by Dee Finney

updated 7-22-2008

6-7-00 - DREAM - I don't know what house I was living in, but my kids and first husband was there.
The kids were in their early teens it seemed.

I was supposed to go to work, but I wasn't feeling very well and decided to stay home. My oldest son
Michael was sick in bed, but I didn't go check on him. He was old enough to take care of himself and
ask for help if he needed it.

Then I saw that my son Ken was standing half hidden behind a piece of furniture and he was shaking
uncontrollably.  I asked him what was wrong. He started to cry and said that his arms hurt really bad.  
I felt his forehead and it was rather on the hot side. Then I looked at his arms and he had huge swollen
pustules on them with huge red swollen rings around them. I took one look and my mind automatically
said, "Small Pox!".

I freaked out. I knew I had had a Small Pox vaccination when I was a kid. I looked for it on my upper
left arm to make sure the scar was still there. My pink sweater kept getting in the way and falling over
the spot so I didn't see it, but I knew it was there.

My husband came in the room and I told him about my suspicions that it was Small Pox. He said he
thought it was probably myocardial meningitis.  Well that didn't make any sense to me at all.  Ken was
sent to bed and I went about trying to find out what kind of horrid disease my son had.  Small Pox was
supposed to have been wiped off the face of the earth. How could he possibly have caught that.  In fact,
I thought he had been vaccinated for it but I wasn't certain about that. Maybe people don't get vaccines
for that anymore?

I was going to have to call into work and report that I wasn't coming in, and I planned to call some
other people and discuss the idea of Small Pox and find out about it. I went to the telephone in the hall
and planned to disconnect it and take it upstairs to talk, but there were so many wires and loops and
connections, I couldn't figure out how to take it with me.

One of my other sons tried to help but he said it couldn't be done anyway, so I went upstairs without it.
Upstairs was another whole set of rooms including a living room. My son Ken was busy building a moat
or something.  He had dug out a huge area in front of the living room door which was full of sand like a pit
and as soon as I walked past it, he filled it with water. I told him I wasn't going to be walking back and
forth through water, so he flipped down a wooden carpeted lid and the floor looked normal.  Then I saw
that in front of the couch was a 3 1/2 foot hole that was carpeted differently.  The carpeting down there
was dark blue with yellow fleur de lis pattern on it.  My son Ken flipped the lid down over the hole and
the carpeting on the normal level was brown. This whole thing seemed rather odd. It seemed that there
was a hollow underneath everything we lived on.  I hadn't known about that either.

My son Bob was sitting on another couch and it looked like he was playing a game of some kind. He
was rather muttering to it ... I couldn't understand what he was saying. I talk to myself sometimes too,
so didn't give it a second thought.  I grabbed it from him and then saw that it a flip up telephone.  I
apologized profusely.  He said I was going to have to apologize to the person he was talking to also.
 He redialed the number and spoke to the person, then handed me the phone. I heard the voice of my
sister-in-law Mary. (I haven't spoken to her in 30 years) I apologized and told her that I didn't realize
that Bob was talking on a telephone and that I thought it was just a game. She ignored what I said and
told me that her Father wasn't feeling very well and didn't know if he would live much longer. I said I
was sorry to hear that and handed the phone back to Bob who continued the conversation he had started

I knew I had to call into work and tell them I wasn't coming in.  Thinking about that actually took me to
work into a scene where I was talking to the nurse who worked there. She and I discussed how it was
last year when I didn't bother coming to work if I didn't feel like it or came in late whatever time I felt like.  
She and I had had a discussion one day when I went in actually sick and told her that I needed to see a
doctor.  She had questioned me about whether I thought I had any sick days left and I thought I did. She
reminded me in our conversation that she knew that I had used up my last one so she told me I'd have to
use a day of vacation instead. I told her that when I went to the doctor, he told me I was sick enough to
be in the hospital. I had pneumonia. (I never had pneumonia)

I knew I still had to figure out if my son Ken had Small Pox or not and how he could possibly have gotten it.  
I knew that Small Pox had been eradicated in the world.


The Modesto Bee

Sixteen out of every 100,000 show signs

by M.A.J. McKenna
Cox News Service

ATLANTA - Members of the armed forces who have been vaccinated against smallpox are developing an unexpectedly high rate of reactions that affect their hearts, military doctors said.

The reactions suggest that thousands of people would experience problems if the smallpox vaccine ever were offered broadly to the U.S. population the doctors said. 

About 16 members of the armed forces have developed cardiac problems out of every 100,000 vaccinated. Dr. Dimitri Cassimatis of Walter Reed Army Medical Center said at a briefing in New York. 

About 615,000 have been inoculated since December 2002, when bioterrorism fears prompted the resumption of smallpox vaccination for military personnel and some civilians after a 30-year hiatus.

The reactions are not life-threatening, Cassimatis said. They take the form of transient inflammation of the heat muscle and surrounding membrane that subsides after four to six weeks of rest and treatment with mild anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen.

But Cassimatis said the reactions, which occur within 30 days of vaccination , are unnerving because they begin with the same symptoms that signal heart disease, including heat pan and shortness of breath. 

One out of five victims, he said, continue to experience chest pain and fatigue after six weeks of treatment, but in-depth studies have shown no lasting heart damage. 

Smallpox vaccine always has carried some risk of aftereffects. Our of every 1 million vaccinations, according to data collected in the 1960s when the vaccine was in wide use, one recipient will die and 14 to 52 will have a life-threatening reaction or infection.

Cardiac problems were not seen in the 1960's.

Of the approximately 40,000 civilian health workers who have been vaccinated, 34 have experienced heart problems, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, though, not all were of the type recorded in military personnel.  

When smallpox vaccination resumed, the military launched a registry that recorded the experiences of those who got the vaccine. 

The findings announced Thursday were drawn from the registry and covered the 488,000 who received the vaccine between December 2002, and December 2003. The results were published last week in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 

The armed forces are launching a study that may help predict who is most vulnerable to cardiac side effects, Cassimatis said.

When the smallpox vaccine was in broad use, it usually was given to children. Data regarding its impact on adults is limited and there is almost nothing on how it affects adults who are being vaccinated for the first time.

Seventy percent of the U.S. service members who have been vaccinated since 2002 are receiving the vaccine for the first time. When U.S. vaccination ceased in 1972, most of these people had not yet been born. 

In one small study done in Finland in the 1970's, 10 out of every 100,000 experienced problems, two-thirds the U.S. rate reported Thursday.

And Now, the Good News About Smallpox

In the event of a terrorist attack, we're not all toast.

By Jon Cohen

Updated Sunday, October 28, 2001

If you received a smallpox vaccine in infancy, as most everyone did in the United States before routine immunizations stopped in 1972, your immunity to this disfiguring and often lethal disease certainly has waned. Indeed, authoritative sources would have you believe that you have no immunity whatsoever. But if you dig out original scientific studies about the smallpox vaccine, a much different and a much more optimistic picture emerges.

According to U.S. Census Bureau data, about 40 percent of the U.S. population is 29 or younger, and having never received a smallpox immunization, up to 30 percent of that cohort would die if infected with the virus during a bioterrorist attack. But what of the remainder of the population, the 60 percent that got the vaccine at one point or another? What is their vulnerability?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site offers this depressing answer in a smallpox FAQ: "Most estimates suggest immunity from vaccination lasts 3 to 5 years." In 1999, leading experts offered similar estimates in a "consensus statement" on smallpox as a biological weapon that they published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. "Because comparatively few persons today have been successfully vaccinated on more than 1 occasion, it must be assumed that the population at large is highly susceptible to infection," they concluded. "Dark Winter," a war game conducted in June at Andrews Air Force Base in which a smallpox "attack" was launched, proposed that 80 percent of the U.S. population is susceptible to the disease.

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But data from a 1902-1903 smallpox outbreak in Liverpool, England, strongly suggest otherwise. A study analyzed the impact of the disease on 1,163 Liverpudlians, 943 who received the vaccine during infancy, and 220 who were never vaccinated. The study further separated people by age and by the severity of their disease. In the oldest age group, 50 and above, 93 percent of the vaccinated people escaped severe disease and death. In contrast, 50 percent of the unvaccinated in that age bracket died, and another 25 percent had severe disease. To put it plainly, the vaccine offered remarkable protection after 50 years.

Frank Fenner, a virologist at Australia's John Curtin School of Medicine who co-authored Smallpox and Its Eradication a 1,400-page book that is the field's bible says the Liverpool study remains the best evidence that vaccine immunity lasts for decades. The Liverpool study, paradoxically, also helped create the common wisdom that vaccine immunity rapidly wanes. In the Liverpool study, Fenner notes, vaccinated kids who were 14 and younger had zero cases of severe disease or death. So out of "conservatism," he explains, many smallpox experts began to advocate that anyone in an area where smallpox exists should be revaccinated every decade (Australia went one step further and said every five years). An added benefit of this aggressive vaccination policy was that it also slowed the spread of smallpox, because recently vaccinated people were less likely to transmit the virus than those who had received their immunizations decades before.

More recent data supports the Liverpool experience. In a 1996 study published in the Journal of Virology, a group led by Francis Ennis at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center pulled immune cells out of people who had received the smallpox vaccine decades before. When they tickled these cells to see whether they remembered the lesson the vaccine had taught them, they found that "immunity can persist for up to 50 years after immunization against smallpox."

James Leduc, the CDC's resident smallpox authority, concedes that the conventional wisdom posted on the CDC's Web site might not tell the whole story. "The issues that you are raising are absolutely accurate and well founded," he says. "What you see on the Web site is a first attempt to get a consistent message out," he says, explaining that the public health quandaries such as the need to produce more vaccine sometimes overshadow the scientific ones.

Fenner, like several other smallpox experts queried, has no idea how much protective immunity exists now in the United States. "Oh, gosh, it is a guess," he says. But as Bernard Moss, a researcher who works with the smallpox vaccine at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, stresses, a vaccine simply gives the immune system a head start in the race against a bug. In the case of smallpox, the bug is fairly slow to cause disease symptoms typically don't surface for a few weeks and an infection in a vaccinated person can act like a booster shot, revving up an already primed immune system. "Everyone would agree that if you had a vaccination in your life," says Moss, "you're much better off than if you hadn't."

None of this good news argues against rebuilding the nation's smallpox vaccine stockpile, which has dwindled to a mere 15.4 million doses. (The federal government has committed more than $500 million to produce 300 million doses.) Regardless of our country's precise immune status against smallpox, widespread use of the vaccine during outbreaks repeatedly has worked: New York City dramatically aborted an epidemic in 1947 with a rapid and aggressive vaccination (and, importantly, isolation of victims) campaign that limited the spread to 12 cases and two deaths. And surely we have become more vulnerable to smallpox since routine immunizations stopped.

But the good news inspires the sort of confidence the country needs right now: The entire population isn't at extreme risk in the event of a smallpox attack. As the CDC's Leduc says, "This is not going to be a wildfire that overtakes the world."

Addendum: Oct. 27, 2001:

Many people who are under 29 wrote me sharply worded notes after this article was posted. I thought it was implicit that if older people had some immunity, this should impact decisions about distribution of the vaccine, should a smallpox outbreak become a reality before the government builds a sufficient stockpile to immunize everyone. So as to avoid any further confusion, let me be even more explicit: If I had a say in it (and I do not), I would advocate that limited supplies of smallpox vaccine should first go to health-care workers, police, firefighters, and other first-responders in the area. After that, I think it makes sense to vaccinate the unvaccinated population before the vaccinated, which means the under-29-year-olds would be at the front of the line.

Related in Slate

For the good news on anthrax, see this previous Slate piece by Jon Cohen.

Jon Cohen, the author of Shots in the Dark, writes for Science magazine. You can e-mail him at


Anthony Browne, health editor

The Observer

Sunday October 21, 2001,1373,578111,00.html

Governments around the world have been warned to prepare against a terrorist smallpox attack which could kill millions. The World Health Organisation has told them to ensure they can produce enough vaccine to protect their population against the disease, and is preparing to order mass precautionary vaccination of all citizens.

'The unthinkable is no longer unthinkable and we need to prepare for that,' said a spokesperson for the WHO, the United Nations' health agency. 'There has been a lot of concern about a smallpox outbreak. The numbers it would kill are scary.'

The British Government last week issued emergency guidance to health professionals on how to deal with an outbreak. The guidance, seen by The Observer, says smallpox is a serious threat because it is easily passed from person to person, has a fatality rate of up to 90 per cent, can kill in 48 hours, and few people have been vaccinated. 'In the event of a deliberate release, it is unlikely that single, mild cases will occur -- it is more likely that clusters of moderate to severe disease will be seen.'

The WHO masterminded the eradication of smallpox in 1977 and since the early Eighties has advised governments not to vaccinate. Most under-40s in the UK have not been immunised.

Following the US anthrax attacks, which by last night had infected a reported 38 people, concern there about a smallpox outbreak is so high that it has ordered 300 million doses of the vaccine from Cambridge-based biotech company Acambis. Medical studies suggest that an out break in the US would kill around a million people in three months. The NHS has ordered supplies, but it is not thought to be enough to cover the population.

Last week, Gro Harlem Bruntland, the WHO's director-general, told its Smallpox Advisory Group to consider whether to tell all governments to go ahead with mass vaccination.

It is a devastating setback for the WHO, which considers the eradication of smallpox its greatest achievement. It is also not without danger, since vaccination can cause severe side-effects, including permanent brain damage, or even death.

After its eradication, the smallpox virus was kept in only two laboratories in the world -- in Atlanta in the US, and Koltsovo in Siberia. The last two samples were due to be destroyed next year. However, a Soviet defector revealed that the dying Communist regime used smallpox in a missile programme.

There have also been allegations that supplies were sold to Iraq and North Korea.

Initial smallpox symptoms include fever, severe headache, back and chest pains and intense anxiety. Victims develop blotchy rashes, often with purple lesions, followed by a face rash similar to sunburn and severe scarring.

Death can take from 48 hours to two weeks. There is no treatment.

What's in Vaccines?

The following is a description of the various chemical compounds added to vaccines for stability and other marketing purposes that have nothing to do with children's health. The information compiled by Dawn Winkler of Concerned Parents for Vaccine Safety, was obtained from the 1997 Physician's Desk Reference. It is a representative, not a comprehensive, list of the various types of vaccines. For several entries, there is direct contact numbers. At the end of the chart is the contact information for Concerned Parents for Vaccine Safety.

Who Are The Manufactures of These Vaccines ?


Rubella and mumps virus vaccine live. Merck & Company, Inc., 1-800-672-6372. Produced using neomycin, sorbitol, hydrolyzed gelatin. Medium: human diploid cells (originating from human aborted fetal tissue)


Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed. SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, 1-800-366-8900, extension 5231.  Produced using aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, washed sheep red blood cells, glycerol, sodium chloride, thimerosol)*. Medium:  porcine (pig) pancreatic hydrolysate of casein.


Influenza Virus Vaccine, Trivalent, Types A & B. Wyeth-Ayerst,  1-800-934-5556. Produced using gentamicin sulfate, formaldehyde, po!ysorbate 80, tri(n)butylphosphate, (thimerosol)*. Medium: chick embryos.


Influenza Virus Vaccine. Medeva Pharmaceuticals, 1 -888-MEDEVA (716-274-5300). Produced using embroyonic fluid (chicken egg), neomycin, polymyxin, (thimerosol)*, betapropiolactone. Medium: embryonic fluid (chicken egg).


Hepatitis A. SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, 1-800-366-8900, extension 5231. Produced using formalin, aluminum hydroxide, phenoxyethanol (antifreeze), polysorbate 20, residual MRC5 proteins (from medium). Medium: human diploid cells (originating from human aborted fetal tissue).


Rabies Vaccine Adsorbed. Connaught Laboratories, 1-800-822-2463. Produced using human albumin, neomycin sulfate, phenol red indicator. Medium: human diploid cells (originating from human aborted fetal tissue).


Inactivated Polio Vaccine. Connaught Laboratories, 1-800-822-2463. Produced using three types of polio virus, formaldehyde, phenoxyethanol (anti-freeze), neomycin, streptomycin, polymyxin B. Medium: VERO cells, a continuous line of monkey kidney cells.


Rubella Virus Vaccine Live. Merck & Company, 1-800-672-6372. Produced using neomycin, sorbitol, hydrolyzed gelatin. Medium: human diploid cells (originating from human aborted fetal tissue).


Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live. Merck & Company, 1-800-672-6372. Produced using neomycin, sorbitol, hydrolyzed gelatin. Mediums: M & M - chick embryo. Rubella-human diploid cells (originating from human aborted fetal tissue).


Measles Mumps Rubella Live Virus Vaccination. Merck & Company, 1-800-672-6372. Produced using sorbitol, neomycin, hydrolyzed gelatin. Mediums: M & M - chick embryo. Rubella-human diploid cells (originating from human aborted fetal tissue).


Mumps Virus Vaccine Live. Merck & Company, 1-800-672-6372. Produced using neomycin, sorbitol, hydrolyzed gelatin. Medium: human diploid cells (originating from human aborted fetal tissue).


Poliovirus Vaccine Live Oral Trivalent. Lederle Laboratories, 1-800-934-5556. Produced using three types of attenuated polioviruses, streptomycin, neomycin, calf serum, sorbitol. Medium: monkey kidney cell culture.

Rabies Vaccine Adsorbed

SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, 1-800-366-8900, extension 5231. Produced using betapropiolactone, aluminum phosphate, sodium ethylmercurithiosalicyate (thimerosol)*, phenol red. Medium: fetal rhesus monkey lung cells.


Hepatitis B Vaccine Recombinant. Merck & Company, 1-800-672-6372. Produced using (thimerosol)*, aluminum hydroxide. Medium: yeast (residual < 1 percent yeast protein)


Varicella Virus Vaccine Live. Merck & Company, 1-800-672-6372. Produced using sucrose, phosphate, glutamate, processed gelatin. Medium: human diploid cells (originating from human aborted fetal tissue).

For more information, contact Concerned Parents for Vaccine Safety at 775-289-7928 or E-Mail: NoShots4Me@Yahoo.Com

The group's web site is: www.Home.SpryNet.Com/-NoShots/Index.htm

*Note: This chemical compound, thimerosal contains 49.6 percent mercury as a preservative, which is one of the most dangerous toxins known to scientists.

Warning: This is 100 times the exposure that the Environmental Protection Agency's Poison Control Center's guidelines consider safe for the average-sized infant, as mercury is known to cause neurotoxicity and brain damage that mirrors the symptoms of autism.

Environmental Protection Agency's Poison Control Center: www.EPA.Gov/Info-Org

You Decide!!


Many active duty, Guard and Reservists (officers and enlisted) have made it known they plan to refuse the Anthrax and possibly other vaccinations. This must be a personal choice, we encourage you to investigate whatever decision you make. There are those who have already declined the shots. They went to the Judge Advocate's office and utilized the "religious and moral objection" route. This will automatically make you ineligible for world-wide status. Perhaps there is no more stronger statement that we could make than to have a half a million of our military which can serve only in CONUS.

I am not encouraging you to disobey a direct order. however, the Pentagon has lied to us for the last six and a half years, why are we to believe they are telling the truth now. Read the information that exists on Anthrax with regard to safety and efficacy and then make an informed decision yourself.

Note From Webmaster: Due to the nature and volume of the data, all text files will be opened in a new window for your convenience. Simply close the window when you are finished with the document or use the button at the bottom of the document to return here to the index.

For verification or more information on Gulf War Syndrome: http://www.GulfWarVets.Com/anthrax.htm

Subj: [RMNEWS2] Vaccinations harm psychic abilities

Date: 8/29/2001 2:01:19 PM Pacific Daylight Time


Two pieces of evidence that vaccinations harm psychic abilities:

1. From Credo Mutwa, Zulu shaman:

"We were told that there was a great smallpox epidemic coming to the land and all the children must be vaccinated. My grandfather used  to say that the white man's vaccination makes you blind and if you are to look after the cattle you must not go to the trading store to get your vaccination. Inspectors used to come and check each child for signs of vaccination. Our grandmother used to give us great pain in order to save our spiritual eyes. Grains of maize would be heated up and pushed against the skin of the child, and so when the schools inspectors came he saw the blisters and assumed the child had been vaccinated…and I noticed that school children in mission schools who had been vaccinated for smallpox or measles could not see spiritual entities at all. A flying saucer would fly through the sky at great speed and be seen by many men & women but the children who had been vaccinated would see nothing and I noticed this hundreds of times."

Credo Mutwa (the reptilian agenda video pt 1 )

2. From the research of Stephanie Relfe, Kinesiologist:

The CIA Correction

I discovered something VERY strange when doing kinesiology corrections on people. I have done over 500 sessions over the past seven years. The way that I work is that I get the body to tell me which, of the hundreds of many corrections, is the most important one to do on a body. There are a number of finger modes which help speed this process. For example, if I touch my thumb to my 1st (index) finger, and the arm I am muscle testing tests weak, that means that the priority is a STRUCTURAL problem. Similarly, when I touch my thumb to my middle finger that means the problems is chemical or nutrition,the 4th (ring) finger is emotional and the little finger is electrical.

Having narrowed the field down a little, one can then run through numberous lists and questions. Basically, I play 21 questions with the body (In this game you have 21 questions to find out what a person is thinking. They can be thinking of ANYTHING. They will only answer "yes" or "no" to your questions).

I had a client in the USA whose body told me that the priority that needed correcting was structural. I ran through some possibilities and the body indicated it wanted a correction from kinesiology called the "C.I.A." correction. CIA stands for "Common Integrative Area".

This is an area behind our ears where our past and part of our ego is stored. When a person needs this correction, it indicates that they are being affected by their past. Once the body indicated that this was the correction that was needed, I then did the test for CIA. This gave me a second chance to confirm that the original answer I got was correct. The test for CIA is to tap the person just behind both ears. Then when you muscle test an arm, they will go weak, if CIA is called for.

I had done this correction dozens of times on many people. However, this day was different. To my amazement, when I tapped behind the ear and muscle tested the arm, the arms stayed strong. I went back to muscle testing the arms to recheck. I said "C.I.A.". Sure enough, the arm went weak again. Now, here I had a paradox. The letters "C.I.A." gave a weak reaction, but the Common Integrative Area was in fine working order.

So, I had a thought as to what the body might be trying to tell me. I said "Central Intelligence Agency". Sure enough, the arm went weak! This was what the body was trying to tell me.

I muscle tested to find out when this became a problem. I got sometime in childhood. I balanced out whatever the effects were.

Since that time, I have done my "Central Intelligence Agency" test and correction on a number of people. I never went looking for it. This correction just presented itself the same as it had for the man I first did this to. I have done this correction to Americans and Australians.

As I began to ask the body more questions about what this was, I began to get that it had something to do with vaccinations. Possibly some kind of crystal that goes in with the vaccination.

After all, when we are vaccinated it is the ONLY time that someone gets a chance to put something direct into our blood.

More information at

Eight children hospitalized after playing with discarded smallpox vaccine

The Associated Press

VLADIVOSTOK, Russia (June 19, 2000 9:19 a.m. EDT

- Eight children were hospitalized with skin eruptions and high fevers after playing with ampules of smallpox vaccine that they found at a garbage dump, officials said Monday.

Dmitry Maslov, a public health official in Russia's Far East, said the children, ages 11 to 14, were not seriously ill. There was no risk of the children catching smallpox, he said, and they should be able to go home within a few days.

The children found glass ampules containing expired smallpox vaccine at a garbage dump in Vladivostok, Maslov said. They mixed the powder from the ampules and sprinkled each other with the mixture, he said.

Maslov said the children were suffering fever and discomfort associated with smallpox vaccinations.

Police said the ampules were found near a public health station. They surmised that staff at the facility had not followed proper procedure and disposed of the ampules at a special medical waste dump.


Wednesday April 26, 2000

Company Press Release

Massachusetts Health Quality Partnership Announces Immunization Guidelines

Statewide Collaborative Effort Designed to Improve Immunization Rates Among Children and Adults

BOSTON--(BW HealthWire)--April 26, 2000--Seeking to improve immunization rates among the state's children and adults, the Massachusetts Health Quality Partnership (MHQP) announced today that 22 Massachusetts health care organizations have endorsed immunization guidelines developed by the state Department of Public Health. The endorsing organizations hope to improve immunization rates by collectively emphasizing the importance of immunizations, and by eliminating inconsistent guidelines.

``Vaccinations are perhaps the most powerful preventive medicine tools we have,'' said Sean Palfrey M.D., vice president of the Massachusetts Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics. ``The elimination of vaccine-preventable disease in this state is our common goal, and has been proven possible by the elimination of small pox and polio. Such efforts can only succeed however, if uniform practices are established and meticulously implemented. Variability seriously jeopardizes our chances of success.''

The partnership wants to emphasize several new key recommendations for immunization, such as a recently announced recommendation that lowered the recommended age that adults receive annual influenza vaccine from age 65 to age 50.

``We applaud this effort to create a standardized set of immunization guidelines,'' said Jack Evjy, M.D., president of the Massachusetts Medical Society. ``Our hope is that with a single set of guidelines and focused attention on the importance of immunization, we will see vaccination rates go up. We look forward to future collaborative efforts that will improve the health of our patients.''

``Vaccination is the very foundation of public health,'' stated Massachusetts Department of Public Health Commissioner Howard Koh, M.D. ``We're proud of the collaboration of public and private organizations - groups that bring significant synergies when working together on prevention strategies.''

These collaborative immunization guidelines represent one of a series of initiatives that MHQP will focus on as part of its overall mission. The organization will issue collaborative pre-natal guidelines later this spring, as well as collaborative preventive care guidelines early in 2001.

Adult guidelines have been mailed to internists, family physicians, OB/GYNS, and oncologists in mid April. Concurrently, childhood guidelines were mailed to pediatricians, family physicians, and nurse practitioners.

The Massachusetts Health Quality Partnership is a broad-based coalition of health plans, healthcare providers, purchasers, and government and academic representatives working together to improve the quality of health care services in Massachusetts.


Friday April 14, 2000

Health Net Provides Reminders On Childhood Immunizations

National Immunization Week is April 16 to 22

WOODLAND HILLS, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--April 14, 2000--Despite recent medical advancements in the safety and quality of childhood immunizations, nearly one-third of California's children are not fully immunized by their second birthdays.

In connection with National Immunization Week from April 16 to 22, Health Net, one of California's largest health plans, reminds parents to keep current with their children's immunization schedules.

``It's easy to keep track of your child's immunization schedule with a `shot card' that's available from the doctor,'' said Laura Clapper, M.D., regional medical director for Health Net. ``You should take the card with you to each doctor's visit. And if you happen to fall behind schedule or lose track, the solution is simple: call your child's doctor to see if a visit is in order.''

Because medical advances have greatly diminished the spread of such childhood diseases as polio and small pox, some parents have reduced their vigilance for maintaining timely immunizations.

``We should never lower our guard against childhood diseases,'' Clapper said. ``Immunizations are one of the best and safest ways of helping children grow up healthy and happy. Even if your child has a cold or is taking antibiotics, it's still OK to receive a vaccine.''

Health Net, a strong supporter of wellness, suggests that parents update their children's immunization schedules for the DPT vaccine (for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis), polio, MMR (for measles, mumps, and rubella), haemophilus influenza (for meningitis), hepatitis B, and varicella (for chicken pox). Health Net's Recommended Immunization Schedule is below.

Some reminders and tips:

If you do not have a doctor, low-cost or free immunizations are administered at your local county health department.

All children entering the seventh grade in California are required to have started receiving the hepatitis B series, which usually consists of three doses given over four to six months. And they must have received their second shot to protect against measles. Exceptions exist for personal beliefs or medical reasons.

Beginning July 1, 2001, children entering public or private school or a care center in California must have received the varicella vaccine for chicken pox. Exceptions apply for personal beliefs or medical reasons.

Adults have their own immunization needs. If you are over 65 or have a chronic heart, lung, or breathing disorder or a condition like diabetes, kidney disease, or anemia, you should check with your doctor each fall to see if you need an immunization to protect against influenza. Plus, you should receive a tetanus booster once every 10 years, and you should receive one pneumonia vaccine if you are 65 or older.

Health Net, a subsidiary of Foundation Health Systems Inc. (NYSE: FHS - news), is one of the largest network-model health plans in California, serving nearly 2.2 million members statewide. It contracts with more than 40,000 physicians, nearly 450 hospitals and 4,000 pharmacies, giving its members greater choice and more convenient access to care. Health Net's Commercial and Medicare plans have earned the ``Commendable'' designation from the National Committee for Quality Assurance. This designation is granted to health plans that demonstrate levels of service and clinical quality that meet or exceed NCQA's rigorous requirements for consumer protection and quality improvement. Additionally, through its innovative products and services, Health Net has received a variety of prestigious awards, including the coveted C. Everett Koop National Health Award. For more information about Health Net, visit its award-winning web site at

Health Net

Recommended Immunization Schedule

Immunization Purpose Birth to 24 months

DPT vaccine To prevent tetanus, Ages 2 months, 4 diphtheria and pertussis months, 6 months and between 12 and 18 months

Polio vaccine To prevent polio Ages 2 months and 4 months and between 6 and 18 months

MMR vaccine To prevent measles, mumps Once between 12 and and rubella 15 months

Haemophilus influenza To prevent meningitis Four-dose series at (Hib) vaccine caused by Hib organism ages 2, 4, and 6 months and between 12 and 15 months; three-dose series at ages 2 and 4 months and between 12 and 15 months

Hepatitis B virus To prevent HBV Three-dose series (HBV) vaccine should begin between birth and 2 months. Second dose should be one month after first. Third dose should be at least 4 months after the first and 2 months after the second, but not before age 6 months

Hepatitis A virus To prevent HBA Two-dose series (HBA) vaccine should begin at 2 years of age. Second dose 6 months after the first.

Varicella vaccine To prevent chicken pox Once between 12 and (chicken pox) 18 months.

Immunization 4 to 6 years 11 to 12 years 14 to 16 years

DPT vaccine Once between ages Td booster between ages 11 4 and 6 and 16.

Polio vaccine Once between ages N/A N/A 4 and 6

MMR vaccine Second dose is recommended between N/A ages 4 and 6; should be given no later than age 12

Haemophilus influenza (Hib) vaccine N/A N/A N/A

Hepatitis B virus N/A If not given as N/A (HBV) vaccine infant, begin series by age 12. (According to California law, children must have started receiving the hepatitis B series before entering seventh grade.)

Hepatitis A virus Children between age 3 and 18 not previously (HBA) vaccine immunized should be vaccinated at the first opportunity.

Varicella vaccine N/A If no reliable Two doses at (chicken pox) history of least 4 to 8 chicken pox, weeks apart vaccine should if over age be given when 13 when there age 11 or 12 is no history of chicken pox or vaccine

Contact:   Health Net, Woodland Hills Brad Kieffer or Lisa Kalustian, 818/676-7666

Copyright © 2000 Yahoo! All Rights Reserved.

Human Trials Not Required for FDA Approval of Controversial Vaccines

Agency to Finalize Policy Within 3-6 Months

By Ori Twersky

WebMD Washington Correspondent

Jan. 14, 2000 (Washington) -- The FDA has moved one step closer toward finalizing a policy that may end the controversy surrounding the military's desire to research and subsequently approve products designed to prevent serious injuries from exposure to biological or nuclear weapons.

The agency received Friday approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to collect and review evidence from animal studies when human studies "cannot be ethically conducted because they would involve administering a potentially lethal or permanently disabling toxic substance" to healthy volunteers. OMB approval is necessary for the collection of any information by a federal agency.

That means a final FDA rule allowing the agency to proceed with the approval of these drugs is now imminent. "I would imagine a final rule would be published within the next 3-6 months," JonnaLynn Capezzuto from the FDA's Office of Information Resource Management tells WebMD.

Under that rule, the FDA would now be able to approve these drugs based on animal effectiveness studies alone when the substance's toxicity is reasonably well understood, the effect has been substantiated in multiple animal studies, and the animal studies demonstrated the benefit desired in humans. But the animal studies also would have to provide sufficient information for selecting an appropriate human dose.

The amendment to the FDA's existing approval regulations was written to address specific requests from the Department of Defense. That federal agency has encountered considerable trouble obtaining informed consents from military personnel to test products that it may need on the battlefield. It also has encountered considerable trouble administering these vaccinations to its troops when these products had yet to receive FDA approval.

But while these products, a number of which already are under development, primarily will be used to protect service members, they will also serve a civilian purpose, Bonnie Lee, an FDA officer and author of the proposed regulation, tells WebMD. "These products could also be used to protect civilians in case of bioterrorist situations or to treat outbreaks of viral infections such as small pox," she says.

Nonetheless, the FDA's final rule probably will still be greeted with some criticism once finalized. In response to the proposed rule published last October, one comment suggested that the developers of these drugs should offer themselves for final testing of these drugs if they truly believed that they had developed a safe and effective product.

This comment, made by an undisclosed source, also suggested that these products be tested on those individuals most likely to use biological and nuclear weapons.

© 2000 Healtheon/WebMD. All rights reserved.


Pontiac's Rebellion 1763

Following the surrender of Detroit to the English under Maj. Robert Rogers (29 Nov. 1760), the Native Americans demanded that the British authorities lower prices on trade goods and furnish them with ammunition. When these demands were not met at a conference at Detroit (9 Sept 1761) the Native Americans grew increasively restive, stirred up by the Delaware prophet, a visionary living in the upper Ohio, and by his disciple, Pontiac (c.1720-69), chief of the Ottawa. After his plan to take Detroit by a surprise attack was betrayed (May), Pontiac took to open warfare. Within a few weeks every British post west of Niagra was destroyed (Sandusky, 16 May; Ft. St. Joseph, 25 May; Ft. Miami, 27 May; Ft. Quiatenon, 1 June; Ft. Venango, c.16 June; Ft. Le Boeuf, 18 June; Ft. Presque Isle, 20 June), save for Detroit, which, under Maj. Henry Gladwin, resisted a 5-month siege, and Ft. Pitt, under Capt. Simeon Ecuyer. In retaliation Amherst proposed to Bouquet that "Small Pox"be sent among the disaffected tribes, and the latter replied that he would try to distribute germ-laden blankets among them, but because of the danger of exposure to British troops, preferred hunting Native Americans "with English dogs" (13 July). As a result of reinforcements which reached Detroit (29 July), Gladwin made a sortie against Pontiac and was repulsed at Bloody Ridge (31 July). Marching to the relief of Ft. Pitt, Bouquet defeated (with heavy British losses) and routed the Native Americans at Bushy Run, east of present Pittsburgh (2-6 Aug.), and relieved the fort (10 Aug.). In Nov. Pontiac raised his siege of Detroit. A number of tribes had already signed treaties with Col. John Bradstreet at Presque Isle (12 Aug. 1764). Pontiac finally submitted, concluding a peace treaty with Sir William Johnson at Oswego (24 July 1766). Subsequently he remained loyal to the British, but was murdered (1769) in Cahokia (Ill.), according to Parkman's version, by a Kaskakia Indian bribed by an English trader.

Morris Jeffrey and Richard. "Encyclopedia of American History: seventh edition". New York: Harper Collins Publishers. ©1996.

Pontiac's Rebellian, named for the Ottawa Indian chief who led the uprising, began when Pontiac led an attack on the fort at Detroit. The raid failed and the Indians began a siege. News of the attack sparked similar raids throughout the region until all but three forts -- Detroit, Pitt, and Niagra -- had fallen. British forces rushed to their relief. With no French aid materializing, Pontiac in October secured a truce and withdrew to the west. A final peace agreement in 1766 marked the end of the rebellion.


Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccination originally exhibited spring 1996 Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina

text by Patrick Scott

Edward Jenner


The year 1996 marked the two hundredth anniversary of Edward Jenner's first experimental vaccination--that is, inoculation with the related cow-pox virus to build immunity against the deadly scourge of smallpox.

Edward Jenner (1749-1823), after training in London and a period as an army surgeon, spent his whole career as a country doctor in his native county of Gloucestershire in the West of England. His research was based on careful case-studies and clinical observation more than a hundred years before scientists could explain the viruses themselves. So successful did his innovation prove that by 1840 the British government had banned alternative preventive treatments against smallpox. "Vaccination," the word Jenner invented for his treatment (from the Latin vacca, a cow), was adopted by Pasteur for immunization against any disease.

In the eighteenth century, before Jenner, smallpox was a killer disease, as widespread as cancer or heart disease in the twentieth century but with the difference that the majority of its victims were infants and young children. In 1980, as a result of Jenner's discovery, the World Health Assembly officially declared "the world and its peoples" free from endemic smallpox.

Essay: First Contact: Smallpox

First Contact: Smallpox

"A Sickness that no medicine could cure,
and no person escape"

--Simon Pierre, 1955 

Written by: Keith Thor Carlson
Stó:lo Curriculum Consortium
May, 1996


The subject of "contact" provides an avenue for discussing the entire range of Euroamerican-Stó:lo relations in the pre-settlement years. Through engaging this subject from a broader perspective than simply Euroamerican exploration, complex and controversial issues such as depopulation and disease, can be explored in a manner which provides students opportunities for understanding epidemic viral migrations as well as the physical and social impacts of depopulation. This curriculum unit will also illustrate the clinical features of smallpox, as well as some of the details surrounding the impact of introduced infectious crowd diseases upon Stó:lo communities.

First Contact Was Passive -- Not Active

When people ask "when did first 'contact' occur between the Stó:lo and Euroamericans," a common response is "in 1808, when Simon Fraser travelled down the Fraser River." This answer is probably satisfactory if we think of "contact" as simply being the first "face-to- face" meeting of people from different cultures. Scholars suggest that we also consider the likelihood that at least a few Stó:lo must have met with Euroamerican maritime fur traders and explorers in Georgia Strait almost sixteen years before Simon Fraser arrived.

In many ways the "face-to-face" definition is too limiting. A better way to think of "contact," is to try and determine when meaningful or significant exchange occurred between Stó:lo people and Euroamericans. Fraser only spent a few short weeks in the region, and therefore one might conclude that "contact" did not really occur until years after his arrival, perhaps at the time Fort Langley was established in 1827 by the Hudson's Bay Company. However, when using the definition "meaningful exchange," we must look farther back into history, to the year 1782 -- twenty-six years before Simon Fraser arrived in the lower Fraser River. In that year, a devastating disease called "smallpox" was introduced into Stó:lo territory from Mexico through an extensive network of Aboriginal trade routes.

Two generations of Stó:lo people had been exposed to aspects of "contact" before the Hudson's Bay Company established Fort Langley in 1827 along the lower Fraser (FLNHS).

Scholars estimate that within weeks of contracting smallpox in 1782, approximately 62% of the Stó:lo population died horrible, painful deaths. By comparison, the kind of "contact" represented by the arrival of Simon Fraser had a relatively small impact on Stó:lo society. This is interesting, because Fraser's contact was "active," in the sense that he made a conscious effort to meet the Stó:lo . Ironically, the devastating 1782 smallpox epidemic was a passive form of "contact," because no one from either culture intended it to happen. In fact, Euroamericans were unaware that the smallpox disease had travelled into Stó:lo , territory until a decade later. Similarly, because no Euroamericans were in Stó:lo territory when the epidemic broke out, the Stó:lo did not immediately associate the disease with its Euroamerican source.

What is Smallpox?

Smallpox is caused by a parasitic virus called variola. It is classified as a parasitic disease because the virus is destructive to its host (the person who catches it). Smallpox is also considered a "crowd disease" because it only spreads between humans, and requires a large densely populated community in order for it to survive. Like other crowd diseases, smallpox spreads from urban centres outwards into non-immune populations until it eventually reaches areas where the population is too thin to allow it to spread further. Once smallpox runs out of new host bodies, it dies out.

Variola Virus -- The first ambassador of European society to the Stó:lo . Virions of variola virus (A and B) and varicella virus (C) as seen in negatively stained preparations submitted for diagnosis to the WHO Collaborating Centre at the Centres for Disease Control, Atlanta Georgia. Bar = 100nm (Smallpox and its Eradication, World Health Organization, 1988).

Biologists believe that approximately 3000 years ago (in either Egypt or India), a virus which originally effected only cattle, mutated, creating the smallpox virus. This follows the trend of the world's extremely lethal "crowd" diseases, most of which originated after the domestication of animals. The domestication process permitted animal viruses to mutate into forms that were dangerous to humans. Because large scale animal domestication never occurred in North or South America, this region essentially escaped such viruses until they were introduced by Europeans.

Smallpox is spread by "droplet infection." Droplets are body fluid, such as the moisture which escapes when a person sneezes. A single human sneeze releases up to 5000 droplets, each of which has the potential to carry viruses. During a sneeze, droplets are expelled from a person's mouth at up to 160 km/hr, and travel over four metres. Smallpox can also be transmitted by other forms of physical contact. The smallpox virus remains active on corpses for up to three weeks, and can therefore spread from a dead host to a living host though body fluids. If the smallpox virus is deposited onto warm damp items, such as clothing or blankets, it can remain infectious for up to one year.

Immunization / Vaccination:

If a person catches smallpox and lives, they develop an immunity to the disease and can never catch it again. People in Europe and Asia accidently discovered that those infected with smallpox through a scratch on the skin, suffered a less severe form of the disease than those who contracted it through their respiratory tract. By the early 1700's, some European doctors began storing samples of smallpox pus and scabs in jars. If an epidemic broke out, doctors made a small cut in a person's arm and smeared some of the pus or scab into the wound. Intentionally infecting people in this manner was called "inoculation," or "variolation." The patient became sick with a mild form of smallpox, but was spared any risk of contracting the more deadly version.

In 1797, a scientist named Edward Jenner improved upon the inoculation/variolation method. He discovered that by intentionally injecting a vaccine made from cowpox into a healthy person, their system would develop a resistance or immunity to the smallpox disease through the creation of anti-bodies. After being vaccinated, people could be exposed to the smallpox virus without fear of catching the disease. This process was called "vaccination" and did not result in the patient developing the terrible side effects of mild smallpox, associated with the earlier inoculation/variolation process.

In the mid-nineteenth century, government officials and Christian missionaries began attempting to vaccinate Aboriginal people whenever a smallpox outbreak occurred. During another devastating smallpox epidemic in 1862, Catholic and Methodist missionaries vaccinated hundreds of Stó:lo people, preventing their communities from being as badly impacted by the disease as the more northern Aboriginal people who had no access to the vaccine.

By the early twentieth century, most people born in Canada were routinely vaccinated as children. This process was so successful, that by the early 1970's smallpox had been essentially eliminated, and the government began to phase out the vaccination program. Until the early 1980's, the smallpox vaccine was available upon request for Canadian travellers visiting isolated countries. The world's last immunization occurred in 1983. In that year, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that due to the success of the immunization process, there was no longer any chance of smallpox occurring naturally -- the virus had been eliminated. To prevent future outbreaks, scientists with WHO destroyed all existing samples of smallpox, locking a single flask containing the last known sample of the variola smallpox virus in a vault in Atlanta, Georgia. Today, you can identify a person who has been vaccinated or immunized by the presence of a small round "pox scar" on their shoulder or hip. People born in British Columbia after the late 1970's do not have this scar, because they were not vaccinated.

Originally people were inoculated against smallpox by having the vaccine smeared into an open cut on their arm. More recently, hypodermic syringes have been use to inject vaccines into a person's system (B.C. Ministry of Health and Ministry Responsible for Seniors, 1994).

The Smallpox Disease:

Imagine what would happen if someone broke into the World Health Organization's vault in Atlanta, Georgia, and stole the flask containing the only remaining sample of the variola smallpox virus, and in their escape they dropped the flask and became infected. Imagine further, that person visited your school and sneezed on you. As soon as the "sneeze droplets" came near you, your breathing would suck them into your respiratory tract, infecting you. For the next seven to eighteen days the virus would incubate within you, yet there would be no symptoms to indicate to you or anyone else that you had caught the virus. After the incubation period had ended, you would begin to show outward signs of being sick. First, you would develop a fever, headache and body pains. The head and body aches would last two days, but the fever would remain throughout the duration of the sickness. After two weeks, you would begin developing a rash. Red spots would appear on your face, hands, and feet, and then slowly spread over your entire body. These would then become raised lesions, which would soon fill with a watery pus similar to a blister. The lesions would grow to approximately the size of a dime, and would quickly transform into pustules as hard crusty scabs formed over their surface.

All of the symptoms described above are standard responses for anyone contracting the smallpox disease. If you were lucky, and survived to this stage, the dried scabs covering your body would slowly fall off, leaving deep permanent scars called pockmarks. Once the scabs had disappeared, you would no longer be contagious. If you were not as lucky, the sores would move from your outer skin and spread to the inside of your mouth or throat. Once this occurred, you would be unable to eat and could only swallow liquids with a great deal of pain. The sores sometimes become so large, they grow together into giant hemorrhaging lesions. If this happened, it would not be unusual for all the skin on your arm, leg or face to simply slipped off, exposing raw muscle and bone. If the disease reached this point, there is essentially no chance that you would survive. It would only take one month from the time the person sneezed on you, spreading the disease, until either the scabs fell off or you died. The death rate increases substantially if other factors combine to complicate the situation. For example, people who are exposed to smallpox often developed pneumonia, pleurisy, and frequently blindness caused by scarring of the cornea. Death rates are also higher for infants, children, elderly people and pregnant women.

Today, even with modern medicine there is no cure for smallpox. If you become infected, absolutely nothing can be done to stop the disease from running its full course, and little that doctors can do to alleviate the painful symptoms. Once you are exposed to smallpox, you have smallpox. A minimum of one third, or 33% of all people exposed to smallpox, die from the disease.

British Columbia's Last Smallpox Epidemic

For a variety of reasons, in the early twentieth century some British Columbian residents refused to allow doctors to vaccinate them against smallpox. In January of 1932, approximately 100 people in the Vancouver region became sick, suffering from fever, headaches, and rashes. Upon admittance to the Vancouver General Hospital, doctors were surprised to discover these patients had smallpox. Sadly, nearly all died within a month.

As the disease progressed, detailed notes, records, and some photos of the patients were kept by Dr. Mathewson at the Vancouver General Hospital. These rare archival photographs and notes are currently stored at the University of British Columbia. The following are copies of a few of the actual photos and notes kept by Dr. Mathewson.

Mrs. E.S.:
-[Symptoms] onset January 28th with insomnia, headache, nausea and fever. January 30th macular rash appeared on forehead and face.
-Patient admitted to the hospital at once. Temperature of 104 degrees Fahrenheit [40 degrees Celsius]. Rash rapidly spread to involve whole body and showed early tendency to become confluent [merge]. Many spots in mouth and pharynx [mouth, nose, and upper throat].
-February 3rd much oedema [swelling] of throat.
-Patient died February 7th


Mr. L.P.:
-[Symptoms began on] February 1st when patient developed headache and backache. The following day he was nauseated and felt chilly. February 3rd [patient] started to develop muscular rash on forehead, face and arms.
-Admitted to the hospital February 4th. Temperature 103.2 degrees Fahrenheit [39.6 degrees Celsius]. On admission erythema- redness typical in character and distribution. Very severe lobster red crythoma on face. General adenopathy [enlargement of lymph glands]. February 7th patient developed toxic psychosis.
-Died February 14th. Temperature 96 degree Fahrenheit [35.6 degree Celsius].
-Severe confluent smallpox with intrapockal hemorrhages [bleeding within pocks just below surface].

-Admitted to hospital on November 27th, 1931 for treatment of fractured right femur [leg bone] and synovitis of the right knee.
-On February 8th, 1932, had incision on right ostermyeritis abscess [collection of puss] of the right thigh.
-Wound well healed on March 1st.
-On March 7th in Ward F had sudden onset of abdominal cramps and vomiting, accompanied by moderate headache.
-On March 8th, a macular rash appeared over the chest, back and on left leg. Later appeared on axillae [underarm].
-On the 6th of March temperature was 101 Fahrenheit [38.3 degrees Celsius].
-On the 8th of March rash well out; temperature 103 degrees Fahrenheit [39.4 degrees Celsius].
-On 10th of March, temperature 100 degrees Fahrenheit [37.8 degrees Celsius]. There are occasional haemorrhages [bleeding] into some of the vesicles [small sac containing liquid]. Outcome of this case was considered doubtful.
-April 8th, 1932. Patient is making an astonishing recovery. At the present time practically all the scabs have separated, leaving him badly scarred. His recovery is complicated by a few scattered boils and a foot drop [foot "drops" due to paralysis of muscles on front leg] on the left side.
-Confluent haemorrhagic smallpox. [Severe and highly fatal type.] Bleeding occurs in skin and mucus membranes [moist live cells, eg: lips, tongue, cheeks, eyelids, etc.] before onset of rash or after rash appears.
-Vaccinated on March 6th after exposure to patient in the next bed Mr. R. D. who had mild smallpox. Has been conscientious objector.

The Smallpox Epidemic of 1782

European explorers such as Captain Vancouver reported seeing Aboriginal people in Puget Sound in 1792 who had "suffered very much from the smallpox." He reported that this deplorable disease is not only common, but it is greatly to be apprehended is very fatal amongst them as its indelible marks were seen on many; and several had lost the sight of one eye, which was remarked to be generally the left, owing most likely to the virulent effects of this baneful disorder.

When Vancouver's ship neared the Fraser River, one of his crew reported that most of the Aboriginal people were covered with pock marks, "and most terribly pitted they are; indeed many have lost their eyes and no doubt it has raged with uncommon inveteracy among them..." As well as the pock-marked survivors, Captain Vancouver also witnessed the devastating mortality the disease had caused. Along the sea-shore he observed human skeletons "promiscuously scattered about the beach, in great numbers." What were once large populated villages had now "fallen into decay... overrun with weeds."

As mentioned, the arrival of the smallpox virus to Stó:lo communities in 1782 was not due to direct person-to-person contact with Europeans, but was spread in large part through existing Aboriginal exchange and trade networks. Such wide-reaching networks had been in existence among North American Aboriginal people for thousands of years, as seen in the archaeological record through items such as obsidian from Oregon and dentalia shells from the west coast of Vancouver Island.

In 1779, a Euroamerican apparently spread the disease to an Aboriginal community in Mexico. That community passed it to a neighbouring Aboriginal community to the north, who in turn spread the disease to the next community, and so on. In a few short months, the disease had spread as far north as present day Idaho. From Idaho, it travelled down the Snake River from one Aboriginal community to the next, and then down the Columbia River. The Chinook people living near the mouth of the Columbia had extensive trading networks with the southern Coast Salish people of Puget Sound. These people in turn had family and trade connections with the Stó:lo in the Fraser Valley. Thus, through Aboriginal trade networks -- networks which connected densely populated communities -- smallpox arrived all the way from Mexico to the Fraser Valley. This happened despite the fact that Euroamericans who introduced the disease were never closer than 3,600 km from the Fraser River.

Protohistoric Indian trade networks in the trans-Mississippi West. Primary trade centres had permanent resident populations and surplus subsistence economies (Swagerty, 1988).

Stó:lo Oral Traditions of Smallpox

Stó:lo Elders provide their own knowledge of the devastating smallpox epidemics. They are remembered in place names as well as in oral traditions. Throughout the Fraser Valley there are many sites with names that tell part of the story of the smallpox epidemics. These place names create a cultural geography that keep the story of smallpox alive. For example, the place name "Sxwóxwiymelh" means "a lot of people died at once." Elder Evangeline Pete of Chawathil (near Hope), explains that during the smallpox epidemic twenty-five to thirty people died at Sxwóxwiymelh each day. Their bodies were placed in one of the larger pit houses and set on fire. Another site is called "Smimstiyexwálá," which means "people container" because it was a mass burial site. Elder Jimmie Charlie of Chehalis explains that this name refers to a mass grave where survivors of the smallpox epidemic buried the bodies of relatives and neighbours.

Other Stó:lo Elders also spoke of the ravages of smallpox. Albert Louie of Yeqwyeqwi:ws (Yakweakwioose) in Sardis told people that smallpox "killed, oh, half the Indians all around the Fraser River there." Dan Milo of Skowkale related that after the epidemic, everyone at the village of Kw'ekw'í:qw (just east of Abbotsford) died, except one boy who "settled down with a girl who was the only survivor from a village nearby."

In 1952, Stó:lo Elder Simon Pierre of Katzie (near Maple Ridge) told what is probably the most detailed oral history account of the smallpox epidemic of 1782.

The news reached them from the east that a great sickness was travelling over the land, a sickness that no medicine could cure, and no person escape. Terrified, they held council with one another and decided to send their wives, with half the children, to their parents' homes, so that every adult might die in the place where he or she was raised. Then the wind carried the smallpox sickness among them. Some crawled away into the woods to die; many died in their homes. Altogether about three-quarters of the Indians perished.

My great-grandfather happened to be roaming in the mountains at this period, for his wife had recently given birth to twins, and according to custom, both parents and children had to remain in isolation for several months. The children were just beginning to walk when he returned to the village at the entrance to Pitt Lake, knowing nothing of the calamity that had overtaken its inhabitants. All his kinsmen and relatives lay dead inside their homes; only in one house did there survive a baby boy, who was vainly sucking at his dead mother's breast. They rescued the child, burned all the houses, together with the corpses that lay inside them, and built a new home for themselves several miles away If you dig today on the site of any of the old villages you will uncover countless bones, the remains of the Indians who perished during this epidemic of smallpox. Not many years later Europeans appeared on the Fraser, and their coming ushered in a new era.

Devastation Accompanying Smallpox

The Stó:lo procured and preserved food at seasonally prescribed times of the year, when the salmon were "running" and when berries and other plant resources were ripe. If they were unable to collect berries when they ripened, there was no second chance. If the berries were not dried and stored, the Stó:lo would not only lack variety in their winter diet, they would also lack an essential source of Vitamin C. The same was true for salmon. If a family failed to catch and dry hundreds of salmon in the late summer for winter consumption, they would go hungry.

Researchers believe the smallpox epidemic of 1782-83 struck Stó:lo communities in the late summer or early autumn. This was the worst possible time for the disease to arrive. For at least one month entire communities became seriously ill. People were unable to work or collect food. A month later, approximately 62% of the population was dead. The surviving population was in mourning, depressed, and fearful about what had occurred. To compound these problems, many of the Stó:lo developed pneumonia and similar sicknesses. As a result, few survivors had the energy or ability to prepare, catch, and dry salmon, or harvest berries, nuts, and other plant resources. The devastating effects of smallpox were thus compounded by malnutrition and even starvation.

Traditional Stó:lo medical practices may have also compounded the smallpox death rate. The medical problems Stó:lo people dealt with prior to "contact" were of a different nature. Their traditional health care practices were not designed to deal with this type of illness. For example, some traditional healing practices involved community members gathering around the sick person's bed to provide spiritual support. While this demonstration of community support was beneficial for many pre-contact diseases, with smallpox it simply ensured everyone was exposed to the infected person. Other medical practices included cleansing "sweats" and cold morning baths in rivers or lakes. Again, while appropriate for many pre-contact illnesses, such techniques sent smallpox sufferers into a state of shock, sometimes killing them instantly.

We should neither be surprised that traditional Stó:lo medical practises did not work against smallpox, nor catagorize them as ineffective, simply because they were not designed to deal with a non-indigenous, introduced, parasitic crowd disease. In Europe, they used to believe the "Black Plague" was spread by smell, and people were encouraged to carry fragrant flowers to protect themselves from the disease. The nursery rhyme "Ring Around the Rosy" refers to people trying to avoid falling "down" dead with the plague by stuffing their pockets with sweet smelling "posies." Similarly, in Europe, doctors used to place live leaches on sick people to draw out what was considered "bad blood." In many instances, this practise actually lowered blood pressure in already weakened people and increased the likelihood of death. Similar incorrect medical practices have also occurred in contemporary times. For example, only a few decades ago doctors were prescribing a drug called "Thalidomide" to pregnant women, thinking it would simply relieve the symptoms of nausea and vomiting. In reality, the medication also affected the development of the fetus, causing children to be born without hands and feet. Therefore, we should not be surprised that traditional Stó:lo medical practises could not cure smallpox, for even today modern medicine cannot cure all diseases, and as can be seen, it sometimes makes things worse.

Stó:lo oral traditions do, however, speak of traditional medicine being able to cure smallpox during some of the subsequent nineteenth century epidemics. Usually these stories describe someone acquiring special "spirit power," which makes them strong enough to withstand the deadly disease. For example, people sang a special healing song when trying to cure infected people. Other oral histories describe people who through special spiritual intervention were able to escape the disease. For example, Gwen Point relates a story that she learned from her grandmother Dolly Felix of Chehalis (near Harrison Hotsprings):

All that I remember is my grandmother Dolly Felix talking to us about the smallpox epidemic that went through and why Chehalis survived the smallpox. And what she said is that her grand uncle [Ey:iá] was like that man who took care of the people all his life and after he died the creator said that where that man is buried will grow a cedar tree. He didn't take a family for himself, you know he just lived and worked with the people in the longhouse. He helped all the different families in the community. They knew when the smallpox was coming soon, this disease was coming up the river like that. Anyway this man, he knew that he has it and he told the one family that he was sick and the women in the longhouse just started crying because they didn't want to lose him.... He knew that he was going to die so he called two young men over and told them "tie my canoe up and take me across the river. I want you to dig a hole so that when I die I'll fall in the hole and you can just cover me up. Burn my canoe, burn everything. Don't touch nothing." ....In those days they didn't normally bury the people in the ground, they put them up in the trees. ...So it was like an insult to go in the ground. Only the bad people went into the ground. But he was worried about the other people, if this disease spread. He was covered with sores, so they brought him across the river and left him there. He sat there right at the head of the hole that they had dug, the grave, facing the river with a blanket over him.... Early the next morning all they heard is "oooooooh, oooooh, ooooh, ooooh" four times like that. All the women started to cry again. "He's dead, he's gone." They were feeling really bad. But they sent the same two young men "you go over there and bury him, that's what he wanted, and you burn his canoe, everything...." So the same two boys got on the canoe and started to go across the river.... They could see him sitting there yet with the blanket over and the two young boys were getting a little bit scared, thinking that maybe that was his ghost talking in the language.... Then they really got scared, you know, and they wanted to leave. Then he called them in "don't be afraid, come in.".... Just when they were getting close to him, he took the blanket off. He was clean and he didn't have a mark on him. ...He said "I was getting ready to die and I prepared myself to die and I thought that my time came and he looked up like that and he could see coming over the mountain, coming like if it came from over the mountain, a light. The light got closer." He said that there was a man inside this light. The man standing there with his hands open. He said that my name is Jesus. He said that I'm going to help you and then I want you to go back and help your people. So that's what he did. He went back across the river and helped the people that were sick. That's why they say the smallpox didn't kill as many of the families in Chehalis.

Many Waves of Introduced Diseases

The epidemic of 1782 was only the first in a series of devastating European diseases to impact the Stó:lo . They were also effected over the course of the next century by at least three other major epidemics (smallpox or measles in 1824; measles in 1848; and smallpox in 1862). In addition, Stó:lo communities were effected by outbreaks of mumps, tuberculosis (T.B.), venereal disease (gonorrhea, syphilis etc.) colds, influenza (flu) and alcoholism. With each epidemic and every disease outbreak people were impacted. It is estimated that 62% of the population died in the 1782 smallpox epidemic. In subsequent epidemics, the figures may have been lower because survivors of previous epidemics would have been immune, and missionaries and government officials began vaccinating the Stó:lo against smallpox in the 1860's. Mumps and influenza outbreaks took the lives of approximately 10% of population each time there was an outbreak. Alcoholism has since deprived many of the Stó:lo of their lives and dignity (See Appendix 1 for a comparative list of many introduced and indigenous diseases).

Conclusion: Social and Cultural Impact of Smallpox -- Cultural Continuity and Survival

It would have been impossible for Stó:lo life to continue as normal after the 1782 epidemic suddenly wiped out 62% of their population. Understanding the physical impact of smallpox allows us to speculate about the social and cultural legacy of the disease. Without books or computers, one of the greatest impacts upon Stó:lo society would have been the terrible effects of "culture loss." Stó:lo Elders possessed a large proportion of the community's cultural knowledge. In traditional Stó:lo society, there were no books or computers to store information. Knowledge could only be passed on by word of mouth. In many ways, Elders were to Stó:lo society what a hard drive is to a computer system. The variola smallpox virus was like a computer virus that erases information off hard drives. The smallpox epidemics killed most of the Elders, and resulted in a loss of their special knowledge and a gap in learning. Some people refer to this as "culture loss." Stó:lo survivors also suffered from severe depression. In addition, economic hardships were encountered, which resulted in poverty and feelings of despair. While some aspects of Stó:lo society were necessarily altered, the striking feature was not the changes, but the amazing degree of cultural continuity. This cultural survival is a testimony to the strength and endurance of Stó:lo cultural traditions.

Copyright © 1996 Stó:lo Nation



Question: How does the vaccine for smallpox work?

Answer: By establishing your immune system with antibodies to smallpox, thus preventing subsequent infection. It is as if you have had smallpox although you have not had the disease.

General Information

Question: What bodies system(s) does the disease effect? Is this a communicable or non-communicable disease? What are the prevention’s you can take to avoid contacting the disease (preventative medicine)? When was the last time a person got Small Pox and died? How do people get this disease?

Answer: Smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. It only exists in a couple of research labs(although I'm sure some defense agency has it squirreled away). The last reported case was in Africa about 5-6 years ago. You do not need to take any precautions since it does not exist(in the wild). Small pox is a virus that is transmitted in person to person contact.

U.S. Germ Attack - Simulation a Disaster


Copyright © 1998 The Seattle Times Company

May 26, 1998

Battling bio-terrorism

IT'S fortunate for the nation that President Clinton is a voracious reader. After reading "The Cobra Event," journalist Richard Preston's novel about biological-weapons terrorism, Clinton asked questions. As president, he tends to get quicker answers. He didn't like what he heard.

Clinton discovered that scientists have been alarmed at the nation's limited ability to respond to the threat of biological terrorism. Bioweapons are micro-organisms, bacteria or viruses that invade the body, multiply and destroy the victim. Anthrax and small pox are two examples.

Last week, Clinton announced plans to create a stockpile of vaccines and antibiotics that would be available in case of an attack. He also called for steps to improve preparedness of public-health agencies, create an infrastructure for the fast manufacture of treatment drugs, and to streamline government processes for detecting and managing a biological crisis.

Iraq's interest in acquiring and using such weapons is not the only basis for Clinton's concern. Some scientists who worked on bioweapons in the former Soviet Union are believed to have found work in several countries interested in this capability. The more serious threat, however, may come from the relative ease with which a trained technician can make, deploy or accidentally discharge these horrors.

Clinton made his announcement to the graduating class at the Naval Academy at Annapolis. By placing bioweapons in the broader context of emerging threats to national security, the Commander in Chief has appropriately told a new generation of officers that the foe of the future may come from a test tube.

Excerpted from: ERRI DAILY INTELLIGENCE REPORT-ERRI Risk Assessment Services-Sunday, April 26, 1998 Vol. 4 - 116


NEW YORK CITY (EmergencyNet News) - Despite an enormous federal effort to prepare for a biological terrorist attack, a pretend germ warfare attack last month reportedly showed the government is unprepared to deal with such a crisis. The New York Times reported Sunday that the secret drill simulated a small pox hybrid virus that was dropped along the Mexican- American border. Officials who participated in the drill soon found themselves arguing as they were overwhelmed by a panicked population, short of the right antibiotics and vaccines, hampered by antiquated quarantine laws and unable to get trained, immunized medical staff to the area.




By Steve Macko, ERRI Risk Analyst

NEW YORK CITY (EmergencyNet News) - The New York Times was reporting on Sunday that despite an enormous federal effort to prepare for a biological terrorist attack, a biological warfare attack exercise in March showed the government is unprepared to deal with such a crisis. The newspaper said that the secret exercise simulated a small pox hybrid virus that was dropped along the Mexican-American border. Officials who participated in the drill soon found themselves arguing as they were overwhelmed by a panicked population, short of the right antibiotics and vaccines, hampered by antiquated quarantine laws and unable to get trained, immunized medical staff to the area.

As was reported in this publication, President Clinton on 10 April met with a panel of experts he had convened to brief him on biological weapons. At the time, it was reported that the meeting concerned the general issue of terrorism. The Times reported on Sunday that the president, at that meeting, asked the panel to prepare a report suggesting ways the government could be better prepared to detect and deter a biological attack.

The report is expected to be submitted this week and will suggest the stockpiling of antidotes, vaccines and antibiotics and setting up ways to make large quantities fast. The experts will, according to the Times, also recommend strengthening the public health sector and streamlining the government processes for detecting and managing a biological crises.

According to the Times, experts widely disagreed on the likelihood of such a biological attack. This week, POTUS is expected to sign two new directives that provide a sweeping plan for dealing with chemical, biological or computer-related weapons.

The Times said the directives have created a fight in the government with the Defense and Justice Departments objecting to the creation a powerful anti-terrorist government agency. The current directives create a "national coordinator" with limited staff and no direct budget but the wide-ranging powers to handle government disputes and initiate action.

The Times said that Richard Clarke, currently special assistant for global affairs to the President, is expected to become the first national coordinator.

(c) Copyright, EmergencyNet NEWS Service, 1998. All Rights Reserved.

By John G. Bartlett, M.D.

Creating the Threat List

Colonel Gerald Parker DVM, Ph.D., Director, USAMRIID, reviewed the list of potential BW agents.

Col. Parker noted that the list of major agents is short and that the ideal agent has the following properties: availability, easy production, high rate of lethality or incapacitation, stability, infectivity, and deliverable via aerosol. He then showed a relative potency graph with aerosol toxicity on one axis and the amount necessary for a 50% kill in a 10 km area. Tuleremia and anthrax were by far the most potent. He then identified the top priorities for probable use as small pox and anthrax, then next priorities as plague and tuleremia, and the next priorities as botulinum toxin and viral hemorrhagic fever viruses.



The World Health Organization (WHO) and their work in trying to bring an equality of health services to all countries of the world. They are an organization under the umbrella of the United Nations and grew out of a similar organization in the now defunct League of Nations. It is called in by nation in times of epidemic, endemics and other serious health problems. In it's 50+ year history it has helped to eradicate small pox, reduce the number of yaws cases to a negligible level and has assisted in keeping such serious diseases a tuberculosis and malaria under control. They have tackled such problems as respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases, which were diseases, which mainly plague the developing world. These diseases were largely ignored by pharmaceutical companies who mainly produced medicines for the pill taking affluent west. However with encouragement from whom these problems began to be tackled. Most of the work under taken by WHO is done in conjunction with other health organizations both those also in the UN (i.e. the Red Cross, UNICEF, et. all) and those who are not. The primary success of WHO is found not only in tackling treatments for illness but also in prevention by treating their root causes. In doing these they have addressed such problems as sanitation, clean drinking water and education. All of WHO's activities have lead up to their goal of health for all by the year 2000 which has been pushed back by 5 years but none the less is in sight. They are on the verge of eradicating such diseases as malaria and tuberculosis and malaria and are helping to ensure another of their goals essential medicines for all.



Smallpox has been all but eradicated, but there still remain two known stores of the virus in laboratories in Atlanta and Moscow. Other countries may have gotten hold of the virus illegally, as well. This might sound like great news to completely wipe out a horrifying disease. However, because the virus has been eradicated, there are only a few million vaccinations readily available in the United States. Only about a tenth of the U.S. population has been vaccinated for small pox, and of those who have, few have been vaccinated recently enough for the antibodies to still be active. The virus could be quickly produced and used in time of war which could be disastrous to people who have never had the vaccination.

A country with a reasonably up-to-date pharmaceutical industry could quickly produce huge stores of the smallpox virus and use them in a biological attack. One in four people infected with the disease will die. Some nations, including the United States and Russia, still vaccinate their armed forces as a precaution.

Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, it was virtually certain the smallpox virus would continue to exist only in laboratories at the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta and at the Soviet Vector base in Siberia. However, with the guards at Vector working without pay for months, people could gain entry to the base relatively easily.

"Hybrid" viruses have also been created. Russian scientists have reportedly successfully merging the Ebola and smallpox viruses, using the small pox as a delivery system for the deadly Ebola virus. This would allow for Ebola's killer effect without its hindrance in requiring blood for transmission.

Springfield Soldier Paralyzed from Smallpox Vaccine
November 26, 2006

by Laura McNamara

Side effects from a small pox vaccine has left a Springfield soldier paralyzed and fighting for his life. Twenty-year-old Joseph Lopez had been serving in Iraq for one week when he lost all ability to move. Doctors at a hospital in Germany where Lopez was being treated told him the vaccine had made his anti-bodies attack one another. The soldier has been undergoing physical therapy to relearn how to walk since Novemeber. Lopez says he first noticed something was wrong just before he left for Iraq at the end of September

Dark Winter


22-23 June 2001
This exercise was made possible by grant funding from The McCormick Tribune Foundation and The Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism.

On 22-23 June, 2001, the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, the ANSER Institute for Homeland Security, and the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention Terrorism, hosted a senior-level war game examining the national security, intergovernmental, and information challenges of a biological attack on the American homeland.

With tensions rising in the Taiwan Straits, and a major crisis developing in Southwest Asia, a smallpox outbreak was confirmed by the CDC in Oklahoma City. During the thirteen days of the game, the disease spread to 25 states and 15 other countries. Fourteen participants and 60 observers witnessed terrorism/warfare in slow motion. Discussions, debates (some rather heated) and decisions focused on the public health response, lack of an adequate supply of smallpox vaccine, roles and missions of federal and state governments, civil liberties associated with quarantine and isolation, the role of DoD, and potential military responses to the anonymous attack. Additionally, a predictable 24/7 news cycle quickly developed that focused the nation and the world on the attack and response. Five representatives from the national press corps (including print and broadcast) participated in the game, including a lengthy press conference with the President.

Several articles and reports will be produced in the coming weeks and months. Additionally, at least one Congressional hearing will be conducted to explore the lessons learned by the key participants. The first hearing is scheduled for the week of 22 July with the Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations (Congressman Shays, Chairman).


DARK WINTER was an exercise designed to simulate possible US reaction to the deliberate introduction of smallpox in three states during the winter of 2002.

President The Hon. Sam Nunn
National Security Advisor The Hon. David Gergen
Director of Central Intelligence The Hon. R. James Woolsey
Secretary of Defense The Hon. John White
Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff General John Tilelli (USA, Ret.)
Secretary of Health & Human Services The Hon. Margaret Hamburg
Secretary of State The Hon. Frank Wisner
Attorney General The Hon. George Terwilliger
Director, Federal Emergency Management Agency Mr. Jerome Hauer
Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation The Hon. William Sessions
Governor of Oklahoma The Hon. Frank Keating
Press Secretary, Gov. Frank Keating (OK) Mr. Dan Mahoney
Correspondent, NBC News Mr. Jim Miklaszewski
Pentagon Producer, CBS News Ms. Mary Walsh
Reporter, British Broadcasting Corporation Ms. Sian Edwards
Reporter, The New York Times Ms. Judith Miller
Reporter, Freelance Mr. Lester Reingold

The players were introduced to this crisis during a National Security Council meeting scheduled to address several emerging crises, including the deployment of a carrier task force to the Middle East. At the start of the meeting, the Director of Health and Human Services informed the President of a confirmed case of smallpox in Oklahoma City. Additional smallpox cases were soon identified in Georgia and Pennsylvania. More cases appeared in Oklahoma. The source of the infection was unknown, and exposure was presumed to have taken place at least nine days earlier due to the lengthy incubation period of smallpox. Consequently, exposed individuals had likely traveled far from the loci of what was now presumed to be a biological attack. The exercise spanned 13 days, and served as a vehicle to illustrate the following points.


An attack on the United States with biological weapons could threaten vital national security interests. Massive civilian casualties, breakdown in essential institutions, violation of democratic processes, civil disorder, loss of confidence in government and reduced US strategic flexibility abroad are among the ways a biological attack might compromise US security.

Current organizational structures and capabilities are not well suited for the management of a BW attack. Major “fault lines” exist between different levels of government (federal, state, and local), between government and the private sector, among different institutions and agencies, and within the public and private sector. These “disconnects” could impede situational awareness and compromise the ability to limit loss of life, suffering, and economic damage.

There is no surge capability in the US health care and public health systems, or the pharmaceutical and vaccine industries. This institutionally limited surge capacity could result in hospitals being overwhelmed and becoming inoperable; could impede public health agencies’ analysis of the scope, source and progress of the epidemic, the ability to educate and reassure the public, and the capacity to limit causalities and the spread of disease.

Dealing with the media will be a major, immediate challenge for all levels of government. Information management and communication (e.g., dealing with the press effectively, communication with citizens, maintaining the information flows necessary for command and control at all institutional levels) will be a critical element in crisis/consequence management.

Should a contagious bioweapon pathogen be used, containing the spread of disease will present significant ethical, political, cultural, operational and legal challenges.

SMALLPOX, because of its high case-fatality rates and transmissibility, represents one of the most serious biological warfare threats to the civilian population. In 1980, the World Health Assembly announced that smallpox had been eradicated and recommended that all countries cease vaccination. Although labs in two countries still officially store smallpox samples (US and Russia), its re-appearance would almost certainly indicate an intentional outbreak.

Aerosol release of smallpox virus disseminated among a relatively small population could result in a significant epidemic. Evidence suggests the infectious dose is very small. Several factors are cause for concern: the disease has historically been feared as one of the most serious of all pestilential diseases; it is physically disfiguring; it bears a 30 percent case-fatality rate; there is no treatment; it is communicable from person to person. Vaccination ceased in this country in 1972, and vaccination immunity acquired before that time has undoubtedly waned. Prior to eradication, data on smallpox outbreaks in Europe indicated that victims had the potential to infect 10 to 20 others. However, there has never been a smallpox outbreak in such a densely populated, highly mobile, unvaccinated population such as exists today.

In 1947, in response to a single case of smallpox in New York City, 6,350,000 people were immunized (500,000 in one day), including President Harry Truman. In 1972, after disappearing from Yugoslavia for four decades, a single case of smallpox emerged. There are two ways to control a smallpox epidemic – vaccine and isolation. Yugoslavia’s Communist leader, Josip Tito, used both. He instituted a nation-wide quarantine, and immunized the entire country of 20 million people using vaccine supplied by the World Health Organization.

Estimates of the current US supply of smallpox vaccine range from seven to twelve million doses. This stock cannot be immediately replenished, since all vaccine production facilities were dismantled after 1980, and renewed vaccine production is estimated to require at least 24-36 months. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently contracted with a Cambridge, MA firm to produce 40 million doses of new vaccine. Initial deliveries will not begin before 2004.

“DARK WINTER”was developed and produced by:

The Center for Strategic and International Studies
Contact: Dr. John Hamre, President & CEO
(202) 775-3227

The Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies

The ANSER Institute for Homeland Security
Contact: Col. Randy Larsen (Ret.), Director
(703) 416-3597

The Oklahoma City National
Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism
Contact: General Dennis J. Reimer (Ret.), Director
(405) 232-5121
Ms. Ann Beauchesne
Program Director, Emergency Management & Environment
National Governors Association
Ms. Luciana Borio
Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies
Dr. David Bowen
Congressional Fellow
Office of Senator Edward Kennedy
Maj. Craig Cady
Legislative Fellow
Office of Representative Jim Saxton
Mr. Mike Casey
Legislative Assistant
Office of Representative Vic Snyder
CPT Joni Charme
Deputy Legal Advisor
Joint Task Force Civil Support
Mr. Frank Cilluffo
Deputy Director, Global Organized Crime Project
Center for Strategic & International Studies
Dr. Anthony Cordesman
The Arleigh A. Burke Chair in Strategy
Center for Strategic & International Studies
MG Stephen Cortwright
The Adjutant General
Oklahoma Military Department
Dr. Ruth David
President and CEO
Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER)
Mr. Skip Fischer
Legislative Assistant
Office of Senator Jon Kyl
Mr. Jeffrey Fuller
Manager, Regional Conflict Division
Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER)
Maj. General Gregory Gardner, NGB
Adjutant General and Director of Emergency Management
State of Kansas
Mr. Jim Gass
Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism
Dr. James Hodge
Project Director - Center for the Law & the Public's Health
Johns Hopkins and Georgetown Universities
Mr. Krister Holladay
Deputy Chief of Staff
Office of Representative Saxby Chambliss
Mr. Michael Hurt
Senior Policy Advisor
Office of Representative Jim Saxton
Mr. Joseph Jakub
Professional Staff Member
House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence
COL Robert Kadlec, MD
Professor of Military Strategy and Operations
National War College
Dr. Lani Kass
Senior Policy Advisor
Strategic Plans and Policy, J-5
Dr. Barry Kellman
Depaul University School of Law
Ms. Kim Kotlar
Military Legislative Assistant
Office of Representative Mac Thornberry
Mr. Gordon Lederman
Arnold & Porter
Mr. Jim Lewis
Professional Staff Member
House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence
Dr. Scott Lillibridge
Director, Bioterrorism Preparedness Program
Centers for Disease Control
Mr. Jim Martin
NGA-Past Governors Association
Mrs. Barbara Martinez
Chief, WMD Operations Unit
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Mr. Dan McConkie
Staff Assistant to the Vice Chairman
Joint Economic Committee, Joint Committee of Congress
Mr. Alan McCurry
Military Legislative Assistant
Office of Senator Pat Roberts
Ms. Lisa Moreno-Hix
Director of Programs
Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism
Mr. Bill Natter
Professional Staff Member
House Armed Services Committee
Dr. Paula Olsiewski
Program Director
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
Mr. R. Nicholas Palarino
Senior Policy Analyst
U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on National Security House Committee on Government Reform
Mr. Michael Powers
Research Associate
Chemical & Biological Arms Control Institute
Ms. Linnea Raine
Visiting Department of Energy Fellow
Center for Strategic & International Studies
General Dennis Reimer (USA, Ret.)
Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism
Dr. Peter Roman
Chairman, Department of Political Science at Duquesne University and Senior Fellow at the ANSER
Institute for Homeland Security
Mr. Richard Saunders
Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Inc.
Dr. Monica Schoch-Spana
Medical Anthropologist & Research Associate
Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies
Mr. Danny Seabright
Office of the Under Secretary of
Defense for Policy
Mr. John Sirek
Director, Citizenship Program
Robert R. McCormick Tribune Foundation
Mr. Jeffrey Smith
Arnold & Porter
Mr. Henry St. Germain
Senior Consultant
Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER)
Col. Stephen Waller, USAF
Director, USAF Surgeon General's Tactical Action Team
Dr. Marion Warwick
Medical Epidemiologist Emergency Terrorism Response Unit
Missouri Department of Health
The Honorable John Hamre
President and CEO
Center for Strategic & International Studies
The Honorable Tara O'Toole
Deputy Director
Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies
Col. Randall Larsen (USAF, Ret.)
Director, ANSER Institute for Homeland Security
Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER)
Ms. Sue Reingold
Visiting National Security Agency Fellow
Center for Strategic & International Studies
Dr. Thomas Inglesby
Senior Fellow
Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies
Mr. Michael Mair
Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies
Ms. Joyce Whiting
ANSER Institute for Homeland Security
Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER)
Mr. Mark DeMier
Editor-in-Chief, The Journal of Homeland Security
Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER)
Mr. John Wohlfarth
Research Analyst, ANSER Institute for Homeland Security
Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER)
Mr. Robertson Gile
Research Assistant
Center for Strategic & International Studies
 2000 - 2008 Lawson Terrorism Information Center

Site Guide

Catastrophic Terrorism - Local Response to a National Threat Gov. Frank Keating reviews the Oklahoma City Bombing and relates the lessons learned of that event with the Dark Winter exercise experiences and issues. NPR's Morning Edition Commentator Lester Reingold gives his thoughts on the Dark Winter Exercise. Scroll to the bottom of the page to the article titled, "Government Preparedness." Washington Post The Washington Post article "U.S. Called Vulnerable To Biological Attack." P.O. Box 889 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73101
Phone: 405.278.6311 | Fax: 405.232.5132





Anyone who would like to read an extremely comprehensive study on the
dangers of vaccines can do so at this website.