|THE BIBLE VERSION
New International Version
These were the three sons of Noah, and from them came the
people who were scattered over the earth.
New American Standard Bible
These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the whole
earth was populated.
GOD'S WORD® Translation
These were Noah's three sons. From them the whole earth was
populated. Ham was the father of Canaan.
King James Bible
These are the three sons of Noah: and of them was the whole
King James Version
These are the three sons of Noah: and of them was the whole
American Standard Version
These three were the sons of Noah: and of these was the whole
Bible in Basic English
These three were the sons of Noah and from them all the earth
These three are the sons of Noe: and from these was all
mankind spread over the whole earth.
Darby Bible Translation
These three are the sons of Noah; and from these was the
population of the whole earth spread abroad.
English Revised Version
These three were the sons of Noah: and of these was the whole
Webster's Bible Translation
These three were the sons of Noah: and from them was the whole
World English Bible
These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the whole
earth was populated.
Young's Literal Translation
These three are sons of Noah, and from these hath all the
earth been overspread.
Geneva Study Bible
These are the three
sons of Noah: and of them was the whole earth
(n) This declares what the virtue of
God's blessing was, when he said, increase and bring forth in
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary
9:18-23 The drunkenness of Noah is
recorded in the Bible, with that fairness which is found only
in the Scripture, as a case and proof of human weakness and
imperfection, even though he may have been surprised into the
sin; and to show that the best of men cannot stand upright,
unless they depend upon Divine grace, and are upheld thereby.
Ham appears to have been a bad man, and probably rejoiced to
find his father in an unbecoming situation. It was said of
Noah, that he was perfect in his generations, ch.
And God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, "Be
fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth.
"As for you, be fruitful and multiply; Populate the
earth abundantly and multiply in it."
These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to
their genealogies, by their nations; and out of these
the nations were separated on the earth after the flood.
1 Chronicles 1:4
Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth.
Bible Gateway: Genesis Chapter 9 Verse 19 NIV ESV NKJV NLT
KJV Message Amplified
Alphabetical: and came earth from Noah
of over people populated scattered sons the them These three
was were who whole
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Noah (or Noe,
נוֹחַ or נֹחַ,
Armenian "Noe" or նօի,
Arabic: نوح ; "Rest")
was, according to the
the tenth and last of the
Patriarchs; and a
prophet according to the
Qur'an. The biblical story of Noah is contained in the book of
Genesis, chapters 6–9; he is also found in the passage 'Noah's
sons", while the Qur'an has an entire
named after and devoted to his story, with other references
elsewhere. In the Genesis account, Noah saves his family and
representatives of all animals in groups of two or seven from the
flood. In the Islamic account, a group of 72 others are also saved
(although none reproduce after the flood).
He receives a covenant from God, and his sons repopulate the
earth. In the Hindu account,
Manu built a huge boat, which housed his family, 9 types of
seed, and animals and repopulated the earth after the deluge
occurred and the oceans and seas receded.
Noah's Ark are the best-known
elements of the Noah tradition, Noah is also mentioned in
Genesis as the "first
husbandman" and possibly the inventor
as noted in an episode of his drunkenness and the subsequent
Curse of Ham. The account of Noah is the subject of much
elaboration in the later
Abrahamic traditions, and was immensely influential in
Western culture. Jewish thinkers have debated the extent of
Noah's righteousness. Christians have likened the Christian Church
to Noah's ark (1 Peter
- The following section is a summary of
Book of Genesis, chapters 6–9.
Noah was the son of
Lamech, who named him
Noah because he would bring rest from toil on the land which God
had cursed (a reference to the curse God placed on the earth
following the expulsion from Eden).
In his five hundredth year Noah had three sons,
Japheth. When Noah was six hundred years old, God, saddened at
the wickedness of mankind, decided to send a great
deluge to destroy all life. But he saw that Noah was a
righteous man, and instructed him to build an ark and gather
himself and his family with every type of animal, male and female.
And so the Flood came, and all life was extinguished, except for
those who were with Noah, "and the waters prevailed upon the earth
for one-hundred and fifty days"
until the Ark came to rest on the
mountains of Ararat. There Noah built an altar to God (the
first altar mentioned in the Bible) and made an offering. "And
when the Lord smelled the pleasing odour, the Lord said in his
heart, 'I will never again curse the ground because of man, for
the inclination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither
will I ever again destroy every living creature as I have done.
While the earth remains, seed-time and harvest, cold and heat,
summer and winter, day and night, shall not cease'."
Then God spoke to Noah, and his
descendants would henceforth be free to eat meat ("every moving
thing that lives shall be food for you, and as I gave you the
green plants, I give you everything"), and the animals would fear
man; and in return, man was forbidden to eat "flesh with its life,
that is, its blood." And God forbade murder, and gave a
commandment: "Be fruitful and multiply, bring forth abundantly on
the earth and multiply in it." And as a sign of his covenant, he
rainbow in the sky, "the sign of the covenant which I have
established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth."
After the Flood, "Noah was the first
tiller of the soil. He planted a vineyard; and he drank of the
Noah died 350 years after the Flood, at
the age of 950,
the last of the immensely long-lived
antediluvian Patriarchs. The maximum human lifespan, as
depicted by the Bible, diminishes rapidly thereafter, from as much
as 900 years to the 120 years of
within twenty generations. Another few generations later,
lifespans were reported to be less than 100 years on average.
The righteousness of Noah is the subject
of much discussion among the rabbis.
The description of Noah as "righteous in his generation" implied
to some that his perfection was only relative: In his generation
of wicked people, he could be considered righteous, but in the
generation of a
Abraham, he would not be considered so righteous. They point
out that Noah did not pray to God on behalf of those about to be
destroyed, as Abraham prayed for the wicked of
Sodom and Gomorrah. In fact, Noah is never seen to speak; he
simply listens to God and acts on his orders. This led such
commentators to offer the figure of Noah as "the man in a fur
coat," who ensured his own comfort while ignoring his neighbour.
Others, such as the medieval commentator
held on the contrary that the building of the Ark was stretched
over 120 years, deliberately in order to give sinners time to
repent. Rashi interprets his father's statement of the naming of
Noah (in Hebrew נֹחַ) “This one will comfort (in Hebrew–
yeNaHamainu יְנַחֲמֵנו) from our work and our hands sore from the
land that the Lord had cursed”,
by saying Noah heralded a new era of prosperity, when (1) there
was easing (in Hebrew – nahah - נחה) from the curse from the time
of Adam when the Earth produced thorns and thistles even where men
sowed wheat and (2) that Noah introduced the plow.
Gospel of Luke, (Luke17:26), equates Noah's Flood with the
coming Day of Judgement: “Just as it was in the days of Noah, so
too it will be in the days of the coming of the Son of Man.” Noah
is called a "preacher of righteousness" in 2 Peter 2:5, and the
First Epistle of Peter equates the saving power of
baptism with the Ark saving those who were in it. In later
Christian thought, the Ark came to be equated with the Church:
salvation was to be found only within Christ and his Lordship, as
in Noah's time it had been found only within the Ark.
St Augustine of Hippo (354-430), demonstrated in
The City of God that the dimensions of the Ark corresponded to
the dimensions of the human body, which corresponds to the body of
Christ; the equation of Ark and Church is still found in the
Anglican rite of baptism, which asks God, "who of thy great
mercy didst save Noah," to receive into the Church the infant
about to be baptised.
Noah's three sons were generally
interpreted in medieval Christianity as the founders of the
populations of the three known
Ham/Africa, although a rarer variation held that they
represented the three classes of medieval society - the priests
(Shem), the warriors (Japheth), and the peasants (Ham). In the
18th and 19th centuries the view that Ham's sons in general had
been literally "blackened" by the curse of Noah was cited as
justification for black
Latter-day Saint theology, the archangel Gabriel lived in his
mortal life as the patriarch Noah. Gabriel and Noah are regarded
as the same individual; Noah being his mortal name and Gabriel
being his heavenly name.
Gnosticism was an
important development of (and departure from) early Christianity,
blending Jewish scriptures and Christian teachings with
traditional pagan religion and esoteric Greek philosophical
concepts. An important Gnostic text, the
Apocryphon of John, reports that the chief
archon caused the flood because he desired to destroy the
world he had made, but the
First Thought informed Noah of the chief archon's plans, and
Noah informed the remainder of humanity. Unlike the account of
Genesis, not only are Noah's family saved, but many others also
heed Noah's call. There is no ark in this account; instead Noah
and the others hide in a "luminous cloud".]
The Quran contains 43 references to Noah (نوح,
Nūḥ) in 28 suras (chapters), notably Sura Nuh and Sura Hud. Sura
11 (Hud) is largely an account of the Flood. Sura 71 (i.e., Sura
Nuh), of 28 verses, consists of a divine injunction to Noah to
preach, a short sermon of Noah’s to his
idolatrous contemporaries on the
(God), and Noah’s complaint to God about the hardness of the
people’s hearts when his preaching is met by ridicule.
Quran's Noah lives for a total of 1000
years, with the Flood coming in his 950th year; (In later
tradition, only 83 people are willing to submit, i.e., become
Muslim, "those who accept a peaceful yield to the god" with God;
these 83 are saved with Noah). It is mankind's obduracy which
eventually brings the wrath of God on the unbelievers.
The theme of the Quranic story is the
unity of Allah and the need to seek peace with Him. The narrative
does not include the Genesis account of Noah's drunkenness, and
the possibility of the
Curse of Ham narrative is in fact implicitly excluded: Qur'an
doesn’t mention the number of Noah’s sons. Nevertheless the
traditions of Prophet Mohammed clearly mention that Noah had three
, and that all the
population descended from them., and a fourth son who does not
join his father despite Noah's final plea to be saved ("O my son!
Come ride with us, and be not with the disbelievers!"); instead he
flees to the mountains and drowns in the flood and God tells Noah
that this is because he is an evildoer.
(In later Islamic tradition the son is given the name Kenan, "Canaan").
Shi'ah Muslims believe
that Noah is buried next to
Imam Ali Mosque, in
According to the
documentary hypothesis, the first five books of the Bible,
including Genesis, were collated during the 5th century BC from
four main sources, which themselves date from no earlier than the
10th century BC. Two of these, the
Jahwist, composed in the 10th century BC, and the
Priestly source, from the late 7th century BC, make up the
chapters of Genesis which concern Noah. The attempt by the 5th
century editor to accommodate two independent and sometimes
conflicting sources accounts for the confusion over such matters
as how many pairs of animals Noah took, and how long the flood
More broadly, Genesis seems to contain two
accounts concerning Noah, the first making him the hero of the
Flood, the second representing him as a husbandman who planted a
vineyard. This has led some scholars to believe that Noah was
believed by the ancients to be the inventor of wine, in keeping
with the statement at
Genesis 5:29 that Lamech "called his name Noah, saying, 'Out
of the ground which the Lord has cursed this one shall bring us
relief from our work and from the toil of our hands.'"
to other lore
Noah's great grandfather
Enoch is the beginning of a web of similarities between the
story of Noah and older
Mesopotamian myths. According to
Genesis 5:24, at the end of his 365 years Enoch "walked with
God, and was not, for God took him" - the only of the ten
pre-Flood Patriarchs not reported to have died. It is not
explicitly stated where he is taken. In a late Apocryphal
tradition, Methuselah is reported to have visited Enoch at the end
of the Earth, where he dwelt with the angels, immortal. The
details bring to mind
Utnapishtim, a figure from the Mesopotamian
Epic of Gilgamesh - the hero Gilgamesh, after long and arduous
travel, finds Utnapishtim living in the paradise of
Dilmun at the end of the Earth, where he has been granted
eternal life by the gods. (Gilgamesh's reason for seeking out
Utnapishtim, incidentally, to learn the secret of immortality -
like Methuselah, he comes close to the gift but fails to achieve
it). Utnapishtim then tells how he survived a great flood, and how
he was afterwards granted immortality by the gods. It has been
suggested that the Flood story may originally have belonged to
Lamech's statement that Noah will be named
"rest" because "out of the ground which the Lord has cursed this
one shall bring us relief from our work and from the toil of our
hands," has another faint parallel in Babylonian mythology: the
gods grew tired of working, digging the channels of the rivers,
and so the god
created man from clay and blood and spit to do the work for them.
Enki fell in love with his creation, and later warned
Utnapishtim that the other gods planned to send a flood to
destroy all life, and advised him on how to construct his ark.
Noah is also often compared to
Deucalion, the son of
Greek mythology. Like Noah, Deucalion is a wine maker or wine
seller; he is forewarned of the flood (this time by
he builds an ark and staffs it with creatures - and when he
completes his voyage, gives thanks and takes advice from the gods
on how to repopulate the Earth. Deucalion also sends a pigeon to
find out about the situation of the world and the bird return with
an olive branch. This and some other examples of apparent
comparison between Greek myths and the "key characters" in the Old
Testament/Torah have led recent Biblical scholars to suggest a
Hellenistic influence in the composition of the earlier portions
of the Hebrew Bible.
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Noah Meaning of
Noah's Ark - Jewish Encyclopedia
^ see Rashi's comment
^ Joseph Smith, Jr.,
address at Commerce (later Nauvoo), Illinois, June 2, 1839
^ Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi
Hatim, and ibn Jarir
^ This section is
based on Mark Hillmer, "The Book of Genesis in the Qur’an",
Word & World 14/2 (1994)
al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). Kāmil al-Ziyārāt.
trans. Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Mīlāni. Shiabooks.ca Press.
Lloyd R. (1989). Noah, the Person and the Story. South Carolina:
University of South Carolina Press.
Robert M. (1999). Noah's Ark and the Ziusudra Epic. Fort Myers,
Florida: Enlil Press.
Davis A. (1995). The Biblical Flood: A Case Study of the
Church's Response to Extrabiblical Evidence. Grand Rapids, MI:
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co..
Noah's Flood. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
/ Ḫām ;
Greek Χαμ , Cham ;
xam ], "hot"), according to the
Table of Nations in the
Book of Genesis, was a son of
and the father of
in the Bible
The story of Ham is related in
And Noah the
husbandman began, and planted a
vineyard. And he drank of the
drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent. And Ham, the
Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two
And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and
laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and
covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were
backward, and they saw not their father's nakedness.
And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what
his youngest son had done unto him. And he said: Cursed be
Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. And
he said: Blessed be the LORD,
the God of
and let Canaan be their servant. God enlarge
Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and let
Canaan be their servant..
of Canaan also known as the Curse of Ham
of Canaan" by Noah was likely connected to the conquest of
Israel. Both the conquest of Canaan and the curse, according
Book of Jubilees 10:29-34, are attributed, rather, to Canaan's
steadfast refusal to join his elder brothers in Ham's allotment
and instead "squatting" within the inheritance of Shem, on the
eastern shores of the
Mediterranean, in the region later promised to Abraham.
existence of Ham
According to the
Ham was one of the
sons of Noah who moved southwest into
Africa and parts of the near
Middle East, and was the forefather of the nations there. The
Bible refers to
as "the land of Ham" in (Psalms
78:51; 105:23,27; 106:22; 1Ch 4:40). The Hebrew word for Egypt was
Mizraim (probably literally meaning
the two lands), and was the name of one of Ham's sons. The
Egyptian word for Egypt was
Kmt), meaning "black land" (in reference to the fertile dark
soil along the
Ham could plausibly be a name derived from Khem, or vice versa,
via sound change, due to the change in language between Egyptian
and Hebrew, corresponding to the well known phonological change of
/k/ into /x/ (voiceless velar fricative) into /h/. The names of
Ham's other children correspond to regions within Egyptian
(probably identical with the Pitu, a Libyan tribe, though often
Punt, an ancient name for
Ivan Ksenophontov. The damnation of Ham
Creationist scholars hold that some early
civilizations came to worship humans deified as gods in the
generations after the flood, perhaps owing to the extraordinary
longevity of the first few generations after leaving the ark.
Minimalist scholarship holds a parallel view, that many (but not
all) early gods (or deified humans, e.g.
Herakles) are representative of personified
archetypes of races, i.e., their family trees being codified
descriptions of the inter-relatedness of each race and tribe (with
some of the older/earlier generations being more speculative).
Both of these distinct viewpoints agree that there is a connection
between the family tree of the characters (whether gods or men)
and that of tribes and races (although the extent of that
connection varies, both amongst the characters in question, and
amongst the scholars).
In the minimalist view, the early tribal name
either became seen by later generations as the name of the "old
ones", and thus gradually evolved into that of a god, or else was
deliberately transformed into the name of a god, demi-god or hero,
for the purpose of making it easier to tell the tale of a tribe
representatively. However, minimalists generally prefer to avoid
giving any credence to accounts of tribes being named for
Counter arguments are often put forward that
the connection is only between the
Egyptian word and the typical
modern pronunciation of Hebrew ? as
/x/ ("kh") rather than
/ħ/ (as was the case with
biblical Hebrew, and suggest that the appearance is lessened
with the original Hebrew ?? Ḥam with
/ħ/ (such as in Hebrew,
Syriac). Further, Kam, the version of the name in
Ge'ez—a South Semitic language—is seemingly borrowed from
Biblical Hebrew via the
Hebrew Bible and perhaps does not reflect a native derivation
of the word.
In the 19th century, there was an erroneous
transcription of the Egyptian for
Min as ĥm ("khem"), purely by
coincidence. Since this Khem was worshipped most significantly in
Akhmim, the separate identity of Khem was reinforced, Akhmim
being understood as simply a corruption of Khem. However, Akhmim
is a corruption of ?m-mnw, meaning Shrine of Min, via the
demotic form šmn. The existence of a god named Khem was later
understood as a faulty reading, but unfortunately it had already
been enshrined in books written by
E. A. Wallis Budge—now out of
copyright and widely reprinted. Thus this error still finds a
home among some writers, who often use it to identify Ham with the
imaginary god Khem, who may also be identified with the Greek
Cronos. (See the article
Min (god) for more details.)
Nevertheless, since Khem (meaning black) was
normally used to describe the fertile soils by the Nile, it was
sometimes used as an epithet for Min, as the god of fertility.
Since Khem was also an Egyptian name for Egypt (precisely because
it described the soil of the Nile valley), there is also an
association with Ham, who represented the forefather of the
north-east African nations including Egypt.
Many believe that ancient
Jatt people of Persia (who now inhabit
Punjab), are descendants of Ham.
based on Jasher
Some of the names of Ham's descendants in the
list below do not appear anywhere in the Bible, but rather
originated from the mediaeval rabbinic work, the
Book of Jasher. Among the ethnic groups various modern authors
have attempted to link to Ham's children include:
- also Chus, Kush, Kosh (Nubians,
Eritreans, and other related groups).
Mizraim "double lands"
(sons were Lud, Anom, Pathros, Chasloth and Chaphtor)
- also Misraim, Mitzraim, Mizraite, Mitsrayim (Egyptians,
Philistines, and other related groups).
Phut "a bow" (sons were
Gebul, Hadan, Benah and Adan)
- also Putaya, Putiya, Punt, Puta, Put, Libia,
Guanches of the
North Africans, and other related groups).
Canaan "down low" (sons
were Zidon, Heth, Amori, Gergashi, Hivi, Arkee,
Seni, Arodi, Zimodi and Chamothi)
Canaanites, Cana, Chna, Chanani, Chanana, Canaana, Kana,
Kenaanah, Kena'ani, Kena'an, Kn'nw, Kyn'nw, Kinnahu, Kinahhi,
Kinahni, Kinahna, Kinahne (Canaanites.
^ David Noel Freedman, Allen C.
Myers, Astrid B. Beck, Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible, (Wm.
B. Eerdmans Publishing: 2000), p.543
^ Stanley E. Porter, Craig A. Evans,
The Scrolls and the Scriptures, (Continuum International
Publishing Group: 1997), p.377
^ Nicolas Grimal (1994) A History of
Ancient Egypt Blackwell pp.171-172: "black (land)"
Rosalie David (1997).
Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt: A Modern Investigation of
Pharaoh's Workforce. Routledge. p. 18. "The name they gave
to their whole country was 'Kemet', which means the 'Black
Land'. This referred to the cultivation, fertilised for
countless years by the black mud of the inundation."
Book of Jasher
Book of Jasher
Book of Jasher
Book of Jasher
Tiberian Šēm ;
Greek: 'Σημ, Sēm;
Arabic: سام, Sām ;
Ge'ez: ሴም, Sēm; "renown; prosperity; name") was one of the
sons of Noah in the
He is most popularly regarded as the eldest son, though some
traditions regard him as the second son. Genesis 10:21 refers to
relative ages of Shem and his brother
Japheth, but with sufficient ambiguity in each to have yielded
different translations. The verse is translated in the
KJV as "Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of
the brother of Japheth the elder,
even to him were children born.". However, the
New American Standard Bible gives, "Also to Shem, the father
of all the children of Eber, and the older brother of Japheth,
children were born."
Genesis 11:10 records that Shem was 100 years
old at the birth of Arpachshad two years after the flood, making
him 98 at the time of the flood; and that he lived for another 500
years after this, making his age at death 600 years.
The children of Shem were
Lud, in addition to daughters.
Abraham, the patriarch of the Hebrews and Arabs, was one of
the descendants of Arpachshad.
The 1st century historian
Flavius Josephus, among many others, recounted the tradition
that these five sons were the progenitors of the nations of
Terms like "Semite"
and "Hamite" are less common now, and may sometimes even be
perceived as offensive, because of their "racial"
connotations. The adjectival forms "Semitic"
are more common, though the vague term 'Hamitic' dropped out of
mainstream academic use in the 1960s. Semitic is still a commonly
used term for the
Semitic languages, as a subset of the
Afro-Asiatic languages, denoting the common linguistic
'Semitic' also appears in the phrase "anti-Semitic"
to refer to racial, ethnic or cultural prejudice aimed exclusively
According to some Jewish traditions (e.g., B.
Talmud Nedarim 32b;
Genesis Rabbah 46:7; Genesis Rabbah 56:10;
Leviticus Rabbah 25:6; Numbers Rabbah 4:8.), Shem is believed
to have been
Melchizedek, King of Salem whom Abraham is recorded to have
met after the battle of the four kings.
In a few of the many extra-biblical sources
that describe him, Shem is also credited with killing
Nimrod, son of Cush.
Shem is mentioned in
Genesis 5:32, 6:10; 7:13; 9:18,23,26-27; 10; 11:10; also in
1 Chronicles 1:4.
according to "Book of Jasher"
A rabbinic document that surfaced in the
1600s, claiming to be the lost "Book
of Jasher" provides some names not found in any other source.
Some have reconstructed more complete genealogies based on this
information as follows:
Shem. Also Sem. Literal meanings are named or
renown (father of the Semitic races - Shemites). The sons of Shem
- Asshur "a step" or "strong" (sons were
Mirus and Mokil)
- Lud "strife" (sons were Pethor and Bizayon)
- (Ludim, Lubim, Ludians, Ludu,
Lydians, and other related groups in
- Aram "exalted" (sons were Uz, Chul, Gather
proposed lineages from Shem
Some believe that from Shem descend the whole
of the European peoples. Ernest L. Martin writes, "...[The]
Shemite tribes (people who were descendants of Shem and including
some peoples who came from Abraham) later colonized the whole of
southern Europe and replaced the people of JAVAN and his four
descendants. JAVAN'S people were pushed mainly into the northern
areas of Europe where in turn they migrated farther east into Asia
(along with GOMER the firstborn son of JAPHETH and his
descendants). Indeed, in prophecies dealing also with the
End-Time, we find the people of JAVAN no longer in Europe, but
they are now associated with TUBAL [Ezekiel 38: & 39 end time
prophecy] (another son of JAPHETH) who became an eastern Mongolian
type of people...though the name JAVAN still retained its
geographical hold on the southern region of Europe, particularly
in Greece)...It is not uncommon for people to give a name to a
region and then the original people move on to other areas (or are
killed off) and the original geographical name becomes associated
with completely different people"
Some scholars have claimed that the
Anglo-Saxons are the descendants of Shem. "Alfred, king of the
Anglo-Saxons [b. 849 A.D.] was... the son [descendant] of Sem
[Shem]" (Church Historians of England, vol. 2, p. 443). Proponents
of this theory also claim that
Alfred the Great was a descendant of Shem because he claimed
to descend from
Sceafa, a marooned man who came to Britain on a boat after a
Le Petit, a writer in 1601 mentioned King
Adel, said to be descendant of Shem, ruler of Britain having 3
children that migrated to India.
Further, it is said
that Tuitsch a German patriarch is none other than Shem himself
A text from Islam claims that the Greeks
derived from Shem: Tabari II:11 “Shem, the son of Noah was the
father of the Arabs, the Persians, and the Greeks;...”
In Serge A. Zenkovsky's, Medieval Russia's
Epics, Chronicles, and Tales, "To the lot of Shem fell the Orient,
and his share extended lengthwise as far as India and breadthwise
(from east to south) as far as Phinocorura, including Persia and
Bactria, as well as Syria, Media (which lies beside the Euphrates
River), Babylon, Cordyna, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Arabia the
Ancient, Elymais, India, Arabia the Mighty, Coelesyria, Commagene,
and all Phoenicia."
Abulgazi, Shem's original land was Iran while Japheth's was
the country called "Kuttup Shamach," said to be the name of the
regions between the Caspian Sea and India.
According to Armenian tradition, Dr. Hales is
quoted saying, "To the sons of Shem was alloted the middle region
of the earth viz., Palestine, Syria, Assyria, Samaria (Shinar?)
Babel (or Babylonia), Persia and Hedjaz (Arabia).
In Mystery of the Ages, by Dr. James Modlish,
it is said that India is inhabited by Shemites.
Hisham Ibn al-Kalbi, a
19th century Arab historian, states that al-Hind and al-Sind [(Sindh)Pakistan]
Ophir, the son of
Isidore of Seville (c. 635) had also made Joktan the ancestor
of Indians and Pakistanis; his material was based on earlier
enumerations made by Jerome and Josephus, who had stated that
Joktan's descendants "inhabited from Cophen, an Indian river, and
in part of Asia adjoining to it."
In Genesis, while
are listed among descendants of
Cush son of Ham in 10:7, another Sheba is listed as a son of
Joktan, son of Eber in 10:28. These names are associated with
Semitic tribes on both sides of the Red Sea in
Sabaeans). This situation may reflect a combined
Hamito-Semitic ancestry postulated for Ethiopian peoples.
Some writers have associated Noah's sons with
different skin colors or alleged races. For instance the Jewish
text Pirqei R. Eliezer, depicts God as dividing the earth among
Noah‘s sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet,
and attributing different skin colors to them (literally,
—blessing“ them with different skin colors): light colored skin
for the Japhetites, medium dark or brown for the Semites, and very
dark or black for the Hamites.
This passage from Pirqei R. Eliezer, a
writing which was composed in Israel after the Islamic conquest,
is paralleled in an Arabic text of approximately the same period.
The historian abarī (d. 923) quotes Ibn Abbas (d. 686-8) as
- Born to Noah were Shem, whose descendants
were tawny-white (bayā wa-adma); Ham, whose descendants were
black with hardly any whiteness (sawād wa-bayā qalīl); and
Japheth, whose descendants were reddish-white (al-łuqra wal-
From the same author also comes his
commentary of Gen 5:32:
- " 'And Noah begat Shem and Ham and
Japheth.' That is Shem is the father of the swarthy, and Ham of
the blacks, and Japheth of the whites." Then on the commentary
on Gen 10:32, "...the red [smqry'] sons of Japheth,... the black
sons of Ham,... and the swarthy sons of Shem."
The tradition is repeated in the 13th century
by the Christian Ibn al- Ibrī (Bar Hebraeus), known for the
—fidelity with which he reproduces earlier writers. Again in
another work, Bar Hebraeus speaks of Noah dividing the world among
his three sons, with Ham getting the Land of the Blacks (sūdān),
Shem the Land of the Browns (sumra), and Japheth the Land of the
"According to ISBE, Shem means "dusky", and
Japheth means "fair." (McKissick, Beyond Roots. P. 108).
According to Armenian tradition, Shem had the
region of the tawny.
Josiah Priest (1788–1851) believed that Shem,
because he was a descendant in the Adamic line, and because "Adam"
means reddish in Hebrew, that Shem too was of the "reddish
race". Further, he believe that because Christ was a descendant in
the line of Shem, that Christ was of "copper-colored stock".
Book of Jasher
Book of Jasher
Book of Jasher
Prophetic Geography and the Time of the End, emphasis added
^ Serge A. Zenkovsky's,
Medieval Russia's Epics, Chronicles, and Tales, Revised
and Enlarged Edition. (NY: Meridian Books, 1974)
^ P. 94, Annals and Antiquities of
^ P. 27 Assyria: Her Manners and
Customs, Arts and Arms: Restored from Her Monuments By Philip
^ Mystery of the Ages, by Dr. James
^ p. 1769 A dictionary of the Bible
comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural
history. by William Smith, John Mee Fuller
^ [The names of
Noah’s sons were prophetic. Shem signifies name or renown (the
Scriptures have been given to us through the family of Shem,
and Christ was of that family); Ham signifies hot or black
(his descendants mainly peopled Africa); and Japheth signifies
either fair or enlarged (his descendants are the white-faced
Europeans, who have gone forth and established colonies in all
the other grand divisions of the globe).]
^ [Tarikh al- abarī,
ed. M.J. de Goeje, 1:199. A little later (p. 220) abarī
repeats this tradition, again in the name of Ibn Abbas, but
this time has —tawny with hardly any whiteness“ (udma wa-bayā
qalīl) for Ham instead of —black with hardly any whiteness.“
My translation of abarī”s color terms follows Lane, who notes
that applied to human complexion adam means —tawny or
dark-complexioned, syn. asmar,“ umra means whiteness, and
łuqra implies some mix of red and white, the common
classification for a light-skinned complexion (Lane, An
Arabic-English Lexicon, pp. 37a, 640c [see also 642a, a mar],
^ [M. Sprengling and
W.C. Graham, ed., Barhebraeus‘ Scholia on the Old Testament,
pp. 34-35 and 44-45. Bar Hebraeus‘ father was a Jewish convert
to Christianity (thus the name). The quotation is from J.B.
Segal, The Encyclopedia of Islam, second edition, 3:805, s.v.
Ibn al- Ibrī.]
^ McKissick, Beyond
Roots. P. 108)
^ P. 162
Christmastide: Its History, Festivities, and Carols By William
^ The Forging of
Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World,
1600-2000 By Colin Kidd
Hebrew. יפת, Yafet,
Greek Ιάφεθ , Iapheth ,
Latin Iafeth or Iapetus,,
Arabic: يافث) is one of the
sons of Noah in the
Arabic citations, his name is normally given as Yafeth ibn Nuh
(Japheth son of Noah).
He is most popularly regarded as the youngest
son, though some traditions regard him as the eldest son. Genesis
10:21 refers to relative ages of Japheth and his brother Shem, but
with sufficient ambiguity to have given rise to different
translations. The verse is translated in the
KJV as follows, "Unto Shem also, the father of all the
children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him
were children born". However, the
Revised Standard Version gives, "To Shem also, the father of
all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, children
were born." However, the
Revised Standard Version's text seems incorrect when the
original Hebrew text is examined. In Hebrew, the text reads "יֶפֶת
הַגָּדוֹל" (literally "Japheth the great"; i.e., "Japheth the
In Genesis 5:32 it records that one of the
three sons of Noah, Shem, Ham or Japheth, was born when Noah was
five hundred years old. Genesis 11:10 records that Shem was one
hundred years old two years after the Flood when Arphaxad was
born. If Noah was six hundred years old (Genesis 7:13), and Shem
was ninety-eight years old at the Flood, then Shem was born when
Noah was five hundred and two years old. This would leave either
Ham or Japheth the son born when Noah was five hundred years old.
In Genesis 11:26, 32; 12:4 Terah's sons Abram, Nahor and Haran had
the oldest son Haran listed last. So Japheth, who is listed last,
would most likely be the oldest. This would support the
interpretation of Genesis 10:21 that Japheth was the elder.
place in Noah's family
Sons of Noah
For those who take the
genealogies of Genesis to be historically accurate, Japheth is
commonly believed to be the father of the
Europeans. The link between Japheth and the Europeans stems
Genesis 10:5, which states that the sons of Japheth moved to
the "isles of the
Gentiles," commonly believed to be the
isles. According to that book, Japheth and his two
brothers formed the three major
Henry IV, Part II contains a wry comment about people who
claim to be related to royal families.
Prince Hal notes of such people,
- ...they will be kin to us, or they will
fetch it from Japhet. (II.ii 117-18)
Genesis 10:5 was often interpreted to mean
that the peoples of Europe were descended from Japheth. Clearly,
then, any two Englishmen must have at least this one ancestor in
common, and thus any individual could claim kinship with the king.
Geographic identifications of
Flavius Josephus, c. 100 AD; Japheth's sons shown in red
In the Bible, Japheth is ascribed seven sons:
Madai. According to
of the Jews I.6):
- "Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons:
they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains
Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river
Tanais (Don), and along Europe to
Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light
upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations
by their own names."
Josephus subsequently detailed the nations
supposed to have descended from the seven sons of Japheth. Among
the nations various later writers have attempted to assign to them
are as follows:
According to the
Book of Jubilees (10:35-36), Madai had married a daughter of
Shem, and preferred to live among Shem's descendants, rather
than dwell in Japheth's allotted inheritance beyond the Black
Sea; so he begged his brothers-in-law, Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad,
until he finally received from them the land that was named
after him, Media.
of Jasher", published in the 17th century, provides some new
names for Japheth's grandchildren not seen in the Bible or any
other source, and provided a much more detailed genealogy (see
In the seventh century,
Isidore of Seville published his noted history, in which he
traces the origins of most of the nations of Europe back to
Scholars in almost every European nation continued to repeat and
improve upon Saint Isidore's assertion of descent from Noah
through Japheth into the nineteenth century.
Georgian nationalist histories associate Japheth's sons with
certain ancient tribes, called
Tibarenoi in Greek) and
Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, Moschoi in Greek), who they claim
represent non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, possibly
"Proto-Iberian" tribes of
Asia Minor of the
In the Polish tradition of
Sarmatism, the Sarmatians were said to be descended from
Japheth, son of
enabling the Polish nobility to imagine themselves able to trace
their ancestry directly to Noah.
In Scotland, histories tracing the Scottish
people to Japheth were published as late as
George Chalmers well received Caledonia, published in 3
volumes from 1807 to 1824.
correlations with deities
In the 19th century, Biblical
syncretists associated the
sons of Noah with ancient pagan gods. Japheth was identified
by some scholars with figures from other mythologies, including
Dyaus Pitar and
Pra-Japati, and the
Roman Iu-Pater or "Father Jove", which became
The term "Japhetic" was also applied by
William Jones and other early
linguists to what became known as the
Indo-European language group. In a different sense, it was
also used by the
Nikolai Marr in his
Japheth is a major character in the
Madeleine L'Engle novel
Many Waters (1986,
ISBN 0 374 34796 4). He is characterized as thoughtful and
intelligent, a kind-hearted young man who is on good terms with
feuding family members Noah and
Lamech, with the
seraphim, and with visiting
Sandy and Dennys Murry. Depicted in the book as Noah's younger
son, Japheth is barely into adulthood, but at Noah's instigation
is already married. His equally kind wife is an unusually
fair-skinned woman with black hair, who may have been sired by one
Susan Reynolds, "Medieval origines gentium and the
community of the realm," History, 68, 1983, pp. 375-90
Colin Kidd, British Identities before Nationalism;
Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800,
Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 29
Colin Kidd, British Identities before Nationalism;
Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800,
Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 52
|THE ZECHARIAH SITCHIN VERSION OF THE STORY
Descended from Heaven
Mesopotamia is often referred to as the
"cradle of civilization" because the world's first civilization
occurred where the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers converged in what
is now modern Iraq. Sumer cities emerged almost overnight in
Mesopotamia around 4000 B.C. Previously mankind's greatest
achievements were the making of stone arrows and spear heads.
Suddenly primitive cavemen became sophisticated inventing the
wheel, where man or beast could haul five times as much weight,
crops were planted and intensive farming and a web of irrigation
channels were built.
The Sumarian's claim gods called the
Nephilim - Nefilim - Elohim - Annunaki meaning "Those who from
Heaven to Earth came," taught them how to establish a
civilization. In Sumerian mythology there is a pantheon of good
and evil gods and goddesses who came to Earth to create a
civilization and the human race. According Zacharia Zitchen
these gods came from Nibiru – or Marduk ''the Planet of the
Crossing.' The Sumerians claim the Annunaki arrived on Earth at
the time of the Flood. Enki was the leader of the first sons of
Anu that came down to Earth and played a pivotal role in saving
humanity from the flood. He defied the Anunnaki ruling council
and told Ziusudra (the Sumerian Noah) how to build a ship on
which to save humanity from the killing flood.
The Epic of Creation and other relevant
Sumerian texts are supported by pictorial depictions. Zecharia
Sitchin has been studying articles of the Sumerian civilization
for more than 30 years and found a rare stone cylinder known as
the cylinder seal VA-243 in the Berlin Near Eastern Museum.
It shows the
sun in the center, surrounded by eleven orbiting bodies that
include the Moon, Pluto and the yet to be recognized "Planet X"
-- Nibiru Sumerian knowledge of the origin and makeup of our
solar system included a host of other aspects that modern
science has been rediscovering in recent times.
The cylinder shows a god giving a plow to
human kind, and a startling chart of the heavens showing the
planets with the Sun in the center with twelve planets, and the
The question is: how could the Sumerians
know about the above things in days of old when there were
neither telescopes nor satellites? Sitchin claims he can answer
the question. According to him, the Sumerians received secret
tips from the aliens who the planet Nibiru, The 12th Planet
sitting between Jupiter and Mars on that Berlin cylinder.
The aliens allegedly visited Earth
repeatedly every 3000 years. "It is all in the texts including
the myth about Anki and Earth," says Sitchin. The Sumerians
invented a furnace for roasting earthenware, astrology, and an
irrigation system, cuneiform writing for putting down their
discoveries on clay tablets, statuettes and formed the first
city states. In the city Uruk, archaeologists have found the
earliest inscribed writing recorded on clay tablets around 3200
BC. According to the ancient writings, Enki's youngest son,
Ningizzida, was Lord of the Tree of Truth, in Mesopotamia. He
played the role of Thoth in Egypt and his Initiates became the
priests who hid the secret knowledge of creation. The Anunnaki
shown on this cylinder claimed to create the man.
Laboratory vessels and Tree of Life
There are indications the Anunaki who
descended from heaven genetically modified some of the animals
and early human genetics. The ancient Sumerians organized
themselves into competing city-states that consisted of a city,
surrounded by mud brick wall and fortifications, and the
In Ur a giant Ziggurat was built with
bricks designed to reach the heavens. The top of the ziggurat
was flat and a flying object could land or hover at the top.
Access to the shrine was provided by a series of ramps on one
side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit.
Notable examples of this structure include the Khorsabad in
Mesopotamia. The Great Ziggurat of Ur was built as a place of
worship, a temple with huge stepped platform, in the 21stCentury
BC by king Ur-Nammu. Today, after more than 4000 years later,
the lower portion of the ziggurat is still well preserved as a
major remainder of Ur and the visitors. Thanks to Sitchin and
the Earth Chronicles.
- And Abram said unto himself
'Surely these are not gods (Enki
and Enlil) that made the earth and all mankind, but these are the
servants of Yahweh! Book of Jasher
Chapter IX: 19.
Zecharia Sitchin is a brilliant author and
contemporary Ufologists. He is the author of several very popular new age
books reporting his polytheistic interpretation of Sumerian, Biblical, and
He states that the Sumerian account of the origin of
civilization predates that of the Biblical record and implies that it is
therefore a more accurate report of our origins.
He implies in his book, "Divine Encounters", that the
Hebrew account in Genesis of the creation of man is an inferior record of
the origins of man and was primarily plagiarized by Moses from the
Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets and the Epic of Gilgamesh.
He suggests that Yahweh may be interpreted as the
Hebrew expression of the gods of Sumeria Enki or Enlil. He maintains a
polytheistic view of the gods oF Sumeria and the Jews. He further goes on
to attempt to establish that Yahweh may be in fact Enlil the Sumerian
- "And the story of Man's Divine Encounters, the
subject of this book, is so filled with parallels between the biblical
experiences and those of encounters with the Annunnaki by other ancient
peoples, that the possibility that Yahweh was one
of 'them' must be seriously considered." P. 347.
- "The question and its implied answer, indeed,
arise inevitably. That the biblical creation narrative with which the
Book is beyond dispute." p. 347.
- "That the biblical Eden is a rendering of the
Sumerian E.DIN is almost self evident. P. 347.
- "That the tale of the Deluge and Noah and the ark
is based on the Akkadian Atra-Hasis texts and the earlier Sumerian
Deluge tale in the Epic of Gilgamesh, is certain." P. 347
- "That the plural 'us' in the creation of The Adam
segments reflects the Sumerian and Akkadian record of the discussions by
the leaders of the Anunnaki that led to the genetic engineering that
brought Homo sapiens about, should be obvious. p. 347.
- "Indeed, in the very tale--the tale of the
Deluge--where the identification of Yahweh with Enki appears the
clearest, confusion in fact shows up. The roles are switched, and all of
a sudden Yahweh plays the role not of Enki but of his rival Enlil.
- In the Mesopotamian original texts, it is Enlil
who is unhappy with the way Mankind has turned out, who seeks its
destruction by the approaching calamity, and who makes the other
Annunaki leaders swear to keep all that a secret from Mankind." P. 350 &
While claiming to have drawn his conclusions that
Yahweh was one of the Sumerian Gods by having read the
Book of Jasher, then he states that the
Sumerian history substantiates his view that Yahweh is the "b'nai Elohim".
The Book of Jasher
- ""Joshua 10:13 refers to the
Book of Jasher, which is also listed as a known source text in II
Samuel 1:18. These are but passing references to what must have been a
much more extensive trove of earlier texts." P. 5.
- "The Books of Nathan and Gad have vanished, as did
other books--the Book of the Wars of Yahweh, the
Book of Jasher, to mention two others--that the Bible speaks
of...They all provide a wealth of insights into the nature and identity
of Yahweh." P. 330.
"Is not this
written in the Book of Jasher?" Joshua 10:13.
"Behold, it is written in the Book of
Jasher" 2 Samuel 1:18.
The Book of Jasher contains a
detailed account of the life of Abraham, the Father of the Hebrew nation.
Abram was the son of Terah who was a prince, priest, and sorcerer for
- And Terah the son of Nahor prince
of Nimrod's host, was in those days very great in the sight of the king
and his subjects, and the king and princes loved him, and they elevated
him very high.
- Terah was seventy years old
when he begat him, and Terah called the name of his son Abram, because
the king had raised him in those days, and dignified him above all his
princes that were with him. Page 17, Chapter VIII, verse 49-51.
At the birth of Abram an omen
appeared in the sky that suggested that the child would replace Nimrod as
king. An attempt was made to kill Abram but Terah gave up a child of one
of his slaves to the king's men to be slain and then sent Abram to Noah to
be raised in secret.
- And when Abram was in Noah's house
thirty-nine years, and Abram knew Yahweh from three years old
- He went in the ways of Yahweh
until he the day of his death as Noah and his son Shem had taught him.
- And all the sons of the earth in
those days greatly transgressed against Yahweh
- And they rebelled against Him
- And they went after other gods
(Enki and Enlil),
- For they forgot
who had created heaven and earth;
- And the inhabitants of the earth
made unto themselves, at that time, every man his god; Enki and Enlil
- And the sons of men served them
and they became their gods (polytheism). Chapter IX verse 6.
It is very clear as in the Biblical
account that the Watchers (the Annunaki) made an attempt to get the whole
world to worship the Sumerian gods Enki and Enlil and to supplant Yahweh
as creator God.
The Book of Jasher makes it very
clear that Abram serves Yahweh, rejects the new demigods of the Annunaki,
and vows to separate himself from the culture of Ur and serve Yahweh only.
- And Abram said unto himself
'Surely these are not gods (Enki and
Enlil) that made the earth and all mankind, but these are the servants
- And Abram remained in the house of
Noah and there knew Yahweh and His ways, and he served Yahweh all the
days of his life
- And all that generation forgot
- And served other gods--Enki and
Enlil. Chapter IX: 19.
Later the conjurors of Nimrod
discover that Abram is still alive and a threat to Nimrod's reign over
Sumeria and they tried to kill Terah, Haran, and Abram. Terah escapes the
death penalty when Haran confesses to the crime in order to save his
father. They tied Abram and Haran up and throw them into the fiery
furnace. Haran is consumed in the flames but Abram survives unharmed.
Nimrod asks him how it is that he survived?
- And Abram said to Nimrod
- Yahweh, the creator of heaven and
earth, in whom I serve has all in His power
- He delivered me from the fire into
which you threw me.
- And Nimrod, the princes (the
followers of Enki and Enlil), seeing that Abram was delivered from the
- Came and bowed down before Abram.
- And Abram said to them, 'Do not
bow down to me, but bow down to Yahweh, the creator of the world who
made you, and serve Him, and
- Go in his ways for it is Yahweh
who delivered me from out of this fire
- And it is Yahweh who created the
souls and spirits of all men
- And formed man in his mother's
womb, and brought him into the world,
- And it is Yahweh who will deliver
those who trust in him from all pain.
- Chapter II: 35-38.
This is the account of why Terah and
Abram left Ur. They had decided to serve Yahweh and reject the rebellion
and coup of Enki and Enlil to supplant Yahweh as creator God.
The Book of Jasher records the
commission of Abram to continue the denouncement of Enki and Enlil and to
start a nation that will serve the true God--Yahweh:
22 Reasons Why YHWH
Elohim or Enki or Enlil:
- And Yahweh appeared to Abram when
he came to the land of Canaan
- And said to him, 'This is the land
which I gave unto thee and to thy seed after thee forever,
- And I will make thy seed like the
stars of heaven
- And I will give unto thy seed for
an inheritance all the lands which thou sees.' Chapter XIII:7.
- The term b'nai Elohim, used in Genesis Chapter 6,
is a term that refers to heavenly beings not Jehovah God. It occurs four
times in the Old Testament and is rendered "Angels of God" in the
ancient Septuagint translation. Angels are the heavenly hosts (Genesis
2:1). The term b'nai means "a son of".
- The intrusion of angels into human DNA resulted in
unnatural offspring termed the Nephilim, which comes from the Hebrew
naphal, (to fall), or the Fallen Ones. Jehovah God is not fallen. He is
Holy. See Genesis 6.
- It would seem unlikely that Jehovah God would be
caught off guard as to the unnatural offspring (giants) since He was
- Why would the creator of man want to have sex with
its own creation? He could have created an equal Goddess.
- The idea that creator God had sex with a lowly
human creation would imply that God is involved with bestiality.
Religions of the world tell us that Jehovah God, Yahweh, the Almighty
Creator is holy.
- To many Christians, the term Elohim refers to the
triune nature of God. God is one God but three distinct persons. He is
God in the preexistent, God in the creation, and God in the spirit. He
is the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The unity of the Father,
the Son, and the Holy Spirit constitutes the Godhead.
- The Book of Enoch calls the b'nai Elohim the
angels, the sons of heaven, not the Elohim or Godhead. Chapter 7: 2.
- The Book of Enoch makes a clear distinction
between the Most High God Jehovah, the Great and Holy One, and the
Watchers, the sons of God (b'nai Elohim).Chapter 10:1.
- The Book of Enoch names their leader, Samyaza, and
those who followed him. Never is the name of the Lord God Jehovah or
Yahweh used. Chapter 7: 9.
- The Book of Jubilees calls the b'nai Elohim the
Watchmen or Watchers. Chapter 7: 17. There is never a confusion between
YHWH and the watchers.
- The Book of Jubilees says that the Lord God
Jehovah judged the Watchers with a deluge on account of their
fornication. Chapter 7: 19. The Book of Jubilees also makes a very clear
distinction between Jehovah God and the Watchers.
- In the Book of Enoch, Jehovah God tells Enoch,
"Go, say to the Watchers of heaven, who have sent thee (To Me) to pray
for them; You ought to pray for men, and not men for you. Wherefore have
you forsaken the lofty and holy heaven, which endures for ever, and have
lain with women; have defiled yourselves with the daughters of men; have
taken to yourselves wives; have acted like the sons of earth, and have
begotten giants...Never therefore shall you obtain peace." Chapter 15 &
- In the Book of Enoch Jehovah God declares the Oath
of Beka to determine the judgment of the Watchers and the Messiah to
deliver man from the result of the sin of the Watchers the Annunaki.
- The Book of Jasher says that the Watchers
cohabited with women to provoke the Lord God Jehovah. Chapter IV:18.
- The Apostle Peter says that Jehovah God did not
spare the angels who sinned. 2 Peter 2: 4-6.
- The Book of Jude says that Jehovah God keeps the
angels who did not keep their proper domain and went after strange flesh
in everlasting chains. Jude 5-7.
- The Book of Isaiah says that the Lord God Jehovah
will call His b'nai Elohim back form the end of heaven at the end of the
age for His anger to be judged. Isaiah 13: 3-16.
- God created man to live in the garden not as a
slave but to have dominion over it. Genesis 2: 15.
- Man was a partner with Jehovah God in the garden.
Genesis 2; 19.
- After the fall Jehovah God promised to send a
deliverer so that man could be restored to his original Edenic reality.
- The Book of Revelation tells us of a war that
breaks out in heaven and Michael and his angels defeat the Watchers and
they are cast out of heaven. Revelation 12: 7-12.
- We are told that we can overcome the power of the
Satans (Watchers or Aliens) by the blood of the lamb and by the word of
our testimony. Revelation 12:11.
|JORDAN MAXWELL INTERVIEWS ZECHARIAH SITCHIN
This interview was conducted at the "World Conference of Planetary
Violence in Human History, January 3-5, 1997."
Maxwell: It is an honor to be here in your company Mr. Sitchin.
For many years I've enjoyed following your work in the field of
ancient theology. My first question is about the word
Yahweh, one of the names of God
in Hebrew. Is it a proper name or is Yahweh, in Hebrew, describing
Sitchin: It is a descriptive term. It is not a proper name.
Maxwell: That is what I thought. Could you explain exactly what it
Sitchin: It is usually translated "I am who I am" — something like
that. More accurately the tense, which in Hebrew it says
Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh, is a future tense. Therefore it means "I will
be whoever I will be," in context of the whole biblical tale and
with a throwback to the Sumerian information that I provide in my
books. It really means "I can be whoever I choose to be."
Maxwell: There was a professor I heard once talking about Yahweh
and he said it also implied stored power that when it is released
it has something to do with the creative power being released.
Does that track with your understanding?
Sitchin: There must be one power — to use the term that you
mentioned from that professor — one power, one creator, one God,
whatever we mean by that, who created everything. He not only
created, in my opinion, but even determined the course of events
from beginning to end, and not only faiths like ours, but at the
end of my book
Divine Encounters I give a
translation of a Hebrew prayer which is called Lord of the
Universe, which clearly says this concept of Lord of the Universe,
not of this solar system, not of the planet, was there before
anything began and will be there after everything ends.
How does this fit in with the Sumerian tales of
Anunnaki who came here from
another planet in our solar system? How does it dovetail with the
tales of the Bible? It dovetails by saying that this entity,
whether it has a shape or a form, I do not know, acts through
emissaries. This is the meaning, as I understand and expound it in
the last chapter in the book, this is the meaning of what God
answered Moses. He says,
"I can be whoever I want to be. So I can be and live, I can
be Enki, because they are only my emissaries."
This, I think, is the truth of what we have to understand from the
Maxwell: I attended a lecture once with a Lee and Vivian
Gladden, who I think I have mentioned before to you in
passing. They wrote a book about the same subject, it was called
Heirs of the Gods where they talked about the celestials or the
extraterrestrials and they made the point that there were only two
scriptures in the Bible, both Old and New Testaments, where the
word "God" implied a divine overshadowing, creative force of all
creation, as opposed to all the other places, except those two,
that talked about Elohim, which was different from the
Sitchin: Gods with a small "g." This must be understood. These are
gods with a small "g" who in turn were the emissaries of God with
a capital "G." And in the New Testament on which I am not as
expert as on the Old Testament, but even there, there is the
statement that "I am Alpha and I am Omega, I am the first and I am
the last, I am the beginning and I am the end," which is exactly
what the Hebrew phrase states.
Maxwell: There were so many questions in relation to that but I am
very interested in the "sons of God" also. Were the Elohim the
"sons" of the sons of God, or were the Elohim the "sons of God?"
Sitchin: They were the Anunnaki. And it is their sons born on
earth who married the daughters of Adam.
Maxwell: We can say then that the Elohim were the ones that in the
Hebrew were referred to as the Sons of God?
Sitchin: No. The Elohim are what the Sumerians called
the Anunnaki, "those who from heaven to earth came." They are
Elohim in the Bible. Indeed, when you encounter this term and most
in connection with the so-called pagan gods, that are also called
Elohim in the Bible, indeed, at some point Joshua gives the
Israelites, before they cross the Jordan into the Promised Land,
he says, "You now have a choice, make up your mind, do you want to
follow the Elohim of Egypt, or do you want to follow the Elohim of
Mesopotamia, or do you want to follow Yahweh?" — the monotheistic
concept of one God that rules, controls, designs, etc.,
Maxwell: The prophet Daniel in the Old Testament, I think it is
Daniel 4:23, reminded me of Genesis 1:2 where it says that God, or
Elohim, created the heavens and the Earth, and the Earth.
Sitchin: I raise my hand to tell you that indirectly you raise a
very, very fundamental question for biblical scholars and for
theologians. In Hebrew the sentence, the verse says, "b’reysheet,"
which is translated "In the beginning," Elohim, God, "created the
heavens and the Earth." Many, many theologians for generations, it
even goes back to Talmudic times, the time of Second Temple, asked
how could it be that the story of creation, of beginning, starts
with the second letter of the alphabet, the bet, the beta, "B,"
and not with the first letter of the alphabet, the aleph, the
alpha. It just beats logic. It beats your beliefs.
What I show in my book, the latest one, Divine Encounters, is that
if you add the aleph, which may have dropped somewhere along the
rewritings, etc. of the Bible, it becomes not b’reysheet, but ab
reysheet, the "Father of beginning created Elohim, the heavens and
the earth." So the supreme creator created
the Anunnaki or Elohim, the
heavens and the earth.
Maxwell: And that is a whole different story than is usually
Sitchin: If you add the aleph, you give a whole new
dimension to this first sentence of the first book of the Bible.
Maxwell: I have always felt that there was most likely another
ancient civilization even before. This is my own conjecture.
Sitchin: Definitely. You are absolutely right on that because even
according to the Sumerian tales in many texts and especially the
so-called king lists that deal with the cities, pre- or
antediluvial cities and with the ten antediluvian rulers which
some compared to the ten patriarchs of the Bible before the
deluge. And there were cities, there was a civilization that the
Assyrian King Ashurbanipal boasted that he could read tablets from
before the flood. All the indications are that they recognized,
referred to and accepted this fact that there was a civilization
of the gods because those cities, prediluvial are spoken of as
cities of the gods.
After the deluge there came cities of men with the help of the
Anunnaki. So there was a time of a, let us call it a divine
civilization, a divine culture. As I am sure you know, in the
Egyptian beliefs the priest Manetho who paralleled the Chaldean
Berosus, they lived more or less at the same time. The heirs of
Alexander in what became eventually the Byzantine, hired a
Babylonian priest to write the history of the world based upon the
Mesopotamian. Ptolemys in Egypt hired the Egyptian priest Manetho
to do the same, but the versions are very similar. Both spoke by
the way, of a series of calamities that preceded the deluge. It is
not clear at what intervals.
Maxwell: About 20 years ago I talked with the President of the
American Rabbinical Association who was a good friend of mine. I
asked him about Genesis 9:1 where, after the flood of Noah, God
says to Noah to go forth with his sons and their wives and go
forth and multiply and "re-plenish" the earth. "Re-" obviously
means do again. Yes, that is understood to redo the earth because
God had destroyed so much of the life. Then again, if you go back
to Genesis 1:28 where God creates Adam and Eve and he is telling
the original couple to go forth, reproduce and re-plenish the
earth. To do it again.
Sitchin: No. The word "again" does not appear there. It says "pru
ravu malua al-aretz," — "be fruitful," in terms of offspring, "ravu,"
multiply, and fill the earth.
Maxwell: But it did not have replenish?
Sitchin: No. In the original not regarding Adam. That is one of
the dangers of translations. The translators really interpret.
Maxwell: There are so many questions that I have wanted to ask in
relation to the word El. Was El in fact a Hebrew word as
such, or was El existing before the Hebrew language?
Sitchin: El is the Hebrew. Hebrew stems from Akkadian. All
Semitic languages stem from Akkadian — Canaanite, Phoenician,
Babylonian, Assyrian, Moabite — stem from the Akkadian which was
the language that came after the demise of the Sumerian
civilization. When I read an Assyrian text it is almost like
Hebrew. Not exactly: there are dialects and so on. So the Hebrew
word El which is usually translated God, or divine being, really
is from the Akkadian Ilu and it meant literally "the lofty one."
So if you want to be very precise you have to translate whenever
it says El, you have to say "the lofty one."
Maxwell: I am so very appreciative of your time, but I really have
to ask you something that is important to me. In my particular
work in examining the occult or hidden symbolism in our modern-day
religious and political movements, I became fascinated about 20
years ago with the symbol of the Sun as it is used by the secret
societies, the fraternal orders and especially in our political
and religious symbolism today. It was fascinating to me that the
Sun, when you brought up is that what we are talking about, or
David Talbott talked about the Sun being Saturn. But the Sun has
been used, and that sun symbol with the winged Sun, you
brought out, is the symbol of the Anunnaki?
Sitchin: It is the symbol of Nibiru, of the so-called
Twelfth Planet. As I showed you, on these monuments and I could
show you on Egyptian monuments, and Hittite monuments, this was
the symbol connected with the king, the priesthood with their
gods. That was the symbol of the planet. As I showed on the same
monument that gives the 12 members of the solar system, you
definitely see the Sun with its rays totally separate, and the
symbol of what is called the Winged Disk.
Maxwell: You see them simultaneously together.
Sitchin: On the same depictions which are repeated and repeated.
You see Earth as the seventh planet. In many instances you see
Venus as the eighth planet with eight rays. You see Mars as the
sixth planet with six rays. Everything corroborates what I have
In Sumerian times and with the ensuing Babylonian-Assyrian eras,
the Sun-god, Utu in Sumerian Shamashin, Hebrew, and
all the other languages, was not the significant deity at all in
the hierarchy. The Shamash, according to the Sumerian, and
therefore further on, believed by the Assyrians, Babylonians and
others, was the son of the god that in Akkadian is called Sîn
and he was the moon god. According to these hierarchies Shamash
was the son of the moon god. Not so when it came to Nibiru. The
ruler of Nibiru stood at the head of the pantheon. So the pantheon
had to do with Anunnaki, from where they came, and the ruler there
was the head and his symbol was the winged disk.
Maxwell: In my collection I have about five works, two of them are
doctoral theses, and others are extended articles appearing in the
Middle East, on the word "chief cornerstone." I picked up on that.
It was a fascinating study where the word chief cornerstone is
translated from the Hebrew when it appears in Hebrew in Psalms
118:22 where Messiah is referred to as the chief cornerstone.
While in the Christian Greek scriptures of the New Testament, the
Messiah or Jesus is referred to twice as the chief cornerstone.
That word chief cornerstone, what does it actually imply for the
Messiah in both Psalms and in the New Testament?
Sitchin: It is not cornerstone, in other words, when you lay the
foundation it is the cornerstone. It is the apex-stone, "rosh
phena," the head where the sides meet, as in a pyramid. The
apexstone, the topstone, the one that is really the
conduit to the heavens.
Maxwell: That is what these articles were saying. Every one was
saying it was the pinnacle.
Sitchin: Pinnacle, but not foundation stone on the ground.
Maxwell: Remember, even in the New Testament when Satan takes
Jesus to the temple to tempt him, the Scripture says he takes him
up to the pinnacle of the temple, to the point of the temple. I am
totally sure that there is a lot of symbolism that the early
Sitchin: I think we should rewrite the Bible, in English, not in
Maxwell: That is very important.
Sitchin: That is what I am thinking about, a new translation based
on my understanding of it.
Maxwell: I think that would be absolutely important for so many
people in the Western World to get a better grasp of the
symbolism, the implications of the original words, where they came
from and just get a new understanding from where all of this came.
Sitchin: With your help, it may come to be.
Maxwell: I would love to do that. This planet
Nibiru. Is there anything I can
have you say concerning the return of Nibiru that you.
Sitchin: Not yet. But I promise you another interview when I can
speak about it.
Maxwell: Let me again say that it is not only a pleasure but an
honor to be with you and I do very much appreciate your time.
Sitchin: It is always a pleasure to be interviewed by someone who
knows almost as much as I do. I leave a little for myself.
Maxwell: You are a giant and I appreciate your time.
Updated 5 February 2009
Genesis 6:1-4 reads:
“And it came to pass, when men began to
multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,
That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and
they took them wives of all which they chose... There were
nephilim in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the
sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children
to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of
renown.” [emphasis added]
is often translated as “giants”, a legitimate
and appropriate interpretation, but one which may be only partially
accurate. A better definition might be “those who came down”, “those
who descended”, or “those who were cast down.” The Anunnaki of
texts is similarly defined as “those who from heaven to earth came”.
Sitchin , Gardner , and Bramley  have all identified the
Nephilim as the Anunnaki, more specifically, essentially the rank and
open-minded historical and theological scholars agree the Old
Testament’s book of Genesis was extracted from the older Sumerian
records, if only because of the similarity in their
Comparative Religions. The Enuma
have a variety of common
elements. Stories of a Great Flood and
among other stories, are also common to both Sumerian and Biblical
accounts. An inevitable conclusion is that the Anunnaki were as real
as Noah, Moses or Abraham.
 has written: “Every
item of written and pictorial attestation confirms that the ancient
Sumerians were absolutely sincere about the existence of the Anunnaki,
and those such as Enki, Enlil, Nin-khursag and Inanna fulfilled
earthly functions with designated community duties. They were patrons
and founders; they were teachers and justices; they were technologists
and kingmakers. They were jointly and severally venerated as archons
and masters, but there were certainly not idols of religious worship
as the ritualistic gods of subsequent cultures became. In fact, the
word which was eventually translated to become ‘worship’ was avod,
which meant quite simply, ‘work’. The Anunnaki presence may baffle
historians, their language may confuse linguists and their advanced
techniques may bewilder scientists, but to dismiss them is foolish.
The Sumerians have themselves told us precisely who the Anunnaki were,
and neither history nor science can prove otherwise.”
Sumerian records recorded in great detail the stories of the Anunnaki,
and among these, that of Enki, Enlil, Ninki, Inanna, Utu, Ningishzida,
Marduk, and many others. Chief among these stories was the continuing
Enki and Enlil, the sons of the supreme god of the time, Anu.
Much of ancient human history, and the Biblical Genesis, can be
explained as the militant differences between these two half-brothers,
and how they affected the life of all sentient beings on Earth.
But the Anunnaki were
more than just a pair of squabbling half-brothers. They were the
who periodically met to consider their future actions with respect to
each other, and probably as a smaller, nondescript item on their
agenda, the fate of mankind. The Anunnaki, depending upon the
context, were the Nephilim, the gods that Abraham’s father, Terah,
(according to the book of Joshua) was reputed to have served, the
fallen angels, the lesser individuals of the race from which Anu,
Enki, Enlil, Inanna and the other notables had sprung, and the
“judges” over the question of life and death. They were in fact the
bene ha-elohim, which translates as “the sons of the gods”, or equally
likely, “the sons of the goddesses.” For example, from Psalm 82:
takes his stand at the Council of El to deliver judgment
elohim.” “You too are gods, sons of El Elyon, all of you.”
The Anunnaki have also
been equated with the “Watchers” (who are also mentioned in the books
of Daniel and Jubilees), i.e. “Behold a watcher and an holy one came
down from heaven.” -- Daniel 4:13
 and his interpretation of ancient Sumerian texts, the Anunnaki
were extraterrestrials (aka “angels”?), who were an extremely
long-lived race, potentially living as long as 500,000 years.
Laurence Gardner  reduces this to more on the order of 50,000
years, and notes specifically that the Anunnaki were not immortal. He
point out that no records are currently extant which relates to their
natural deaths, but the violent deaths of Apsu, Tiamat, Mummu, and
Dumu-zi are provided in some detail. (Sitchin and Gardner also
disagree on the date of the Great Deluge/Flood; Sitchin assuming a
time frame of 11,000 B.C.E., while Gardner assumes one of 4,000 B.C.E.)
Sitchin’s book, The 12th
Planet, published in 1976 was the first modern volume to begin to
describe the Anunnaki, their arrival on Earth supposedly some 485,000
years ago, and from where they had come -- a planet called Nibiru.
Sitchin believes Nibiru to be in an orbit about our sun, but in a
strongly elliptical orbit which requires 3,600 Earth years to make a
complete orbit. Nibiru’s perihelion (closest point of approach to the
Sun) is thought to be within the main asteroid belt between Mars and
Jupiter, at a distance from the Sun of approximately 2.75 A.U. (an A.U.
being the distance from the Sun to the Earth). (the
Annals of Earth
include a detailed description of how Nibiru created the asteroid belt
by destroying a planet, Tiamat, in roughly the same orbit, and which
created the Earth in the aftermath, the Earth being a remnant of the
greater, destroyed planet.)
Nibiru is not known to modern astronomy primarily due to the extreme
elliptical nature of its orbit and the fact its aphelion (furthest
point in the planet’s orbit from the Sun) is more than eight times the
distance from the Sun to the planet Pluto (the latter being some 40
A.U. away, and thus the former, some 320 A.U. distant). Furthermore,
Nibiru may be now far out in deep space and unlikely to be detected.
(Or close by, e.g.
While Sitchin and
Gardner may disagree with the extent of the long lives of the
Anunnaki, it is clear that these gods and goddesses, baring accidents
or “Anunnaki-cide”, lived a very long time. It has also been
theorized that because of their long lives, they do not quite move in
“the fast lane” -- at least to the extent humans do.
This could be
fundamentally important in that, quite possibly, the human life span,
while enormously brief as compared to the Anunnaki gods and goddesses,
might nevertheless be compensated by the humans possessing the ability
to achieve a great deal in a relatively short time. The creativity of
a shortened, and thus highly motivated lifespan is likely to be
enormously greater than that of a god or semi-god resting on their
laurels. This may also relate to the idea of why the gods and
goddesses of the Anunnaki even bother with mankind. Humans may, on
the one hand, act as workers to accomplish the Anunnaki’s agenda, but
an accelerated creativity may be well worth the trouble for the
Anunnaki to manage a crew as motley as the human race.
the connection between humans and the Anunnaki is much more profound
than that of masters and slaves. All the evidence strongly advocates
the concept that
Adam and Eve and their ancestors, cousins, and what-have-you
were created by genetic engineering and mixing the DNA of Anunnaki
with that of Homo erectus, the reigning progenitor of man at the
time. Fundamentally, this was because the Anunnaki needed someone to
work the mines in search of gold and other
and in all likelihood the
provides what just may be an
insider view of the Anunnaki -- but from the perspective of Enki. The
advantage of this link is that it provides extensive details on
pre-Anunnaki history. While such channeled information is always
speculative, it is nevertheless worthy of serious consideration.
Another speculative source of possible implications
is William James' website,
Zero Point - Power of the gods
in which he has provided a possible answer to the logical question of
what was the Anunnaki's energy/power source. In effect he has linked
physics and ancient history by means of "an adventure series which
focuses on the unlimited potentials of
Energy and the ancient gods of civilizations long
past." By means of supporting evidence, this combination of science
and history effectively provides greater credibility to both.
Additionally (and in many respects importantly, Mr. James' writings
can also "stir the reader’s imagination to consider the possibilities
of this fantastic energy source"... not to mention giving an
intriguing insight into the practitioners of the energy source, the
The most fundamental question with respect to the
Anunnaki is whether or not they’re still on Earth! Sitchin  has
pointed out that he never said they left (and there is no evidence
that they did). There was, however, an apparently fundamental
Anunnaki policy shift circa
B.C.E. wherein the overt,
day-to-day interference in human affairs by the Anunnaki disappeared.
There is also
the scenario encapsulated in
Richard Wagner's classic opera The Ring of the Nibelung, which
included Night Falls
on the Gods and the Entrance of the Gods Into Vahalla -- titles
which are suggestive of possible changes in status of the Anunnaki.
Finally, there is evidence to suggest that this
state of affairs may be temporary, and may be scheduled to end with
the end of the
Calendar on or about
From mankind’s point
of view, the dysfunctional nature of the Anunnaki family, and the
continuing rivalry of
Enki and Enlil,
may still be ongoing and having enormous effects on the quality of our
physical, emotional, mental and spiritual lives. It’s a very
important question, and one that needs to be answered by each of us.
Sumerian Family Tree
Falls on the Gods
Sitchin, The 12th Planet, 1976, The Wars of Gods and Men, 1985,
Genesis Revisited, 1990, Divine Encounters, 1995, Avon Books, New
Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, Bantam Press, New
 Bramley, William,
The Gods of Eden, Avon Books, New York, 1989, 1990.
Written 1500 years before the Homeric sagas, the Epic of Gilgamesh is
one of the great classics of literature. Discovered in the late
nineteenth century among the Nievah Library -- “Written down according
to the original and collated in the palace of Assurbanipal, King of
the World, King of Assyria” -- the Epic was the first clue to a
version of the Great
whose hero was King Zi-u-sudra (aka Noah, Uta-napishtim).
From a literary poem of
view, the Epic of Gilgamesh is as secular as the Odyssey, and as
contemporary as any heroic tale of an exciting life. Gilgamesh is in
mature manhood when the Epic begins, but being semi-divine (2/3rd
human and 1/3rd god) and vastly superior to other men, he can find no
worthy match in love or war. Accordingly, as the fifth king of Uruk
following the Great Flood, he lords it over his people to the point
where they pray for relief. They receive it in the form of a “natural
man”, Enkidu, who has been reared by the animals and is enormously
strong and swift as a gazelle.
Enkidu is sought out and seduced by a female (either priestess or
harlot, depending upon the predilections of the translator), and with
his subsequent loss of innocence, he takes the first step toward
becoming civilized (i.e. the animals reject him). This quickly brings
him into direct conflict with Gilgamesh. After a knock-down-drag-out
fight, the two become the greatest of friends (it’s a guy thing), and
ultimately set out on great quests. The most notable is going into
the forest where Humbaba dwells. “Because of the evil that is in the
land, we will go to the forest and destroy the evil.” Unfortunately,
the evil Humbaba is the protégé of Enlil (of
Enki and Enlil
fame), and the forest episode is a cruel trap set by Enlil in order to
destroy Gilgamesh and Enkidu.
Gilgamesh survives, but
Enkidu doesn’t. Because it was Enkidu’s hubris in refusing the prayer
of Humbaba for mercy, Enlil brings the case before the
the council of the gods, and retribution is accordingly doled out. In
an independent poem, Enkidu and the Underworld, Enkidu goes down alive
into the underworld to bring back a mysterious drum and drumstick that
Gilgamesh has let fall into it. In spite of warnings, Enkidu breaks
all the taboos and finds himself ultimately held by the underworld.
The loss of Enkidu is
devastating to Gilgamesh. The lost of the great friendship and the
knowledge that death is inevitable sets Gilgamesh out on a bold
undertaking to find ever- lasting life. His first clue is the legend
of the day which insisted that King Zi-u-sudra (aka Noah) had not only
survived the Flood, but had entered the company of the gods and been
taken faraway “to live at the mouth of the rivers”. Gilgamesh’s trek,
akin to Odysseus’s journey, constitutes the last half of the Epic,
where he encounters a variety of obstacles -- including one god’s
advise that his quest is certain to fail.
encounters a woman named Siduri, an enigmatic figure living in a place
“where east and west were confused”, and who dispenses the philosophy
of eat, drink and be merry, “for this too is the lot of man”. Siduri,
nevertheless provides Gilgamesh with the instructions on how to cross
the waters of death, using the boatman Urshanabi to ferry him across
in much the same manner as that of the sun’s journey into the west
An important and notable
event occurs during the meeting between Gilgamesh and the ferryman,
involving the “Things of Stone”, which Gilgamesh rashly smashes,
making it then necessary for the ferryman to use “punting poles” --
the latter which are somehow connected with “wings” or “winged beings
[This fascinating aside is suggestive of the idea that the “Things of
Stone” were akin in some manner to “The
Philosopher’s Stone” or the
Levitation would have been a foregone conclusion as a means of
transportation. (See also
The Fifth Element,
Propulsion.) Without the “Things of Stone”, other means of
flying, e.g. wings, apparently would be necessary.]
Gilgamesh’s meeting with
Zi-u-sudra (Noah) begins with more “wisdom” of the type that man
should be content with his lot in life (however short it might be).
[This is typical advice from immortal or very long-lived beings. But
Anunnaki, who apparently depend
upon Star Fire
or ORME for their longevity -- and humans carrying some of their DNA
-- this advice is considerably more suspect as being bad advice.]
Zi-u-sudra then does an
accounting of his experience in the Flood. According to Zi-u-sudra,
the Flood came about after a meeting of the council of the gods -- any
such meeting typically implying really bad news for mankind -- in
which Enlil again took the part of the advocate for destroying
mankind, while Enki apparently was silent, and spoke his mind by
aiding Zi-u-sudra in surviving the Flood.
It is noteworthy that
the dreadful havoc of the
and Flood appalled even
the gods. Enlil had, apparently, spared no effort to use the horrors
of storm, lightning, hailstones, and coals of fire raining down in
order to exterminate mankind. And unlike the Biblical story, the
Sumerian version is based on a group of factious, flustered, and
fallible deities. Importantly, there is no Covenant that the gods
will not do as much again, but Inanna’s exclamation that she will not
“forget these days”, and the immortality and semi-divine status which
Zi-u-sudra obtains from the gods, might be indicative of some respite
from anxiety. As a matter of face, “Noah” means “respite”!
obtains the plant of Youth Regained from the bottom of the sea, but
inexplicably does not immediately eat it at once. He eventually loses
it, when a snake eats it and thereby becomes the symbol for
self-renewal. In the end, Gilgamesh has no choice but to return
without the secret of eternal life, and even as the King of Uruk, even
he must accept the human lot of limited longevity.
The Epic -- with this
moral basic to it -- might thus be a form of propaganda. But there is
also the hint that mankind might have an ace after all! Perhaps, the
human life span, while enormously brief as compared to the
Gods and Goddesses,
might also possess the ability to achieve a great deal in a relatively
short time. The creativity of a shortened, and thus highly motivated,
life span might be enormously greater than that of a god or semi-god
resting on their laurels.
One final curiosity is
the fact Gilgamesh was one-third god! The ability to achieve a 1/3
and 2/3 mix is mathematically extremely difficult. If only two -- a
male and a female -- are involved, then the 1/3 god goal would be
difficult to even approximate. But, if there were three involved, the
combination of thirds is entirely plausible! This is, in fact,
extremely important! Assume, for example, the combination of a human
female’s egg and a human male’s sperm, with the fertilized egg then
being inserted into a Goddess for the nine-month process of going from
a fetus through childbirth. In this way, the Goddess connection is
the one-third god status (with the two humans being the remaining two
The key is that the
Goddess would be means by which the human embryo is fed -- and
potentially, the human being after birth continuing to receive
nourishment from the Goddess. This is, in effect, the blood
connection of the
Gilgamesh was thus receiving the
equivalent in his status as King, and the one-third god portion gave
him extraordinary powers (such that he had no equal with any human).
There are also stories of
Gilgamesh, in which Gilgamesh apparently refuses her sexual
overtures. Her subsequent wrath is understandable (no woman likes to
be turned down!), but her initial approach should be considered as
noteworthy. After all, if Gilgamesh was running on 1/3 of his
god-like cylinders, he would be more attractive to a Goddess who
tended to have her way in all things.
Enki and Enlil
I. Events Before
BC) The first World city and home of Enki
Iraq, buried beneath the sands, is the ancient city
of Eridu, the oldest Sumerian and perhaps world city
where the Annunaki gods reigned over mankind.
Nibiru, a distant member of our solar system,
life faces slow extinction as the planet's atmosphere
erodes. Deposed by Anu, the ruler Alalu escapes in a
spaceship and finds refuge on Earth. He discovers that
Earth has gold that can be used to protect Nibiru's
445,000 Led by Enki, a son of Anu, the Anunnaki land on
Earth, establish Eridu - Earth Station I - for
extracting gold from the waters of the Persian Gulf.
430,000 Earth's climate mellows. More Anunnaki arrive on
Earth, among them Enki's half-sister Ninhursag, Chief
416,000 As gold production falters, Anu arrives on Earth
with Enlil, the heir apparent. It is decided to obtain
the vital gold by mining it in southern Africa. Drawing
lots, Enlil wins command of Earth Mission; Enki is
relegated to Africa. On departing Earth, Anu is
challenged by Alalu's grandson.
400,000 Seven functional settlements in southern
Mesopotamia include a Spaceport (Sippar), Mission
Control Center (Nippur), a metallurgical center (Shuruppak).
The ores arrive by ships from Africa; the refined metal
is sent aloft to orbiters manned by Igigi, then
transferred to spaceships arriving periodically from
380,000 Gaining the support of the Igigi, Alalu's
grandson attempts to seize mastery over Earth. The
Enlilites win the War of the Olden Gods.
300,000 The Anunnaki toiling in the gold mines mutiny.
Ninhursag create Primitive Workers through genetic
manipulation of Ape woman; they take over the manual
chores of the Anunnaki. Enlil raids the mines, brings
the Primitive Workers to the Edin in Mesopotamia. Given
the ability to procreate, Homo Sapiens begins to
200,000 Life on Earth regresses during a new glacial
100,000 Climate warms again. The Anunnaki (the biblical
Nefilim), to Enlil's growing annoyance marry the
daughters of Man.
75,000 The "accursation of Earth" - a new Ice
Age-begins. Regressive types of Man roam the Earth .
Cro-Magnon man survives.
49,000 Enki and Ninhursag elevate humans of Anunnaki
parentage to rule in Shuruppak. Enlil, enraged. plots
13,000 Realizing that the passage of Nibiru in Earth's
proximity will trigger an immense tidal wave, Enlil
makes the Anunnaki swear to keep the impending calamity
a secret from Mankind.
Events After the Deluge
11,000 BC - Enki
breaks the oath, instructs Ziusudra / Noah to build a
submersible ship. The Deluge sweeps over the Earth; the
Anunnaki witness the total destruction from their
Enlil agrees to grant the remnants of Mankind implements
and seeds; agriculture begins in the highlands. Enki
BC - The descendants of Noah are allotted three regions.
Ninurta, Enlil's foremost son, dams the mountains and
drains the rivers to make Mesopotamia habitable; Enki
reclaims the Nile valley. The Sinai peninsula is
retained by the Anunnaki for a post-diluvial spaceport;
a control center is established on Mount Moriah (the
9780 BC - Ra/Marduk, Enki's firstborn son, divides
dominion over Egypt between Osiris and Seth.
9330 BC - Seth seizes and dismembers Osiris, assumes
sole rule over the Nile Valley.
8970 BC - Horus avenges his father Osiris by launching
the First Pyramid War. Seth escapes to Asia, seizes the
Sinai peninsula and Canaan.
8670 BC - Opposed to the resulting control of all the
space facilities by Enki's descendants, the Enlilites
launch the Second Pyramid War. The victorious Ninurta
empties the Great Pyramid of its equipment.
Ninhursag, half-sister of Enki and Enlil, convenes peace
conference. The division of Earth is reaffirmed. Rule
over Egypt transferred from the Ra/Marduk dynasty to
that of Thoth. Heliopolis built as a substitute Beacon
8500 BC - The Anunnaki establish outposts at the gateway
to the space facilities; Jericho is one of them.
7400 BC - As the era of peace continues, the Anunnaki
grant Mankind new advances; the Neolithic period begins.
Demigods rule over Egypt.
3800 BC - Urban civilization begins in Sumer as the
Anunnaki reestablish there the Olden Cities, beginning
with Eridu and Nippur.
Anu comes to Earth for a pageantful visit. A new city,
Uruk (Erech), is built in his honor; he makes its temple
the abode of his beloved granddaughter Inanna/lshtar.
Kingship on Earth
3760 BC - Mankind
granted kingship. Kish is first capital under the aegis
of Ninurta. The calendar begun at Nippur. Civilization
blossoms out in
Sumer (the First Region).
3450 BC - Primacy in Sumer transferred to Nannar/Sin.
Marduk proclaims Babylon "Gateway of the Gods." The
"Tower of Babel" incident. The Anunnaki confuse
His coup frustrated, Marduk/Ra returns to Egypt, deposes
Thoth, seizes his younger brother Dumuzi who had
betrothed Inanna. Dumuzi accidentally killed; Marduk
imprisoned alive in the Great Pyramid. Freed through an
emergency shaft, he goes into exile.
3100 BC - 350 years of chaos end with installation of
first Egyptian Pharaoh in Memphis. Civilization comes to
the Second Region.
2900 BC - Kingship in Sumer transferred to Erech. Inanna
given dominion over the Third Region; the Indus Valley
2650 BC - Sumer's royal capital shifts about. Kingship
deteriorates. Enlil loses patience with the unruly human
BC - Inanna falls in love with Sharru-Kin (Sargon). He
establishes new capital city. Agade (Akkad). Akkadian
2316 BC - Aiming to rule the four regions, Sargon
removes sacred soil from Babylon. The Marduk-Inanna
conflict flares up again. It ends when Nergal, Marduk's
brother, journeys from south Africa to Babylon and
persuades Marduk to leave Mesopotamia.
2291 BC - Naram-Sin ascends the throne of Akkad.
Directed by the warlike Inanna, he penetrates the Sinai
peninsula, invades Egypt.
2255 BC - Inanna usurps the power in Mesopotamia;
Naram-Sin defies Nippur. The Great Anunnaki obliterate
Agade. Inanna escapes. Sumer and Akkad occupied by
foreign troops loyal to Enlil and Ninurta.
2220 BC - Sumerian civilization rises to new heights
under enlightened rulers of Lagash. Thoth helps its king
Gudea build a ziggurat-temple for Ninurta.
2193 BC - Terah, Abraham's father, born in Nippur into a
2180 BC - Egypt divided; followers of Ra/Marduk retain
the south; Pharaohs opposed to him gain the throne of
2130 BC - As Enlil and Ninurta are increasingly away,
central authority also deteriorates in Mesopotamia.
Inanna's attempts to regain the kingship for Erech does
2123 BC - Abraham
born in Nippur.
2113 BC - Enlil entrusts the Lands of Shem to Nannar; Ur
declared capital of new empire. Ur- Nammmu ascends
throne, is named Protector of Nippur. A Nippurian
priest-Terah, Abraham's father - comes to Ur to liaison
with its royal court.
2096 BC - Ur-Nammu dies in battle. The people consider
his untimely death a betrayal by Anu and Enlil. Terah
departs with his family for Harran.
2095 BC - Shulgi ascends the throne of Ur, strengthens
imperial ties. As empire thrives, Shulgi falls under
charms of Inanna, becomes her lover. Grants Larsa to
Elamites in exchange for serving as his Foreign Legion.
2080 BC - Theban princes loyal to Ra/Marduk press
northward under Mentuhotep I. Nabu, Marduk's son, gains
adherents for his father in Western Asia.
2055 BC - On Nannar's orders, Shulgi sends Elamite
troops to suppress unrest in Canaanite cities. Elamites
reach the gateway to the Sinai peninsula and its
2048 BC - Shulgi dies. Marduk moves to the Land of the
Hittites. Abraham ordered to southern Canaan with an
elite corps of cavalrymen.
2047 BC - Amar-Sin (the biblical Amraphel) becomes king
of Ur. Abraham goes to Egypt, stays five years, then
returns with more troops.
2041 BC - Guided by Inanna, Amar-Sin forms a coalition
of Kings of the East, launches military expedition to
Canaan and the Sinai. Its leader is the Elamite
Khedor-la'omer. Abraham blocks the advance at the
gateway to the Spaceport.
2038 BC - Shu-Sin replaces Amar-Sin on throne of Ur as
the empire disintegrates.
2029 BC - Ibbi-Sin replaces Shu-Sin. The western
provinces increasingly to Marduk.
2024 BC - Leading his followers, Marduk marches on
Sumer, enthrones himself in Babylon. Fighting spreads to
central Mesopotamia. Nippur's Holy of Holies is defiled.
Enlil demands punishment for Marduk and Nabu; Enki
opposes, but his son Nergal sides with Enlil.
As Nabu marshals his Canaanite followers to capture the
Spaceport, the Great Anunnaki approve of the use of
nuclear weapons. Nergal and Ninurta destroy the
Spaceport and the errant Canaanite cities.
2023 BC - The winds carry the radioactive cloud to
Sumer. People die a terrible death, animals perish, the
water is poisoned, the soil becomes barren. Sumer and
its great civilization lie prostrate. Its legacy passes
to Abraham's seed as he begets -at age 100- a legitimate
ANUNNAKI DATABASE ON THIS SITE
SUMER DATABASE ON THIS SITE
FLOOD DATABASE ON THIS SITE
EA/ENKI DATABASE ON THIS SITE
BIBLE DATABASE ON THIS SITE
DREAMS OF THE GREAT EARTHCHANGES - MAIN INDEX