THE BLUE AND ORANGE WAR
compiled by Dee Finney
|2-1-09 - DREAM - I was looking at a large table cloth that was embroidered in
fine detail everywhere. The pattern was made up of little squares, some of
the squares broken up into smaller squares, and each square had the image of a
man in old fashioned clothing, or just words that someone said that had been
Then the tablecloth vanished and I was looking at the brown table itself
which was very shiny, and on this table - on the left was a line of sky blue
discs and on the right was a much smaller line of orange discs.
Then the blue discs started flying across the table at the orange discs - of
course there were fewer and fewer orange discs as they got hit by the blue
I woke up with the thought that it was about the Blue and Orange War.
Just as an aside
- Hillary Clinton wore a bright orange pant suit while Michelle Obama wore
a blue dress at the same event, while Hillary claimed 'unity'.
for more details.
|I don't know if this is relevant, but found it interesting.
There are other colors besides blue and orange, but check this out:
Stages of consciousness #2
Wednesday, 6. September 2006
I would like now to complete my study of
consciousness evolution on this blog. I already did a
blog post on this, but then using a different system
to the one I'm used to.
Let me try now to make sense of the system I'm more
familiar with, Spiral Dynamics. The model was
developed by Don Beck and Christopher Cowan based on
the work of psychology professor Clare Graves and was
popularized by Ken Wilber (whose perspective lead to
the evolution of SDi - Spiral Dynamics integral).
It's vital to understand here that these stages do not
describe types of people, they describe ways of
thinking that live within people. Consider it a
toolbox, not elitism.
Beige (archaic-instinctual, identity not yet
The beige level of consciousness is the first and
least sophisticated level available to human beings.
It features a barely developed sense of I, meaning it
has little sense of being separate. Beige
consciousness is basically only concerned with the
most basic needs, food, water, sex, security etc.
Key word: Survival
Seen in: Infants, senile
elderly, the starving etc.
Cultural impact: 0.1 percent
of the population, 0 percent power
Purple (magic-animistic, identity not yet
The purple level developed when human tribes first
met. This traumatic experience required them to
reorient themselves in the world and form new forms of
civilization. Purple believes in magic; spirits of
nature or the ancestors fly around casting spells and
curses. Purple can develop irrational relationships to
inanimate objects based on the idea that all objects,
alive or otherwise, posess a soul. Can appear to some
(myself included) to be a higher level of
consciousness than it actually is.
Key word: Magic
Seen in: Voodoo curses, good
luck charms, third world tribes etc
Cultural impact: 10 percent of
the population, 1 percent of the power
Red (egocentric, individual)
At this stage, a separate sense of self distinct from
the tribe develops. With this new-formed identity
comes the wish to perpetuate its power and as a
consequence red consciousness generally uses violence
and aggressive means to barge ahead in life. The world
is a dangerous place and to perpetuate the power of
identity, all enemies must be destroyed.
Key words: Power and respect
Seen in: Terrible twos, feudal
kingdoms, James Bond villains, Nazi Germany (part red,
part blue), wild rock stars, Lord of the Flies etc.
Cultural impact: 20 percent of
the population, 5 percent of the power
Blue (mythic, group)
This consciousness level leaves behind the chaotic
narcissism of red in favour of law and order. Blue
features very defined values, black and white, true
and false, good and evil, saint and sinner. Violating
the agreed upon code of conduct has very serious
consequences, going to hell, being executed,
imprisoned, exiled etc. There is only one way to think
about things and the social structure is very
hierarchical. Dogmatic religion and submission to a
supernatural being, everything is predestined,
sacrifice now to obtain later.
Key words: Purpose, justice
Seen in: US administration,
Republican party (part blue, part orange), patriotism,
boy and girl scouts, fundamentalism, codes of chivalry
and honor, ethnocentricity
Cultural impact: 40 percent of
the population, 30 percent of the power
Orange (rational, individual)
At this stage of consciousness, the individual starts
questioning the idea that everything is predestined.
Perhaps there is no God in the sky that has everything
all figured out. Man then starts taking responsibility
for his own life and starts seeking his own answers
and ways ahead in life. This level of consciousness is
meritocratic - your worth is not based on who you are,
but what you can do, and thus worldcentric (a black
man is worth just as much as a white man if he has the
same skills). Science rules the day and the mystery of
existence is all but gone, the world is a well oiled
machine that is there to be used, even at the cost of
Key words: Skill
Seen in: Capitalism, fashion
industry, the Western Enlightenment (Renaissance),
fame and superstardom
Cultural impact: 30 percent of
the population, 50 percent of the power
With the emergence of green in the 1960s, came a
sensitizing to the plight of the human race. Blue and
orange have been destroying the planet through
creating saints and sinners, winners and losers, and
green seeks to deconstruct these value structures to
better humanity. At this stage, emotions become more
important than logic, decisions are reached through
reconciliation and consensus. Take care of the planet,
be a good person and don't be so greedy. Green fails
to see the stages of consciousness it traversed to get
to its current state and is extremely bad at making
decisions, because it's incapable of deeming one thing
better or worse than another. Everything is an
egalitarian mush from which little truth and action
can be extracted. Green is often incapable of making
the changes it idolizes.
Key words: Deconsctruct blue
and orange, preserve the planet and be nice
Where seen: Democrat Party
(part green, part orange), Political correctness,
Greenpeace, animal rights, human rights issues, free
health care, United Nations
Cultural impact: 10 percent of
the population, 15 percent of the power
Yellow (integrative, individual)
This is the first stage of 2nd tier consciousness. 2nd
tier is described by its awareness of the existence of
different levels of consciousness. It sees that all
levels have a place in the world and that the purpose
of 2nd tier consciousness is to use whatever tools are
available to traverse the ladder of evolution to help
people at whatever stages they're at. Hierarchies are
reintroduced: Knowledge and competency should
supersede power, status and group sensitivity.
Flexibility, spontaneity and functionality have the
highest priority. A belief in intuition.
Key words: Evolution through
Where seen: Rarely, mainly in
individuals, but to some extent in the growing number
of integral businesses
Cultural impact:1 percent of
the population, 5 percent of the power
Turquoise (holistic, group)
Consciousness that unites feeling with knowledge.
Believes in universal order, but not based on external
rules (blue) or group bonds (green). Often involves
emergence of cosmocentric spirituality. Global
consciousness - it's possible to make money while
taking good care of the planet and workers. In fact,
it's not only possible, through the turquoise
perspective, it is seen as the BEST way to make money.
Uses the entire spiral, can access any stage at will
and can read between the lines. The insight of
turquoise into human nature is so vast that it can be
perceived as being psychic, even though that is not
necessarily the case.
Key words: Global
Where seen: In rare
individuals who have integrated spirituality with the
rational world of science and matter
Cultural impact: 0.1 percent
of the population, 1 percent of the power
More stages (Coral) yet to come as humanity evolves
Bear in mind that my understanding of this model is
still incomplete, so this article may contain
inaccuracies. In any case, this blog post will be
vital for some of my future posts on the current world
Next up - why the Democrat party with its
significantly higher level of consciousness than the
Republican party failed to capture the minds and
hearts of Americans in the last election.
Orange Lantern Corps - The Orange Lanterns are powered by avarice, or
greed. The Controllers (an offshoot of the Guardians) are seeking the
Orange Light of Avarice in the Vegan Star System. The bearers of Orange
rings possess a much deeper aura than other Corps's members, and it is
said they steal the rings of other Corps' as well.
Blue Lantern Corps - The Blue Lantern Corps rings are powered by Hope.
They were created by the Guardians Ganthet and Sayd out of their Hope for
the future. The Blue Power Rings are capable of energizing other Corps'
rings. The first member is Saint Walker, sent by Ganthet and Sayd to help
Hal and fellow lanterns in keeping Sinestro from falling victim to the Red
1885 - Civil War Saddle blankets
Order and the Election of 1911
There were many
reasons for the defeat of Sir Wilfred Laurier's Liberal government in 1911.
Perhaps the main reason was the reciprocity issue which sought free trade
between the United States and Canada. In addition Laurier's Roman Catholicism
had become increasingly suspect in English Protestant Canada. Over his fifteen
years in power Orangemen felt that Laurier had time and time again sided with
Quebec at the expense of English Canada. His support for free trade with the
United States was to many Orangemen the final act of disloyalty. If the free
trade issue were successful it would have meant that Canada would have been
drawn closer to the U.S. and this in turn would have undermined British
influence in Canada.
of Robert Sellar's book, 'The Tragedy of Quebec' dealt with the expulsion of
Protestant farmers from the Eastern Townships of Quebec. Publication of this
book in English Canada intensified fears that the French Canadians were
controlling the country. In the minds of Canadian Orangemen the problems of
the Empire were identical with those facing Canada. In Ireland, Roman
Catholicism was in its support of Home Rule, promoting the break-up of the
Empire. In England , proposed changes to the Coronation Oath symbolized the
erosion of a Protestant monarchy . In Canada, the recent arrival of a Papal
delegate made Orangemen see red. They asked how could a Canadian have a dual
loyalty to both the Vatican and Canada at the same time. Laurier had supported
the idea of publicly funded Roman Catholic schools in Alberta and Saskatchewan
In 1910 the
Quebec Superior Court upheld an annulment by the Roman Catholic Church in the
case where the marriage ceremony had been performed by a Protestant minister.
"The marriage issue was an important milestone in twentieth-century Orangeism
because it did much to unite both Orange and non-Orange Protestants in the
belief that uncontrolled Romanism posed a threat to Canadian society."
When all of these
issues were taken into account it was decided by Orangemen that Laurier had to
go and there is every indication that a vast majority of Canadian Orangemen
were willing to help him on his way. Ironically, it could be said of Laurier
that as Orange power was a factor in electing him in 1896, it was also Orange
power that played a role in his defeat in 1911.
In his retirement
address of 1914, Grand Master Lieutenant Colonel Scott stated: "The Order
today occupies throughout this country a power and influence equalled by no
other fraternal association, and recognizing this fact, the members of this
order can, if they will, largely control the direction of public legislation,
both Federal and Provincial, especially as regards subjects which closely
touch the principles of the Orange Order." Two hundred thousand Orangemen had
obviously agreed with his statement.
The Sentinel and
Orange and Protestant Advocate was organized and first published in 1875. Its
first editors and owner publishers were E.F. Clarke, a future mayor of
Toronto, and John Hewitt. Both men were active trade unionists. Eventually
their expanded press facilities at 37 and 39 Adelaide Street in Toronto took
care of all the City of Toronto's printing.
E.F. Clarke died
in 1905 and Horatio Clarence Hocken and John McMillan formed a limited company
and gave the Sentinel new management. Hocken, who had a wide experience of
newspaper knowledge, having worked at the Toronto Globe, Toronto Star, and
Toronto News, made some radical changes to the paper that he was to be editor
of until 1931. One of the changes that he made was to put editorials on the
front page of the paper. The Sentinel at this time was not just a fraternal
magazine for the Orange Lodge published six times a year. It was printed twice
a week and took strong positions on political matters and spoke for many of
the large Protestant and Orange population in Canada on a wide variety of
At the outbreak
of the First World War, circulation was 32,000 copies weekly. Hocken later
became mayor of Toronto, a position that he retired from in 1917 to run
successfully for the House of Commons. In 1928 the paper was taken over by the
Grand Orange Lodge of Canada. Hocken remained as Managing Director of the
British American Publishing Company of which a majority of stock was held by
the Grand Lodge.
then at 20,000. Leslie H. Saunders, also destined to become Mayor of Toronto
in the 1950's became the Business Manager. H.C. Hocken at this time received
an appointment to the Canadian Senate and withdrew from active participation
in the running of the paper. The Sentinel by this time tended to be the voice
of the Orange Order in Canada, and as early as 1920, John Easton, later Grand
Master of Canada, described it as the Order's official organ.
However the paper
was not always listened to by Orangemen and its views not always agreed to.
Prior to the election of 1919 in Ontario it called on all Orangemen to vote
for the Conservatives. Many voted for the United Farmer candidates. In 1936
Leslie Saunders founded a rival publication, Protestant Action. He did so
because he did not believe that the Sentinel was taking a strong enough stand
in regard to the separate schools controversy. Throughout its long history the
Sentinel was a spokesman for the Orange Order, but it certainly has never
spoken for all Orangemen.
Loyal True Blue
and Orange Home
straightest who stoop to help a little child"
I'm sure that
many people have driven north on Yong Street [Hwy. 11] at one time or another
and have passed through the town of Richmond Hill. How many, I wonder, have
ever taken the time to stop and visit the Loyal True Blue and Orange Home.
This landmark of Orangeism has identified the benevolent work of the Loyal
True Blue and Orange Lodges since 1923. For over 100 years the Loyal True Blue
Association in Canada has taken an active interest in children's welfare. It
was in 1889 that Mrs Joseph Hilton, a member of Lady Verner True Blue Lodge in
Toronto, became concerned that facilities for Protestant orphans were totally
As a result she
spearheaded a drive at the True Blue Grand Lodge in 1890 that resulted in the
appointment of an orphanage board. The idea caught the imagination of True
Blue members throughout the province of Ontario and through the initiative of
the Picton Lodge property was obtained and on August 23, 1899, the orphanage
was declared open at Picton, Ontario. It soon became apparent that
accommodation was far less than required, but the project itself had met with
great acceptance by lodge members. By 1916 the Provincial Grand Orange Lodges
of Ontario East and West had shown their support and were added to the Board
of Management and in 1919 the property at Richmond Hill was puchased.
In 1920 members
of the Ladies Orange Benevolent Association in Ontario East and West joined in
the project. On October 22, 1921, the cornerstone was laid for the Richmond
Hill building by H.C. Hocken, the then Grand Master of the Grand Orange Lodge
of Canada, and the unity of the Blue and Orange became visible in the spacious
building which was officially opened on Dominion Day, 1923 with W.W.
prayer was said by Reverend W.L.L. Lawrence, and giving Grand Lodge approval
was the Grand Master of Canada, the Honourable W.D. McPherson K.C.,
accompanied by H.C. Hocken M.P. The True Blues were represented by George
Farley, Grand Master, and the L.O.B.A. was honoured by the presence of Mary
Cullum, their founder and first Grand Mistress. The event aroused interest
throughout the entire country and to this day citizens of all denominations
point with pride to the landmark at Richmond Hill. Each year the Home holds
'Open House', a special occasion when visitors and former residents are
The Harvey Case
The Reverend J.M.
Whitelaw, B.A., B.D., was born in Glasgow, Scotland and came to Canada as a
child. At the age of thirteen he left school and went to work for a Henry
Stafford of Almonte, Ontario, whose brother was a Roman Catholic priest in
Lindsay. During the next three years he studied privately and succeeded in
passing the Teachers Intermediate Examination, while through his association
with the Staffords he received a deep insight into the Roman Catholic system.
After attending the Perth Model School he taught for six years at Clayton,
Lanark County, at at Douglas in Renfrew County. During these six years he
prepared for matriculation and entered Morrin College, Quebec which was
affiliated with McGill University. He received the degrees of Bachelor of Arts
and Bachelor of Divinity.
he was called to the Leeds Presbyterian congregation in Megantic County,
Quebec where he was to spend thirteen years and during this time he joined the
Orange Order. It was quite a time to be an Orange clergyman in Eastern Quebec.
Whitelaw was involved in what became known as the Harvey Case. The man Harvey
was an Orangeman who had married a Roman Catholic, but his wife had stated her
intentions to be confirmed in the Protestant faith. Before this took place
Harvey died in Whitelaw's parish. At midnight and while he was unconscious and
a few minutes before his death he was anointed by the parish priest. The Roman
Catholics claimed the right to inter the body but Whitelaw secured the
necessary certificates and said "No, we Protestants will inter the body."
suggestion a considerable quantity of dynamite was placed around the coffin so
that no one could successfully disinter the body. Talk about fighting for
converts! Whitlaw later moved to Ontario and became the County Master of
Victoria and later still was elected as the Grand Chaplain of the G.O.L. of
Ontario East. In 1906 he was appointed as a delegate from Ontario East to
attend the Grand Orange Council of the World.
Thanks to Alex
Rough for this material
Canadian Orangeism and the Military
Orangemen and War
In 1913, the Orange Association of
Manitoba volunteered a regiment to fight with the
Ulster Volunteers against the
British government if
Home Rule were to be introduced to Ireland.
Orangemen played a big part in suppressing the
Upper Canada Rebellion of
William Lyon Mackenzie in 1837. Though the rebellion was
short-lived, 317 Orangemen were sworn in to the local
Mayor of Toronto and then resisted Mackenzie's march down
Yonge Street in 1837.
They were involved in fighting unsuccessfully against the
Ridgeway, Ontario in 1866. An obelisk there marks the spot where
Orangemen died in defending the
against an attack by members of
Clan na Gael (commonly known as
Orangemen in western Canada helped suppress the rebellions of
Louis Riel in 1870 and 1885.
The call to arms by Bro. Sir
Samuel Hughes, the Canadian Minister for War and member of LOL 557
Ontario, resulted in some 80,000 members from Canada volunteering
for service during the
First World War
The Orange Order had a lodge in many regiments of the British Army by the
early 1800's. It was only natural that the Orangemen in these units would
want to continue their membership whereever their regiments were sent.
Prior to 1812 there were few Orangemen in Canada and those lodges which
did exist were small and isolated. Most of the members were ex British
army personnel who had settled here. It was from these regiments that the
Orange Order in Canada was to get its main start. As thousands of British
troops arrived in Canada at the outbreak of the War of 1812 Orangeism grew
rapidly in Upper Canada. Soon after the war the first recorded Orange
Parade in Canada was held.
During the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, Ogle Gowan, the
first Canadian Grand Master, organized his own milita unit, the 9th
Provincial Battalion, later renamed the Queens Royal Borderers and helped
to defeat American invaders at the Battle of the Windmill. Gowan also
claimed that 317 Orangemen were sworn into the militia for the defence of
Toronto by Mayor Gurnett on December 4 and 5, 1837.
In the Fenian Raids of 1866 over half of the casualties
were Orangemen. Havelock L.O.L. No. 27 was formed in New Brunswick on
April 8, 1868 by the Havelock Volunteers who had enlisted in 1865-1866 to
repel the Fenians. The company was stationed at St. Andrews, New Brunswick
under the command of Captain Sifron Goddard who was the first lodge
master. In 1885 the Royal Grenadiers of Toronto were sent west to put down
the 2nd Riel Rebellion. There were 250 men in the regiment, 148 of whom
During the first World War Canada's war effort was headed
by an Orangeman, Colonel Sam Hughes until he was replaced by another
Orangeman, Sir Edward Kemp. Hughes estimated that out of 600,000 men in
uniform in W.W. 1, 80,000 were Orangemen. Over a dozen Orange military
lodges were formed in the Canadian army during this war.
Six of the battalions that recruited in Toronto in W.W. 1
had Orangemen as Commanding Officers. It was stated by the colonel of the
204th Battalion that when it was recruiting in Toronto, that seventy-five
percent of the men enlisting were able to give the Quartermaster Sergeant
the Royal Arch handshake. The Grand Master of Manitoba, W.T. Edgecombe
organized and took overseas a solid Orange battalion of over 1000 men. The
highest ranking allied soldier killed in action during W.W. 1 was a
Canadian Orangeman, Brigadier General Malcolm Mercer. During World War Two
Orangemen again responded to the country's call for help. Military lodges
were formed in the Toronto Scottish Regiment and in the Midland Regiment.
Many lodges never recovered from the loss of membership suffered during
these years. In the short space of less that thirty years, Orange Lodges
had twice seen the majority of their membership serve overseas with many
of their youngest members - their future leaders being killed in action.
Their loss dealt a crippling blow to the Orange Order in Canada from which
it never recovered.
The Harbour Grace Affray
Orangeism has had a long and distinguished career in the
province of Newfoundland. The following event was the catalyst that was to
bring the Orange Order in Newfoundland to the front pages of the local
December 26, 1883 - "Probably the most serious
Newfoundland riot, as far as casualty is concerned, took place the day
after Christmas in Harbour Grace in 1883. Following a service in the
Methodist church on Water Street, the Loyal Orange Society set out on
parade with about 350 men. Near Pippy's Lane they were met with another
300 - 350 men from Riverhead, a predominantly Roman Catholic area. These
men were determined to stop the parade from trespassing on their
territory. In the ensuing scuffle, a number of shots were fired that
wounded eighteen men and killed the following five: William James of
Carbonear, William French of Courage's Beach, Patrick Callahan of
Southside, John Bray of Courage's Beach, and Thomas Nicholas of
Seven men, including Head Constable Ed Doyle, were
arrested and charged with the willful murder of Patrick Callahan. He was
suspended from the constabulary but was reinstated on May 21, 1885 after
the Crown had decided that he had indeed acted responsibly in carrying out
his official duties. Nineteen people from Riverhead were arrested for the
murders of Janes, French, and Bray. Their first trial occurred on May 12,
1884 before Chief Justice Sir F.B.T. Carter. About five other trials took
place and ultimately the prisoners were discharged on the murder charge.
Fourteen of them however were found guilty of riotous assembly and
assault. They were each granted bale at $400.00. The light sentences
outraged the Orangemen who met in the British Hall on July 5, 1884. They
formed the General Protestant Union intending that branches be formed in
other Protestant communities. They denounced the jury system of the colony
as "utterly powerless to secure the conviction of the guilty fand to
redress the wrongs of the subjects as far as the Protestant population are
concerned." The Protestant Union called on the government to improve the
administration of justice and "secure to Protestants and to others the
rights and privileges guaranteed to them by the British Contitution."
Controversy that arose out of the Harbour Grace Affray raged on in the
House of Assembly throughout the year of 1885.
According to Arthur Fox, who wrote the History of the
Constabulary, the trials of this case brought out evidence that Head
Constable Doyle was warned at least twice prior to the parade that it was
going to be barricaded by the Riverhead men. Yet he did nothing, claiming
that this was an often used threat which had never come to anything. "What
is wanted is to efface the darkest blot in our history; to have the whole
deplorable occurrence buried and forgotten. We have been taught a terrible
lesson by it and during the present generation there will be no repetition
of such occurrences. We are perfectly satisfied that these are the
sentiments of an overpowering majority of the population, both Protestant
and Catholic." -- The Evening Mercury, December 23, 1885
Alex Rough for this material
World War One
Theatres of War
Although World War
One was a world war, most of the fighting was confined to a few key
areas. These areas are usually referred to as the
theatres of war.
German army crossed the Belgian border on August 3rd 1914. Britain and
declared war on Germany on August 4th. The Germans pushed through
Belgium, occupying Brussels before entering France.
The British and French armies marched to stop the German advance.
The Battle of Marne 4th - 10th September prevented the Germans from
marching on Paris.
territory already gained in France, the Germans began digging trenches.
The British and French unable to break through the line of
trenches, began to dig their own trenches. Throughout the entire
war, neither side gained more than a few miles of ground along what
became known as the
The map above, which can be clicked to enlarge, shows the
geographical position of the Western Front stretching from Belgium in
the north to Switzerland in the south. Each coloured square represents
50,000 men. Yellow represents the German army, blue the French, red the
British and orange the Belgian army.
Battles fought along this front include - Marne, September 1914;
first battle of Ypres, October - November 1914; Verdun, February -
December 1916; Somme, July - November 1916; Passchendale, July -
November 1917; Cambrai, November 1917; Marne, July 1918.
Full details of all Western Front battles can be found at
The line of fighting on the Eastern side of Europe between Russia and
Germany and Austria-Hungary is known as the Eastern Front.
Fighting began on the Eastern front when Russia invaded East Prussia
on 17th August 1914. Germany immediately launched a
counter-offensive and pushed Russia back. This pattern of attack and
counter-attack continued for the first two years of the war and meant
that the Eastern Front changed position as land was captured and lost by
By 1917, the Russian people were fed up and demoralised by the huge
number of Russian losses. The government and monarchy were overthrown
and the new Bolshevik government signed the treaty of Brest Litovsk
which took the Russians out of the war.
can be clicked to enlarge, shows the geographical location of the
Eastern front stretching from Riga in the north to Czernowitz in the
south. The orange line shows the position of the Eastern Front in 1915.
Each coloured square represents 50,000 men. Red represents the Russian
army, yellow, German soldiers and blue Austro-Hungarian.
Battles fought along this front include - Tannenberg, August 1914;
Masurian Lakes, September 1914; Bolimov, January 1915; Lake Naroch,
March 1916; Riga, September 1917.
Full details of all eastern Front battles can be found at
to the outbreak of war in August 1914, Italy had tended to side with
Germany and Austria-Hungary. To begin with, Italy kept out of the war.
However, tempted by offers of more land once the war was won, Italy
entered the war in April 1915 on the side of the allies.
The Italian front is the name given to the fighting that took place
along the border between Italy and Austria. The Italians only managed to
advance a short way into Austria (shown by the red line on the map
[Click to enlarge]). Between 1915 and 1917 there were twelve battles
fought along the river Isonzo. just inside the Austrian border (shown in
blue on the map). After being defeated at the battle of Caporetto the
Italians were pushed back. The 1918 location of the Italian front is
marked on the map in yellow.
Full details of all Italian Front battles can be found at
Gallipoli peninsula is located in the south of Turkey. In 1915, the
allied commanders decided to try to attack Germany by attacking her
ally, Turkey. Allied soldiers, mainly from Australia and New Zealand,
were sent to the Peninsula while British ships tried to force a way
through the Dardanelles.
mission was a
allies lost more than 50,000 men but gained hardly any land. The map
above, which can be clicked to enlarge, shows the front line. The blue
line shows the allies position while the green shows the Turkish line.
Full details of all battles fought on the Gallipoli front can be
Even before hostilities began, Germany and Britain were involved in a
naval race for mastery of the seas. Britain had a long tradition of
being the master of the seas and Germany knew that she was unlikely to
win a naval war against Britain. For this reason, Germany tended to
avoid open naval conflict with Britain.
Britain's main naval tactic was to keep German ships in German ports
and to block supplies from reaching Germany. Germany's main naval tactic
was to post
u-boats in the Atlantic ocean and to destroy ships taking supplies
from America and other countries to Britain. On 7th May 1915, the
passenger liner Lusitania, was torpedoed by a German submarine. Nearly
1200 civilians lost their lives.
The most notable sea battle of World War One was the Battle of Jutland
between Germany and Britain which ended inconclusively.
Full details of all
sea battles can be found at
on the Net Group
AMERICANS IN GILFORD
By September 1943, most of the British troops had moved out of
the area and things were becoming slightly more normal. Suddenly
there was great excitement with the arrival of American troops. They
were mainly from the Southern states of America, especially
Virginia, Georgia and Carolina. The first U.S. troops to arrive in
Gilford were black soldiers, and were billeted in the Orange Hall on
Stramore Road. They were an Advance party of the United State 6th
Cavalry Regiment, who were to prepare for the main body of troops
who would arrive six weeks later. When they first arrived they were
marched through Gilford, escorted by what appeared to be a group of
United States marines, wearing blue jackets, orange gaiters and
These men had sailed from the U.S.A. on the Queen Mary, and
arrived on September 25 in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland. From there
they moved to Markethill, Co Armagh, from where this advance
detachment made arrangements for the reception and housing of main
troops at Tandragee Castle, Bannvale at Gilford, and Gilford Castle.
The rest of the Regiment back in the U.S.A. (the remaining 1556
enlisted men, 4 warrant officers and 78 officers), completed their
physical examinations, received immunizations, and left New York
harbour on the Queen Elizabeth on October 13 1943.
At the outbreak of war The Queen Elizabeth was still an
unfinished luxury liner, it had been loaned to the US, and was
loaded to double capacity for this trip. It was so crowded it was
necessary for the men to divide their time between the regular cabin
bunks and the covered decks. Because of its great speed, the ship
was able to travel without convoy, and zigzagged across the North
Atlantic in five days, completing the voyage without incident.
The men arrived at Greenock, Scotland, on October 18, 1943,
remained aboard ship for a further day and then left for Northern
Ireland. The Regimental Staff, Headquarters Troop, and sixteen men
from each of the other troops, arrived in Belfast October 20. They
then travelled by rail to Tandragee station (the Madden).
Headquarters Troop moved into Tandragee Castle the following
morning, and the detachments from each troop moved into their
respective areas and began preparations to guide the troops upon
arrival. They showed up the following day.
The 1st Squadron, Troop A, B, E, and their Squadron Medical
Detachment was stationed at Gilford Castle. The medical corps
occupied the high field which ran at right angles to the previously
used Wall Road Camp, and overlooked the back of the Castle. A
hospital was built on this site.
The 2nd Squadron consisting of Headquarter Detachment 2nd
Squadron, Troops C, D, and their Squadron Medical Detachment were
moved into the Bannvale Camp in Gilford.
Racial segregation was still rife in America at this time, and
the arrival of these new troops meant that the black soldiers of the
Advance party were moved to the premises at Stramore Farm,
originally used by the R.E.M.E.'s, as the Orange, Masonic and
British Legion Halls were needed for the other men.
Unfortunately within the past two years the buildings at
Stramore Farm, where these men were billeted, have been demolished,
for in an upstairs room, although very dirty and well worn, were a
number of wall murals depicting “G.I. Jane” type paintings. One wall
also bore the names of the soldiers who were billeted there, and
there were also beams in the room on which was written “MIND YOUR
HEADS” and “CARBON.” Fortunately the man who demolished the building
rescued the large pieces of one mural, and rebuilt it at his own
home in Portadown. Others have been photographed. It is thought
possible that the murals may have been painted by Joe Ben Wheat,
from Chicago whose name was found on one of the walls. On his
return to America he became academically famous for his
anthropological studies of the patterns and history of Native
American quilts etc.
It took a few months for the new Americans troops to settle
in. There were numerous road marches, extensive firing courses,
physical and mental toughening and routine housekeeping details to
be undertaken. Eventually their vehicles and armoured cars arrived,
and on Armistice Day 1943, the entire Regiment, including the
Gilford troops, formed in Tandragee to pay tribute to the soldiers
who had fallen in World War I.
The 6th Cavalry Regiment in Tandragee -
Armistice Day 1943
Many local families befriended the young men, and welcomed
them into their homes, hopefully making their stay in Gilford as
happy as possible. Even the animals were friendly and near the end
of the year, a litter of collie pups was born on an old pair of
overalls in the Commander's quarters at Gilford Castle. The men
adopted one of the puppies and called it "Shamrock." It remained
with the American soldiers throughout the rest of the war.
Christmas was quiet for the men, although there were lots of
informal parties and dances held in Bannvale and in outbuildings at
Elmfield. Sweets, cakes, and soap were donated by the soldiers from
their personal rations, and given to the local children. The two
Gilford Camps swarmed with children all day. Although local families
befriended the young Americans, they did miss their own families
especially at Christmas and local Post Office staff recall how they
were kept busy with young soldiers sending telegrams back home at
At the end of 1943 the Regiment was reorganised, and the final
parade of the old 6th Cavalry Regiment was held on December 31 1943
in Tandragee. Under the new reorganisation it became the Sixth
Cavalry Group, the Sixth Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, and the
28th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron. General George S. Patton
carried out an informal inspection tour of the U.S. troops in
Northern Ireland at this time, and was guest-of-honour at a dance in
Tandragee Castle. He commented how much he enjoyed the 6th Cavalry
band playing at the event, and perhaps not surprisingly, a short
time later the band was transferred and became the 61st Army Ground
Forces Band. Whilst in the area General Patton visited the American
troops at Gilford Castle and also at the Gilford Bannvale camp.
After reorganisation, training continued with map exercises,
combat courses, crew drills, communications and command post
exercises, as well as mounted and dismounted marches. Finally at the
end of May 1944 the Cavalry left Gilford for England, and eventually
crossed the English Channel on the 8th and 9th July disembarking on
Utah Beach in France on D Day+33. The ships crossed with two
convoys, each comprising craft of all types, screened from above by
Allied fighter aircraft. No enemy aircraft or surface vessels were
encountered throughout the voyage.
In recent years Captain Jim Dunlap from Gainsville, Georgia,
returned to visit Tandragee Castle. In Gilford he called with Albert
Uprichard, whose family had owned Bannvale, where many of the U.S.
troops had been based. Major Calvin Satterfield from Richmond,
Virginia, also visited in 1992.
Mr Dunlap said that he had been stationed with the American
forces at Tandragee Castle, and had participated with activities of
the 28th Cavalry Squadron, 6th Cavalry Group, 3rd U.S. Army under
General George S Patton until Germany surrendered. They had
participated in the following campaigns – Normandy, Northern France,
Rhineland, Ardennes (Battle of the Bulge) and Central Europe.
In December 2003, we received an email from Mr Maurice Lusk,
an American from Dalto, Georgia, seeking information about Gilford.
During the war he had been stationed in Gilford Orange Hall with a
U.S. Chemical Warfare Company. He explained that their units needed
the nearby river Bann to process their product. Some of their
Company were also in the Masonic Hall building, and in the old R.U.C.
station (now the Royal British Legion Hall), in Mill Street.
He explained that the exact name of their Company was the
115th Chemical Processing Unit. They had originally been called the
115th Chemical Impregnating Company, but had undergone a
name-change, having found it difficult explaining the meaning of the
word "impregnating." Their role was to impregnate clothes with a
compound which would protect the wearer from gas attacks. The
equipment used was similar to that used in commercial laundries, in
fact whilst in Gilford they washed the hospital laundry to test
their equipment. They arrived in Gilford on 18th October 1943 and
remained until 16th June 1944.
Orange v. Blue in Bavaria
In maneuvers, at least, a winner
Opposing waves of mammoth
tanks maneuvered for position on Bavaria's rain-drenched farm lands.
Mechanized units of infantrymen clattered through gingerbread villages,
clashing for control of strategic bridges and road junctions. Overhead,
missile-bearing Cobra helicopters and F-4 Phantom jets thundered across
the skies, "firing" at one another and at targets on the ground.
For ten grueling days that ended last week, a mock combat raged in
southern Germany between two opposing powerful military forces: the
"invading" Orange and the defending Blue. Code-named Carbon Edge, the
"war" was a NATO military exercise involving more than 50,000 troops,
4,000 tanks and armored personnel carriers, 7,500 other vehicles, 90
fixed-wing aircraft and 500 helicopters. Carbon Edge was by far the
biggest single event of Reforger 77, this year's edition of NATO's
traditional fall training extravaganza. West German, British, Canadian,
Dutch and Belgian troops and American forces based in Europe were
mobilized for the event, and 14,000 G.I.s were airlifted across the
Atlantic. (Reforger, in fact, is an acronym for return of forces to
Germany.) To the north, a special all-NATO defense team battled British
and Danish "enemy" troops, while in the Mediterranean the alliance
conducted a massive naval exercise, culminating in an amphibious landing
along the Turkish coast.
In Carbon Edge, the Orange force (played by some U.S. and West
German units) took the role of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. Reflecting
its impressive firepower advantage on the Central European front, Orange
quickly penetrated the Blue lines, raced 40 miles and crossed the upper
Danube. After falling back and regrouping, Blue counterattacked; its
main forces hammered away across the invader's broad front, while
airborne rangers hit Orange from behind. When the exercises ended, Blue
had clearly triumphed.
One purpose of the massive maneuvers was to give the Americans
practice in moving reinforcements to Europe from U.S. bases. Two weeks
before the Orange "attack," the U.S. 1st Infantry Division was airlifted
from Fort Riley, Kans., the 3rd Brigade of the 4th Infantry Division
arrived from Fort Carson, Colo., and the 2nd Battalion (Ranger) of the
75th Infantry came from Fort Lewis, Wash. The exercises were the first
large-scale test of "interoperability"—coordination of the somewhat
different communications systems, tactics and equipment used by the
alliance's armed forces. Thus U.S. Cobra helicopters, armed with TOW
antitank missiles, provided cover for West German tank units and were
directed to targets by West German officers. Old tricks were also
polished, like dropping a Sheridan light tank from a low-flying C-130
No shots were actually fired. Instead, 1,900 umpires—sporting
white armbands and riding in Jeeps flying white pennants—clambered about
the battlefield. Over field radios, commanders were told "You're dead,"
while "killed" vehicles were marked with yellow flags. There were,
however, real casualties; in ground accidents and one mid-air collision,
two American servicemen and six German civilians were killed.
FRANCE’S AIR WAR
Mirage 2000D, Nancy 2001. Copyright Hugo Mambour/AviaScribe 2001
ODAX 2001, the
fifth edition of the French Air Force international aerial warfare
exercise took place throughout the country in March and April.
Hugo Mambour/AviaScribe describes what it's all about
Cold War and for a few more years yet after the general collapse
of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe, France used to conduct
an annual air defence exercise called AIREX and later DATEX. Its
main objective was to test the ability of the French air defence
assets to detect and intercept enemy air attacks against the
national territory. On some occasions and particularly during the
last exercises, allied countries had aircraft based in France to
participate in the air defence exercise, and although NATO air
forces were invited to attack various targets in France during the
two-day exercise period, DATEX remained essentially a national
exercise. However, after 1989 the probabilities of an air raid
originating from the former Warsaw Pact air forces soon evaporated
and the usefulness of a very specialised exercise like DATEX
became questionable. In order to meet the new challenges of the
post Cold War world, a new more complex international annual
exercise, organised accordingly to reflect the type of
multi-national military operations of the nineties (Gulf War,
Yugoslavia etc.), was created in 1996 to supersede DATEX:
ODAX was born
then, ODAX has taken place each year, except for a notable
exception in 1999 when the exercise was cancelled on
operational and economical grounds as a consequence of the
Operation Trident (the FAF contribution to Operation Allied
Force in former Yugoslavia). Each exercise has been the
opportunity to try a new scenario – for example, the first
in 1996 was linked with ‘Brilliant Foil’, whereas the 1998
version took place in the south of France and the
Mediterranean area – and has seen new and unusual
participants like the United Arab Emirates.
for 2000, this year's vintage was divided into two different
phases. The first, which took place between 26 February and
9 March, was a Computer Assisted (CAX) Command Post Exercise
(CPX). This phase was aimed at training commanders and the
personnel in charge of planning and conduct of air
operations by simulating an air campaign. Contrary to past
habits, the second phase or Live Exercise (LIVEX), which saw
actual operations of aircraft within the limits of French
airspace, was clearly separated from the first one as it
took place more than one month later, between 19-27 April.
Traditionally, ODAX is based on a fictitious scenario
inspired by real events - this year, the French territory
was divided into three areas, each one representing a
different nation (Blue, Yellow and Orange), which were once
united into a common federation. After the Blue land decided
to quit the federation to integrate into an international
democratic North-European structure, Yellow land declared
its intention to follow the same destiny. However, an
ethnical minority living in Yellow land, but closely linked
to Orange land, did not agree with that secession and
for a referendum about the decision to break its
relationship with the federation. As Yellow land rejected
that idea, significant troubles and violent acts were
perpetrated against Yellow populations in areas mainly
controlled by the Orange community, which was secretly
manipulated by Orange land. As a consequence of the
deteriorating situation, the United Nations mandated a
coalition with France as the leading nation, in order to set
up an interposition and peacekeeping force to avoid a
general conflict in the area. This did not impress Orange
land much, so it decided to attack Yellow land to isolate it
from Blue land. A massive air campaign was then launched by
the coalition forces against economical and military targets
of Orange land, the two latter aspects constituting the
LIVEX part of the exercise. The
de l’air public relation and information service had a
special section devoted to the exercise on its internet
site. Detailed information about the federation history and
its political leaders were available and it was even
possible to check the evolution of the fictitious scenario
day by day. Information about real activities were added
during the LIVEX period.
goal of the exercise was to verify the ability of the
coalition forces to operate theatre air assets from deployed
multi-national command structures in a crisis or a conflict
of high intensity within an implementation period of 24
hours, as well as to conduct up to 600 missions per day. In
reaching that target, France demonstrated at the same time
its own ability (without the Americans) to organise and
operate communication and information systems related to
combined elements for a thorough air campaign and
functioning with real-time information in an international
exercise director was Air Marshal Fouquet, who is the
commander of the FAF Air Operations and Air Defence Command
(CDAOA) based underground at Taverny, north-west of Paris.
For the exercise purpose, he was also in charge of the
Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) set up to implement the UN
mandate. Commanded by Air Commodore Michel, the air
component of the CJTF, known as Joint Force Air Component (JFAC),
was responsible for the overall support, offensive and
defensive air assets. JFAC was assisted in its mission by
three main structures comprising a headquarter responsible
for the planning of air operations, an air intelligence
centre and a Deployable Combined Air Operations Centre (DCAOC)
in charge of command and control of coalition air
operations. The latter was deployed at Creil air base, on
Blue land territory.
than twenty allied and neutral countries (1) took part in
the CPX/CAX phase of ODAX whereas nine of those participants
(Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Poland,
Singapore, Spain and The Netherlands) took also part in the
LIVEX phase. Thirteen other countries (2) sent observers to
France for the occasion.
was divided in two parts, with the northern half playing as
Blue land and the southern half as Orange land. The smaller
Yellow land was right in the middle, north of Orange land
against Blue land border. While some coalition aircraft were
operating from their home base (for example BAF F-16s and
GAF Tornados (four aircraft each)), the main forces were
deployed on Blue land territory. One German Navy Atlantic
ELINT/SIGINT aircraft was based at Metz from where it
operated along the FAF electronic C.160G Gabriel. More
German assets were deployed in the north-east with four to
AG-51, equipped with their new reconnaissance pods and
operating along with the Mirage F1CRs of ER1/33 and 2/33 at
Reims, as well as two Tornado
ECRs of JBG-32 based at Nancy and operating together
with local Mirage 2000Ds capable of SEAD missions with their
Martel ARM. SEAD aircraft had the opportunity to test their
abilities against live radar threats above Yellow land in
the centre of France and above the Alps. Moreover, airfield
anti-aircraft defence units were deployed at each airbase
throughout France. Luxeuil airbase and its Mirage 2000Ns
also took part in the exercise as in fact did all the FAF
four RNLAF F-16s of 323 Squadron were deployed at Cambrai,
more unusual participants were based at Dijon (two updated
Polish AF MiG-29s) and Saint-Dizier (three updated PAF
40.elt). The Republic of Singapore AF deployed six A-4SU
and TA-4SU Super Skyhawks at Colmar for their second ODAX
participation. A detachment of thirteen operational pilots,
commanded by Major Keith Rodrigues, had come straight from
Singapore to France for the occasion. They spent one week in
Cazaux to learn French procedures as well as to accustom
themselves with a new flying environment, quite different to
their own country, and two weeks in Colmar for fighter
affiliation before the exercise. As last year, they operated
the Super Skyhawk of the Advanced Jet Training unit based at
Cazaux. As the A-4s detached in France are training
aircraft, they are not comprehensively equipped for
operational missions. The six aircraft taking part in ODAX
were therefore equipped with internal ECM kits for the
exercise period only, the equipment being removed and taken
back to Singapore at the end of the period.
AWACS and tankers, attack packages were usually composed of
sixteen to twenty coalition aircraft, including
reconnaissance, attack, air defence and SEAD assets.
Finally, two PAF An-26s, German and French C160s, CSAR
Pumas and ALAT
Pumas were deployed at Avord, the home base of the FAF
AWACS fleet. Ground operations, supported by French army
helicopters, were indeed planned for the exercise and the
transport aircraft were used to drop paratroopers and to
evacuate populations. More assets were deployed on Yellow
land territory itself, comprising Hunter reconnaissance
drones and Horizon battlefield surveillance helicopters.
land air force was composed of air defence Mirage 2000C
based at Orange (of course!) with EC1/5 and 2/5, and
ground-attack Mirage 2000Ns of EC3/4 based at Istres. More
Mirage 2000Cs of EC1/5 had been deployed at Cazaux together
with four Italian Air Force F-104S-ASA/Ms. The busiest
airbase of Orange land was undoubtedly Mont-de-Marsan, where
more Mirage 2000Cs of EC2/5 had been detached together with
Mirage F1Cs of EC3/33. One local Mirage IVP was responsible
for reconnaissance missions. Four Spanish AF Mirage F1CEs
and four Greek AF
Mirage 2000CGs were deployed there together with five
Morocco AF Mirage F1CHs. This was the fourth time Morocco
had participated in ODAX (they also took part in one of the
last DATEX exercises).
exercise went off smoothly without incidents despite
difficult weather conditions, allowing all-weather missions.
Although most of French AF was implicated in ODAX, normal
missions went on during the exercise. Security remained of
paramount importance: on 26 April, two Mirage 2000-5Fs from
Dijon interrupted their mission to assist a civilian light
aircraft in difficulty. For once priority was given to
military aircraft during the LIVEX period - press releases
warned potential travellers that regular flight schedules
could be delayed because of a 'military air exercise'!
Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Italy, Morocco, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Singapore,
Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, The Netherlands, UAE, United
Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, India,
Japan, Jordan, Oman, Slovakia, Taiwan, Ukraine.
|3-10-2001 - DREAM ABOUT PHIL SCHNEIDER|
back to where I had originally been sitting. I sat on the floor
and looked up at the ceiling. I wanted to know the truth about
where these strange jelly-like animals came from. On the ceiling
was a round white light fixture. Around the circular light
fixture was a larger circle and written on that circle was the
name Phil Schneider.
A man came towards me and handed me a folded over sheet of
blue paper. The paper was like a long sheet of paper like one
would get by printing along web page on a single sheet of paper
like computer printouts used to come.
On the top of the blue paper was the name Phil Schneider.
I knew he was the one who knew the truth.
At the same time the radio came on with the familiar voice
of the radio personalities from WTMJ radio in Milwaukee which
broadcasts on 620 on the dial. I knew that Phil Schneider was
going to broadcast on that station.
NOTE: Art Bell has his show on that station.
SECRET UNDERGROUND BASES - PHIL SCHNEIDER
131 underground bases in the U.S. 1470 in the world
The United States has known about aliens and UFOs since 1909
Groom Lake map
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxEDVZWWxBg THE WAR
STARTED IN 1979
The Alien Agenda; They want to kill off 3/4 of the people on the
planet by 2025.
Alien takeover is a threat. It is the threat of the New
World Order - discussion of the 1993 bombing of the World Trade
Center - This was not done by foreign terrorists any more
than the 2001 bombing that brought down the buildings. The
bomb came from Mather AFB.
NEMESIS - coming towards earth - will arrive about 2052 - Russia
is shooting down about 50 UFOs per month. The war is going
on in China as well.
In January of 1996, an ex-U.S. government
geologist and structural engineer by the name
of Phil Schneider was found dead in his
apartment. His good friend and co-conspirator
Ron Rummel had been found dead in a park three
years prior to Schneider's death, due to a
gunshot wound to the head. Cause of death:
suicide. Prior to their deaths, Schneider and
Rummel had worked for the federal government
for 17 years, after which they began to
publish a magazine called "The Alien Digest."
The magazine received wide circulation, but
was soon brought to a halt in 1993 with Rummel's death.
Phil was convinced that his friend had not
committed suicide, and had in fact been
murdered. Subsequent to Rummel's death, Phil
quit his job and toured the country for the
next two years, lecturing on the secrets he
had been privy to during his work for the
As Schneider began his lecture tour he made
clear that he was going to be targeted for
revealing government secrets and probably
would not live long. Schneider revealed that
he had been working with the U.S military to
build thirteen underground military bunkers
across the United States.
Schneider's story was particularly interesting
because he was the first man with such a high
level of security clearance - Rhyolite, one of
the highest levels attainable - to spread
classified information. He made claims ranging
from the pernicious intentions of the United
Nations to the government development of the
AIDS virus. Most importantly, he spoke about
the U.S. government's extraterrestrial
Schneider maintained that the U.S. government
has had relations with extraterrestrials for
more than half a century. He attested that in
1954 the extraterrestrials signed the Greade
Treaty, arranging an exchange of
extraterrestrial technology for the rights to
test extraterrestrial implanting techniques on
U.S. citizens and livestock.
Schneider went into details about his first
and only encounter with the aliens in August
of 1979 while he and a crew of military
government employees were working on a new
underground military base in Dulce, New
Mexico. After their drilling machines
repeatedly broke down, Schneider and others
were sent into a subterranean orifice to
collect rock samples. Upon entering the hole
Schneider distinctly noted a repugnant smell
unlike anything he had ever experienced. After
reaching the bottom of the shaft, Schneider
found himself in an opening with what appeared
to be some kind of humanoid creature.
Schneider was naturally startled and began to
reach for his pistol. He fumbled for several
moments, trying to free his pistol from his
bulky suit, when he made out the distinct
figure of what appeared to be an
extraterrestrial humanoid soon joined by other
similar creatures. Schneider shot and
seemingly killed two of the extraterrestrials,
and the military personnel also began shooting
the creatures. After two extraterrestrials had
been shot, a third made some kind of rubbing
motion across its stomach and Schneider was
The blast from the creature had split
Schneider's chest open, destroyed several
fingers, burned off his toenails and severely
burned his bones. He was in
radiation/isolation therapy for more than four
hundred days and later discovered that he was
only one of three men who made it out alive.
Sixty-six others had perished in battle with
Schneider was found dead seven months after
giving a lecture on his story. Cause of death:
suicide. All of his research and collected
evidence of extraterrestrial mineral samples
were missing from his apartment. His blood and
urine samples sent to medical examiners were
Was the U.S. government responsible for Phil
Schneider's death? If so, does this lend
validity to Schneider's claims?
Although his story sounds outlandish, we have
to consider the possibility that Schneider
might have known something that our government
does not want us to know.
Source - UFODigest
Philip Schneider, Murder By Suicide?
by Michael Naisbitt
Posted: 12:00 April 29, 2007
Source - UFODigest
Philip Schneider was born April 23, 1947
and died (many assume murdered) in January
1996. Now Philip
Schneider claimed to be
an ex-government geologist and structural
engineer who was involved in building
underground military bases around the
United States (possessing a level 3
security clearance, “Rhyolite 38”).
Not only that, but Philip Schneider also
claimed he was one of only three people to
have survived a deadly battle in which 66
American and NATO “Delta Force” soldiers
were killed. This battle allegedly
occurred in 1979 between Grey aliens and
U.S. military and NATO forces at an
underground base at Dulce , New Mexico.
The following is taken from a letter
from the ex-wife of Philip Schneider
(Cynthia Drayer) after learning of his
was as a Structural Engineer. He
was an expert on explosives and
their effects on geologic
structures. He worked under two
social security numbers.
Most of his early work in
underground mountain bases with
Morrison-Knudsen was done using
the wrong social security number.
I was later able to prove that he
had two numbers through the social
security office when I applied for
his daughter's death benefits. He
worked for the Army Corps of
Engineers and U.S. Navy with the
same wrong number. Only after he
obtained SSI in 1981 did his
“real” number come into play. He
always told me that he had a
Rhyolitic Clearance and that his
father had a Cosmic Clearance from
his work with NATO. And that is
the second reason why Philip began
For the last two years of his life,
Schneider gave over 30 lectures to a
variety of audiences across the globe,
concerning conspiracy theories in which he
claimed to be leaking information exposing
them. However, Schneider was never able or
willing to prove his allegations (e.g.
showing the entrance to Dulce Base). His
claims received little mainstream notice,
but caused quite a buzz in UFO enthusiast
Schneider was found dead in his
Wilsonville, Oregon apartment on January
17, 1996. He had apparently been dead for
several days (perhaps up to a week), and
reportedly had a rubber hose wrapped three
times around his neck. Tim Swartz writes
that "Clackamas County Coroner's office
initially attributed Philip Schneider's
death to a stroke or heart attack." Some
suggest Schneider was murdered; supposedly
because he was leaking information to the
public, unveiling conspiracies. He in fact
claimed to have avoided 13 murder attempts
taken on his life during the time in which
he was lecturing on conspiracy theories.
He suffered multiple physical illnesses
(osteoporosis, cancer, injuries).
Officially, suicide is now stated as the
cause of death. The medical examiner took
blood and urine samples at the autopsy but
refused to analyze them, saying that the
county would not "waste their money on a
Although samples would be kept for 12
months, when asked for these samples to be
sent to an independent lab 11 months later
they were "missing" and presumed
Schneider had missing fingers on his left
hand, and limited motion in his shoulders.
It may have been physically impossible for
him to have held the rubber hose in his
left hand with missing fingers and then
wrap the hose three times with shoulders
that had limited motion. In order to end
up where his body was, he had to sit on
the edge of his bed, wrap the hose around
his neck, slowly and painfully strangle to
death, and fallen head first into a wheel
chair. Philip was an expert in chemicals
and his own medical needs. He had multiple
pills at hand that could have ended his
life quickly and painlessly. He also had a
9 mm gun that he had borrowed to protect
Source - UFODigest
These entities largely converge beneath
southern Nevada, northern New Mexico and
possibly Utah. Some sources refer to a
'human' race with stalky yellow, red or
orange hair, others of a
strain or hybrid. They are often described
often as having a humanoid form yet
certain 'reptilian' genetic features. They
are also said to possess human-like
reproductive organs, and possibly (or not)
a human 'soul-matrix', and therefore a
divergent branch of the human race, or
reptiloid race depending on which 'type'
of Orange one is referring to. as some
accounts suggest there MAY also be
orange-colored reptilians which possess no
soul-matrix. Some of the "Orange"
allegedly have connections to Bernard's
A race of peaceable humans some 7-8 ft. tall, with pale-blue
skin and large 'wrap-around' eyes which are extremely sensitive
to light. They MAY be the same as the large humans allegedly
encountered on the moon by our 'astronauts' according to John
Lear and others, who in turn were silenced and not allowed to
tell what they saw. These people may, according to some
accounts, be allied to the 'Nordics' and/or 'Blondes'. They
claim to be descendants of Noah who traveled to the Western
Hemisphere a few centuries following the deluge and discovered
ancient antediluvian cavern systems and ancient technologies
which had been abandoned by the antediluvians in deep
subterranean recesses. They have been encountered mostly in deep
cavern-systems beneath the general region of the Ozarks-Arkansas
and surrounding regions.
Subject: The Blue and Orange War. Past or
Date: Tuesday, March 10, 2009, 12:54 PM
I talked with Phil Schneider in Seattle at a
suvival expo about 6
months before he was murdered. It was just the
of us sitting
around a table for about an hour talking about
his father, the
Eldridge, Valient Thor, looking at photographs
the U.S. wanted.
He showed me the round red radiation-like burn
mark on his
chest where he was shot when the Dulce base was
and the crescent shape of what was left of his
hand that he
reflectively used to try to block the beam shot
at him by one of
the tall greys. That's what saved his life. He
said it was a vat room
that was broken into and he said he shot 3 greys
with a pistol he
carried strapped to his ankle.
He told me about numerous attempts to murder
him. He was
recovering from multiple stab wounds from an
assault, and he
showed the wounds to me. He told of being run
off the road in
his car, of a man in an air force uniform trying
to shoot him in an
airport and how an FBI agent slid a revolver to
him that he shot
the assailant with.
Those pictures he showed me
to his father and he had won the right to them
in a court case
against the U.S. government. That was why they
I'll make you a bet the photographs
disappeared when he
supposedly garroted himself.
December 14, 2004
A victory for Viktor Yushchenko in Ukraine
would confirm the West's increasing influence there.
Ukraine's 'Orange Revolution'
election story has everything—a little bit of the Cold War,
echoes of Tiananmen Square, parallels with Poland's Solidarity
movement, and perhaps a hint of last month's U.S. presidential
The country is severely divided as it stands," Sen. Richard
Lugar, R-Ind., said after he returned from monitoring the
November 21 runoff in Ukraine. "Some leaders in the eastern
part of the country are talking about dividing the country.
Clearly, the election divided it absolutely down the center,
between the red and the blue states, to use the analogy from
the United States."
The division in Ukraine goes back 350
years. In 1654, when Ukrainians were fighting Polish rule, a
Cossack leader named Bohdan Khmelnitsky swore allegiance to
the Russian czar. Since then, Ukrainians have been dominated
Ukraine's east is mostly Russian-speaking, Orthodox in
religion, and strongly pro-Russian. Most people in Ukraine's
west speak Ukrainian and adhere to a church that acknowledges
the authority of the Roman Catholic pope. Western Ukrainians
are intensely nationalistic and distrustful of Russia.
In the November runoff, the east voted for Viktor
Yanukovich, a favorite of Moscow. Western Ukraine voted for
Viktor Yushchenko, who favors stronger ties with Europe and
the rest of the West. Yanukovich, the current president's
hand-picked successor, was officially declared the election's
But election observers spotted massive fraud. According to
Nelson Ledsky of the National Democratic Institute, observers
"reported that the rigged voting was in the neighborhood of
over 1 million extra votes." Yushchenko's supporters massed in
the streets of Kiev, demanding that the results be annulled.
It became orange versus blue, with orange being the color of
the media-savvy Yushchenko protesters, blue the color of the
pro-Yanukovich government supporters. Apparently, in the
post-Soviet era, nobody wants to be red.
Ukraine's "orange revolution" is a genuine outpouring of
popular sentiment for freedom and justice. It's a media-savvy
revolution, almost like a democracy festival, aimed at winning
the sympathy of Europeans and Americans.
Both the European Union and the United States denounced the
runoff as fraudulent. Secretary of State Colin Powell was the
most direct, saying, "We cannot accept this result as
legitimate, because it does not meet international standards
and because there has not been an investigation of the
numerous and credible reports of fraud and abuse." Powell
threatened: "If the Ukrainian government does not act
immediately and responsibly, there will be consequences for
President Vladimir Putin supported Yanukovich and warned
the West to back off. Polish leader Lech Walesa showed up to
support the protesters. Poles versus Russians—as it was in
The runoff brought Ukraine's division to a head. So how
will it get resolved? Forget recounts. How about repeating the
whole election? That's what Ukraine's Supreme Court has
ordered, after it ruled that the runoff was invalid. On
hearing the news, Yushchenko raised his arms in triumph before
the orange-bedecked protesters in Kiev and said, "Today,
Ukraine has turned to justice, democracy, and freedom."
The crowds on the streets of Kiev responded by defiantly
singing Ukraine's national anthem. Whom were they defying? One
sign, in English, read, "Putin: Hands off Ukraine!" In
Ukraine, nationalism means resentment of Russia.
On December 1, Putin contemptuously declared, "A repeat of
the second round would yield nothing." He asked, "Are you
going to conduct it three, four, maybe 25 times?" Within days,
the Supreme Court issued its order. It was a humiliating
putdown for the fallen superpower.
Many Russians and pro-Russian Ukrainians think that the
protests in Kiev were orchestrated by the West and financed by
American money. Putin has accused the United States of
pursuing a "dictatorial" foreign policy, packaged, he said, in
"beautiful, pseudo-democratic phraseology."
President Bush did not return the insult, despite pleas
from Ukrainian protesters to take their side. "If he wore an
orange tie, people here would be crying," one protester told
The New York Times. But Bush's comments have been
noticeably more guarded than the secretary of State's. Bush is
eager to preserve a good relationship with Putin, a key ally
in the war on terror. Bush said on December 2, "We will
continue to monitor and be involved in a process that
encourages there to be a peaceful resolution to this issue."
With the Supreme Court's decision, the outcome seems
inevitable. "Yushchenko is going to be president of Ukraine,"
former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Richard Holbrooke
said. "One way or another, it's going to happen."
This election represents a big leap for Ukrainians. After
centuries of Russian domination, they are deciding on whether
their nation's future lies with the West or the East.
A victory for Yushchenko would confirm the West's
increasing influence in Ukraine at the expense of
Russia—something Western leaders may not want to celebrate for
fear of reviving Cold War tensions and of feeding Russia's
ancient paranoia about being encircled and threatened by the
William Schneider is the Cable News Network's senior
political analyst. He is also a resident fellow at the
American Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C., and a
contributing editor for the Los Angeles Times,
National Journal, and The Atlantic Monthly. His
column appears every week in National Journal, a
weekly magazine covering politics and government published
in Washington, D.C.
anti-pullout flag beside a blue-and-white Israeli flag. (AP)
|By Israel Insider staff
and partners June 27, 2005
On the orange side are
Jewish settlers and their supporters. On the blue side, a former
security chief and "peace activists". Their weapon of choice:
In the rush to the finish line, each side is tying as many ribbons
as possible to as many cars, backpacks, and even wedding bouquets,
as possible, to express opposition or support for the upcoming
Activists stand on street corners and major intersections, tying
ribbons on cars before the light changes. Morning newspapers on
Monday came with blue-and-white ribbons folded inside. And Roni
Ratzon, the owner of the Jaffa textile factory, cutting ribbons for
both pros and cons, is cashing in.
Nayot Pachenik, a 23-year-old native of the Gush Katif bloc of
settlements, tied an orange ribbon to her bouquet and wore orange
shoes to her June 14 wedding. And she posed for one of her wedding
pictures with the orange ribbon around her neck, tie-style.
"It was my way of expressing my commitment to the cause and allowed
me to have some influence," said Pachenik, who now wears an orange
ribbon tied to her headscarf.
In this flood of withdrawal activity -- not only the ribbons are
trendy, so are the colors.
Anti-pullout activists wear orange shirts, hats and other
paraphernalia -- making the color largely off-limits to those who
favor the withdrawal.
Self-proclaimed "peace activists" think twice today before slipping
on an orange shirt. Security guards at Israel's parliament even
confiscated the orange scarves of a visiting delegation of lawmakers
Ami Ayalon, a former head of Israel's Shin Bet security service is
now among the blue team's top brass, and even took to the streets on
Friday to hand out ribbons.
The pro-pullout activists chose blue-and-white because the colors of
Israel's flag best represent their views, Ayalon said. They copied
the settlers' ribbon idea because it seemed easy and cheap. "You
don't have to explain anything. Blue and white says it all," he
With an audience quick to pick up on the latest trend, the activists
have been quite successful. Israel is now awash in ribbons.
An unofficial count of car ribbons shows orange has the upperhand
for the moment -- pullout opponents have been handing out ribbons
longer than supporters.
But the blues are convinced they will ultimately be victorious once
the actual withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and four West Bank
settlements gets underway in August.
Opinion polls support the ribbon count, showing backing for
disengagement has dropped from a high of nearly 70 percent to just
around 50 percent. Opposition has risen from 27 percent to 38
But parliament and Cabinet have approved the plan, and the army and
police are training.
And Prime Minister Ariel Sharon is determined to push ahead, even in
the face of possible violent resistance by orange-clad settlers --
some of whom have pinned orange stars to their lapels, reminiscent
of the yellow Star of David the Nazis forced the Jews to wear in
World War II.
Rafi Sari, head of the orange ribbon brigade, said pullout opponents
have already distributed two million ribbons. A nationwide campaign
scheduled to begin next week has set the goal of handing out another
million ribbons, he said.
At a few cents per ribbon, it is a cheap way of sending the
anti-pullout message, Sari said, explaining how his camp came up
with the idea.
"A ribbon can be tied on anything: a car, a neck, a bag, anywhere.
It's practical," he said.
For Ratzon, it's all very profitable. The owner of a textile cutting
factory in the port city of Jaffa, he doesn't discriminate. He has
hired three more workers and extended working hours from 10 to 24
hours a day so he can cut up to 100,000 orange and blue ribbons
"I have no political opinion. I am not a political person. I just
want to make money," Ratzon said.
Lisa Cohen, a 38-year-old American-born psychologist, rushed to tie
a blue ribbon on her car after her husband tied an orange ribbon on
his, breaking their decades-old promise to stay away from politics.
Tensions built in their Jerusalem home as their divergent political
views clashed in the garage.
Finally, Cohen's husband, Elimelech, folded and the ribbon came off
"Now we're back to the status quo, which is don't discuss politics,"
Cohen said laughing.
The AP contributed to this report.
US Foreign Policy
War Plan Orange
US War plans for possible actions against Japan.
Blue vrs. Orange: The Early Years,
Day of Infamy—Orange initiates action against Blue targets in
The Western Base—Early plans to counter Orange with a strong
fortified base in the Pacific, 1906.
The Through Ticket—Blue counters Orange through a direct attack
upon the Philippines, 1908.
Step-by-Step—Blue stepwise advance through temporary bases
throughout the Pacific, 1911.
On to Ryukyus—Blue assumes the offensive into the Orange sphere
The Valour of Ignorance—Homer Lea's 1909 vision of the Japanese
invasion of San Francisco.
The Great Western Base—The Battle for Guam, Apr 1914.
Fortress Guam—Rear Admiral Coontz vision for an American Gibraltar
Through Ticket to Manila—The Thrusters plan to recapture the
Philippines, Jan 1925
The Ladder to Japan—Blue asserts control of the Far East, Jan 1928
Dumonquila Bay—The Grand Battle for the Philippines, Jun 1928
The Royal Road—July 1934
The Mandate's Campaign—Oct 1935
The Defense of Pearl Harbor—The Defensivists plan for the defense of
Oahu, May 1938
Naval Plan Orange Strategic Map—Strategic Map for extending Naval
Plan Orange to include the entire Pacific Theater of Operations.
Pacific Theater Operational Maps
Philippine Island Extension—An operational map that extends the NPO
map to include the entire Philippine Islands.
Pacific Coast—An operational map of the Pacific Coast of North
America from Victoria to Los Angelas.
Baja California—An operational map of the Pacific Coast of North
America from Los Angelas to Mazatlan.
Extended Pacific Theater Operational Maps
These maps overlap each other as well as the Philippine Island extension
and the SOPAC map of the Solomon Islands. During the period of the
Colored War Plans the bases and ports in this area frequently changed
hands and there was much speculation about the use of temporary and
potential air bases. As a result no ports and air bases are represented
on the maps. Use of counters for ports and air bases is recommended.
Mariana Islands—Extended Pacific Theater operational map including
the Mariana, Bonin and Volcanic Islands.
Caroline Islands—Extended Pacific Theater operational map including
the Yap, Truk and Pohnpei groups of the Caroline Islands.
Marshall Islands—Extended Pacific Theater operational map including
the Marshall, Gilbert and Wake Islands.
Palau and Indonesia—Extended Pacific Theater operational map
including Palau and parts of the Indonesian and Philippine Islands.
Pacific Theater Maps (hex numbers from GWAS
Naval Plan Orange Map)
Extended Pacific Theater Maps
North American Theater (hex numbers from Baja
War Plan Orange is an American strategy against Japan in case of war with
Japan. War Plan Orange was started, by Theodore Roosevelt, in 1890 because
Japanese warships started snooping around Hawaii after many Japanese laborers
had emigrated to Hawaii, a US protectorate. War Plan Orange has changed as the
threat from Japan changed. After Hawaii was annex in 1898, the fear of Japan
laying a claim on Japan faded. However, there were suspicions that the Japanese
wanted the Philippine Islands to resettle their growing population. There was
evidence of a secret society that aided in a native insurrection against the US
rule in the Philippines; however, only Japan’s covetousness of Blue possessions
was mentioned in the Orange plan.
After thousands of Japanese immigrated to California between 1891 and
1906, white racists victimized the Orientals. Politicians passed laws that
violated treaties between Japan and the United States. These actions caused the
Japanese to become outraged. Fear that war with Japan was imminent, the Naval
War College staff pondered on a Blue-Orange war scenario.
War Plan Orange had assigned color codes to different
countries; Japan was named, Orange and US was named, Blue. War Plan Orange was
never enacted by Congress or signed by the President until after 1941. This war
policy was determined by varied and informal manner.
Due to the distance and geography, War Plan Orange was stated
in three phases.
Phase I: United States expected that Japan would take
over lightly defended American
outposts to secure supply of oil and other raw materials.
These territories would involve the
American outposts to the south and west of Japan. The United
States would not be able to defend
these territories successfully due to the War Plan Orange
War Plan Orange concentration of the US
Navy at home ports. However, the US Navy could mobilize in
the Eastern Pacific.
Phase II: With superior naval and air power, the United
States would advance to the West. Each intense
small-scale battle would procure Japanese Islands. Supply
lines would be secure with the
establishment of advanced naval and air bases. Resisting
with expendable forces, Japan would trade
distance for time and destruction of the attacking fleet.
However, due to the United States
greater production power, the United States would will the
attrition battles. The United States would
regain the base in the Philippines after two or three years.
Japan would be severed from ocean trade
by the tightening blockade. This will result in a battle
where both fleets would meet in a cataclysmic
engagement where the United States would be victorious.
Phase III: United States would advance toward Japan using
the islands parallel to the coast of Asia. This will
allow the building of new bases for economic warfare. These
bases would allow the United States to
choke Japan of all trade and air bombardment on Japan’s
cities and industries until peace was
established with their army intact in Japan and in China.
Japan’s pride would prove fatal.
War Plan Orange
FDR Changes Foreign Policy
Although President Roosevelt close the case on the Japanese sinking of the
USS Panay on December 25, 1937 due to Japan’s apology, promise to pay damages,
and guaranteeing the safety of the rights and interests of the American
nationals in China. Japanese continued to harass and abuse American citizens in
China. This caused President Roosevelt to take a firmer stance against Japan.
President Roosevelt supported British proposal to establish a naval blockade
around Japan; however, the British changed their decision and only issued a
verbal disagreement toward Japan’s actions in China. President Roosevelt did not
go through with the naval blockade due to the lack of support by British
government. President Roosevelt did move up the cruise for the American Fleet
for a time earlier than mid-March.
Due to the strong isolationistic tendencies of the American public and
policies, President Roosevelt was unable to take a firmer stand against Japanese
aggression in China. The United States wanted to avoided conflicted at all
costs. Therefore, the President’s hands were tied and he could not take further
action against Japan.
BOOK SOURCES -
VIETNAM - AGENT ORANGE AND AGENT BLUE
"Between 1962 and
1971, US military forces sprayed
millions of gallons of herbicides
over South Vietnam.
accounted for much of the total sprayed."
Release - July 28, 1993 [REPORT]
used by the U.S. during the Vietnam War to defoliate the hiding places
of the Viet Cong (VC) guerillas and North Vietnamese Army (NVA)
infamous herbicide used was called Agent Orange. The steel drums in
which the herbicide was transported were color-coded with an orange
stripe. Other colors such as Blue, White, Purple and Pink, were used
to designate different herbicide formulations.
volume of herbicide was applied from the air by C-123 "Provider"
twin-engine aircraft. This air spray program was code named Operation
also used around the perimeters of fire bases to keep the concertina
wire clear of vegetation, providing an open view for sentries on guard
duty. Herbicides were also sprayed along river banks to reduce the
number of US casualties in the Brown Water Navy.
Below is a map
of the provinces of the Central Highlands showing the total volume
sprayed of the three major herbicides used in the war; Agents Orange,
Blue and White.
map features only the provinces near the 7/15th Field
Artillery's area of operations in the II CORPS region of Vietnam.
Herbicides were also used in other provinces of Vietnam.
KEY TO MAP
the number of gallons of herbicide applied during the Vietnam war.
Date indicates the last time herbicides were used in that
Operation Ranch Hand
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
Agent Orange II
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
1968 and 1969
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
1/62 - 1964
1962 - 1964
1962 - 1964
Picloram and 2,4-D
Cacodylic acid (arsenic)
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
1962 - 1964
1962 - 1964
1962 - 1964
1962 - 1964
1962 - 1964
1962 - 1964
1962 - 1964
1962 - 1964
Transports fly in
close formation as they
spray defoliation chemicals on the jungle
to deprive the enemy of hiding places
Following the war,
veterans began to experience health problems that they attributed to
herbicide exposure. Finally, almost 20 years after the war ended,
Congress asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) National Academy of
Sciences (NAS) to perform an in-depth study. The length of time that
had elapsed since the end of the war certainly didn't help the
On July 28, 1993 the
following Press Release was issued by the Institute of Medicine,
National Academy of Sciences:
REPORT LINKS DISEASE
CALLS FOR NEW STUDIES OF EXPOSED
July 28, 1993
WASHINGTON - Evidence exists linking three cancers and two other health
problems with chemicals used in herbicides in the Vietnam War, a committee
of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has concluded. Those diseases are soft
tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease, as well as
skin diseases chloracne and porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). The committee
also concluded that new studies piecing together different types of
information could help determine how much the risk of disease is increased
in veterans who were exposed to such herbicides as Agent Orange.
committee's report specifically focuses on Agent Orange and other herbicides
used in Vietnam, some of which contained dioxin, and unintended byproduct of
the manufacturing process.
"Over the years, extreme views have evolved on the issue," said Harold
Fallon, IOM committee chair and dean of the School of Medicine at the
University of Alabama, Birmingham. "On one extreme is the view that Agent
Orange has not led to health problems. Our committee has determined through
an extensive review of the scientific literature that indeed, there does
appear to be a link between exposure to herbicides and certain diseases."
Most of the evidence the committee reviewed about adverse health effects
came from studies of people who were exposed as a result of their jobs or
from industrial accidents. These types of exposures often were at high
levels and for long periods of time. Getting a clear picture of the health
risks for Vietnam veterans is not so straightforward, the committee said,
because the levels of exposure were extremely wide ranging. Indeed, while
most veterans probably had lower exposure levels, some may have experienced
levels as high as that of occupational or agricultural exposures. What is
uncertain is how many veterans may have been exposed to those higher levels
and who those individuals are.
"We simply do not know the degree of risk for Vietnam veterans," said
committee vice chair David Tollerud, director of occupational and
environmental medicine, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public
Health. "We do feel, however, that enough information exists to allow
studies to be done that would lead to a better understanding of the risk
that veterans face for contracting diseases related to herbicide exposure in
ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS
The committee examined more than
230 epidemiological studies in detail on a range of health problems and
their possible association with herbicides. It found sufficient evidence of
a statistical association between exposure to herbicides or dioxin and soft
tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. The committee
also found sufficient evidence of an association between herbicides or
dioxin and chloracne and PCT. Chloracne is a specific acne-like skin
disorder; PCT is a liver disorder characterized by thinning and blistering
of the skin.
The category of sufficient
evidence represented the strongest link the committee made between adverse
health effects and exposure to herbicides, including Agent Orange or dioxin.
The U.S. Department of Veterans
Affairs currently compensates Vietnam veterans for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,
soft tissue sarcoma, and chloracne.
The link between herbicides or
dioxin and other adverse health effects the committee studied fell into
three remaining categories:
> Limited or Suggestive
Evidence. The committee found limited or suggestive evidence of an
association between exposure to herbicides of the kind used in Vietnam and
three other cancers: respiratory cancers, prostate cancer, and multiple
> Inadequate Evidence. The
scientific data for most cancers and other diseases, such as adverse
neurological and reproductive effects, were inadequate or insufficient to
determine whether an association exists, the report says (see attached
> No Association. For a small
group of cancers, the committee found that a sufficient number and variety
of well-designed studies exist to conclude that there is limited or
suggestive evidence of no association between these cancers and the
herbicides or dioxin. This group includes skin cancer, gastrointestinal
tumors (colon, rectal, stomach, and pancreatic), bladder cancer, and brain
NEW MEASURES OF EXPOSURE
In reviewing the literature, the
committee found that exposure assessment was the weakest element in most
epidemiological studies of veterans. While some studies show a link between
adverse health effects and herbicides or dioxin, there are few data
indicating which individuals may have received high exposures during service
The evidence about exposure
during the war suggests that Vietnam veterans as a group had substantially
lower exposure to herbicides and dioxins than the subjects in many
occupational studies, the committee said. Veterans who were participants in
Operation Ranch Hand -- the extensive spraying of some 19 million gallons of
herbicide over 3.6 million acres of South Vietnam from airplanes -- are an
exception to this pattern, however, because of their direct involvement in
the spraying missions.
But the committee also said
that, among the approximately 3 million Vietnam veterans, there may be some
former ground troops not directly involved in the spraying who were exposed
to herbicides at levels associated with adverse health effects.
The committee emphasized that it
may be possible to develop better exposure measures for Vietnam veterans by
relying on "less formal" sources of historical information than have been
used in the past. Previous studies have relied primarily on the carefully
recorded information on aerial spraying in Operation Ranch Hand and on blood
tests for dioxin, but these measures may not reflect the full range of
exposures of Vietnam veterans to herbicides.
The committee urged that a
non-government organization be commissioned to develop and test new methods
of evaluating herbicide exposure in Vietnam veterans. These new methods
would draw on historical reconstructions and include information on the
spraying that occurred around base camps and other areas which could have
led to higher human exposures, the committee said. Important information
could be gained from historical records of ground and perimeter spraying,
herbicide shipments to various military bases, and knowledge of the type of
terrain and foliage typical of the locations sprayed and the military
mission of the troops located there. These new methods of measuring exposure
should be evaluated by an independent, non-government scientific panel.
If they prove to be valid, a new
series of epidemiological studies of veterans should be undertaken to assess
the degree to which veterans may be at risk of cancer and other disease as a
result of exposure, the committee said.
It also urged continued
follow-up of the Ranch Hand veterans and its comparison group, and
recommended that members of the Army Chemical Corps also be studied for
adverse health effects from exposure. Studies should be done by an
independent agency, noting that such an independent body could do much to
'satisfy the public's concern about impartiality and scientific
In addition, the committee
recommended that -- for the purpose of facilitating the collection of data
for new studies -- the U.S. Department of Defense identify in its
computerized index of military service records which veterans served in
Vietnam. Currently, this index does not indicate whether an individual
served in the Vietnam War. "Lack of an indicator of Vietnam service
complicates every epidemiologic study of veterans . . . and leads to
HERBICIDE USE IN VIETNAM
Between 1962 and 1971, U.S.
military forces sprayed millions of gallons of herbicides over South
Vietnam. Agent Orange accounted for much of the total sprayed.
After a scientific report in
1969 concluded that one of the primary chemicals used in Agent Orange could
cause birth defects in laboratory animals, use of the herbicide was
suspended. All U.S.-authorized herbicide use in Vietnam was halted in 1971.
As the decade wore on, concern about possible long-term health consequences
of Agent Orange and other herbicides heightened, fueled in part by reports
from Vietnam veterans that they had developed cancer or fathered handicapped
children. Some veterans attributed these health problems to wartime exposure
Since then, thousands of
scientific studies have been conducted. Faced with lingering uncertainty,
Congress asked the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine to
conduct a comprehensive review of available scientific information regarding
the health effects of exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides used in
Vietnam. The report is the product of the IOM committee's work, begun in
The study was sponsored by the
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.
The Institute of Medicine is a
private, non-profit organization that provides health policy advice under a
congressional charter granted to the National Academy of Sciences.
TABLE 1-1 Summary of Findings in
Occupational, Environmental, and Veterans Studies Regarding the Association
Between Specific Health Problems and Exposure to Herbicides
Evidence of an Association
Evidence is sufficient to
conclude that there is a positive association. That is, a positive
association has been observed between herbicides and the outcome in
studies in which chance, bias, and confounding could be ruled out with
reasonable confidence. For example, if several small studies that are free
from bias and confounding show an association that is consistent in
magnitude and direction, there may be sufficient evidence for an
association. There is sufficient evidence of an association between
exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:
Soft tissue sarcoma
Porphyria cutanea tarda
(in genetically susceptible individuals)
Limited/Suggestive Evidence of
Evidence is suggestive of an
association between herbicides and the outcome but is limited because
chance, bias, and confounding could not be ruled out with confidence. For
example, at least one high-quality study shows a positive association, but
the results of other studies are inconsistent. There is limited/suggestive
evidence of an association between exposure to herbicides and the
following health outcomes:
Respiratory cancers (lung,
to Determine Whether an Association Exists
The available studies are of
insufficient quality, consistency, or statistical power to permit a
conclusion regarding the presence or absence of an association. For
example, studies fail to control for confounding, have inadequate exposure
assessment, or fail to address latency. There is inadequate or
insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists between
exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:
cancers (breast, cervical, uterine, ovarian)
Neonatal/infant death and
Childhood cancer in
Abnormal sperm parameters
Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine Whether an Association Exists
Peripheral nervous system
Metabolic and digestive
disorders (diabetes, changes in liver enzymes, lipid abnormalities,
Immune system disorders
(immune modulation and autoimmunity)
Limited/Suggestive Evidence of
Several adequate studies,
covering the full range of levels of exposure that human beings are known
to encounter, are mutually consistent in not showing a positive
association between exposure to herbicides and the outcome at any level of
exposure. A conclusion of 'no association' is inevitably limited to the
conditions, level of exposure, and length of observation covered by the
available studies. In addition, the possibility of a very small
elevation in risk at the levels of exposure studied can never be excluded.
There is limited/suggestive evidence of no association between
exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:
(stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer)
NOTE: 'Herbicides' refers to the major
herbicides used in Vietnam: 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid); 2,4,5-T
(2,4,5-tricbIorophenoxyacetic acid) and its contaminant TCDD
(2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); cacodylic acid; and picloram.
The evidence regarding association is drawn from occupational and other
studies in which subjects were exposed to a variety of herbicides and
Feb 9, 2009 ...
Subject: Valuable information to all Veterans: Agent
Orange, PTSD, Gulf
Blue Water Navy, Veterans Benefits, VA Forms, Military
WORKS - NEW YORK CITY - 2001
WAR DATABASE ON THIS SITE
ALIEN DATABASE ON THIS SITE
UFO DATABASE ON THIS SITE
DREAMS OF THE GREAT EARTHCHANGES - MAIN