compiled by Dee Finney


<< Genesis 9:19 >>
New International Version (©1984)
These were the three sons of Noah, and from them came the people who were scattered over the earth.

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the whole earth was populated.

GOD'S WORD® Translation (©1995)
These were Noah's three sons. From them the whole earth was populated. Ham was the father of Canaan.

King James Bible
These are the three sons of Noah: and of them was the whole earth overspread.

American King James Version
These are the three sons of Noah: and of them was the whole earth covered.

American Standard Version
These three were the sons of Noah: and of these was the whole earth overspread.

Bible in Basic English
These three were the sons of Noah and from them all the earth was peopled.

Douay-Rheims Bible
These three are the sons of Noe: and from these was all mankind spread over the whole earth.

Darby Bible Translation
These three are the sons of Noah; and from these was the population of the whole earth spread abroad.

English Revised Version
These three were the sons of Noah: and of these was the whole earth overspread.

Webster's Bible Translation
These three were the sons of Noah: and from them was the whole earth overspread.

World English Bible
These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the whole earth was populated.

Young's Literal Translation
These three are sons of Noah, and from these hath all the earth been overspread.

Geneva Study Bible

These are the three sons of Noah: and of them was the whole earth {n} overspread.

(n) This declares what the virtue of God's blessing was, when he said, increase and bring forth in Ge 1:28.

Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

9:18-23 The drunkenness of Noah is recorded in the Bible, with that fairness which is found only in the Scripture, as a case and proof of human weakness and imperfection, even though he may have been surprised into the sin; and to show that the best of men cannot stand upright, unless they depend upon Divine grace, and are upheld thereby. Ham appears to have been a bad man, and probably rejoiced to find his father in an unbecoming situation. It was said of Noah, that he was perfect in his generations, ch.


Genesis 9:1 And God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth.
Genesis 9:7 "As for you, be fruitful and multiply; Populate the earth abundantly and multiply in it."
Genesis 10:32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, by their nations; and out of these the nations were separated on the earth after the flood.
1 Chronicles 1:4 Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth. (NASB ©1995)

Bible Gateway: Genesis Chapter 9 Verse 19 NIV ESV NKJV NLT KJV Message Amplified

Alphabetical: and came earth from Noah of over people populated scattered sons the them These three was were who whole

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Noah's Ark, Französischer Meister ("The French Master"), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. c.1675.

Noah (or Noe, Noyach; Hebrew: נוֹחַ or נֹחַ, Modern Nóaḥ Tiberian Nōªḥ; Nūḥ; Armenian "Noe" or նօի, Arabic: نوح ; "Rest"[1]) was, according to the Bible, the tenth and last of the antediluvian Patriarchs; and a prophet according to the Qur'an. The biblical story of Noah is contained in the book of Genesis, chapters 6–9; he is also found in the passage 'Noah's sons", while the Qur'an has an entire sura named after and devoted to his story, with other references elsewhere. In the Genesis account, Noah saves his family and representatives of all animals in groups of two or seven from the flood. In the Islamic account, a group of 72 others are also saved (although none reproduce after the flood).[2] He receives a covenant from God, and his sons repopulate the earth. In the Hindu account, Manu built a huge boat, which housed his family, 9 types of seed, and animals and repopulated the earth after the deluge occurred and the oceans and seas receded.

While the Deluge and Noah's Ark are the best-known elements of the Noah tradition, Noah is also mentioned in Genesis as the "first husbandman" and possibly the inventor  of wine, as noted in an episode of his drunkenness and the subsequent Curse of Ham. The account of Noah is the subject of much elaboration in the later Abrahamic traditions, and was immensely influential in Western culture. Jewish thinkers have debated the extent of Noah's righteousness. Christians have likened the Christian Church to Noah's ark (1 Peter 3-18:22).


The following section is a summary of the Book of Genesis, chapters 6–9.

Noah was the son of Lamech, who named him[3] Noah because he would bring rest from toil on the land which God had cursed (a reference to the curse God placed on the earth following the expulsion from Eden).[4] In his five hundredth year Noah had three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. When Noah was six hundred years old, God, saddened at the wickedness of mankind, decided to send a great deluge to destroy all life. But he saw that Noah was a righteous man, and instructed him to build an ark and gather himself and his family with every type of animal, male and female.[5][6] And so the Flood came, and all life was extinguished, except for those who were with Noah, "and the waters prevailed upon the earth for one-hundred and fifty days"[7] until the Ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. There Noah built an altar to God (the first altar mentioned in the Bible) and made an offering. "And when the Lord smelled the pleasing odour, the Lord said in his heart, 'I will never again curse the ground because of man, for the inclination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I ever again destroy every living creature as I have done. While the earth remains, seed-time and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night, shall not cease'."[8]

Then God spoke to Noah, and his descendants would henceforth be free to eat meat ("every moving thing that lives shall be food for you, and as I gave you the green plants, I give you everything"), and the animals would fear man; and in return, man was forbidden to eat "flesh with its life, that is, its blood." And God forbade murder, and gave a commandment: "Be fruitful and multiply, bring forth abundantly on the earth and multiply in it." And as a sign of his covenant, he set the rainbow in the sky, "the sign of the covenant which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth."[9]

After the Flood, "Noah was the first tiller of the soil. He planted a vineyard; and he drank of the wine."[10]

Noah died 350 years after the Flood, at the age of 950,[11] the last of the immensely long-lived antediluvian Patriarchs. The maximum human lifespan, as depicted by the Bible, diminishes rapidly thereafter, from as much as 900 years to the 120 years of Moses within twenty generations. Another few generations later, lifespans were reported to be less than 100 years on average.

 Jewish perspectives

The Sacrifice of Noah, Jacopo Bassano (c.1515-1592), Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten, Potsdam-Sanssouci, c. 1574.

The righteousness of Noah is the subject of much discussion among the rabbis.[12] The description of Noah as "righteous in his generation" implied to some that his perfection was only relative: In his generation of wicked people, he could be considered righteous, but in the generation of a tzadik like Abraham, he would not be considered so righteous. They point out that Noah did not pray to God on behalf of those about to be destroyed, as Abraham prayed for the wicked of Sodom and Gomorrah. In fact, Noah is never seen to speak; he simply listens to God and acts on his orders. This led such commentators to offer the figure of Noah as "the man in a fur coat," who ensured his own comfort while ignoring his neighbour. Others, such as the medieval commentator Rashi, held on the contrary that the building of the Ark was stretched over 120 years, deliberately in order to give sinners time to repent. Rashi interprets his father's statement of the naming of Noah (in Hebrew נֹחַ) “This one will comfort (in Hebrew– yeNaHamainu יְנַחֲמֵנו) from our work and our hands sore from the land that the Lord had cursed”,[13] by saying Noah heralded a new era of prosperity, when (1) there was easing (in Hebrew – nahah - נחה) from the curse from the time of Adam when the Earth produced thorns and thistles even where men sowed wheat and (2) that Noah introduced the plow.

Christian perspectives

The Gospel of Luke, (Luke17:26), equates Noah's Flood with the coming Day of Judgement: “Just as it was in the days of Noah, so too it will be in the days of the coming of the Son of Man.” Noah is called a "preacher of righteousness" in 2 Peter 2:5, and the First Epistle of Peter equates the saving power of baptism with the Ark saving those who were in it. In later Christian thought, the Ark came to be equated with the Church: salvation was to be found only within Christ and his Lordship, as in Noah's time it had been found only within the Ark. St Augustine of Hippo (354-430), demonstrated in The City of God that the dimensions of the Ark corresponded to the dimensions of the human body, which corresponds to the body of Christ; the equation of Ark and Church is still found in the Anglican rite of baptism, which asks God, "who of thy great mercy didst save Noah," to receive into the Church the infant about to be baptised.

Noah's three sons were generally interpreted in medieval Christianity as the founders of the populations of the three known continents, Japheth/Europe, Shem/Asia, and Ham/Africa, although a rarer variation held that they represented the three classes of medieval society - the priests (Shem), the warriors (Japheth), and the peasants (Ham). In the 18th and 19th centuries the view that Ham's sons in general had been literally "blackened" by the curse of Noah was cited as justification for black slavery.

 Latter-day Saint perspectives

In Latter-day Saint theology, the archangel Gabriel lived in his mortal life as the patriarch Noah. Gabriel and Noah are regarded as the same individual; Noah being his mortal name and Gabriel being his heavenly name.[14]

 Gnostic perspectives

Gnosticism was an important development of (and departure from) early Christianity, blending Jewish scriptures and Christian teachings with traditional pagan religion and esoteric Greek philosophical concepts. An important Gnostic text, the Apocryphon of John, reports that the chief archon caused the flood because he desired to destroy the world he had made, but the First Thought informed Noah of the chief archon's plans, and Noah informed the remainder of humanity. Unlike the account of Genesis, not only are Noah's family saved, but many others also heed Noah's call. There is no ark in this account; instead Noah and the others hide in a "luminous cloud".] Islamic perspectives

The Quran contains 43 references to Noah (نوح, Nūḥ) in 28 suras (chapters), notably Sura Nuh and Sura Hud. Sura 11 (Hud) is largely an account of the Flood. Sura 71 (i.e., Sura Nuh), of 28 verses, consists of a divine injunction to Noah to preach, a short sermon of Noah’s to his idolatrous contemporaries on the monotheism of Allah (God), and Noah’s complaint to God about the hardness of the people’s hearts when his preaching is met by ridicule.

Quran's Noah lives for a total of 1000 years, with the Flood coming in his 950th year; (In later tradition, only 83 people are willing to submit, i.e., become Muslim, "those who accept a peaceful yield to the god" with God; these 83 are saved with Noah). It is mankind's obduracy which eventually brings the wrath of God on the unbelievers.

The theme of the Quranic story is the unity of Allah and the need to seek peace with Him. The narrative does not include the Genesis account of Noah's drunkenness, and the possibility of the Curse of Ham narrative is in fact implicitly excluded: Qur'an doesn’t mention the number of Noah’s sons. Nevertheless the traditions of Prophet Mohammed clearly mention that Noah had three sons [15], and that all the population descended from them., and a fourth son who does not join his father despite Noah's final plea to be saved ("O my son! Come ride with us, and be not with the disbelievers!"); instead he flees to the mountains and drowns in the flood and God tells Noah that this is because he is an evildoer.[16] (In later Islamic tradition the son is given the name Kenan, "Canaan").

Shi'ah Muslims believe that Noah is buried next to Ali[17] within Imam Ali Mosque, in Najaf, Iraq.

 Contemporary academic perspectives

Textual criticism

According to the documentary hypothesis, the first five books of the Bible, including Genesis, were collated during the 5th century BC from four main sources, which themselves date from no earlier than the 10th century BC. Two of these, the Jahwist, composed in the 10th century BC, and the Priestly source, from the late 7th century BC, make up the chapters of Genesis which concern Noah. The attempt by the 5th century editor to accommodate two independent and sometimes conflicting sources accounts for the confusion over such matters as how many pairs of animals Noah took, and how long the flood lasted.

More broadly, Genesis seems to contain two accounts concerning Noah, the first making him the hero of the Flood, the second representing him as a husbandman who planted a vineyard. This has led some scholars to believe that Noah was believed by the ancients to be the inventor of wine, in keeping with the statement at Genesis 5:29 that Lamech "called his name Noah, saying, 'Out of the ground which the Lord has cursed this one shall bring us relief from our work and from the toil of our hands.'"[18]

 Connections to other lore

Noah's first burnt offering after the Flood - relief in Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc.

Noah's great grandfather Enoch is the beginning of a web of similarities between the story of Noah and older Mesopotamian myths. According to Genesis 5:24, at the end of his 365 years Enoch "walked with God, and was not, for God took him" - the only of the ten pre-Flood Patriarchs not reported to have died. It is not explicitly stated where he is taken. In a late Apocryphal tradition, Methuselah is reported to have visited Enoch at the end of the Earth, where he dwelt with the angels, immortal. The details bring to mind Utnapishtim, a figure from the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh - the hero Gilgamesh, after long and arduous travel, finds Utnapishtim living in the paradise of Dilmun at the end of the Earth, where he has been granted eternal life by the gods. (Gilgamesh's reason for seeking out Utnapishtim, incidentally, to learn the secret of immortality - like Methuselah, he comes close to the gift but fails to achieve it). Utnapishtim then tells how he survived a great flood, and how he was afterwards granted immortality by the gods. It has been suggested that the Flood story may originally have belonged to Enoch.[18]

Lamech's statement that Noah will be named "rest" because "out of the ground which the Lord has cursed this one shall bring us relief from our work and from the toil of our hands," has another faint parallel in Babylonian mythology: the gods grew tired of working, digging the channels of the rivers, and so the god Enki created man from clay and blood and spit to do the work for them. Enki fell in love with his creation, and later warned Utnapishtim that the other gods planned to send a flood to destroy all life, and advised him on how to construct his ark.

Noah is also often compared to Deucalion, the son of Prometheus and Pronoia in Greek mythology. Like Noah, Deucalion is a wine maker or wine seller; he is forewarned of the flood (this time by Zeus); he builds an ark and staffs it with creatures - and when he completes his voyage, gives thanks and takes advice from the gods on how to repopulate the Earth. Deucalion also sends a pigeon to find out about the situation of the world and the bird return with an olive branch. This and some other examples of apparent comparison between Greek myths and the "key characters" in the Old Testament/Torah have led recent Biblical scholars to suggest a Hellenistic influence in the composition of the earlier portions of the Hebrew Bible.

See also


  1. ^ Meaning of Noah
  2. ^ Noah's Ark - Jewish Encyclopedia
  3. ^ Genesis 5:29
  4. ^ see Rashi's comment at [1]
  5. ^ Genesis 6:19
  6. ^ Genesis 7:2
  7. ^ Genesis 7:24
  8. ^ Genesis 8:20-22
  9. ^ Genesis 9:1-17
  10. ^ Genesis 9:20-27
  11. ^ Genesis 9:28-29
  12. ^ " - Noah". 
  13. ^ Genesis 5:28
  14. ^ Joseph Smith, Jr., address at Commerce (later Nauvoo), Illinois, June 2, 1839
  15. ^ Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi Hatim, and ibn Jarir
  16. ^ This section is based on Mark Hillmer, "The Book of Genesis in the Qur’an", Word & World 14/2 (1994)
  17. ^ al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). Kāmil al-Ziyārāt. trans. Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Mīlāni. Press. pp. 66-67. 
  18. ^ a b " - NOAH". 

 Further reading

  • Bailey, Lloyd R. (1989). Noah, the Person and the Story. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-637-6. 
  • Best, Robert M. (1999). Noah's Ark and the Ziusudra Epic. Fort Myers, Florida: Enlil Press. ISBN 0-9667840-1-4. 
  • Young, Davis A. (1995). The Biblical Flood: A Case Study of the Church's Response to Extrabiblical Evidence. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-85364-678-3. 
  • Ryan, William (1998). Noah's Flood. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81052-2. 

 External links



Ham (son of Noah)

Ham (Hebrew: חָם, Modern Ḥam Tiberian Ḥām / Ḫām ; Greek Χαμ , Cham ; Arabic: حام, IPA: [ xam ], "hot"), according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan.[1][2]

 Ham in the Bible

The story of Ham is related in Genesis 9:20–25,

And Noah the husbandman began, and planted a vineyard. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without.

And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father's nakedness.

And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his youngest son had done unto him. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; and let Canaan be their servant. God enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and let Canaan be their servant..[3]

 Curse of Canaan also known as the Curse of Ham

This "curse of Canaan" by Noah was likely connected to the conquest of Canaan by Israel. Both the conquest of Canaan and the curse, according to the Book of Jubilees 10:29-34, are attributed, rather, to Canaan's steadfast refusal to join his elder brothers in Ham's allotment beyond the Nile, and instead "squatting" within the inheritance of Shem, on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, in the region later promised to Abraham.

 The existence of Ham

According to the bible, Ham was one of the sons of Noah who moved southwest into Africa and parts of the near Middle East, and was the forefather of the nations there. The Bible refers to Egypt as "the land of Ham" in (Psalms 78:51; 105:23,27; 106:22; 1Ch 4:40). The Hebrew word for Egypt was Mizraim (probably literally meaning the two lands), and was the name of one of Ham's sons. The Egyptian word for Egypt was Kemet (or Kmt), meaning "black land" (in reference to the fertile dark soil along the Nile Valley).[4][5][6] Ham could plausibly be a name derived from Khem, or vice versa, via sound change, due to the change in language between Egyptian and Hebrew, corresponding to the well known phonological change of /k/ into /x/ (voiceless velar fricative) into /h/. The names of Ham's other children correspond to regions within Egyptian influence - Kush, Canaan, and Phut (probably identical with the Pitu, a Libyan tribe, though often associated with Punt, an ancient name for Benadir).

Ivan Ksenophontov. The damnation of Ham

Creationist scholars hold that some early civilizations came to worship humans deified as gods in the generations after the flood, perhaps owing to the extraordinary longevity of the first few generations after leaving the ark. Minimalist scholarship holds a parallel view, that many (but not all) early gods (or deified humans, e.g. Herakles) are representative of personified archetypes of races, i.e., their family trees being codified descriptions of the inter-relatedness of each race and tribe (with some of the older/earlier generations being more speculative). Both of these distinct viewpoints agree that there is a connection between the family tree of the characters (whether gods or men) and that of tribes and races (although the extent of that connection varies, both amongst the characters in question, and amongst the scholars).

In the minimalist view, the early tribal name either became seen by later generations as the name of the "old ones", and thus gradually evolved into that of a god, or else was deliberately transformed into the name of a god, demi-god or hero, for the purpose of making it easier to tell the tale of a tribe representatively. However, minimalists generally prefer to avoid giving any credence to accounts of tribes being named for eponymous ancestors.

Counter arguments are often put forward that the connection is only between the Egyptian word and the typical modern pronunciation of Hebrew ? as /x/ ("kh") rather than /ħ/ (as was the case with biblical Hebrew, and suggest that the appearance is lessened with the original Hebrew ?? Ḥam with Northwest Semitic /ħ/ (such as in Hebrew, Phoenician, and Syriac). Further, Kam, the version of the name in Ge'ez—a South Semitic language—is seemingly borrowed from Biblical Hebrew via the Hebrew Bible and perhaps does not reflect a native derivation of the word.

In the 19th century, there was an erroneous transcription of the Egyptian for Min as ĥm ("khem"), purely by coincidence. Since this Khem was worshipped most significantly in Akhmim, the separate identity of Khem was reinforced, Akhmim being understood as simply a corruption of Khem. However, Akhmim is a corruption of ?m-mnw, meaning Shrine of Min, via the demotic form šmn. The existence of a god named Khem was later understood as a faulty reading, but unfortunately it had already been enshrined in books written by E. A. Wallis Budge—now out of copyright and widely reprinted. Thus this error still finds a home among some writers, who often use it to identify Ham with the imaginary god Khem, who may also be identified with the Greek Titan Cronos. (See the article Min (god) for more details.)

Nevertheless, since Khem (meaning black) was normally used to describe the fertile soils by the Nile, it was sometimes used as an epithet for Min, as the god of fertility. Since Khem was also an Egyptian name for Egypt (precisely because it described the soil of the Nile valley), there is also an association with Ham, who represented the forefather of the north-east African nations including Egypt.

Many believe that ancient Jatt people of Persia (who now inhabit Punjab), are descendants of Ham.

 Identifications based on Jasher

Some of the names of Ham's descendants in the list below do not appear anywhere in the Bible, but rather originated from the mediaeval rabbinic work, the Book of Jasher. Among the ethnic groups various modern authors have attempted to link to Ham's children include:

 See also


  1. ^ David Noel Freedman, Allen C. Myers, Astrid B. Beck, Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible, (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing: 2000), p.543
  2. ^ Stanley E. Porter, Craig A. Evans, The Scrolls and the Scriptures, (Continuum International Publishing Group: 1997), p.377
  3. ^ Genesis 9:25
  4. ^ Nicolas Grimal (1994) A History of Ancient Egypt Blackwell pp.171-172: "black (land)"
  5. ^ Rosalie David (1997). Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt: A Modern Investigation of Pharaoh's Workforce. Routledge. p. 18. "The name they gave to their whole country was 'Kemet', which means the 'Black Land'. This referred to the cultivation, fertilised for countless years by the black mud of the inundation." 
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Book of Jasher Chapter 7:10
  8. ^ Book of Jasher Chapter 7:11
  9. ^ Book of Jasher Chapter 7:12
  10. ^ Book of Jasher Chapter 7:13

External links




Shem, Ham and Japheth by James Tissot.
Children Elam
Parents Noah
Shem , Sons of Noah

Shem (Hebrew: שֵׁם, Modern Šem Tiberian Šēm ; Greek: 'Σημ, Sēm; Arabic: سام, Sām ; Ge'ez: ሴም, Sēm; "renown; prosperity; name") was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. He is most popularly regarded as the eldest son, though some traditions regard him as the second son. Genesis 10:21 refers to relative ages of Shem and his brother Japheth, but with sufficient ambiguity in each to have yielded different translations. The verse is translated in the KJV as "Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born.". However, the New American Standard Bible gives, "Also to Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, and the older brother of Japheth, children were born."

Genesis 11:10 records that Shem was 100 years old at the birth of Arpachshad two years after the flood, making him 98 at the time of the flood; and that he lived for another 500 years after this, making his age at death 600 years.

The children of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Aram, Arpachshad and Lud, in addition to daughters. Abraham, the patriarch of the Hebrews and Arabs, was one of the descendants of Arpachshad.

The 1st century historian Flavius Josephus, among many others, recounted the tradition that these five sons were the progenitors of the nations of Elam, Assyria, Syria, Chaldea, and Lydia, respectively.

Terms like "Semite" and "Hamite" are less common now, and may sometimes even be perceived as offensive, because of their "racial" connotations. The adjectival forms "Semitic" and "Hamitic" are more common, though the vague term 'Hamitic' dropped out of mainstream academic use in the 1960s. Semitic is still a commonly used term for the Semitic languages, as a subset of the Afro-Asiatic languages, denoting the common linguistic heritage of Arabic, Aramaic, Akkadian, Ethiopic, Hebrew and Phoenician languages.

'Semitic' also appears in the phrase "anti-Semitic" to refer to racial, ethnic or cultural prejudice aimed exclusively at Jews.

According to some Jewish traditions (e.g., B. Talmud Nedarim 32b; Genesis Rabbah 46:7; Genesis Rabbah 56:10; Leviticus Rabbah 25:6; Numbers Rabbah 4:8.), Shem is believed to have been Melchizedek, King of Salem whom Abraham is recorded to have met after the battle of the four kings.

In a few of the many extra-biblical sources that describe him, Shem is also credited with killing Nimrod, son of Cush.

Shem is mentioned in Genesis 5:32, 6:10; 7:13; 9:18,23,26-27; 10; 11:10; also in 1 Chronicles 1:4.

 Genealogies according to "Book of Jasher"

Geographic identifications of Flavius Josephus, c. 100 AD; Japheth's sons shown in red, Ham's sons in blue, Shem's sons in green.

A rabbinic document that surfaced in the 1600s, claiming to be the lost "Book of Jasher" provides some names not found in any other source. Some have reconstructed more complete genealogies based on this information as follows:

Shem. Also Sem. Literal meanings are named or renown (father of the Semitic races - Shemites). The sons of Shem were:

  • Asshur "a step" or "strong" (sons were Mirus and Mokil)[3] - (Assyrians
  • Lud "strife" (sons were Pethor and Bizayon)[4] - (Ludim, Lubim, Ludians, Ludu, Lydians, and other related groups in Asia Minor.
  • Aram "exalted" (sons were Uz, Chul, Gather and Mash)[4] - (Aramaeans.

 Other proposed lineages from Shem

Biblical longevity
Name Age LXX
Methuselah 969 969
Jared 962 962
Noah 950 950
Adam 930 930
Seth 912 912
Kenan 910 910
Enos 905 905
Mahalalel 895 895
Lamech 777 753
Shem 600 600
Eber 464 404
Cainan 460
Arpachshad 438 465
Salah 433 466
Enoch 365 365
Peleg 239 339
Reu 239 339
Serug 230 330
Job 210? 210?
Terah 205 205
Isaac 180 180
Abraham 175 175
Nahor 148 304
Jacob 147 147
Esau 147? 147?
Ishmael 137 137
Levi 137 137
Amram 137 137
Kohath 133 133
Laban 130+ 130+
Deborah 130+ 130+
Sarah 127 127
Miriam 125+ 125+
Aaron 123 123
Rebecca 120+ 120+
Moses 120 120
Joseph 110 110
Joshua 110 110


Some believe that from Shem descend the whole of the European peoples. Ernest L. Martin writes, "...[The] Shemite tribes (people who were descendants of Shem and including some peoples who came from Abraham) later colonized the whole of southern Europe and replaced the people of JAVAN and his four descendants. JAVAN'S people were pushed mainly into the northern areas of Europe where in turn they migrated farther east into Asia (along with GOMER the firstborn son of JAPHETH and his descendants). Indeed, in prophecies dealing also with the End-Time, we find the people of JAVAN no longer in Europe, but they are now associated with TUBAL [Ezekiel 38: & 39 end time prophecy] (another son of JAPHETH) who became an eastern Mongolian type of people...though the name JAVAN still retained its geographical hold on the southern region of Europe, particularly in Greece)...It is not uncommon for people to give a name to a region and then the original people move on to other areas (or are killed off) and the original geographical name becomes associated with completely different people" [5]


Some scholars have claimed that the Anglo-Saxons are the descendants of Shem. "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons [b. 849 A.D.] was... the son [descendant] of Sem [Shem]" (Church Historians of England, vol. 2, p. 443). Proponents of this theory also claim that Alfred the Great was a descendant of Shem because he claimed to descend from Sceafa, a marooned man who came to Britain on a boat after a flood.

Le Petit, a writer in 1601 mentioned King Adel, said to be descendant of Shem, ruler of Britain having 3 children that migrated to India.

Further, it is said[who?] that Tuitsch a German patriarch is none other than Shem himself (see Assyrian-German theory).

 Hellenistic (Greek)

A text from Islam claims that the Greeks derived from Shem: Tabari II:11 “Shem, the son of Noah was the father of the Arabs, the Persians, and the Greeks;...”

In Serge A. Zenkovsky's, Medieval Russia's Epics, Chronicles, and Tales, "To the lot of Shem fell the Orient, and his share extended lengthwise as far as India and breadthwise (from east to south) as far as Phinocorura, including Persia and Bactria, as well as Syria, Media (which lies beside the Euphrates River), Babylon, Cordyna, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Arabia the Ancient, Elymais, India, Arabia the Mighty, Coelesyria, Commagene, and all Phoenicia."[6]


According to Abulgazi, Shem's original land was Iran while Japheth's was the country called "Kuttup Shamach," said to be the name of the regions between the Caspian Sea and India.[7]

According to Armenian tradition, Dr. Hales is quoted saying, "To the sons of Shem was alloted the middle region of the earth viz., Palestine, Syria, Assyria, Samaria (Shinar?) Babel (or Babylonia), Persia and Hedjaz (Arabia).[8]

In Mystery of the Ages, by Dr. James Modlish, it is said that India is inhabited by Shemites.[9]

Hisham Ibn al-Kalbi, a 19th century Arab historian, states that al-Hind and al-Sind [(Sindh)Pakistan] are of Ophir, the son of Joktan.[10] Isidore of Seville (c. 635) had also made Joktan the ancestor of Indians and Pakistanis; his material was based on earlier enumerations made by Jerome and Josephus, who had stated that Joktan's descendants "inhabited from Cophen, an Indian river, and in part of Asia adjoining to it."


In Genesis, while Sheba and Seba are listed among descendants of Cush son of Ham in 10:7, another Sheba is listed as a son of Joktan, son of Eber in 10:28. These names are associated with Semitic tribes on both sides of the Red Sea in Yemen and Eritrea (See Sabaeans). This situation may reflect a combined Hamito-Semitic ancestry postulated for Ethiopian peoples.

Racial connotations

Some writers have associated Noah's sons with different skin colors or alleged races. For instance the Jewish text Pirqei R. Eliezer, depicts God as dividing the earth among Noah‘s sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet,[11] and attributing different skin colors to them (literally, —blessing“ them with different skin colors): light colored skin for the Japhetites, medium dark or brown for the Semites, and very dark or black for the Hamites.

This passage from Pirqei R. Eliezer, a writing which was composed in Israel after the Islamic conquest, is paralleled in an Arabic text of approximately the same period. The historian abarī (d. 923) quotes Ibn Abbas (d. 686-8) as saying:

Born to Noah were Shem, whose descendants were tawny-white (bayā wa-adma); Ham, whose descendants were black with hardly any whiteness (sawād wa-bayā qalīl); and Japheth, whose descendants were reddish-white (al-łuqra wal- umra.)[12]

From the same author also comes his commentary of Gen 5:32:

" 'And Noah begat Shem and Ham and Japheth.' That is Shem is the father of the swarthy, and Ham of the blacks, and Japheth of the whites." Then on the commentary on Gen 10:32, "...the red [smqry'] sons of Japheth,... the black sons of Ham,... and the swarthy sons of Shem."

The tradition is repeated in the 13th century by the Christian Ibn al- Ibrī (Bar Hebraeus), known for the —fidelity with which he reproduces earlier writers. Again in another work, Bar Hebraeus speaks of Noah dividing the world among his three sons, with Ham getting the Land of the Blacks (sūdān), Shem the Land of the Browns (sumra), and Japheth the Land of the Reds (łuqra).[13]

"According to ISBE, Shem means "dusky", and Japheth means "fair." (McKissick, Beyond Roots. P. 108).[14]

According to Armenian tradition, Shem had the region of the tawny.[15]

Josiah Priest (1788–1851) believed that Shem, because he was a descendant in the Adamic line, and because "Adam" means reddish in Hebrew, that Shem too was of the "reddish race". Further, he believe that because Christ was a descendant in the line of Shem, that Christ was of "copper-colored stock".[16]

 See also


  1. ^ Book of Jasher Chapter 7:15
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b Book of Jasher Chapter 7:16
  4. ^ a b Book of Jasher Chapter 7:17
  5. ^ Prophetic Geography and the Time of the End, emphasis added
  6. ^ Serge A. Zenkovsky's, Medieval Russia's Epics, Chronicles, and Tales, Revised and Enlarged Edition. (NY: Meridian Books, 1974)
  7. ^ P. 94, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan
  8. ^ P. 27 Assyria: Her Manners and Customs, Arts and Arms: Restored from Her Monuments By Philip
  9. ^ Mystery of the Ages, by Dr. James Modlish
  10. ^ p. 1769 A dictionary of the Bible comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history. by William Smith, John Mee Fuller
  11. ^ [The names of Noah’s sons were prophetic. Shem signifies name or renown (the Scriptures have been given to us through the family of Shem, and Christ was of that family); Ham signifies hot or black (his descendants mainly peopled Africa); and Japheth signifies either fair or enlarged (his descendants are the white-faced Europeans, who have gone forth and established colonies in all the other grand divisions of the globe).]
  12. ^ [Tarikh al- abarī, ed. M.J. de Goeje, 1:199. A little later (p. 220) abarī repeats this tradition, again in the name of Ibn Abbas, but this time has —tawny with hardly any whiteness“ (udma wa-bayā qalīl) for Ham instead of —black with hardly any whiteness.“ My translation of abarī”s color terms follows Lane, who notes that applied to human complexion adam means —tawny or dark-complexioned, syn. asmar,“ umra means whiteness, and łuqra implies some mix of red and white, the common classification for a light-skinned complexion (Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, pp. 37a, 640c [see also 642a, a mar], and 1581b).]
  13. ^ [M. Sprengling and W.C. Graham, ed., Barhebraeus‘ Scholia on the Old Testament, pp. 34-35 and 44-45. Bar Hebraeus‘ father was a Jewish convert to Christianity (thus the name). The quotation is from J.B. Segal, The Encyclopedia of Islam, second edition, 3:805, s.v. Ibn al- Ibrī.]
  14. ^ McKissick, Beyond Roots. P. 108)
  15. ^ P. 162 Christmastide: Its History, Festivities, and Carols By William Sandys
  16. ^ The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600-2000 By Colin Kidd

 External links


Shem, Ham and Japheth.

Japheth (pronounced /ˈdʒeɪfɪθ/, Hebrew. יפת, Yafet, Greek Ιάφεθ , Iapheth , Latin Iafeth or Iapetus,, Turk Yafes, Arabic: يافث) is one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. In Arabic citations, his name is normally given as Yafeth ibn Nuh (Japheth son of Noah).

 Order of birth

He is most popularly regarded as the youngest son, though some traditions regard him as the eldest son. Genesis 10:21 refers to relative ages of Japheth and his brother Shem, but with sufficient ambiguity to have given rise to different translations. The verse is translated in the KJV as follows, "Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born". However, the Revised Standard Version gives, "To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, children were born." However, the Revised Standard Version's text seems incorrect when the original Hebrew text is examined. In Hebrew, the text reads "יֶפֶת הַגָּדוֹל" (literally "Japheth the great"; i.e., "Japheth the elder").

In Genesis 5:32 it records that one of the three sons of Noah, Shem, Ham or Japheth, was born when Noah was five hundred years old. Genesis 11:10 records that Shem was one hundred years old two years after the Flood when Arphaxad was born. If Noah was six hundred years old (Genesis 7:13), and Shem was ninety-eight years old at the Flood, then Shem was born when Noah was five hundred and two years old. This would leave either Ham or Japheth the son born when Noah was five hundred years old. In Genesis 11:26, 32; 12:4 Terah's sons Abram, Nahor and Haran had the oldest son Haran listed last. So Japheth, who is listed last, would most likely be the oldest. This would support the interpretation of Genesis 10:21 that Japheth was the elder.

 The place in Noah's family

For those who take the genealogies of Genesis to be historically accurate, Japheth is commonly believed to be the father of the Europeans. The link between Japheth and the Europeans stems from Genesis 10:5, which states that the sons of Japheth moved to the "isles of the Gentiles," commonly believed to be the Greek isles. According to that book, Japheth and his two brothers formed the three major races:

William Shakespeare's play Henry IV, Part II contains a wry comment about people who claim to be related to royal families. Prince Hal notes of such people,

...they will be kin to us, or they will fetch it from Japhet. (II.ii 117-18)

Genesis 10:5 was often interpreted to mean that the peoples of Europe were descended from Japheth. Clearly, then, any two Englishmen must have at least this one ancestor in common, and thus any individual could claim kinship with the king.

 Japhetic descendants

Geographic identifications of Flavius Josephus, c. 100 AD; Japheth's sons shown in red

In the Bible, Japheth is ascribed seven sons: Gomer, Magog, Tiras, Javan, Meshech, Tubal, and Madai. According to Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews I.6):

"Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais (Don), and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names."

Josephus subsequently detailed the nations supposed to have descended from the seven sons of Japheth. Among the nations various later writers have attempted to assign to them are as follows:

The "Book of Jasher", published in the 17th century, provides some new names for Japheth's grandchildren not seen in the Bible or any other source, and provided a much more detailed genealogy (see Japhetic).

 Ethnic legends

In the seventh century, Isidore of Seville published his noted history, in which he traces the origins of most of the nations of Europe back to Japheth.[1] Scholars in almost every European nation continued to repeat and improve upon Saint Isidore's assertion of descent from Noah through Japheth into the nineteenth century.[2]

Georgian nationalist histories associate Japheth's sons with certain ancient tribes, called Tubals (Tabals, Tibarenoi in Greek) and Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, Moschoi in Greek), who they claim represent non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, possibly "Proto-Iberian" tribes of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennia BC.

In the Polish tradition of Sarmatism, the Sarmatians were said to be descended from Japheth, son of Noah, enabling the Polish nobility to imagine themselves able to trace their ancestry directly to Noah.[2]

In Scotland, histories tracing the Scottish people to Japheth were published as late as George Chalmers well received Caledonia, published in 3 volumes from 1807 to 1824.[3]

 Proposed correlations with deities

In the 19th century, Biblical syncretists associated the sons of Noah with ancient pagan gods. Japheth was identified by some scholars with figures from other mythologies, including Iapetus, the Greek Titan; the Indian figures Dyaus Pitar and Pra-Japati, and the Roman Iu-Pater or "Father Jove", which became Jupiter

 Japhetic language

The term "Japhetic" was also applied by William Jones and other early linguists to what became known as the Indo-European language group. In a different sense, it was also used by the Soviet linguist Nikolai Marr in his Japhetic theory.

 Japheth in literature

Japheth is a major character in the Madeleine L'Engle novel Many Waters (1986, ISBN 0 374 34796 4). He is characterized as thoughtful and intelligent, a kind-hearted young man who is on good terms with feuding family members Noah and Lamech, with the seraphim, and with visiting time travelers Sandy and Dennys Murry. Depicted in the book as Noah's younger son, Japheth is barely into adulthood, but at Noah's instigation is already married. His equally kind wife is an unusually fair-skinned woman with black hair, who may have been sired by one of the nephilim.

 See also


  1. ^ Susan Reynolds, "Medieval origines gentium and the community of the realm," History, 68, 1983, pp. 375-90
  2. ^ a b Colin Kidd, British Identities before Nationalism; Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 29
  3. ^ Colin Kidd, British Identities before Nationalism; Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 52

 External links

 See also

Sumerian Gods Descended from Heaven




Mesopotamia is often referred to as the "cradle of civilization" because the world's first civilization occurred where the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers converged in what is now modern Iraq. Sumer cities emerged almost overnight in Mesopotamia around 4000 B.C. Previously mankind's greatest achievements were the making of stone arrows and spear heads. Suddenly primitive cavemen became sophisticated inventing the wheel, where man or beast could haul five times as much weight, crops were planted and intensive farming and a web of irrigation channels were built.

The Sumarian's claim gods called the Nephilim - Nefilim - Elohim - Annunaki meaning "Those who from Heaven to Earth came," taught them how to establish a civilization. In Sumerian mythology there is a pantheon of good and evil gods and goddesses who came to Earth to create a civilization and the human race. According Zacharia Zitchen these gods came from Nibiru – or Marduk ''the Planet of the Crossing.' The Sumerians claim the Annunaki arrived on Earth at the time of the Flood. Enki was the leader of the first sons of Anu that came down to Earth and played a pivotal role in saving humanity from the flood. He defied the Anunnaki ruling council and told Ziusudra (the Sumerian Noah) how to build a ship on which to save humanity from the killing flood.

The Epic of Creation and other relevant Sumerian texts are supported by pictorial depictions. Zecharia Sitchin has been studying articles of the Sumerian civilization for more than 30 years and found a rare stone cylinder known as the cylinder seal VA-243 in the Berlin Near Eastern Museum.


It shows the sun in the center, surrounded by eleven orbiting bodies that include the Moon, Pluto and the yet to be recognized "Planet X" -- Nibiru Sumerian knowledge of the origin and makeup of our solar system included a host of other aspects that modern science has been rediscovering in recent times.

The cylinder shows a god giving a plow to human kind, and a startling chart of the heavens showing the planets with the Sun in the center with twelve planets, and the Moon.

The question is: how could the Sumerians know about the above things in days of old when there were neither telescopes nor satellites? Sitchin claims he can answer the question. According to him, the Sumerians received secret tips from the aliens who the planet Nibiru, The 12th Planet sitting between Jupiter and Mars on that Berlin cylinder.

The aliens allegedly visited Earth repeatedly every 3000 years. "It is all in the texts including the myth about Anki and Earth," says Sitchin. The Sumerians invented a furnace for roasting earthenware, astrology, and an irrigation system, cuneiform writing for putting down their discoveries on clay tablets, statuettes and formed the first city states. In the city Uruk, archaeologists have found the earliest inscribed writing recorded on clay tablets around 3200 BC. According to the ancient writings, Enki's youngest son, Ningizzida, was Lord of the Tree of Truth, in Mesopotamia. He played the role of Thoth in Egypt and his Initiates became the priests who hid the secret knowledge of creation. The Anunnaki shown on this cylinder claimed to create the man.


Laboratory vessels and Tree of Life

There are indications the Anunaki who descended from heaven genetically modified some of the animals and early human genetics. The ancient Sumerians organized themselves into competing city-states that consisted of a city, surrounded by mud brick wall and fortifications, and the surrounding farmland.



In Ur a giant Ziggurat was built with bricks designed to reach the heavens. The top of the ziggurat was flat and a flying object could land or hover at the top. Access to the shrine was provided by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit. Notable examples of this structure include the Khorsabad in Mesopotamia. The Great Ziggurat of Ur was built as a place of worship, a temple with huge stepped platform, in the 21stCentury BC by king Ur-Nammu. Today, after more than 4000 years later, the lower portion of the ziggurat is still well preserved as a major remainder of Ur and the visitors. Thanks to Sitchin and the Earth Chronicles.

  • And Abram said unto himself 'Surely these are not gods (Enki and Enlil) that made the earth and all mankind, but these are the servants of Yahweh! Book of Jasher Chapter IX: 19.

Zecharia Sitchin is a brilliant author and contemporary Ufologists. He is the author of several very popular new age books reporting his polytheistic interpretation of Sumerian, Biblical, and Egyptian history.

He states that the Sumerian account of the origin of civilization predates that of the Biblical record and implies that it is therefore a more accurate report of our origins.

He implies in his book, "Divine Encounters", that the Hebrew account in Genesis of the creation of man is an inferior record of the origins of man and was primarily plagiarized by Moses from the Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets and the Epic of Gilgamesh.

He suggests that Yahweh may be interpreted as the Hebrew expression of the gods of Sumeria Enki or Enlil. He maintains a polytheistic view of the gods oF Sumeria and the Jews. He further goes on to attempt to establish that Yahweh may be in fact Enlil the Sumerian demigod.

  • "And the story of Man's Divine Encounters, the subject of this book, is so filled with parallels between the biblical experiences and those of encounters with the Annunnaki by other ancient peoples, that the possibility that Yahweh was one of 'them' must be seriously considered." P. 347.
  • "The question and its implied answer, indeed, arise inevitably. That the biblical creation narrative with which the Book is beyond dispute." p. 347.
  • "That the biblical Eden is a rendering of the Sumerian E.DIN is almost self evident. P. 347.
  • "That the tale of the Deluge and Noah and the ark is based on the Akkadian Atra-Hasis texts and the earlier Sumerian Deluge tale in the Epic of Gilgamesh, is certain." P. 347
  • "That the plural 'us' in the creation of The Adam segments reflects the Sumerian and Akkadian record of the discussions by the leaders of the Anunnaki that led to the genetic engineering that brought Homo sapiens about, should be obvious. p. 347.
  • "Indeed, in the very tale--the tale of the Deluge--where the identification of Yahweh with Enki appears the clearest, confusion in fact shows up. The roles are switched, and all of a sudden Yahweh plays the role not of Enki but of his rival Enlil.
  • In the Mesopotamian original texts, it is Enlil who is unhappy with the way Mankind has turned out, who seeks its destruction by the approaching calamity, and who makes the other Annunaki leaders swear to keep all that a secret from Mankind." P. 350 & 351.

While claiming to have drawn his conclusions that Yahweh was one of the Sumerian Gods by having read the Book of Jasher, then he states that the Sumerian history substantiates his view that Yahweh is the "b'nai Elohim".

  • ""Joshua 10:13 refers to the Book of Jasher, which is also listed as a known source text in II Samuel 1:18. These are but passing references to what must have been a much more extensive trove of earlier texts." P. 5.
  • "The Books of Nathan and Gad have vanished, as did other books--the Book of the Wars of Yahweh, the Book of Jasher, to mention two others--that the Bible speaks of...They all provide a wealth of insights into the nature and identity of Yahweh." P. 330.  
The Book of Jasher
"Is not this written in the Book of Jasher?" Joshua 10:13.
"Behold, it is written in the Book of Jasher" 2 Samuel 1:18.

The Book of Jasher contains a detailed account of the life of Abraham, the Father of the Hebrew nation. Abram was the son of Terah who was a prince, priest, and sorcerer for Nimrod.

  • And Terah the son of Nahor prince of Nimrod's host, was in those days very great in the sight of the king and his subjects, and the king and princes loved him, and they elevated him very high.
  • Terah was seventy years old when he begat him, and Terah called the name of his son Abram, because the king had raised him in those days, and dignified him above all his princes that were with him. Page 17, Chapter VIII, verse 49-51.

At the birth of Abram an omen appeared in the sky that suggested that the child would replace Nimrod as king. An attempt was made to kill Abram but Terah gave up a child of one of his slaves to the king's men to be slain and then sent Abram to Noah to be raised in secret.

  • And when Abram was in Noah's house thirty-nine years, and Abram knew Yahweh from three years old
  • He went in the ways of Yahweh until he the day of his death as Noah and his son Shem had taught him.
  • And all the sons of the earth in those days greatly transgressed against Yahweh
  • And they rebelled against Him
  • And they went after other gods (Enki and Enlil),
  • For they forgot Yahweh who had created heaven and earth;
  • And the inhabitants of the earth made unto themselves, at that time, every man his god; Enki and Enlil
  • And the sons of men served them and they became their gods (polytheism). Chapter IX verse 6.

It is very clear as in the Biblical account that the Watchers (the Annunaki) made an attempt to get the whole world to worship the Sumerian gods Enki and Enlil and to supplant Yahweh as creator God.

The Book of Jasher makes it very clear that Abram serves Yahweh, rejects the new demigods of the Annunaki, and vows to separate himself from the culture of Ur and serve Yahweh only.

  • And Abram said unto himself 'Surely these are not gods (Enki and Enlil) that made the earth and all mankind, but these are the servants of Yahweh
  • And Abram remained in the house of Noah and there knew Yahweh and His ways, and he served Yahweh all the days of his life
  • And all that generation forgot Yahweh
  • And served other gods--Enki and Enlil. Chapter IX: 19.

Later the conjurors of Nimrod discover that Abram is still alive and a threat to Nimrod's reign over Sumeria and they tried to kill Terah, Haran, and Abram. Terah escapes the death penalty when Haran confesses to the crime in order to save his father. They tied Abram and Haran up and throw them into the fiery furnace. Haran is consumed in the flames but Abram survives unharmed. Nimrod asks him how it is that he survived?

  • And Abram said to Nimrod [See: }
  • Yahweh, the creator of heaven and earth, in whom I serve has all in His power
  • He delivered me from the fire into which you threw me.
  • And Nimrod, the princes (the followers of Enki and Enlil), seeing that Abram was delivered from the fire
  • Came and bowed down before Abram.
  • And Abram said to them, 'Do not bow down to me, but bow down to Yahweh, the creator of the world who made you, and serve Him, and
  • Go in his ways for it is Yahweh who delivered me from out of this fire
  • And it is Yahweh who created the souls and spirits of all men
  • And formed man in his mother's womb, and brought him into the world,
  • And it is Yahweh who will deliver those who trust in him from all pain.
  • Chapter II: 35-38.

This is the account of why Terah and Abram left Ur. They had decided to serve Yahweh and reject the rebellion and coup of Enki and Enlil to supplant Yahweh as creator God.

The Book of Jasher records the commission of Abram to continue the denouncement of Enki and Enlil and to start a nation that will serve the true God--Yahweh:

  • And Yahweh appeared to Abram when he came to the land of Canaan
  • And said to him, 'This is the land which I gave unto thee and to thy seed after thee forever,
  • And I will make thy seed like the stars of heaven
  • And I will give unto thy seed for an inheritance all the lands which thou sees.' Chapter XIII:7.
22 Reasons Why YHWH Can Not be the
b'nai Elohim or Enki or Enlil:
  • The term b'nai Elohim, used in Genesis Chapter 6, is a term that refers to heavenly beings not Jehovah God. It occurs four times in the Old Testament and is rendered "Angels of God" in the ancient Septuagint translation. Angels are the heavenly hosts (Genesis 2:1). The term b'nai means "a son of".
  • The intrusion of angels into human DNA resulted in unnatural offspring termed the Nephilim, which comes from the Hebrew naphal, (to fall), or the Fallen Ones. Jehovah God is not fallen. He is Holy. See Genesis 6.
  • It would seem unlikely that Jehovah God would be caught off guard as to the unnatural offspring (giants) since He was their creator.
  • Why would the creator of man want to have sex with its own creation? He could have created an equal Goddess.
  • The idea that creator God had sex with a lowly human creation would imply that God is involved with bestiality. Religions of the world tell us that Jehovah God, Yahweh, the Almighty Creator is holy.
  • To many Christians, the term Elohim refers to the triune nature of God. God is one God but three distinct persons. He is God in the preexistent, God in the creation, and God in the spirit. He is the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The unity of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit constitutes the Godhead.
  • The Book of Enoch calls the b'nai Elohim the angels, the sons of heaven, not the Elohim or Godhead. Chapter 7: 2.
  • The Book of Enoch makes a clear distinction between the Most High God Jehovah, the Great and Holy One, and the Watchers, the sons of God (b'nai Elohim).Chapter 10:1.
  • The Book of Enoch names their leader, Samyaza, and those who followed him. Never is the name of the Lord God Jehovah or Yahweh used. Chapter 7: 9.
  • The Book of Jubilees calls the b'nai Elohim the Watchmen or Watchers. Chapter 7: 17. There is never a confusion between YHWH and the watchers.
  • The Book of Jubilees says that the Lord God Jehovah judged the Watchers with a deluge on account of their fornication. Chapter 7: 19. The Book of Jubilees also makes a very clear distinction between Jehovah God and the Watchers.
  • In the Book of Enoch, Jehovah God tells Enoch, "Go, say to the Watchers of heaven, who have sent thee (To Me) to pray for them; You ought to pray for men, and not men for you. Wherefore have you forsaken the lofty and holy heaven, which endures for ever, and have lain with women; have defiled yourselves with the daughters of men; have taken to yourselves wives; have acted like the sons of earth, and have begotten giants...Never therefore shall you obtain peace." Chapter 15 & 16.
  • In the Book of Enoch Jehovah God declares the Oath of Beka to determine the judgment of the Watchers and the Messiah to deliver man from the result of the sin of the Watchers the Annunaki. Chapter 68.
  • The Book of Jasher says that the Watchers cohabited with women to provoke the Lord God Jehovah. Chapter IV:18.
  • The Apostle Peter says that Jehovah God did not spare the angels who sinned. 2 Peter 2: 4-6.
  • The Book of Jude says that Jehovah God keeps the angels who did not keep their proper domain and went after strange flesh in everlasting chains. Jude 5-7.
  • The Book of Isaiah says that the Lord God Jehovah will call His b'nai Elohim back form the end of heaven at the end of the age for His anger to be judged. Isaiah 13: 3-16.
  • God created man to live in the garden not as a slave but to have dominion over it. Genesis 2: 15.
  • Man was a partner with Jehovah God in the garden. Genesis 2; 19.
  • After the fall Jehovah God promised to send a deliverer so that man could be restored to his original Edenic reality. Genesis 3:15.
  • The Book of Revelation tells us of a war that breaks out in heaven and Michael and his angels defeat the Watchers and they are cast out of heaven. Revelation 12: 7-12.
  • We are told that we can overcome the power of the Satans (Watchers or Aliens) by the blood of the lamb and by the word of our testimony. Revelation 12:11.
Excerpted from:





from BannedBooks Website

This interview was conducted at the "World Conference of Planetary Violence in Human History, January 3-5, 1997."

Maxwell: It is an honor to be here in your company Mr. Sitchin. For many years I've enjoyed following your work in the field of ancient theology. My first question is about the word Yahweh, one of the names of God in Hebrew. Is it a proper name or is Yahweh, in Hebrew, describing something?

Sitchin: It is a descriptive term. It is not a proper name.

Maxwell: That is what I thought. Could you explain exactly what it is describing?

Sitchin: It is usually translated "I am who I am" — something like that. More accurately the tense, which in Hebrew it says Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh, is a future tense. Therefore it means "I will be whoever I will be," in context of the whole biblical tale and with a throwback to the Sumerian information that I provide in my books. It really means "I can be whoever I choose to be."

Maxwell: There was a professor I heard once talking about Yahweh and he said it also implied stored power that when it is released it has something to do with the creative power being released. Does that track with your understanding?

Sitchin: There must be one power — to use the term that you mentioned from that professor — one power, one creator, one God, whatever we mean by that, who created everything. He not only created, in my opinion, but even determined the course of events from beginning to end, and not only faiths like ours, but at the end of my book Divine Encounters I give a translation of a Hebrew prayer which is called Lord of the Universe, which clearly says this concept of Lord of the Universe, not of this solar system, not of the planet, was there before anything began and will be there after everything ends.


How does this fit in with the Sumerian tales of Anunnaki who came here from another planet in our solar system? How does it dovetail with the tales of the Bible? It dovetails by saying that this entity, whether it has a shape or a form, I do not know, acts through emissaries. This is the meaning, as I understand and expound it in the last chapter in the book, this is the meaning of what God answered Moses. He says,

"I can be whoever I want to be. So I can be and live, I can be Enki, because they are only my emissaries."

This, I think, is the truth of what we have to understand from the Bible.

Maxwell: I attended a lecture once with a Lee and Vivian Gladden, who I think I have mentioned before to you in passing. They wrote a book about the same subject, it was called Heirs of the Gods where they talked about the celestials or the extraterrestrials and they made the point that there were only two scriptures in the Bible, both Old and New Testaments, where the word "God" implied a divine overshadowing, creative force of all creation, as opposed to all the other places, except those two, that talked about Elohim, which was different from the word.

Sitchin: Gods with a small "g." This must be understood. These are gods with a small "g" who in turn were the emissaries of God with a capital "G." And in the New Testament on which I am not as expert as on the Old Testament, but even there, there is the statement that "I am Alpha and I am Omega, I am the first and I am the last, I am the beginning and I am the end," which is exactly what the Hebrew phrase states.

Maxwell: There were so many questions in relation to that but I am very interested in the "sons of God" also. Were the Elohim the "sons" of the sons of God, or were the Elohim the "sons of God?"

Sitchin: They were the Anunnaki. And it is their sons born on earth who married the daughters of Adam.

Maxwell: We can say then that the Elohim were the ones that in the Hebrew were referred to as the Sons of God?

Sitchin: No. The Elohim are what the Sumerians called the Anunnaki, "those who from heaven to earth came." They are Elohim in the Bible. Indeed, when you encounter this term and most in connection with the so-called pagan gods, that are also called Elohim in the Bible, indeed, at some point Joshua gives the Israelites, before they cross the Jordan into the Promised Land, he says, "You now have a choice, make up your mind, do you want to follow the Elohim of Egypt, or do you want to follow the Elohim of Mesopotamia, or do you want to follow Yahweh?" — the monotheistic concept of one God that rules, controls, designs, etc., everything.

Maxwell: The prophet Daniel in the Old Testament, I think it is Daniel 4:23, reminded me of Genesis 1:2 where it says that God, or Elohim, created the heavens and the Earth, and the Earth.

Sitchin: I raise my hand to tell you that indirectly you raise a very, very fundamental question for biblical scholars and for theologians. In Hebrew the sentence, the verse says, "b’reysheet," which is translated "In the beginning," Elohim, God, "created the heavens and the Earth." Many, many theologians for generations, it even goes back to Talmudic times, the time of Second Temple, asked how could it be that the story of creation, of beginning, starts with the second letter of the alphabet, the bet, the beta, "B," and not with the first letter of the alphabet, the aleph, the alpha. It just beats logic. It beats your beliefs.

What I show in my book, the latest one, Divine Encounters, is that if you add the aleph, which may have dropped somewhere along the rewritings, etc. of the Bible, it becomes not b’reysheet, but ab reysheet, the "Father of beginning created Elohim, the heavens and the earth." So the supreme creator created the Anunnaki or Elohim, the heavens and the earth.

Maxwell: And that is a whole different story than is usually presented.
Sitchin: If you add the aleph, you give a whole new dimension to this first sentence of the first book of the Bible.

Maxwell: I have always felt that there was most likely another ancient civilization even before. This is my own conjecture.

Sitchin: Definitely. You are absolutely right on that because even according to the Sumerian tales in many texts and especially the so-called king lists that deal with the cities, pre- or antediluvial cities and with the ten antediluvian rulers which some compared to the ten patriarchs of the Bible before the deluge. And there were cities, there was a civilization that the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal boasted that he could read tablets from before the flood. All the indications are that they recognized, referred to and accepted this fact that there was a civilization of the gods because those cities, prediluvial are spoken of as cities of the gods.

After the deluge there came cities of men with the help of the Anunnaki. So there was a time of a, let us call it a divine civilization, a divine culture. As I am sure you know, in the Egyptian beliefs the priest Manetho who paralleled the Chaldean Berosus, they lived more or less at the same time. The heirs of Alexander in what became eventually the Byzantine, hired a Babylonian priest to write the history of the world based upon the Mesopotamian. Ptolemys in Egypt hired the Egyptian priest Manetho to do the same, but the versions are very similar. Both spoke by the way, of a series of calamities that preceded the deluge. It is not clear at what intervals.

Maxwell: About 20 years ago I talked with the President of the American Rabbinical Association who was a good friend of mine. I asked him about Genesis 9:1 where, after the flood of Noah, God says to Noah to go forth with his sons and their wives and go forth and multiply and "re-plenish" the earth. "Re-" obviously means do again. Yes, that is understood to redo the earth because God had destroyed so much of the life. Then again, if you go back to Genesis 1:28 where God creates Adam and Eve and he is telling the original couple to go forth, reproduce and re-plenish the earth. To do it again.

Sitchin: No. The word "again" does not appear there. It says "pru ravu malua al-aretz," — "be fruitful," in terms of offspring, "ravu," multiply, and fill the earth.

Maxwell: But it did not have replenish?

Sitchin: No. In the original not regarding Adam. That is one of the dangers of translations. The translators really interpret.

Maxwell: There are so many questions that I have wanted to ask in relation to the word El. Was El in fact a Hebrew word as such, or was El existing before the Hebrew language?

Sitchin: El is the Hebrew. Hebrew stems from Akkadian. All Semitic languages stem from Akkadian — Canaanite, Phoenician, Babylonian, Assyrian, Moabite — stem from the Akkadian which was the language that came after the demise of the Sumerian civilization. When I read an Assyrian text it is almost like Hebrew. Not exactly: there are dialects and so on. So the Hebrew word El which is usually translated God, or divine being, really is from the Akkadian Ilu and it meant literally "the lofty one." So if you want to be very precise you have to translate whenever it says El, you have to say "the lofty one."

Maxwell: I am so very appreciative of your time, but I really have to ask you something that is important to me. In my particular work in examining the occult or hidden symbolism in our modern-day religious and political movements, I became fascinated about 20 years ago with the symbol of the Sun as it is used by the secret societies, the fraternal orders and especially in our political and religious symbolism today. It was fascinating to me that the Sun, when you brought up is that what we are talking about, or David Talbott talked about the Sun being Saturn. But the Sun has been used, and that sun symbol with the winged Sun, you brought out, is the symbol of the Anunnaki?

Sitchin: It is the symbol of Nibiru, of the so-called Twelfth Planet. As I showed you, on these monuments and I could show you on Egyptian monuments, and Hittite monuments, this was the symbol connected with the king, the priesthood with their gods. That was the symbol of the planet. As I showed on the same monument that gives the 12 members of the solar system, you definitely see the Sun with its rays totally separate, and the symbol of what is called the Winged Disk.

Maxwell: You see them simultaneously together.

Sitchin: On the same depictions which are repeated and repeated. You see Earth as the seventh planet. In many instances you see Venus as the eighth planet with eight rays. You see Mars as the sixth planet with six rays. Everything corroborates what I have written.

In Sumerian times and with the ensuing Babylonian-Assyrian eras, the Sun-god, Utu in Sumerian Shamashin, Hebrew, and all the other languages, was not the significant deity at all in the hierarchy. The Shamash, according to the Sumerian, and therefore further on, believed by the Assyrians, Babylonians and others, was the son of the god that in Akkadian is called Sîn and he was the moon god. According to these hierarchies Shamash was the son of the moon god. Not so when it came to Nibiru. The ruler of Nibiru stood at the head of the pantheon. So the pantheon had to do with Anunnaki, from where they came, and the ruler there was the head and his symbol was the winged disk.

Maxwell: In my collection I have about five works, two of them are doctoral theses, and others are extended articles appearing in the Middle East, on the word "chief cornerstone." I picked up on that. It was a fascinating study where the word chief cornerstone is translated from the Hebrew when it appears in Hebrew in Psalms 118:22 where Messiah is referred to as the chief cornerstone. While in the Christian Greek scriptures of the New Testament, the Messiah or Jesus is referred to twice as the chief cornerstone. That word chief cornerstone, what does it actually imply for the Messiah in both Psalms and in the New Testament?

Sitchin: It is not cornerstone, in other words, when you lay the foundation it is the cornerstone. It is the apex-stone, "rosh phena," the head where the sides meet, as in a pyramid. The apexstone, the topstone, the one that is really the conduit to the heavens.

Maxwell: That is what these articles were saying. Every one was saying it was the pinnacle.

Sitchin: Pinnacle, but not foundation stone on the ground.

Maxwell: Remember, even in the New Testament when Satan takes Jesus to the temple to tempt him, the Scripture says he takes him up to the pinnacle of the temple, to the point of the temple. I am totally sure that there is a lot of symbolism that the early writers—

Sitchin: I think we should rewrite the Bible, in English, not in Hebrew.

Maxwell: That is very important.

Sitchin: That is what I am thinking about, a new translation based on my understanding of it.

Maxwell: I think that would be absolutely important for so many people in the Western World to get a better grasp of the symbolism, the implications of the original words, where they came from and just get a new understanding from where all of this came.

Sitchin: With your help, it may come to be.

Maxwell: I would love to do that. This planet Nibiru. Is there anything I can have you say concerning the return of Nibiru that you.

Sitchin: Not yet. But I promise you another interview when I can speak about it.

Maxwell: Let me again say that it is not only a pleasure but an honor to be with you and I do very much appreciate your time.

Sitchin: It is always a pleasure to be interviewed by someone who knows almost as much as I do. I leave a little for myself.

Maxwell: You are a giant and I appreciate your time.





ANUNNAKI     -       Updated 5 February 2009

Genesis 6:1-4 reads:  

“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose...  There were nephilim in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.”  [emphasis added]  

Nephilim is often translated as “giants”, a legitimate and appropriate interpretation, but one which may be only partially accurate.  A better definition might be “those who came down”, “those who descended”, or “those who were cast down.”  The Anunnaki of ancient Sumerian texts is similarly defined as “those who from heaven to earth came”.  Sitchin [1], Gardner [2], and Bramley [3] have all identified the Nephilim as the Anunnaki, more specifically, essentially the rank and file.  

Virtually all open-minded historical and theological scholars agree the Old Testament’s book of Genesis was extracted from the older Sumerian records, if only because of the similarity in their Comparative Religions.  The Enuma Elish, the Sumerian Epic of Creation, and Genesis have a variety of common elements.  Stories of a Great Flood and Deluge, among other stories, are also common to both Sumerian and Biblical accounts.  An inevitable conclusion is that the Anunnaki were as real as Noah, Moses or Abraham.  

Laurence Gardner [2] has written: “Every item of written and pictorial attestation confirms that the ancient Sumerians were absolutely sincere about the existence of the Anunnaki, and those such as Enki, Enlil, Nin-khursag and Inanna fulfilled earthly functions with designated community duties.  They were patrons and founders; they were teachers and justices; they were technologists and kingmakers.  They were jointly and severally venerated as archons and masters, but there were certainly not idols of religious worship as the ritualistic gods of subsequent cultures became.  In fact, the word which was eventually translated to become ‘worship’ was avod, which meant quite simply, ‘work’.  The Anunnaki presence may baffle historians, their language may confuse linguists and their advanced techniques may bewilder scientists, but to dismiss them is foolish.  The Sumerians have themselves told us precisely who the Anunnaki were, and neither history nor science can prove otherwise.”  

The Sumerian records recorded in great detail the stories of the Anunnaki, and among these, that of Enki, Enlil, Ninki, Inanna, Utu, Ningishzida, Marduk, and many others.  Chief among these stories was the continuing conflict between Enki and Enlil, the sons of the supreme god of the time, Anu.  Much of ancient human history, and the Biblical Genesis, can be explained as the militant differences between these two half-brothers, and how they affected the life of all sentient beings on Earth.  

But the Anunnaki were more than just a pair of squabbling half-brothers.  They were the council of Gods and Goddesses, who periodically met to consider their future actions with respect to each other, and probably as a smaller, nondescript item on their agenda, the fate of mankind.  The Anunnaki, depending upon the context, were the Nephilim, the gods that Abraham’s father, Terah, (according to the book of Joshua) was reputed to have served, the fallen angels, the lesser individuals of the race from which Anu, Enki, Enlil, Inanna and the other notables had sprung, and the “judges” over the question of life and death.  They were in fact the bene ha-elohim, which translates as “the sons of the gods”, or equally likely, “the sons of the goddesses.”  For example, from Psalm 82:  

            “Jehovah takes his stand at the Council of El to deliver judgment

            among the elohim.”  “You too are gods, sons of El Elyon, all of you.”  

The Anunnaki have also been equated with the “Watchers” (who are also mentioned in the books of Daniel and Jubilees), i.e. “Behold a watcher and an holy one came down from heaven.” -- Daniel 4:13  

According to Zecharia Sitchin [1] and his interpretation of ancient Sumerian texts, the Anunnaki were extraterrestrials (aka “angels”?), who were an extremely long-lived race, potentially living as long as 500,000 years.  Laurence Gardner [2] reduces this to more on the order of 50,000 years, and notes specifically that the Anunnaki were not immortal.  He point out that no records are currently extant which relates to their natural deaths, but the violent deaths of Apsu, Tiamat, Mummu, and Dumu-zi are provided in some detail.  (Sitchin and Gardner also disagree on the date of the Great Deluge/Flood; Sitchin assuming a time frame of 11,000 B.C.E., while Gardner assumes one of 4,000 B.C.E.)  

Sitchin’s book, The 12th Planet, published in 1976 was the first modern volume to begin to describe the Anunnaki, their arrival on Earth supposedly some 485,000 years ago, and from where they had come -- a planet called Nibiru.  Sitchin believes Nibiru to be in an orbit about our sun, but in a strongly elliptical orbit which requires 3,600 Earth years to make a complete orbit.  Nibiru’s perihelion (closest point of approach to the Sun) is thought to be within the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, at a distance from the Sun of approximately 2.75 A.U. (an A.U. being the distance from the Sun to the Earth).  (the Annals of Earth include a detailed description of how Nibiru created the asteroid belt by destroying a planet, Tiamat, in roughly the same orbit, and which created the Earth in the aftermath, the Earth being a remnant of the greater, destroyed planet.)  

Nibiru is not known to modern astronomy primarily due to the extreme elliptical nature of its orbit and the fact its aphelion (furthest point in the planet’s orbit from the Sun) is more than eight times the distance from the Sun to the planet Pluto (the latter being some 40 A.U. away, and thus the former, some 320 A.U. distant).  Furthermore, Nibiru may be now far out in deep space and unlikely to be detected.  (Or close by, e.g. Planet X.)  

While Sitchin and Gardner may disagree with the extent of the long lives of the Anunnaki, it is clear that these gods and goddesses, baring accidents or “Anunnaki-cide”, lived a very long time.  It has also been theorized that because of their long lives, they do not quite move in “the fast lane” -- at least to the extent humans do.   

This could be fundamentally important in that, quite possibly, the human life span, while enormously brief as compared to the Anunnaki gods and goddesses, might nevertheless be compensated by the humans possessing the ability to achieve a great deal in a relatively short time.  The creativity of a shortened, and thus highly motivated lifespan is likely to be enormously greater than that of a god or semi-god resting on their laurels.  This may also relate to the idea of why the gods and goddesses of the Anunnaki even bother with mankind.  Humans may, on the one hand, act as workers to accomplish the Anunnaki’s agenda, but an accelerated creativity may be well worth the trouble for the Anunnaki to manage a crew as motley as the human race.  

But the connection between humans and the Anunnaki is much more profound than that of masters and slaves.  All the evidence strongly advocates the concept that Adam and Eve and their ancestors, cousins, and what-have-you were created by genetic engineering and mixing the DNA of Anunnaki with that of Homo erectus, the reigning progenitor of man at the time.  Fundamentally, this was because the Anunnaki needed someone to work the mines in search of gold and other Precious Metals, and in all likelihood the ORME. provides what just may be an insider view of the Anunnaki -- but from the perspective of Enki.  The advantage of this link is that it provides extensive details on pre-Anunnaki history.  While such channeled information is always speculative, it is nevertheless worthy of serious consideration.

(2/5/9) Another speculative source of possible implications is William James' website, Zero Point - Power of the gods in which he has provided a possible answer to the logical question of what was the Anunnaki's energy/power source. In effect he has linked physics and ancient history by means of "an adventure series which focuses on the unlimited potentials of Zero Point Energy and the ancient gods of civilizations long past." By means of supporting evidence, this combination of science and history effectively provides greater credibility to both. Additionally (and in many respects importantly, Mr. James' writings can also "stir the reader’s imagination to consider the possibilities of this fantastic energy source"... not to mention giving an intriguing insight into the practitioners of the energy source, the Anunnaki.

The most fundamental question with respect to the Anunnaki is whether or not they’re still on Earth!  Sitchin [1] has pointed out that he never said they left (and there is no evidence that they did).  There was, however, an apparently fundamental Anunnaki policy shift circa 600 B.C.E. wherein the overt, day-to-day interference in human affairs by the Anunnaki disappeared.  There is also the scenario encapsulated in Richard Wagner's classic opera The Ring of the Nibelung, which included Night Falls on the Gods and the Entrance of the Gods Into Vahalla -- titles which are suggestive of possible changes in status of the Anunnaki.  Finally, there is evidence to suggest that this state of affairs may be temporary, and may be scheduled to end with the end of the Mayan Calendar on or about 2012. A.D

From mankind’s point of view, the dysfunctional nature of the Anunnaki family, and the continuing rivalry of Enki and Enlil, may still be ongoing and having enormous effects on the quality of our physical, emotional, mental and spiritual lives.  It’s a very important question, and one that needs to be answered by each of us.

Enki and Enlil        Epic of Creation         Genesis         Sumerian

Forward to:

Sumerian Family Tree         Epic of Gilgamesh         Night Falls on the Gods



[1]  Zecharia Sitchin, The 12th Planet, 1976, The Wars of Gods and Men, 1985, Genesis Revisited, 1990, Divine Encounters, 1995, Avon Books, New York.

[2]  Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, Bantam Press, New York, 1999.

[3]  Bramley, William, The Gods of Eden, Avon Books, New York, 1989, 1990.  



Epic of Gilgamesh

Written 1500 years before the Homeric sagas, the Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the great classics of literature.  Discovered in the late nineteenth century among the Nievah Library -- “Written down according to the original and collated in the palace of Assurbanipal, King of the World, King of Assyria” -- the Epic was the first clue to a Sumerian version of the Great Deluge/Flood, whose hero was King Zi-u-sudra (aka Noah, Uta-napishtim).  

From a literary poem of view, the Epic of Gilgamesh is as secular as the Odyssey, and as contemporary as any heroic tale of an exciting life.  Gilgamesh is in mature manhood when the Epic begins, but being semi-divine (2/3rd human and 1/3rd god) and vastly superior to other men, he can find no worthy match in love or war.  Accordingly, as the fifth king of Uruk following the Great Flood, he lords it over his people to the point where they pray for relief.  They receive it in the form of a “natural man”, Enkidu, who has been reared by the animals and is enormously strong and swift as a gazelle.   

Enkidu is sought out and seduced by a female (either priestess or harlot, depending upon the predilections of the translator), and with his subsequent loss of innocence, he takes the first step toward becoming civilized (i.e. the animals reject him).  This quickly brings him into direct conflict with Gilgamesh.  After a knock-down-drag-out fight, the two become the greatest of friends (it’s a guy thing), and ultimately set out on great quests.  The most notable is going into the forest where Humbaba dwells.  “Because of the evil that is in the land, we will go to the forest and destroy the evil.”  Unfortunately, the evil Humbaba is the protégé of Enlil (of Enki and Enlil fame), and the forest episode is a cruel trap set by Enlil in order to destroy Gilgamesh and Enkidu.   

Gilgamesh survives, but Enkidu doesn’t.  Because it was Enkidu’s hubris in refusing the prayer of Humbaba for mercy, Enlil brings the case before the Anunnaki, the council of the gods, and retribution is accordingly doled out.  In an independent poem, Enkidu and the Underworld, Enkidu goes down alive into the underworld to bring back a mysterious drum and drumstick that Gilgamesh has let fall into it.  In spite of warnings, Enkidu breaks all the taboos and finds himself ultimately held by the underworld.  

The loss of Enkidu is devastating to Gilgamesh.  The lost of the great friendship and the knowledge that death is inevitable sets Gilgamesh out on a bold undertaking to find ever- lasting life.  His first clue is the legend of the day which insisted that King Zi-u-sudra (aka Noah) had not only survived the Flood, but had entered the company of the gods and been taken faraway “to live at the mouth of the rivers”.  Gilgamesh’s trek, akin to Odysseus’s journey, constitutes the last half of the Epic, where he encounters a variety of obstacles -- including one god’s advise that his quest is certain to fail.  

Gilgamesh also encounters a woman named Siduri, an enigmatic figure living in a place “where east and west were confused”, and who dispenses the philosophy of eat, drink and be merry, “for this too is the lot of man”.  Siduri, nevertheless provides Gilgamesh with the instructions on how to cross the waters of death, using the boatman Urshanabi to ferry him across in much the same manner as that of the sun’s journey into the west each day.   

An important and notable event occurs during the meeting between Gilgamesh and the ferryman, involving the “Things of Stone”, which Gilgamesh rashly smashes, making it then necessary for the ferryman to use “punting poles” -- the latter which are somehow connected with “wings” or “winged beings or figures”.   

[This fascinating aside is suggestive of the idea that the “Things of Stone” were akin in some manner to “The Philosopher’s Stone” or the ORME, whereby Levitation would have been a foregone conclusion as a means of transportation. (See also Zero-Point Energy, The Fifth Element, and Inertial Propulsion.)  Without the “Things of Stone”, other means of flying, e.g. wings, apparently would be necessary.]  

Gilgamesh’s meeting with Zi-u-sudra (Noah) begins with more “wisdom” of the type that man should be content with his lot in life (however short it might be).  [This is typical advice from immortal or very long-lived beings.  But from the Anunnaki, who apparently depend upon Star Fire or ORME for their longevity -- and humans carrying some of their DNA -- this advice is considerably more suspect as being bad advice.]   

Zi-u-sudra then does an accounting of his experience in the Flood.  According to Zi-u-sudra, the Flood came about after a meeting of the council of the gods -- any such meeting typically implying really bad news for mankind -- in which Enlil again took the part of the advocate for destroying mankind, while Enki apparently was silent, and spoke his mind by aiding Zi-u-sudra in surviving the Flood.   

It is noteworthy that the dreadful havoc of the Deluge and Flood appalled even the gods.  Enlil had, apparently, spared no effort to use the horrors of storm, lightning, hailstones, and coals of fire raining down in order to exterminate mankind.  And unlike the Biblical story, the Sumerian version is based on a group of factious, flustered, and fallible deities.  Importantly, there is no Covenant that the gods will not do as much again, but Inanna’s exclamation that she will not “forget these days”, and the immortality and semi-divine status which Zi-u-sudra obtains from the gods, might be indicative of some respite from anxiety.  As a matter of face, “Noah” means “respite”!  

Gilgamesh eventually obtains the plant of Youth Regained from the bottom of the sea, but inexplicably does not immediately eat it at once.  He eventually loses it, when a snake eats it and thereby becomes the symbol for self-renewal.  In the end, Gilgamesh has no choice but to return without the secret of eternal life, and even as the King of Uruk, even he must accept the human lot of limited longevity.   

The Epic -- with this moral basic to it -- might thus be a form of propaganda.  But there is also the hint that mankind might have an ace after all!  Perhaps, the human life span, while enormously brief as compared to the Anunnaki Gods and Goddesses, might also possess the ability to achieve a great deal in a relatively short time.  The creativity of a shortened, and thus highly motivated, life span might be enormously greater than that of a god or semi-god resting on their laurels.  

One final curiosity is the fact Gilgamesh was one-third god!  The ability to achieve a 1/3 and 2/3 mix is mathematically extremely difficult.  If only two -- a male and a female -- are involved, then the 1/3 god goal would be difficult to even approximate.  But, if there were three involved, the combination of thirds is entirely plausible!  This is, in fact, extremely important!  Assume, for example, the combination of a human female’s egg and a human male’s sperm, with the fertilized egg then being inserted into a Goddess for the nine-month process of going from a fetus through childbirth.  In this way, the Goddess connection is the one-third god status (with the two humans being the remaining two thirds).   

The key is that the Goddess would be means by which the human embryo is fed -- and potentially, the human being after birth continuing to receive nourishment from the Goddess.  This is, in effect, the blood connection of the Star Fire!  Gilgamesh was thus receiving the ORME equivalent in his status as King, and the one-third god portion gave him extraordinary powers (such that he had no equal with any human).

There are also stories of Inanna and Gilgamesh, in which Gilgamesh apparently refuses her sexual overtures.  Her subsequent wrath is understandable (no woman likes to be turned down!), but her initial approach should be considered as noteworthy.  After all, if Gilgamesh was running on 1/3 of his god-like cylinders, he would be more attractive to a Goddess who tended to have her way in all things.  

The Me         Sumerian        Enki and Enlil         Anunnaki

Forward to:

Homo sapiens sapiens         Deluge         Adam’s Family  



Enki lusted for Batanash, wife of his son Adapa's descendant, Lu-Mach, Workmaster of Earthlings in Edin. Enlil had ordered Lu-Mach to enforce work quotas and reduce rations for the Earthlings he directed. The Earthlings grumbled and threatened Lu-Mach.
So, ostensibly to protect Lu-March and his wife, Enki sent him to Marduk in Babylon to learn city-building and sent Batanash to Ninmah at the Medical/Science complex of Shurubak, "from the angry Earthling masses protected and safe to be. Thereafter Enki his sister Ninmah in Shurubak was quick to visit.  

On the roof of a dwelling where Batanash was bathing Enki by her loins took hold, he kissed her, his semen into her womb he poured." [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 204 ] From this encounter, she bore Ziusudra (Noah). 

When Lu-Mach returned to Edin, "to him Batanash the son showed. White as the snow his skin was.... Like the skies were his eyes, in a brilliance his eyes were shining." Lu-Mach complained, "A son unlike an Earthling to Batanash was born.... Is one of the Igigi [astronauts] his father?" Batanash swore "None of the Igigi is the boy's father."  [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 204 ]  Lu-Mach's father Matushal assured him Ziusudra was destined to help Earhlings survive the Ice Age Earth was entering.  

Ninmah loved and cared for Ziusudra; Enki taught him to read Adapa's writings. 

But drought, plague and starvation stalked the Earthlings [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 204 -205].  Enki and Ninmah proposed teaching Earthlings medicine for plague, sea-fishing as well as pond- and canal-building for drought and famine.

Enlil (Yahweh), however, was still enraged at Enki for creating the Earthling hybrids. Enlil was also furious at Enki's son Marduk, who was recruiting the hybrid line descended from the daughters of Adapa whom the astronauts had abducted at Marduk's wedding to the Earthling Sarpanit.

Marduk was conditioning this hybrid population to serve him for the time when he and the astronauts who had taken hybrid women must remain on Earth, the time when enough gold had been sent to Nibiru to shield the homeplanet's atmosphere and the other Nibirans would return home.

So Enlil forbade any help for the Earthlings. "Let the Earthlings by hunger and pestilence perish," decreed Enlil. To speed the demise of the Earthlings, Enlil specifically ordered Enki to block Earthlings' access to ocean fish. 

The Earthlings at Shurubak, where Ziusudra lived under Enki's and Ninmah's tutilage, sent Ziusudra to Enki at Edin for help. Enki suggested the Earthlings protest Enlil's anti-Earthling policy and boycott worship of and service to their Nibiran lords. He said, however, he couldn't openly ignore Enlil's order and help the Earthlings.  

Covertly, Enki fed Earthlings from his corn stores. He trained them in sea fishing and gave them access to the sea. When Enlil accused Enki of defying his decree that humans be allowed to perish, Enki lied. He said the humans acted without his knowledge. Frustrated, Enlil planned for the final destruction of Earthlings and the end to Nibiran occupation of Earth [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 206; 1978, The 12th Planet, pages 292 -294].  

Each 3,600 year revolution of Nibiru to the region of Solaris created ever more violent disturbances on Nibiru, the sun (huge solar flares) Mars (Lahmu) and Earth. On Earth, Enki's son Nergal reported from the south tip of Africa that the Antarctic ice sheet was sliding to the ocean and would, next approach of Nibiru, slide into the sea and cause wave reverberations that would engulf most of Earth.  

The Adamite and Adapite Hybrid Erectus/Nibiran Earthlings were both part of a species Enki, Ningishzidda and Ninmah created in violation of interplanetary law. Commander Enlil planned to let these Earthlings drown when, next time Nibiru neared Earth and the Antractic Icesheet would slip into the sea. The icesheet's immersion in the South Sea would inundate all Earth except great peaks. Then, Enlil calculated, the Nibiran gold-mining operations on Earth would end and the Nibirans could return to Nibiru.

King Anu and the Counsel on Nibiru beamed Earth: "’For evacuating Earth and Lahmu prepare.’ In the Abzu [Zimbabwe] the gold mines shut down; therefrom the Anunnaki [colonists on Earth from Nibiru] to the Edin came; ... smelting and refining ceased, all gold to Nibiru was lofted. Empty, for evacuating ready, a fleet of celestial chariots [interplanetary spaceships] to Earth returned." One spaceship brought the mysterious white-haired Galzu (Great Knower) with a sealed message from Anu to Enki, Enlil and Ninmah

"Enlil the seal of Anu examined; unbroken and authentic it was, its encoding trustworthy. 'For King and Council Galzu speaks. his words are my commands.' So did the message of Anu state. 'I am Galzu, Emissary Plenipoteniary of King and Council, to Enlil,'" said the mysterious visitor.  [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 208]. 

Plenipoteniary Galzu summonsed Enlil's elder sister and brother, Ninmah and Enki. Galzu told Ninmah, "'Of the same school and age we are.' This Ninmah could not recall: the emissary was as young as a son, she was as his olden mother." Galzu told Ninmah she'd aged and he hadn't because she'd been so long on Earth. She and her brothers had been on Earth so long that they'd die if they returned to Nibiru, where their bodies could not survive the homeplanet's netforce.  

"The three of you on Earth will remain; only to die to Nibiru you will return." Ninmah and her brothers must orbit Earth in their rockets when the antarctic icesheet slipped into the ocean and waves washed over the planet. When the waters calmed, the Leaders were to return to Earth, the only place they could survive.

King Anu's order continued, "To each of the other Anunnaki, a choice to leave or the calamity outwait must be given. The Igigi [astronauts] who Earthlings espoused must between departure and spouses choose. No Earthling, Marduk's Sarpanit included, to Nibiru to journey is allowed. For all who stay and what happens see, in celestial chariots they safety must seek." [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 209 - 211]. 

Enlil convened the Anunnaki Council, which consisted of the Leaders' sons and grandchildren and the Igigi commanders. He said he decided the Earthlings must drown in the deluge.  

Enki protested, "'A wonderous Being by us was created, by us saved it must be,' Enki to Enlil shouted."  

Enlil roared back,"'To Primitive Workers you gave to them knowing you endowed. The powers of the Creator of All into your hands you have taken. With fornication Adapa you conceived , Understanding to his line you gave. His offspring to the heavens you have taken, our wisdom with them you shared. Every rule you have broken, decisions and commands you ignored. Because of you a Civilized Earthling brother [Abael] a brother [Ka-in] murdered. Because of Marduk your son the Igigi like him with Earthlings intermarried.'" 
Enlil demanded Enki and all swear not to tell the Earthlings of the impending inundation. Enki refused; he and Marduk stamped out of the Council. But Enki hestated to openly defy Enlil, who, after all, had drawn command of Earth Mission  [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 212 -214]. 

Enlil brought the Council back to order. Astronauts with Adapite wives and children, he decreed, must move to the peaks above wave level. When the deluge engulfed Earth, repatriating colonists would rocket to Nibiru, Enki, Ninmah, and I--as well as our sons, daughters and their descendants--will orbit Earth till the Earthlings drown and the waters recede. Marduk was to shelter on Marsbase; Enlil's son Nannar would wait out Earth's flood on the moon.  [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 230]. 

Enki and Ninmah buried their records and computer programs deep in the Iraqi soil. They prepared genetic banks of Earth's creatures to save from coming flood. "Male and female essences and life-eggs they collected, of each kind two by two ... they collected for safekeeping while in Earth circuit to be taken, thereafter the living kinds to recombine. The day of the deluge they waited." [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 216]. 

Enki dreamed Galzu spoke "'Into your hands Fate take, for the Earthlings the Earth inherit. Summon your son Ziusudra, without breaking the oath [swearing not to tell humans] to him the coming calamity reveal. A boat that the watery avalanche can withstand, a submersible one, to build him tell, the likes of which on this tablet to you I am showing. Let him in it save himself and his kinfolk and the seed of all that is useful, be it plant or animal, also take. That is the will of the Creator of All.'"

Enki woke and pondered his dream. He stepped out of bed and kicked an actual tablet-- where none had been before he slept--next to his bed. He searched his home and grounds for Galzu but Galzu was not there, nor had anyone seen him, except Enki, in the dream. The appearance of the tablet--a physical object--following a dream or trance encounter with a representative of a higher power--Galzu in this instance-- is what Sitchin calls a Twightlight Zone miracle.

"That night to the reed hut where Ziusudra was sleeping Enki stealthily went. The oath not breaking, the lord Enki not to Ziusudra but to the hut's wall [computer bank?] spoke from behind the reed wall.
When Ziusudra by the words was awakened, to him Enki said, "Reed hut, a calamitous storm will sweep, the destruction of Mankind it will be. This is the decision of the assembly by Enlil convened. "

Galzu tells Enki (depicted with his snake icon) to warn Ziasudra (touching the "wall"--probably a computer bank, depicted with Xs across the screens and slots for programs) of the Flood. Galzu guides Enki's arm to convey tablet (possibly a computer or holo disk. The disk is shown leaving Enki's hand en route to Ziasudra's computer)

Enki continued, " 'Abandon thy house, Ziusudra and build a boat. Its design and measurements on a tablet....A boatguide [Enki's son, Ninagal] to you will come. To a safe haven the boatguide will navigate you. By you shall the seed of Civilized Man survive. Not to you Ziusudra, have I spoken, but to the reed wall did I speak.'" [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 220 -222]

13,000 years ago, "in the Whiteland, at the Earth's bottom, off its foundation, the [Antarctic] icesheet slipped. By Nibiru's netforce it was pulled into the south sea. A tidal wave arose, northward spreading.

"The boat of Ziusudra the tidal wave from its moorings lifted. Though completely submerged, not a drop of water into it did enter. For forty days, waves and storms swept Earth, downing everything on the planet except those on mountaintops and in Ziusudra's boat" [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki, page 227].

Surfacing, Ninagal raised sail and steered to Mt Arrata, where Ziusudra built a huge fire as a signal and roasted lamb as an offering to Enki. Enki and Enlil descended in helicopters (Whirlwinds) from their rocketships.

"When Enlil the survivors saw, Ningal among them, "`Every Earthling had to perish', he with fury shouted'; at Enki with anger he lunged, to kill his brother with bare hands he was ready." Ningal radioed Ninmah and Ninurta to bring their copters down quick.

"`He is no mere mortal, my son he is,' Enki to Ziusudra pointing. `To a reed wall I spoke, not Ziusudra.'"

Enki, joined by Ninmah and Ninurta, revealed his dream vision. He told Enlil of the instructions and tablet Galzu gave him.

Together, Enki, Ninurta and Nimah convinced Enlil "The survival of mankind the will of the Creator of All must be." [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: abridged from pages 228 - 229].

The flood waters from the Deluge, 13,000 years ago, receded; they left the uplands intact. The waters had totally carried away the Nibiran settlements and buried Mesopotamia and African goldmines under silt and mud. "All that the Anunnaki had built in the past 432,000 years was wiped off the face of the Earth or buried under miles thick layers of mud. [Sitchin, Z., The Cosmic Code, p 54] Of the Anunnaki settlements, only the raised stone Landing Place at Baalbek, Lebanon, was intact; their spaceport at Sippar was totally gone.


I. Events Before the Deluge

Ancient Eridu(5000-600 BC) The first World city and home of Enki

In southeastern Iraq, buried beneath the sands, is the ancient city of Eridu, the oldest Sumerian and perhaps world city where the Annunaki gods reigned over mankind.


Gold NibiruYears Ago

450,000 On Nibiru, a distant member of our solar system, life faces slow extinction as the planet's atmosphere erodes. Deposed by Anu, the ruler Alalu escapes in a spaceship and finds refuge on Earth. He discovers that Earth has gold that can be used to protect Nibiru's atmosphere.

445,000 Led by Enki, a son of Anu, the Anunnaki land on Earth, establish Eridu - Earth Station I - for extracting gold from the waters of the Persian Gulf.

430,000 Earth's climate mellows. More Anunnaki arrive on Earth, among them Enki's half-sister Ninhursag, Chief Medical Officer.

416,000 As gold production falters, Anu arrives on Earth with Enlil, the heir apparent. It is decided to obtain the vital gold by mining it in southern Africa. Drawing lots, Enlil wins command of Earth Mission; Enki is relegated to Africa. On departing Earth, Anu is challenged by Alalu's grandson.

400,000 Seven functional settlements in southern Mesopotamia include a Spaceport (Sippar), Mission Control Center (Nippur), a metallurgical center (Shuruppak). The ores arrive by ships from Africa; the refined metal is sent aloft to orbiters manned by Igigi, then transferred to spaceships arriving periodically from Nibiru.

380,000 Gaining the support of the Igigi, Alalu's grandson attempts to seize mastery over Earth. The Enlilites win the War of the Olden Gods.

300,000 The Anunnaki toiling in the gold mines mutiny. Enki and

Ninhursag create Primitive Workers through genetic manipulation of Ape woman; they take over the manual chores of the Anunnaki. Enlil raids the mines, brings the Primitive Workers to the Edin in Mesopotamia. Given the ability to procreate, Homo Sapiens begins to multiply.

200,000 Life on Earth regresses during a new glacial period.

100,000 Climate warms again. The Anunnaki (the biblical Nefilim), to Enlil's growing annoyance marry the daughters of Man.

75,000 The "accursation of Earth" - a new Ice Age-begins. Regressive types of Man roam the Earth . Cro-Magnon man survives.

49,000 Enki and Ninhursag elevate humans of Anunnaki parentage to rule in Shuruppak. Enlil, enraged. plots Mankind's demise.

13,000 Realizing that the passage of Nibiru in Earth's proximity will trigger an immense tidal wave, Enlil makes the Anunnaki swear to keep the impending calamity a secret from Mankind.

Enki Warns Noah | ZiusudraII. Events After the Deluge

11,000 BC - Enki breaks the oath, instructs Ziusudra / Noah to build a submersible ship. The Deluge sweeps over the Earth; the Anunnaki witness the total destruction from their orbiting spacecraft.

Enlil agrees to grant the remnants of Mankind implements and seeds; agriculture begins in the highlands. Enki domesticates animals.

Noah Mesopotamia10,500 BC - The descendants of Noah are allotted three regions. Ninurta, Enlil's foremost son, dams the mountains and drains the rivers to make Mesopotamia habitable; Enki reclaims the Nile valley. The Sinai peninsula is retained by the Anunnaki for a post-diluvial spaceport; a control center is established on Mount Moriah (the future Jerusalem).

9780 BC - Ra/Marduk, Enki's firstborn son, divides dominion over Egypt between Osiris and Seth.

9330 BC - Seth seizes and dismembers Osiris, assumes sole rule over the Nile Valley.

8970 BC - Horus avenges his father Osiris by launching the First Pyramid War. Seth escapes to Asia, seizes the Sinai peninsula and Canaan.

8670 BC - Opposed to the resulting control of all the space facilities by Enki's descendants, the Enlilites launch the Second Pyramid War. The victorious Ninurta empties the Great Pyramid of its equipment.

Ninhursag, half-sister of Enki and Enlil, convenes peace conference. The division of Earth is reaffirmed. Rule over Egypt transferred from the Ra/Marduk dynasty to that of Thoth. Heliopolis built as a substitute Beacon City.

8500 BC - The Anunnaki establish outposts at the gateway to the space facilities; Jericho is one of them.

7400 BC - As the era of peace continues, the Anunnaki grant Mankind new advances; the Neolithic period begins. Demigods rule over Egypt.

3800 BC - Urban civilization begins in Sumer as the Anunnaki reestablish there the Olden Cities, beginning with Eridu and Nippur.

Anu comes to Earth for a pageantful visit. A new city, Uruk (Erech), is built in his honor; he makes its temple the abode of his beloved granddaughter Inanna/lshtar.

Egyptian Kings | AnnunakiIII. Kingship on Earth

3760 BC - Mankind granted kingship. Kish is first capital under the aegis of Ninurta. The calendar begun at Nippur. Civilization blossoms out in Sumer (the First Region).

3450 BC - Primacy in Sumer transferred to Nannar/Sin. Marduk proclaims Babylon "Gateway of the Gods." The "Tower of Babel" incident. The Anunnaki confuse Mankind's languages.

His coup frustrated, Marduk/Ra returns to Egypt, deposes Thoth, seizes his younger brother Dumuzi who had betrothed Inanna. Dumuzi accidentally killed; Marduk imprisoned alive in the Great Pyramid. Freed through an emergency shaft, he goes into exile.

3100 BC - 350 years of chaos end with installation of first Egyptian Pharaoh in Memphis. Civilization comes to the Second Region.

2900 BC - Kingship in Sumer transferred to Erech. Inanna given dominion over the Third Region; the Indus Valley Civilization begins.

2650 BC - Sumer's royal capital shifts about. Kingship deteriorates. Enlil loses patience with the unruly human multitudes.

2371 BC - Inanna falls in love with Sharru-Kin (Sargon). He establishes new capital city. Agade (Akkad). Akkadian empire launched.

2316 BC - Aiming to rule the four regions, Sargon removes sacred soil from Babylon. The Marduk-Inanna conflict flares up again. It ends when Nergal, Marduk's brother, journeys from south Africa to Babylon and persuades Marduk to leave Mesopotamia.

2291 BC - Naram-Sin ascends the throne of Akkad. Directed by the warlike Inanna, he penetrates the Sinai peninsula, invades Egypt.

2255 BC - Inanna usurps the power in Mesopotamia; Naram-Sin defies Nippur. The Great Anunnaki obliterate Agade. Inanna escapes. Sumer and Akkad occupied by foreign troops loyal to Enlil and Ninurta.

2220 BC - Sumerian civilization rises to new heights under enlightened rulers of Lagash. Thoth helps its king Gudea build a ziggurat-temple for Ninurta.

2193 BC - Terah, Abraham's father, born in Nippur into a priestly-royal family.

2180 BC - Egypt divided; followers of Ra/Marduk retain the south; Pharaohs opposed to him gain the throne of lower Egypt.

2130 BC - As Enlil and Ninurta are increasingly away, central authority also deteriorates in Mesopotamia. Inanna's attempts to regain the kingship for Erech does not last.

Abraham and IsaacThe Fateful Century

2123 BC - Abraham born in Nippur.

2113 BC - Enlil entrusts the Lands of Shem to Nannar; Ur declared capital of new empire. Ur- Nammmu ascends throne, is named Protector of Nippur. A Nippurian priest-Terah, Abraham's father - comes to Ur to liaison with its royal court.

2096 BC - Ur-Nammu dies in battle. The people consider his untimely death a betrayal by Anu and Enlil. Terah departs with his family for Harran.

2095 BC - Shulgi ascends the throne of Ur, strengthens imperial ties. As empire thrives, Shulgi falls under charms of Inanna, becomes her lover. Grants Larsa to Elamites in exchange for serving as his Foreign Legion.

2080 BC - Theban princes loyal to Ra/Marduk press northward under Mentuhotep I. Nabu, Marduk's son, gains adherents for his father in Western Asia.

2055 BC - On Nannar's orders, Shulgi sends Elamite troops to suppress unrest in Canaanite cities. Elamites reach the gateway to the Sinai peninsula and its Spaceport.

2048 BC - Shulgi dies. Marduk moves to the Land of the Hittites. Abraham ordered to southern Canaan with an elite corps of cavalrymen.

2047 BC - Amar-Sin (the biblical Amraphel) becomes king of Ur. Abraham goes to Egypt, stays five years, then returns with more troops.

2041 BC - Guided by Inanna, Amar-Sin forms a coalition of Kings of the East, launches military expedition to Canaan and the Sinai. Its leader is the Elamite Khedor-la'omer. Abraham blocks the advance at the gateway to the Spaceport.

2038 BC - Shu-Sin replaces Amar-Sin on throne of Ur as the empire disintegrates.

2029 BC - Ibbi-Sin replaces Shu-Sin. The western provinces increasingly to Marduk.

2024 BC - Leading his followers, Marduk marches on Sumer, enthrones himself in Babylon. Fighting spreads to central Mesopotamia. Nippur's Holy of Holies is defiled. Enlil demands punishment for Marduk and Nabu; Enki opposes, but his son Nergal sides with Enlil.

As Nabu marshals his Canaanite followers to capture the Spaceport, the Great Anunnaki approve of the use of nuclear weapons. Nergal and Ninurta destroy the Spaceport and the errant Canaanite cities.

2023 BC - The winds carry the radioactive cloud to Sumer. People die a terrible death, animals perish, the water is poisoned, the soil becomes barren. Sumer and its great civilization lie prostrate. Its legacy passes to Abraham's seed as he begets -at age 100- a legitimate heir: Isaac.