many of the People who will
have been hiding will come forth from their seclusion. Many will come
from their refuge in the hills and mountains. They will be strange as if
they were walking for the first time. There will be many new colours and
species of life that will come forth from the great void. For they will
have lifted their voices to join with the voices of the heavens.
Man and beast all manner of life form upon this plane will recognize and
acknowledge their part in the spider web of life. They shall know their
part in the dream for life will have become in a moment the expression
of each of their visions of how things would be. There shall come a day
like no other for all the creatures of the Earth in that moment of
forever shall be as one, and man and beast shall communicate as it was
long ago, for fear shall be a no thing. A sound shall come forth from
the great star.
The people who will be coming forth in little bands from all throughout
the hilly country will witness the appearance of Daganaweda, as if
walking right out of this Great Star, returning to the People. The
Peacemaker would be joined by many others as the dream of horror would
come to a close. With his return there would be much rejoicing, and the
people would feel like they had awakened from a dream. They would once
again walk the way of the Great Peace, Kia ëneri Kowa, and form a new
and great civilization that will continue into forever, creating a new
world from the essence of the old. In this world even the eldest of us
would be as children, yet possess the wisdom of experience of the ages
that had come before.
We will join once again with our brothers from the stars. No one shall
be denied, and no one shall be untouched in this time. No dream shall
not come to pass, and no thought shall go unrealised. To speak more of
it would serve no purpose for it will be beyond our comprehension what
will occur. The way of the Kia neri Kowa shall help create the new world
you seek. That which is created shall be born of the heart.
The time for the need for darkness will have passed. You will once again
be as you were in the beginning children of the Sun and you will feel as
if you have awakened from a dream. Your need for death and dying shall
no longer serve the purpose it did before, for you will be walking upon
the pathway of your foreverness. Man and spirit shall be as one in the
|August 9, 1992, the Black Serpent
Cult was flamboyantly displayed in the closing exercises at the Olympiad
in Barcelona, Spain under the direction of King Juan Carlos.
Quoting from an American Information Newsletter: "The closing
spectacle at the Olympic games this summer in Barcelone, Spain, was an
exercise in demonic / pagan symbolism which ended with the mating of a
Black Serpent and the Greek goddess of love and fertility, the
multi-breasted Artemis who then gave birth to the "Great
Dragon," the head of which rose 75 feet above the top of the
stadium. The alleged them of the pageant was the birth of the world in
fire and it was represented by "250 'happy'" devils.. who
began the 'festival of fire.' Giant wooden structures including two
caped figures of Satan and grinning goat's head, were set a ablaze and
constantly moved through the cavorting devils. A group of devils, one
dressed in the robes of a kind, danced frenziedly around a fiery
maypole.. Weird tones, underlaid with constant 'jungle' drumming, were
sporadically joined by eerie wails, long sighs and howling." Occult
symbols were everywhere. Well represented were the Baphomet (goat's head
of witchcraft), the pentagram or "devil's star," the maypole,
which is an ancient pagan phallic symbol, and demonic faces well endowed
with horns. As expected, television network commentators were
"awed" by the spectacle and competed with one another to
compliment its "creativity." At times, the audience joined the
celebration, swaying to the demonic music with arms outstretched to
heaven." Charles Taylor and his wife watched it on television.
King Juan Carlos I was born in Rome, Italy January 5, 1938. He is a
graduate of Spain's Military Academy, its Naval Academy and also of its
Air Force Academy. He is highly qualified by land, sea and air as
"King of Jerusalem, DEFENDER og Catholic Holy Land interests,"
and could well be seen as coming on the world scene as the biblical
rider on "the white Horse" of Rev. 6:2 right after the Rapture
of the Church as evidenced in Rev. 5:9
November 27, 1975, Los Angeles Herald and Examiner: MADRID, Spain (AP)
Flanked by European royalty and three Common Market presidents, King
Juan Carlos received his highest blessing of the Roman Catholic Church
and the cheers of thousands of countrymen as Spain paid homage to its
new leader. Vincente Cardinal Enrique Tarancon, the liberal archbishop
of Madrid, celebrated Mass of the Holy Spirit.. This extraordinary even
was the Coronation of the King. King Carlos kissed the Pope's ring. The
King became an honorary citizen of Rome.
Here is the reason the Pope does not recognize any state of Israel. He
has a secret agreement with Arabs who pledged that they would fight for
the Roman Catholic Church if the Pope would agree to NEVER recognize any
state of Israel. The Arab-Vatican agreement still stands.
King Juan Carlos made a strange statement in Argentine. Defending
democracy, he stated: NEVER MUST ANY IDEA OF THE STATE OR ANY MESSIANIC
DELIVERER COME TO WREST FROM US OUR DIGNITY AS FREE MEN"
On a visit from the President of Israel KIng Carlos wore a skull cap
in a Synagogue in Madrid and was blessed by a rabbi in a Ceremony of
Reconciliation. (The Antichrist King - Juan Carlos, by Charles R.
Taylor, Today in Bible Prophecy, Inc.
With this in mind read the following message:
In a message dated 03/17/2004 6:28:05 AM Pacific Standard Time,
Date:03/17/2004 6:28:05 AM Pacific Standard Time
Sent from the Internet
WHY THE MADRID BOMBINGS by Barry Chamish
(Many of the following concepts will be unfamiliar to those who have
not been following my research steadily. It is the author's contention
that Spain is playing a central, though covert, role in Middle East
diplomacy, believing it has a God-given, if Medieval, right to rule
Israel and especially Jerusalem. Its Jesuit King, Juan Carlos, owns the
title, Protector Of The Holy Places Of Jerusalem, and he takes the
responsibility seriously, as do his superiors in Rome. For an overview
of the hidden role of Spain, visit http://www.barrychamish.com)
The Spanish people are clamoring to know who was responsible for the
bombings which killed over 200 of their people. They will not receive a
true answer. They will be told Al Qaida did the deed in retaliation for
Spain's support of the Iraq invasion and will display some Moslem
bombers as proof.
The more conspiratorial analyses places the blame on the Bush/Blair New
World Order gang who fomented another atrocity to justify their war on
terror and give a boost to its flagging popularity. All such proponents
point to the conveniently found van with the Koranic audiotape beside
the unignited bombs as a set-up, like the 9-11 van with the Koran and
767 flight manual found in Boston.
The Spanish government lied to its people, claiming ETA, the Basque
were the main suspects and were thrown out of power in national
elections a few days later,
which seemed to be a motive for the outrage in the first place.
The lie was formulated to keep the public off the real trail of the
bombings, which leads to
Spain's secret role in the Middle East, as well as its goal of
eliminating Israel by shoving a suicidal "peace" process down
its throat. The leaders of the Middle East know Spain controls their
fate, and that all diplomatic roads pass through Madrid.
But the rest of humanity remains ignorant of Spain's covert power. Let
us try and clear the fog with the events that led to the slaughter in
Madrid as seen through the media. My commentary will begin and end with
two stars **.
We begin the journey that led to the bombings on Aug. 18 '03. On that
day, the PA prime minister Abbas, and his foreign minister Shaat,
announced they would be visiting Damascus on September 8. The
announcement was made as Spain's Foreign Minister is in Damascus
announcing that his king will be visiting Syria that autumn.
So, the story begins as the PA, Syria and King Juan Carlos plot to
Abbas to meet with al-Assad in Syria in September
Syria-Palestine, Politics, 8/18/2003
Palestinian foreign affairs minister Nabil Shaath said that the
Palestinian prime minister Mahmoud Abbas will visit Damascus in
Shaath explained following his talks with the Syrian foreign minister
Farouk al-Shara in Damascus that the Palestinian leadership wants to
deepen consultation and coordination with each of Syria and Lebanon
concerning the peace process in the region.
The Palestinian minister said that Abbas will meet during the
forthcoming visit with President Bashar al-Assad. http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/syria/?id=6468
Spain's King to visit Syria
Spain's economy minister announces King Juan Carlos, Queen Sofia are
to visit Syria in autumn.
DAMASCUS - King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia of Spain are to visit
Syria in the autumn, Spanish Economy Minister Rodrigo Rato said here
Rato told a news conference that he had informed Syrian President Bashar
al-Assad of the visit.
Assad and his wife Asma paid an official visit to Spain in May 2001 -
the couple's first to a Western country after Assad took power in July
2000. Rato, who arrived in Damascus Sunday night, said his own visit also
aimed to "strengthen economic relations" between the two
countries, particularly in the tourism, transport and industry sectors.
He said Spain supports Syria "economically and politically",
adding that Damascus is important in the quest for peace in the Middle
Spain also supports talks to broker a partnership agreement between
Syria and the European Union, the minister said.
A Syrian-Spanish accord giving Damascus five million dollars was signed
Monday, Rato added.
** Now why would Spain commit itself to pushing for a Syrian
partnership agreement with the EU? What could Syria offer the EU but
some canned dates and its fine human rights record? Note the $5 million
bribe to Assad and ask what was behind it. The PA's prime minister lands
in Damascus on September 8 and look at the reaction on September 9. **
Powell, Palacio Discuss Middle East, Iraq, UN
Tuesday, 9 September 2003, 9:34 pm
Press Release: US State Department
Spanish Foreign Minister Says Israeli Threat To Expel Arafat Is A
....."We (the Spanish government) have always said that Arafat
has been part of the solution and the decision by the Israeli
government (to expel him) is a big mistake," she told
...Palacio spoke at a joint press conference with Syrian counterpart
Farouk al-Sharaa after arriving in Damascus on the first leg of a
three-nation tour, which includes Iraq and Kuwait.
...Palacio said her talks with al-Sharaa focused on Israel's threat
to expel Arafat, plus Iraq.
...She said Syria and Spain shared some basic principles, including
the role some regional players could have in Iraq's reconstruction
and returning that country to its rightful place in the
Al-Sharaa said Syria and Spain have identical views on Iraq,
including the maintenance of its integrity and "getting rid of
the foreign occupation as soon as possible."
He said both states also believed in the formation of a legitimate
Iraqi government elected by Iraqi people.
** The PA prime minister has just left and a day later Spain's
Foreign Minister announced that he will be meeting with Colin Powell of
the Council On Foreign Relations (CFR). And where was the announcement
made but in Damascus? But look what else is in the Spanish FM's
repartee. First comes the defence of Arafat against Israeli threats to
expel him for his direction of terror against their country. Then come
what have to be huge lies. Do Spain and Syria really hold
"identical views" on Iraq? Is Spain really in favor of
"getting rid of the foreign occupation" or its American and
British partners, in Iraq?
Or was Spain threatened by Syria with terrifying violence?
When Palacio met Powell did he pass on the message that if American
troops don't get out of Iraq, Syria would pulverize us at home? He most
certainly did, but since the troops are still there, Powell obviously
didn't pay heed, or care.
However, Powell and his CFR backers must have given Spain still another
Study: Yezidi identity in the last century: Ethnic, national or
31 January 2006
by Kameel Ahmedi - During his recent trip to South
Kurdistan, Kurdish journalist and activist, Kameel Ahmedi, has
investigated the cultural and political life of the Yezids.
Yezidis are a Kurdish sect, named after their supposed founder
Yezid, the Umayyad Caliph. Their political representatives
succeeded in winning one seat in the Iraqi parliament during the
recent Iraqi elections.
depiction of God takes the form of a peacock, symbolising the
colour and beauty of the natural world. The village of Lalash,
an important site for Yezidi ritual and a symbol of the
distinctiveness of the people.
The traditional Yezidi livelihood of semi-nomadic
herding persists Yezidis have been persecuted historically for their
‘devil worship’, partly due to the importance of the symbol of the black
snake and the use of fire to their
rituals and beliefs.
The Yezidi depiction of God takes the form of a
peacock, symbolising the colour and beauty of the natural world.
village of Lalash, an important site for Yezidi ritual and a symbol of the
distinctiveness of the people
The Yezidi depiction of God takes the form of a
peacock, symbolising the colour and beauty of the natural world. The
village of Lalash,
an important site for Yezidi ritual and a symbol of the
distinctiveness of the people
The traditional Yezidi livelihood of semi-nomadic herding persists
Yezidis have been persecuted historically for their perceived ‘devil worship’,
partly due to the importance of the symbol of the black snake and the use of
fire to their rituals and beliefs.
The The aim of this paper is to explore how identity and
ethnicity as distinct from other groups in the area has been
seen by Yezidi Kurds throughout the last century. After the fall
of the Ottoman Empire and the division of its lands into a
number of countries where Yezidis live there have been many
political and social changes which have had direct impact on the
lives of the community, and the ways they practice and express
their faith. Lalash and Jayia shangar where I spend some days to
do filed work and document what you read .
In Iraq, the birth place of
Yezidism, where current religious leaders and pilgrim sites are
based, Yezidis have been forced to show their loyalty and
acceptance of the government’s political demands to form a
sort of coalition with the central government. After the fall of
Saddam once again the Yezidis have changed their sense of
affiliation, and now publicly announce that they are of Kurdish
There have been seventy two genocides ordered by the Muslim
rulers in the past, before the fall of the Ottomans, in order to
wipe out the Yezidi community, who were often viewed as devil
worshipers. After the creation of the modern states in the
Middle East, these practices stopped. Therefore, Yezidis viewed
the creation of these nation states, unlike their fellow Kurds
or ethnically oriented minorities, as bringing a sense of
security for their religious rights. It is true that these
developments served to protect them from local warlords and Muslim
rulers. Also, the political situation and the centralised
government created opportunities in which the Yezidis began to
freely express their religious ceremonies in terms of Haj and
large annual gatherings attended by thousands. The government
even assisted with this, allowing Yezidis to build shrines and
pilgrim sites in Sanjar, a place called Lalash where the
teaching of Yezidi religion takes place. The physical isolation
of the place, along with its ritual significance, has helped the
Yezidi communities there to develop a sense of identity separate
from their neighbours which is also acceptable for the regimes
Yezidi Kurds from Iraq are mostly based in an area call Jayi
Sanjar (Sanjar Mountain) which was the battle ground in the war
between Kurdish militias and the Iraqi regime in the past.
Yezidis were in a perfect position to be manipulated in a
‘divide and rule’ approach to maintaining power in the area.
Throughout the recent historical eras since the fall of the
Ottomans, the Yezidi community has kept itself closely aligned
with the changing powers in the area, Arab or Kurdish, and
regardless of their particular focus on religion in the public
domain. This strategy has enabled them to survive as a coherent
and bounded group, and kept them safe from local religious
antagonisms.(Fuccuro,1997:565) As Islam is the
predominant religion in the countries where Yezidis reside and
practise, the hostility between Yezidi and Muslim
communities discouraged Yezidis from engaging with surrounding
social and political developments. This has meant the community
largely maintained traditional tribal structures, and in terms
of education for example, they remain largely illiterate. As the
schools did not allowed the religion of Yezidi thought into the
curriculum, communities have often responded by not sending
their children to schools. Endogamy is practised by these Yezidi
communities, and intermarriage with any one out side yezidi
religion is strictly forbidden. On occasions, acting in
contradiction to this has even carried death orders from the
Yezidi religious leadership.
The traditional Yezidi livelihood of semi-nomadic herding
persists Yezidis have been persecuted historically for their
perceived ‘devil worship’, partly due to the importance of
the symbol of the black
snake and the use of fire to their rituals and beliefs.
Given the religious differences between Yezidi Kurds and other Muslim
Kurds, which worked to their advantage, the government started
by ‘Arabising’ the Yezidi Kurds, encouraging them to change
their identity on their Iraqi ID cards from Kurdish to Arab
ethnicity. Their religious book was published in Arabic, and
their religious leader offered a seat in the Iraqi National
Parliament. As well, financial development grants have been
offered to the area in a bid to ensure the loyalty of the Yezidi
Kurds to the government.
After the fall of Saddam, past developments with respect to
Yezidis which had taken place under his regime began to unravel.
The Yezidis begun to reinvent themselves as Kurds, to the extent
that changes to their formal dress code (which used to be Arabic
in style) in a Kurdish style have begun in a few short years.
Also, their religious books are now printed in Kurdish by the
Iraqi Kurdish authorities, and the community has now been giving
special treatment socially and politically by the new regime.
Cohen, in Two-Dimensional Man talks about the power order and
the symbolic order as interdependent, and points out that this
symbiotic nature has often been overlooked by wider social and
political science. His explanation suggests that power and
symbolism function together to maintain social institutions, and
that adaptations in either system can be affected by changes in
the other. (Cohen, 1974:23-24)
In the case of the Yezidi community in Iraq, we in fact see that
there is a close parallel between political events and the ways
their ritual and symbolic order respond or adapt to wider
political events. Their position of privilege has always been
maintained by a creative manipulation of religious identity, by
aligning it at times with Arab leadership, at times with Kurdish
ethnicity. Therefore, by creating a distinct boundary of
“Yezidi identity” they can operate in relation to the
changing power order regardless of who fills the role of Iraqi
Political powers, the economic and political, are
indistinguishable one from the other. They certainly differ in a
number of respects. The relationships which they govern are
formally regulated by different mechanisms. Political power is
ultimately maintained by physical coercion. Economic power is
ultimately maintained by reward and deprivation.
Similarly, the institutions of kinship and ritual, though
distinct in form, have a great deal in common, and the
separation between them is often arbitrary and sometimes
misleading. They are both normative, governed by categorical
imperatives, or ‘oughts’ that are rooted in the psychic
structure of men in society through continuous socialisation.
Cohen’s discussion of the relationship between the ‘two
dimensions’ can be a useful tool in looking at the case of the
Yezidis. Throughout the last century, Yezidis have not been a
politically oriented community, and traditionally kept distance
from active political participation. At the same time, they have
been present in the political arena by using their alignments to
gain privilege, siding with those who were in power. While there
has been number of political changes and shifts of power in the
area, the Yezidis have maintained they loyalty to the power
order. In this way, their symbolic systems have always remained
relevant and powerful as a source of identity to the Yezidi
population, while being adapted as a useful political resource
in managing relations with other power groups.
Emile Durkheim, on the other hand, says that church members
(who here we can understand as any religiously based community),
“…the beliefs and practices of his religious life
ready-made at birth; their existence prior to his own implies
their existence outside of hime self. The system of signs I use
to express my thought, the system of currency I employ to pay my
debts, the instruments of credit I utilize in my commercial
relations, the practices followed in my profession, etc function
independently of my own use of them”. (Durkheim 1909:85)
Recent political changes mean the Yezidis have changed from
Arabic to Kurdish styles in their material culture, including
style of dress and script in religious texts.The recent Iraqi
free elections brought a change in power to the
Yezidi areas in the north. The Kurds are in power and the Yezidi
interests themselves have been voiced. Kurdish identity, in
language and other areas, has re-emerged as a factor in the
Durkheim argues that social facts are real because their
effects can be felt. People are compelled to live according the
rules of their society and violate them at their peril. While
Cohen’s ideas about the power order and politics suggest that
they always work together, Durkheim’s ideas seems to
view religion as fixed in society, and not necessarily
associated with other aspects of life. Looking at the case of
Yezidis in present day Iraq, we see that while the image of this
community is one of isolation and cultural distinctness, they
have also adapted to changing social and political situations.
Yezidi identity has even been used as a way to maintain good
relations with those in power. This can be observed in material
culture as much as beliefs, as in the example of the changes to
religious texts and dress codes of contemporary Yezidis. We
might say that from the perspective of the Yezidis themselves,
Durkhiem’s ideas seem most accurate, however if we look at
things from an external perspective, we see that the close
interaction between power order and behaviours surrounding
religious practice illustrates Cohen’s ideas about the ‘two
dimensions’ of man. Each act and belief is a political one and
a symbolic one.
The Yezidi pir, leaders of the Yezidi
temples, are both unmarried men andwomen who officiate at
rituals, including sacrifice. They belief includes many folk
traditions such as way to request for blessing and luck.Yezidis
believe the bridge symbolises ascent to the heavens.
Fuccuro, Nelida (1997) Ethnicity, and
state formation: the case of yezidi Kurds of sanjar in
International Journal of Middle East Studies vol, 29, No. 4 pp
Maclver (1947) in Cohen, Abner (1974)
Two-Dimensional Man London: Routledge Publishing
Cohen, Abner (1974) Two-Dimensional Man
London: Routledge Publishing
Durkheim, Emile (1909) What is a Social Fact
London protest: Calls for arrests
Islam Awareness Week, 2005
Islam Awareness Week enters its twelfth year in 2005,
and is set to be the biggest yet.
The organisers of this year's IAW face the daunting
challenge of educating people about the previously little
of Islam and Britain, in a bid to demonstrate that
being British and Muslim is not a new concept.
The events of 7/7 put the British Muslim community in
the spotlight, after it was revealed that the bombers were
raised and educated on English soil. While questions are
being asked about the loyalty and role of Muslims in
Britain, organisers of Islam Awareness Week (IAW) seek to
remind people that Islam is not an alien culture and
Muslims have been living in and trading with Britain for
The theme, '1,000 years of Britain in Islam',
continues past themes, which have included 'Your
Muslim Neighbour' and 'Muslim Heritage'.
This year's theme draws heavily upon the history of white
Muslim converts in Britain and the wider contributions
from Islam and Muslims to British culture.
Julie Siddiqui, deputy co-ordinator of IAW, explains
the importance of the week. 'Islam Awareness Week is about
putting as much focus as possible into dispelling myths
and building bridges with the community. We don't always
give that as much focus throughout the year, so IAW is a
perfect opportunity. And it's more important now than it
ever has been. Since 7/7, in terms of people's perception
of Islam, we've moved back about hundred steps.'
'The notion of history is important because we all
presume, Muslims included sometimes, that Islam arrived in
the 60s, with the textile community. It didn't. As I was
looking at some of the resources for this week, I was
amazed by some of the links that Britain had with Islam. I
saw photos of families who were, to all intents and
purposes, typical white English families, but they were
actually Muslims. There have been whole communities of
white Muslims for over a hundred years.'
Paul Rippingale, organiser of the IAW national cinema
listings, says: 'The history of Islam in Britain has been
completely whitewashed, which has led to a sense of
alieness. People think Muslims have been invading since
the 1960s, but Islam has influenced Britain since the 11th
Century and been present in the country since the 16th
century. If people recognise that Islam has shaped and
formed Britain's past, then they can't look at Muslims and
think it is something that is alien and different from
Terrorism in the name of Islam used to be seen as
perhaps a foreign thing, but since 7/7, the British Muslim
community have had to face a number of challenges in their
everyday life. Shafeeq Sadiq, project co-ordinator said 'A
handful of people have taken actions that have demonised
the entire community. Muslims have received verbal and
physical abuse, and most can tell you about the feeling of
being under a microscope of suspicion. But the response to
IAW has been great from the wider community, and each year
it gets bigger and bigger. For example, last year we
launched from the Globe Theatre, this year we're launching
in London City Hall.
'People have realised there are problems facing Muslims
and they see it as a societal problem, not just a Muslim
Signs calling for death denounced as 'disgraceful'
LONDON, England -- London police were
under pressure to arrest Muslim protesters who carried signs threatening
death and terrorist attacks at a demonstration over cartoons depicting
the Prophet Mohammed.
Scotland Yard received more than 100 complaints after Friday's
protest outside the Danish Embassy, the UK's Press Association reported.
Police said they would study video of the demonstrators taken by
specialist officers, The Sun newspaper reported, and a police
spokeswoman told PA that any arrests would be made "at the
Conservative opposition spokesman David Davis said slogans such as
"Massacre those who insult Islam" and "Europe you will
pay, your 9/11 will come" amounted to incitement to murder and that
police should take a "no tolerance" approach to them.
On Monday British PM Tony Blair criticized the behavior of the
demonstrators as "completely unacceptable." He also condemned
attacks on European interests.
Blair said he spoke Monday morning with Prime Minister Anders Fogh
Rasmussen of Denmark, where the cartoons were first published, to offer
Britain's full support and say that they stand together in solidarity.
"The attacks on the citizens of Denmark and people of the
European community were completely unacceptable, as is the behavior of
some of the demonstrators in London over the past few days," Blair
said in a statement read by his spokesman.
A range of British Muslim organizations condemned the London protest,
including the moderate Muslim Council of Britain to the more radical
Hizb-ut-Tahrir, which Prime Minister Blair wants to outlaw because of
claims it supports terrorism.
"While strongly condemning the publication of these caricatures,
we also unequivocally condemn those who are urging violent protests or
inciting hatred against others," Hizb-ut-Tahrir spokesman Imran
Waheed told PA.
The organization held a less incendiary protest in London on
Saturday, which passed off without incident.
Muslim Council of Britain spokesman Inayat Bunglawala said the Muslim
community would welcome eventual arrests and prosecutions of those
brandishing the placards.
"The placards that were on display were quite disgraceful and in
our opinion seemed to constitute a clear incitement to violence, even
murder," Bunglawala told Reuters.
Meanwhile, a Muslim man who dressed as suicide bomber at Friday's
protest apologized for his actions after first being reported as
Omar Khayam, 22, met reporters outside his home in Bedford, north of
London, and said he "wholeheartedly" regretted causing
Earlier, he was quoted by the Daily Express newspaper as saying he
wanted to highlight "double standards."
"I can't make any apologies for it. I didn't go there to cause
anyone any harm. I went along just to attend a protest. Yet I have
almost been branded a suicide bomber overnight," Khayam was quoted
"Did I say, 'Kill Jews'? No. Did I have racist signs on me? No.
So why this reaction?
"I would do it again to make a point. I could have gone and held
up banners or something, but this made the point better. If certain
people have the right to do what they want and other people don't, then
that is double standards."
The British government has called in the row over the cartoons after
a third embassy was torched by protesters in the Middle East.
Foreign Secretary Jack Straw said the burning of the Danish mission
in the Lebanese capital Beirut, following similar attacks on Danish and
Norwegian embassies in Syria, was "absolutely outrageous and
The cartoons were originally published by a Danish newspaper last
CNN has chosen to not show the cartoons out of respect for Islam.
New terror law will harm race relations
By John Tummon
5 January 2006
We reproduce here the letter sent by the Director of Oldham Race
Equality Partnership to Tony Blair on proposed anti-terror laws and the
damage they are likely to cause.
Committee of the Oldham Race Equality Partnership has asked me to write
to government, local MPs and others who are in a position to affect the
above proposed legislation and to set out our concerns, particularly
about provisions in clauses 1, 2 and 21 which we believe will be
discriminatory and / or cause further damage to race relations.
Our overall concern is that government has no joined-up strategy on
the post 7/7 situation in the sense that it has developed policy on the
security implications of 7/7 quite separately from considering its race
relations implications. Specifically, it seems, in our view, to have
given no consideration within the Terrorism Bill to its effects on race
relations and, in effect, acted as if the race relations implications of
7/7 are of little comparative interest to government - when the Task
Force published its report (Preventing Extremism Together), this
was allowed to slip away almost unnoticed.
This is entirely against the spirit of the government's own Race
Relations Act (as amended in 2000), which requires new policies to be
assessed for their impact on race relations. While this requirement does
not extend, legally, to new legislation, there can be no doubt that the
intention of parliament in amending the Race Relations Act was that it
should guide government towards looking for the impact on race relations
when it is carrying out its function of legislating.
It also flies in the face of the March 2005 recommendation of the
Home Affairs Committee on Terrorism and Community Relations, that 'the
Home Office review the links between its work on community cohesion and
The race relations implications of 7/7 have been given a much lower
priority than the security implications and yet there has been no
community consultation on the Terrorism Bill even roughly comparable to
the visits to Oldham and other places by Hazel Blears and other
ministers to hear from us on what could be done locally to reduce
inter-racial tensions in the aftermath of 7/7. There has been no
national Task Force with representatives of Muslim organisations and no
consultative process asking us what we wanted by way of protection
against bombers. The Task Force's Terms of Reference were steered away
from a definition of security which encompassed the issues being
simultaneously developed, quite separately, within the Terrorism Bill.
We can see no justification for this inconsistency or for the
artificial separation of community relations from security - in
November, the police launched a national consultation on policing,
asking the public how we want to be protected from criminals, so why is
it apparently inappropriate to ask us what we want by way of protection
This failure to consult on the race relations implications of the
Terrorism Bill will lead in practice to undermining the work of the Task
Force, the considerable race relations work being carried out by such as
ourselves at a local level in response to 7/7 and, more generally, the
work carried out up and down the country since 2001 to improve community
cohesion in the aftermath of the riots of that year and the attack on
Government is well aware that the British Muslim community has been
increasingly alienated since 9/11 from British foreign policy in the
middle east in general and the role of Britain in President Bush's
so-called 'War on Terror' in particular. Against the background also of
the 2001 riots in Oldham, Bradford and Burnley and the consequent
increase in support for the BNP among adjacent white communities, the
British Muslim community has increasingly been required to demonstrate
its loyalty to the UK at precisely the same time that it has felt under
increasing pressure from the tone of government foreign policy
statements and from sections of the white population who continue to
vote in large numbers for the BNP and to carry out racist attacks on
Muslim individuals as well as on Mosques.
The 6th report of the Home Affairs Committee on Terrorism and
Community Relations endorsed this view in its conclusion that 'community
relations have deteriorated, although the picture is by no means
uniform, and that there are many positive examples to set against our
overall assessment. International terrorism and the response to it have
contributed to this deterioration, particularly in relations between the
majority community and the Muslim community'.
OREP works in a borough in which there can be no doubt that community
relations have deteriorated as a result of terrorism AND the response to
More specifically, British Foreign Policy has over the past 4 years
involved a military invasion of two Muslim countries, which have led to
repeated allegations that British soldiers have tortured Muslims. The
government has done little to prevent the United States' unlawful
incarceration of many hundreds of Muslims, including British Muslims, in
Guantanamo and elsewhere. In these circumstances, and bearing in mind
too the fourfold increase in stop and search operations carried out
among British Asians by the police, under section 44 of the Terrorism
Act 2000, it has never been harder for British Muslims to feel British
than it is right now. This response to terrorism puts a particular
strain on race relations, or on community cohesion, as it is more
fashionably called today. This is the context with which OREP and our
partners grapple in Oldham and which makes our work in helping the
borough recover from the Riots so much harder than it should be.
It is no accident that the BNP, both through its leaflets and its
website, has become more and more a single-issue, islamaphobic,
organisation over the past 4 years. In simple terms, the 'War on terror'
provides a context which helps them to further deteriorate race
relations whereas it harms our attempts to improve race relations.
All these processes have been accelerated since 7/7 and the Terrorism
Bill is ratcheting this up still further. In particular, we wish to draw
your attention to the following proposed provisions and their likely
effect on race relations:
Proposals in Clause 1 of the Bill to create new offences of
encouragement to terrorism and dissemination of terrorist publications
are very broad in scope. Despite the government's amendment, the crown
would still not need to prove intent to incite others in order to secure
a conviction. This poses a serious threat to legitimate free expression,
particularly free expression within the Muslim community. The obvious
concern is that people who express support for armed resistance to the
occupation of Iraq - resistance that many people around the world feel
is legitimate - could be caught-up in the new laws. To vocalise one's
support for the Iraqi resistance may constitute 'glorification' for the
purposes of the legislation. Simply stating that one can understand what
leads some people to become suicide bombers may also lay people open to
prosecution. It is clear that Muslims feel particularly exposed to the
possibility of being criminalised as a consequence of this provision in
It has been pointed out by the Association of University Lecturers
and others that this provision would severely restrict the legitimate
study of controversial historical events, terrorist activity, the
motivation of those who use terrorist means and the use of violence for
political ends. If, during such study, students are required to read,
listen to or watch texts and statements that do indeed glorify terrorism
or could be seen to encourage it, their lecturer could be committing an
offence if he/she had reasonable grounds to believe that a student was
likely to understand this study material as a direct or indirect
encouragement or other inducement to the commission, preparation or
instigation of acts of terrorism. The fear is that a Muslim lecturer
addressing a class which included a group of Muslim students might well
be targeted under this provision, whereas a white lecturer addressing a
group of largely white students would not be likely to come under
surveillance of this nature in the first place.
The Home Affairs Committee Inquiry already referred to these type of
concerns in its observation about the existing anti-terrorist
legislation that 'we accept that there is a clear perception among all
our Muslim witnesses that Muslims are being stigmatised by the operation
of the Terrorism Act: this is extremely harmful to community
relations..........we believe that special efforts should be made by the
police and Government to reassure Muslims that they are not being
singled out unfairly'.
Instead, Hazel Blears' comments to the Committee confirm the
perception of stigmatisation among Muslims. She said that 'the threat is
most likely to come from those people associated with an extreme form of
Islam, or who are falsely hiding behind Islam. It means that some of
our counter-terrorism powers will be disproportionately experienced by
the Muslim community. I think that is the reality and I think we should
recognise that. If a threat is from a particular place then our action
is going to be targeted at that area.' (Our emphasis).
Hence the fears that Muslim lecturers, alongside Muslims active in
protests against the government's Iraq policies, will be
disproportionately targeted for surveillance, arrest and detention
without trial under the provisions of the Terrorism Bill.
It is already a criminal offence to:
- 'encourage, persuade or endeavour to persuade any person to murder
any other person'
- 'counsel or procure' any other person to commit any indictable
- 'solicit or incite' another person to commit any indictable
- incite another person to commit an act of terrorism wholly or
partly outside the UK
- conspire with others to commit offences outside the UK
- invite support for a proscribed terrorist organisation
Is this not sufficient to protect the public? What
sort of people who constitute an actual terrorist threat could be
apprehended by widening the net in the way proposed in Clause 1? Our
concern, based on ministerial comments such as the above, is that the
sort of people who will be targeted will be Muslim activists and
academics, many with a lot of credibility and support within the wider
Muslim community either nationally or locally, and that the campaigns
which will inevitably arise in their support will further polarize the
Muslim community in places like Oldham from adjacent white communities,
who get their information about race relations almost exclusively from a
tabloid press which frequently reports such matters in a way which plays
into the hands of more overt islamaphobes on the far right. This is the
kind of development we refer to through when we say that the legislation
will 'ratchet up' the problematical race relations which we are already
Similarly, a 'terrorist publication' is defined under Clause 2
to include any item which contains 'information of assistance' to
someone planning a terrorist attack, meaning presumably that an A-Z map
of Oldham and Rochdale may be a 'terrorist publication' for the purpose
of this offence. The clause provides that a person may be guilty of
disseminating a terrorist publication merely by making such a
publication available in the knowledge that someone somewhere may regard
it as useful for terrorism. It is enough under the provisions of the
Bill to be simply 'reckless' as to whether members of the public who see
or read such a publication would understand it as such, regardless of
whether the publisher of the statement foresaw any risk that it would
be. It is also irrelevant, under Clause 2, whether any person was
actually encouraged to attempt or to commit an act of terrorism as a
consequence of what was published; instances in which no-one was will
not count as a defence. This is a recipe for witch-hunting.
Crucially, it is likely in practice that it will be considered
'reckless' to circulate some documents among Muslims whereas it will not
be regarded as 'reckless' to circulate the same documents among
non-Muslims. For anyone to email a copy of an article from
Hizb-ut-Tahrir's website may place them in breach of Clause 2 if those
receiving it believe that it glorifies those who die fighting against
injustice; in practice the test of 'recklessness' is likely to
differentiate sharply between Muslim and non-Mulsim recipients of such
Extension of the grounds for proscription in Clause 21 will
criminalise membership of non-violent political organisations on the
basis of their opinions. If Hizb-ut-Tahrir is to be proscribed for
speaking out against British foreign policy, which some ministerial
comments suggest to be government's intention, then what of the 2
million British people who have marched against the invasion of Iraq,
including members of OREP's staff and Executive Committee? If
Hizb-ut-Tahrir is to be proscribed for criticising despotic rulers
throughout the Muslim world, then how will the government deal with
Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and other NGOs who routinely
condemn these regimes? If it is for calling for the uniting of Muslim
lands under one Caliphate that Hizb-ut-Tahrir is to be proscribed, then
how will the government deal with other Muslims in Britain who share
this belief? There is not one instance to date in British history of a
non-violent group ever being proscribed. Even Sinn Féin, at the height
of the Troubles in Northern Ireland, was never proscribed, despite the
belief within successive governments of the day that is was
operationally linked to the Irish Republican Army.
To proscribe Hizb-ut-Tahrir would therefore be to follow the
tradition of dictatorial regimes around the world which do not tolerate
political dissent and proscribe non-violent organisations with
alternative viewpoints. This is not only fundamentally undemocratic but
it runs the serious risk of adversely affecting race relations, in that
it will be seen by the Muslim community as aimed at Muslim-based
organisations at a time when their own concerns about the activities of
the British National Party are frequently brushed aside by public
agencies on the grounds that the BNP is a legitimate political party.
This lack of even-handedness can only play into the hands of the very
organisations and ideologies against which this proposal is aimed, who
will be able to portray it as an attack not on Hizb-ut-Tahrir or even on
their aspiration for a Caliphate but as an attack on the Muslim 'Umma',
which is a key concept for all Muslims.
Overall, the view of OREP is that Clauses 1, 2 and 21 of this Bill
will harm race relations and thereby undermine other aspects of the
government's response to 7/7. Kofi Annan, the UN's Secretary General has
taken the same view of overly-expansive anti-Terrorist measures - 'compromising
human rights cannot serve the struggle against terrorism. On the
contrary, it facilitates achievement of the terrorist's objective - by
ceding to him the moral high ground, and provoking tension, hatred and
mistrust of government among precisely those parts of the population
where he is most likely to find recruits. Upholding human rights is not
merely compatible with a successful counter-terrorism strategy. It is an
essential element in it.' So is upholding the conditions in which
good race relations can flourish.
Consequently, it is unrealistic for the government to pass the
Terrorism Bill in its current form and expect any significant
cooperation from Muslims by way of providing community intelligence
information about people who might be involved in actively supporting
terrorist attacks. It will simply be a waste of time for the police to
create new community cohesion posts within Special Branch for the
purpose of facilitating this intelligence, which has just been done in
the North West of England. Like the Nationalist community in Northern
Ireland in the 1970s and 1980s, British Muslims have a different
identity to the majority community and are discriminated against in
employment to the extent that they are virtually absent from whole
sectors of mainstream employment. In the case of Muslims in Oldham, this
means being consigned mostly to marginal self-employment as
taxi-drivers, take-away workers and off-licensees, too alienated and
lacking in trust for the police to bother reporting racial attacks
against themselves and, just like the Nationalist community in Northern
Ireland, highly unlikely to 'shop' one another in an atmosphere which
allows for extended internment without trial or recourse to effective
OREP agrees with others that an appropriate strategy would to
increase the resources available to the police and security services to
focus on apprehending those who are actually committed to carrying out
terrorist outrages rather than criminalising ever-widening circles of
people and communities around them. There have been a number of well-publicised
security blunders in respect of the threat which this bill seeks to
address and dealing with any resourcing or structural issues which have
contributed to these blunders would seem to offer better protection to
the public than the Terrorism Bill as it stands.
Those of us engaged in trying to improve race relations have watched
while British Foreign Policy initiatives have put an enormous strain on
race relations. We have watched and listened to the increasing
alienation of young men who feel keenly the suffering of the Muslim
victims of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and have become angered by
reported atrocities from Abu-Graib prison to Guantanamo Bay. This 'War
on Terror' is making it harder for me, my colleagues and OREP's partners
to do our jobs than it should be.
For all the above reasons, our considered view is that, if the Bill
goes ahead with these clauses in it, race relations in places like
Oldham will, in effect, have been subjugated to the overriding priority
of the 'War on Terror'.
We therefore ask government to re-think the relative importance of
its domestic and foreign policy objectives, to give race relations the
importance it merits in practice, to carry out what amounts to an impact
assessment of the Terrorism Bill on British race relations and to
withdraw those clauses which will cause foreseeable harm to race
The Institute of Race Relations is precluded from expressing a
corporate view: any opinions expressed are therefore those of the
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