compiled by Dee Finney

2-1-09 - DREAM - I was looking at a large table cloth that was embroidered in fine detail everywhere.  The pattern was made up of little squares, some of the squares broken up into smaller squares, and each square had the image of a man in old fashioned clothing, or just words that someone said that had been remembered.

Then the tablecloth vanished and I was looking at the brown table itself which was very shiny, and on this table - on the left was a line of sky blue discs and on the right was a much smaller line of orange discs.

Then the blue discs started flying across the table at the orange discs - of course there were fewer and fewer orange discs as they got hit by the blue discs.

I woke up with the thought that it was about the Blue and Orange War.

NOTE: As we learned in art class blue and orange are opposites on the color wheel so they make a dramatic combination.

Just as an aside - Hillary Clinton wore a bright orange pant suit while Michelle Obama wore a blue dress at the same event, while Hillary claimed  'unity'.  Was it?

  for more details.

I don't know if this is relevant, but found it interesting.  There are other colors besides blue and orange, but check this out:

Stages of consciousness #2

I would like now to complete my study of consciousness evolution on this blog. I already did a blog post on this, but then using a different system to the one I'm used to.

Let me try now to make sense of the system I'm more familiar with, Spiral Dynamics. The model was developed by Don Beck and Christopher Cowan based on the work of psychology professor Clare Graves and was popularized by Ken Wilber (whose perspective lead to the evolution of SDi - Spiral Dynamics integral).

It's vital to understand here that these stages do not describe types of people, they describe ways of thinking that live within people. Consider it a toolbox, not elitism.

Spiral Dynamics

Beige (archaic-instinctual, identity not yet fully formed)
The beige level of consciousness is the first and least sophisticated level available to human beings. It features a barely developed sense of I, meaning it has little sense of being separate. Beige consciousness is basically only concerned with the most basic needs, food, water, sex, security etc.

Key word: Survival
Seen in: Infants, senile elderly, the starving etc.
Cultural impact
: 0.1 percent of the population, 0 percent power

Purple (magic-animistic, identity not yet fully formed)
The purple level developed when human tribes first met. This traumatic experience required them to reorient themselves in the world and form new forms of civilization. Purple believes in magic; spirits of nature or the ancestors fly around casting spells and curses. Purple can develop irrational relationships to inanimate objects based on the idea that all objects, alive or otherwise, posess a soul. Can appear to some (myself included) to be a higher level of consciousness than it actually is.

Key word: Magic
Seen in: Voodoo curses, good luck charms, third world tribes etc
Cultural impact
: 10 percent of the population, 1 percent of the power

Red (egocentric, individual)
At this stage, a separate sense of self distinct from the tribe develops. With this new-formed identity comes the wish to perpetuate its power and as a consequence red consciousness generally uses violence and aggressive means to barge ahead in life. The world is a dangerous place and to perpetuate the power of identity, all enemies must be destroyed.

Key words: Power and respect
Seen in: Terrible twos, feudal kingdoms, James Bond villains, Nazi Germany (part red, part blue), wild rock stars, Lord of the Flies etc.
Cultural impact
: 20 percent of the population, 5 percent of the power

Blue (mythic, group)
This consciousness level leaves behind the chaotic narcissism of red in favour of law and order. Blue features very defined values, black and white, true and false, good and evil, saint and sinner. Violating the agreed upon code of conduct has very serious consequences, going to hell, being executed, imprisoned, exiled etc. There is only one way to think about things and the social structure is very hierarchical. Dogmatic religion and submission to a supernatural being, everything is predestined, sacrifice now to obtain later.

Key words: Purpose, justice
Seen in: US administration, Republican party (part blue, part orange), patriotism, boy and girl scouts, fundamentalism, codes of chivalry and honor, ethnocentricity
Cultural impact
: 40 percent of the population, 30 percent of the power

Orange (rational, individual)
At this stage of consciousness, the individual starts questioning the idea that everything is predestined. Perhaps there is no God in the sky that has everything all figured out. Man then starts taking responsibility for his own life and starts seeking his own answers and ways ahead in life. This level of consciousness is meritocratic - your worth is not based on who you are, but what you can do, and thus worldcentric (a black man is worth just as much as a white man if he has the same skills). Science rules the day and the mystery of existence is all but gone, the world is a well oiled machine that is there to be used, even at the cost of the planet.

Key words: Skill
Seen in: Capitalism, fashion industry, the Western Enlightenment (Renaissance), fame and superstardom
Cultural impact
: 30 percent of the population, 50 percent of the power

Green (postmodern, group)
With the emergence of green in the 1960s, came a sensitizing to the plight of the human race. Blue and orange have been destroying the planet through creating saints and sinners, winners and losers, and green seeks to deconstruct these value structures to better humanity. At this stage, emotions become more important than logic, decisions are reached through reconciliation and consensus. Take care of the planet, be a good person and don't be so greedy. Green fails to see the stages of consciousness it traversed to get to its current state and is extremely bad at making decisions, because it's incapable of deeming one thing better or worse than another. Everything is an egalitarian mush from which little truth and action can be extracted. Green is often incapable of making the changes it idolizes.

Key words: Deconsctruct blue and orange, preserve the planet and be nice
Where seen: Democrat Party (part green, part orange), Political correctness, Greenpeace, animal rights, human rights issues, free health care, United Nations
Cultural impact
: 10 percent of the population, 15 percent of the power

Yellow (integrative, individual)
This is the first stage of 2nd tier consciousness. 2nd tier is described by its awareness of the existence of different levels of consciousness. It sees that all levels have a place in the world and that the purpose of 2nd tier consciousness is to use whatever tools are available to traverse the ladder of evolution to help people at whatever stages they're at. Hierarchies are reintroduced: Knowledge and competency should supersede power, status and group sensitivity. Flexibility, spontaneity and functionality have the highest priority. A belief in intuition.

Key words: Evolution through flexibility
Where seen: Rarely, mainly in individuals, but to some extent in the growing number of integral businesses
Cultural impact
:1 percent of the population, 5 percent of the power

Turquoise (holistic, group)
Consciousness that unites feeling with knowledge. Believes in universal order, but not based on external rules (blue) or group bonds (green). Often involves emergence of cosmocentric spirituality. Global consciousness - it's possible to make money while taking good care of the planet and workers. In fact, it's not only possible, through the turquoise perspective, it is seen as the BEST way to make money. Uses the entire spiral, can access any stage at will and can read between the lines. The insight of turquoise into human nature is so vast that it can be perceived as being psychic, even though that is not necessarily the case.

Key words: Global consciousness
Where seen: In rare individuals who have integrated spirituality with the rational world of science and matter
Cultural impact: 0.1 percent of the population, 1 percent of the power

More stages (Coral) yet to come as humanity evolves further.

Bear in mind that my understanding of this model is still incomplete, so this article may contain inaccuracies. In any case, this blog post will be vital for some of my future posts on the current world situation.

Next up - why the Democrat party with its significantly higher level of consciousness than the Republican party failed to capture the minds and hearts of Americans in the last election.



"War of Light" and "Blackest Night"

Orange Lantern Corps - The Orange Lanterns are powered by avarice, or greed. The Controllers (an offshoot of the Guardians) are seeking the Orange Light of Avarice in the Vegan Star System. The bearers of Orange rings possess a much deeper aura than other Corps's members, and it is said they steal the rings of other Corps' as well.

Blue Lantern Corps - The Blue Lantern Corps rings are powered by Hope. They were created by the Guardians Ganthet and Sayd out of their Hope for the future. The Blue Power Rings are capable of energizing other Corps' rings. The first member is Saint Walker, sent by Ganthet and Sayd to help Hal and fellow lanterns in keeping Sinestro from falling victim to the Red Corps.


1885 - Civil War Saddle blankets

The Orange Order and the Election of 1911


There were many reasons for the defeat of Sir Wilfred Laurier's Liberal government in 1911. Perhaps the main reason was the reciprocity issue which sought free trade between the United States and Canada. In addition Laurier's Roman Catholicism had become increasingly suspect in English Protestant Canada. Over his fifteen years in power Orangemen felt that Laurier had time and time again sided with Quebec at the expense of English Canada. His support for free trade with the United States was to many Orangemen the final act of disloyalty. If the free trade issue were successful it would have meant that Canada would have been drawn closer to the U.S. and this in turn would have undermined British influence in Canada.

The publication of Robert Sellar's book, 'The Tragedy of Quebec' dealt with the expulsion of Protestant farmers from the Eastern Townships of Quebec. Publication of this book in English Canada intensified fears that the French Canadians were controlling the country. In the minds of Canadian Orangemen the problems of the Empire were identical with those facing Canada. In Ireland, Roman Catholicism was in its support of Home Rule, promoting the break-up of the Empire. In England , proposed changes to the Coronation Oath symbolized the erosion of a Protestant monarchy . In Canada, the recent arrival of a Papal delegate made Orangemen see red. They asked how could a Canadian have a dual loyalty to both the Vatican and Canada at the same time. Laurier had supported the idea of publicly funded Roman Catholic schools in Alberta and Saskatchewan

In 1910 the Quebec Superior Court upheld an annulment by the Roman Catholic Church in the case where the marriage ceremony had been performed by a Protestant minister. "The marriage issue was an important milestone in twentieth-century Orangeism because it did much to unite both Orange and non-Orange Protestants in the belief that uncontrolled Romanism posed a threat to Canadian society."

When all of these issues were taken into account it was decided by Orangemen that Laurier had to go and there is every indication that a vast majority of Canadian Orangemen were willing to help him on his way. Ironically, it could be said of Laurier that as Orange power was a factor in electing him in 1896, it was also Orange power that played a role in his defeat in 1911.

In his retirement address of 1914, Grand Master Lieutenant Colonel Scott stated: "The Order today occupies throughout this country a power and influence equalled by no other fraternal association, and recognizing this fact, the members of this order can, if they will, largely control the direction of public legislation, both Federal and Provincial, especially as regards subjects which closely touch the principles of the Orange Order." Two hundred thousand Orangemen had obviously agreed with his statement.


The Sentinel

The Sentinel and Orange and Protestant Advocate was organized and first published in 1875. Its first editors and owner publishers were E.F. Clarke, a future mayor of Toronto, and John Hewitt. Both men were active trade unionists. Eventually their expanded press facilities at 37 and 39 Adelaide Street in Toronto took care of all the City of Toronto's printing.

E.F. Clarke died in 1905 and Horatio Clarence Hocken and John McMillan formed a limited company and gave the Sentinel new management. Hocken, who had a wide experience of newspaper knowledge, having worked at the Toronto Globe, Toronto Star, and Toronto News, made some radical changes to the paper that he was to be editor of until 1931. One of the changes that he made was to put editorials on the front page of the paper. The Sentinel at this time was not just a fraternal magazine for the Orange Lodge published six times a year. It was printed twice a week and took strong positions on political matters and spoke for many of the large Protestant and Orange population in Canada on a wide variety of issues.

At the outbreak of the First World War, circulation was 32,000 copies weekly. Hocken later became mayor of Toronto, a position that he retired from in 1917 to run successfully for the House of Commons. In 1928 the paper was taken over by the Grand Orange Lodge of Canada. Hocken remained as Managing Director of the British American Publishing Company of which a majority of stock was held by the Grand Lodge.

Circulation was then at 20,000. Leslie H. Saunders, also destined to become Mayor of Toronto in the 1950's became the Business Manager. H.C. Hocken at this time received an appointment to the Canadian Senate and withdrew from active participation in the running of the paper. The Sentinel by this time tended to be the voice of the Orange Order in Canada, and as early as 1920, John Easton, later Grand Master of Canada, described it as the Order's official organ.

However the paper was not always listened to by Orangemen and its views not always agreed to. Prior to the election of 1919 in Ontario it called on all Orangemen to vote for the Conservatives. Many voted for the United Farmer candidates. In 1936 Leslie Saunders founded a rival publication, Protestant Action. He did so because he did not believe that the Sentinel was taking a strong enough stand in regard to the separate schools controversy. Throughout its long history the Sentinel was a spokesman for the Orange Order, but it certainly has never spoken for all Orangemen.


Loyal True Blue and Orange Home

"They stand straightest who stoop to help a little child"

I'm sure that many people have driven north on Yong Street [Hwy. 11] at one time or another and have passed through the town of Richmond Hill. How many, I wonder, have ever taken the time to stop and visit the Loyal True Blue and Orange Home. This landmark of Orangeism has identified the benevolent work of the Loyal True Blue and Orange Lodges since 1923. For over 100 years the Loyal True Blue Association in Canada has taken an active interest in children's welfare. It was in 1889 that Mrs Joseph Hilton, a member of Lady Verner True Blue Lodge in Toronto, became concerned that facilities for Protestant orphans were totally inadequate.

As a result she spearheaded a drive at the True Blue Grand Lodge in 1890 that resulted in the appointment of an orphanage board. The idea caught the imagination of True Blue members throughout the province of Ontario and through the initiative of the Picton Lodge property was obtained and on August 23, 1899, the orphanage was declared open at Picton, Ontario. It soon became apparent that accommodation was far less than required, but the project itself had met with great acceptance by lodge members. By 1916 the Provincial Grand Orange Lodges of Ontario East and West had shown their support and were added to the Board of Management and in 1919 the property at Richmond Hill was puchased.

In 1920 members of the Ladies Orange Benevolent Association in Ontario East and West joined in the project. On October 22, 1921, the cornerstone was laid for the Richmond Hill building by H.C. Hocken, the then Grand Master of the Grand Orange Lodge of Canada, and the unity of the Blue and Orange became visible in the spacious building which was officially opened on Dominion Day, 1923 with W.W. Fitzgerald presiding.

The dedicatory prayer was said by Reverend W.L.L. Lawrence, and giving Grand Lodge approval was the Grand Master of Canada, the Honourable W.D. McPherson K.C., accompanied by H.C. Hocken M.P. The True Blues were represented by George Farley, Grand Master, and the L.O.B.A. was honoured by the presence of Mary Cullum, their founder and first Grand Mistress. The event aroused interest throughout the entire country and to this day citizens of all denominations point with pride to the landmark at Richmond Hill. Each year the Home holds 'Open House', a special occasion when visitors and former residents are welcomed.


The Harvey Case

The Reverend J.M. Whitelaw, B.A., B.D., was born in Glasgow, Scotland and came to Canada as a child. At the age of thirteen he left school and went to work for a Henry Stafford of Almonte, Ontario, whose brother was a Roman Catholic priest in Lindsay. During the next three years he studied privately and succeeded in passing the Teachers Intermediate Examination, while through his association with the Staffords he received a deep insight into the Roman Catholic system. After attending the Perth Model School he taught for six years at Clayton, Lanark County, at at Douglas in Renfrew County. During these six years he prepared for matriculation and entered Morrin College, Quebec which was affiliated with McGill University. He received the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Divinity.

Upon graduation he was called to the Leeds Presbyterian congregation in Megantic County, Quebec where he was to spend thirteen years and during this time he joined the Orange Order. It was quite a time to be an Orange clergyman in Eastern Quebec. Whitelaw was involved in what became known as the Harvey Case. The man Harvey was an Orangeman who had married a Roman Catholic, but his wife had stated her intentions to be confirmed in the Protestant faith. Before this took place Harvey died in Whitelaw's parish. At midnight and while he was unconscious and a few minutes before his death he was anointed by the parish priest. The Roman Catholics claimed the right to inter the body but Whitelaw secured the necessary certificates and said "No, we Protestants will inter the body."

At Whitelaw's suggestion a considerable quantity of dynamite was placed around the coffin so that no one could successfully disinter the body. Talk about fighting for converts! Whitlaw later moved to Ontario and became the County Master of Victoria and later still was elected as the Grand Chaplain of the G.O.L. of Ontario East. In 1906 he was appointed as a delegate from Ontario East to attend the Grand Orange Council of the World.

Thanks to Alex Rough for this material


Orangemen and War

In 1913, the Orange Association of Manitoba volunteered a regiment to fight with the Ulster Volunteers against the British government if Home Rule were to be introduced to Ireland.

Orangemen played a big part in suppressing the Upper Canada Rebellion of William Lyon Mackenzie in 1837. Though the rebellion was short-lived, 317 Orangemen were sworn in to the local militia by the Mayor of Toronto and then resisted Mackenzie's march down Yonge Street in 1837.

They were involved in fighting unsuccessfully against the Fenians at Ridgeway, Ontario in 1866. An obelisk there marks the spot where Orangemen died in defending the colony against an attack by members of Clan na Gael (commonly known as Fenians).

Orangemen in western Canada helped suppress the rebellions of Louis Riel in 1870 and 1885.

The call to arms by Bro. Sir Samuel Hughes, the Canadian Minister for War and member of LOL 557 Lindsay Ontario, resulted in some 80,000 members from Canada volunteering for service during the First World War

Canadian Orangeism and the Military

 The Orange Order had a lodge in many regiments of the British Army by the early 1800's. It was only natural that the Orangemen in these units would want to continue their membership whereever their regiments were sent. Prior to 1812 there were few Orangemen in Canada and those lodges which did exist were small and isolated. Most of the members were ex British army personnel who had settled here. It was from these regiments that the Orange Order in Canada was to get its main start. As thousands of British troops arrived in Canada at the outbreak of the War of 1812 Orangeism grew rapidly in Upper Canada. Soon after the war the first recorded Orange Parade in Canada was held.

During the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, Ogle Gowan, the first Canadian Grand Master, organized his own milita unit, the 9th Provincial Battalion, later renamed the Queens Royal Borderers and helped to defeat American invaders at the Battle of the Windmill. Gowan also claimed that 317 Orangemen were sworn into the militia for the defence of Toronto by Mayor Gurnett on December 4 and 5, 1837.

In the Fenian Raids of 1866 over half of the casualties were Orangemen. Havelock L.O.L. No. 27 was formed in New Brunswick on April 8, 1868 by the Havelock Volunteers who had enlisted in 1865-1866 to repel the Fenians. The company was stationed at St. Andrews, New Brunswick under the command of Captain Sifron Goddard who was the first lodge master. In 1885 the Royal Grenadiers of Toronto were sent west to put down the 2nd Riel Rebellion. There were 250 men in the regiment, 148 of whom were Orangemen.

During the first World War Canada's war effort was headed by an Orangeman, Colonel Sam Hughes until he was replaced by another Orangeman, Sir Edward Kemp. Hughes estimated that out of 600,000 men in uniform in W.W. 1, 80,000 were Orangemen. Over a dozen Orange military lodges were formed in the Canadian army during this war.

Six of the battalions that recruited in Toronto in W.W. 1 had Orangemen as Commanding Officers. It was stated by the colonel of the 204th Battalion that when it was recruiting in Toronto, that seventy-five percent of the men enlisting were able to give the Quartermaster Sergeant the Royal Arch handshake. The Grand Master of Manitoba, W.T. Edgecombe organized and took overseas a solid Orange battalion of over 1000 men. The highest ranking allied soldier killed in action during W.W. 1 was a Canadian Orangeman, Brigadier General Malcolm Mercer. During World War Two Orangemen again responded to the country's call for help. Military lodges were formed in the Toronto Scottish Regiment and in the Midland Regiment. Many lodges never recovered from the loss of membership suffered during these years. In the short space of less that thirty years, Orange Lodges had twice seen the majority of their membership serve overseas with many of their youngest members - their future leaders being killed in action. Their loss dealt a crippling blow to the Orange Order in Canada from which it never recovered.

The Harbour Grace Affray

Orangeism has had a long and distinguished career in the province of Newfoundland. The following event was the catalyst that was to bring the Orange Order in Newfoundland to the front pages of the local media.

December 26, 1883 - "Probably the most serious Newfoundland riot, as far as casualty is concerned, took place the day after Christmas in Harbour Grace in 1883. Following a service in the Methodist church on Water Street, the Loyal Orange Society set out on parade with about 350 men. Near Pippy's Lane they were met with another 300 - 350 men from Riverhead, a predominantly Roman Catholic area. These men were determined to stop the parade from trespassing on their territory. In the ensuing scuffle, a number of shots were fired that wounded eighteen men and killed the following five: William James of Carbonear, William French of Courage's Beach, Patrick Callahan of Southside, John Bray of Courage's Beach, and Thomas Nicholas of Otterbury."

Seven men, including Head Constable Ed Doyle, were arrested and charged with the willful murder of Patrick Callahan. He was suspended from the constabulary but was reinstated on May 21, 1885 after the Crown had decided that he had indeed acted responsibly in carrying out his official duties. Nineteen people from Riverhead were arrested for the murders of Janes, French, and Bray. Their first trial occurred on May 12, 1884 before Chief Justice Sir F.B.T. Carter. About five other trials took place and ultimately the prisoners were discharged on the murder charge. Fourteen of them however were found guilty of riotous assembly and assault. They were each granted bale at $400.00. The light sentences outraged the Orangemen who met in the British Hall on July 5, 1884. They formed the General Protestant Union intending that branches be formed in other Protestant communities. They denounced the jury system of the colony as "utterly powerless to secure the conviction of the guilty fand to redress the wrongs of the subjects as far as the Protestant population are concerned." The Protestant Union called on the government to improve the administration of justice and "secure to Protestants and to others the rights and privileges guaranteed to them by the British Contitution." Controversy that arose out of the Harbour Grace Affray raged on in the House of Assembly throughout the year of 1885.

According to Arthur Fox, who wrote the History of the Constabulary, the trials of this case brought out evidence that Head Constable Doyle was warned at least twice prior to the parade that it was going to be barricaded by the Riverhead men. Yet he did nothing, claiming that this was an often used threat which had never come to anything. "What is wanted is to efface the darkest blot in our history; to have the whole deplorable occurrence buried and forgotten. We have been taught a terrible lesson by it and during the present generation there will be no repetition of such occurrences. We are perfectly satisfied that these are the sentiments of an overpowering majority of the population, both Protestant and Catholic." -- The Evening Mercury, December 23, 1885

     Thanks to Alex Rough for this material


World War One

Theatres of War

 Although World War One was a world war, most of the fighting was confined to a few key areas. These areas are usually referred to as the theatres of war.

Western Front    Eastern Front    Italian Front    Gallipoli    The War at Sea

Western Front

Western Front Map - Click to enlarge


The German army crossed the Belgian border on August 3rd 1914. Britain and France declared war on Germany on August 4th. The Germans pushed through Belgium, occupying Brussels before entering France.

 The British and French armies marched to stop the German advance. The Battle of Marne 4th - 10th September prevented the Germans from marching on Paris.

To avoid losing the territory already gained in France, the Germans began digging trenches. The British and French unable to break through the line of trenches, began to dig their own trenches. Throughout the entire war, neither side gained more than a few miles of ground along what became known as the Western Front.

The map above, which can be clicked to enlarge, shows the geographical position of the Western Front stretching from Belgium in the north to Switzerland in the south. Each coloured square represents 50,000 men. Yellow represents the German army, blue the French, red the British and orange the Belgian army.

 Battles fought along this front include - Marne, September 1914; first battle of Ypres, October - November 1914; Verdun, February - December 1916; Somme, July - November 1916; Passchendale, July - November 1917; Cambrai, November 1917; Marne, July 1918.

 Full details of all Western Front battles can be found at

 Eastern Front

The line of fighting on the Eastern side of Europe between Russia and Germany and Austria-Hungary is known as the Eastern Front.

Fighting began on the Eastern front when Russia invaded East Prussia on 17th August 1914. Germany immediately launched a counter-offensive and pushed Russia back. This pattern of attack and counter-attack continued for the first two years of the war and meant that the Eastern Front changed position as land was captured and lost by both sides.

By 1917, the Russian people were fed up and demoralised by the huge number of Russian losses. The government and monarchy were overthrown and the new Bolshevik government signed the treaty of Brest Litovsk which took the Russians out of the war.

The map above, which can be clicked to enlarge, shows the geographical location of the Eastern front stretching from Riga in the north to Czernowitz in the south. The orange line shows the position of the Eastern Front in 1915. Each coloured square represents 50,000 men. Red represents the Russian army, yellow, German soldiers and blue Austro-Hungarian.

Battles fought along this front include - Tannenberg, August 1914; Masurian Lakes, September 1914; Bolimov, January 1915; Lake Naroch, March 1916; Riga, September 1917.

Full details of all eastern Front battles can be found at

Italian Front

Italian Front - Click to enlargePrior to the outbreak of war in August 1914, Italy had tended to side with Germany and Austria-Hungary. To begin with, Italy kept out of the war. However, tempted by offers of more land once the war was won, Italy entered the war in April 1915 on the side of the allies.

The Italian front is the name given to the fighting that took place along the border between Italy and Austria. The Italians only managed to advance a short way into Austria (shown by the red line on the map [Click to enlarge]). Between 1915 and 1917 there were twelve battles fought along the river Isonzo. just inside the Austrian border (shown in blue on the map). After being defeated at the battle of Caporetto the Italians were pushed back. The 1918 location of the Italian front is marked on the map in yellow.

Full details of all Italian Front battles can be found at 


Gallipoli - Click to enlargeThe Gallipoli peninsula is located in the south of Turkey. In 1915, the allied commanders decided to try to attack Germany by attacking her ally, Turkey.  Allied soldiers, mainly from Australia and New Zealand, were sent to the Peninsula while British ships tried to force a way through the Dardanelles.

The entire mission was a failure. The allies lost more than 50,000 men but gained hardly any land. The map above, which can be clicked to enlarge, shows the front line. The blue line shows the allies position while the green shows the Turkish line.

Full details of all battles fought on the Gallipoli front can be found at


The War at Sea

Even before hostilities began, Germany and Britain were involved in a naval race for mastery of the seas. Britain had a long tradition of being the master of the seas and Germany knew that she was unlikely to win a naval war against Britain. For this reason, Germany tended to avoid open naval conflict with Britain.

 Britain's main naval tactic was to keep German ships in German ports and to block supplies from reaching Germany. Germany's main naval tactic was to post u-boats in the Atlantic ocean and to destroy ships taking supplies from America and other countries to Britain. On 7th May 1915, the passenger liner Lusitania, was torpedoed by a German submarine. Nearly 1200 civilians lost their lives.

 The most notable sea battle of World War One was the Battle of Jutland between Germany and Britain which ended inconclusively.

 Full details of all sea battles can be found at

Bibliography/Further Information

FROM: A History on the Net Group

Visiting Troops


By September 1943, most of the British troops had moved out of the area and things were becoming slightly more normal. Suddenly there was great excitement with the arrival of American troops. They were mainly from the Southern states of America, especially Virginia, Georgia and Carolina. The first U.S. troops to arrive in Gilford were black soldiers, and were billeted in the Orange Hall on Stramore Road. They were an Advance party of the United State 6th Cavalry Regiment, who were to prepare for the main body of troops who would arrive six weeks later. When they first arrived they were marched through Gilford, escorted by what appeared to be a group of United States marines, wearing blue jackets, orange gaiters and crepe-soled boots.

These men had sailed from the U.S.A. on the Queen Mary, and arrived on September 25 in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland. From there they moved to Markethill, Co Armagh, from where this advance detachment made arrangements for the reception and housing of main troops at Tandragee Castle, Bannvale at Gilford, and Gilford Castle. The rest of the Regiment back in the U.S.A. (the remaining 1556 enlisted men, 4 warrant officers and 78 officers), completed their physical examinations, received immunizations, and left New York harbour on the Queen Elizabeth on October 13 1943.

At the outbreak of war The Queen Elizabeth was still an unfinished luxury liner, it had been loaned to the US, and was loaded to double capacity for this trip. It was so crowded it was necessary for the men to divide their time between the regular cabin bunks and the covered decks. Because of its great speed, the ship was able to travel without convoy, and zigzagged across the North Atlantic in five days, completing the voyage without incident.

The men arrived at Greenock, Scotland, on October 18, 1943, remained aboard ship for a further day and then left for Northern Ireland. The Regimental Staff, Headquarters Troop, and sixteen men from each of the other troops, arrived in Belfast October 20. They then travelled by rail to Tandragee station (the Madden). Headquarters Troop moved into Tandragee Castle the following morning, and the detachments from each troop moved into their respective areas and began preparations to guide the troops upon arrival. They showed up the following day.

The 1st Squadron, Troop A, B, E, and their Squadron Medical Detachment was stationed at Gilford Castle. The medical corps occupied the high field which ran at right angles to the previously used Wall Road Camp, and overlooked the back of the Castle. A hospital was built on this site.

The 2nd Squadron consisting of Headquarter Detachment 2nd Squadron, Troops C, D, and their Squadron Medical Detachment were moved into the Bannvale Camp in Gilford.

Racial segregation was still rife in America at this time, and the arrival of these new troops meant that the black soldiers of the Advance party were moved to the premises at Stramore Farm, originally used by the R.E.M.E.'s, as the Orange, Masonic and British Legion Halls were needed for the other men.

Unfortunately within the past two years the buildings at Stramore Farm, where these men were billeted, have been demolished, for in an upstairs room, although very dirty and well worn, were a number of wall murals depicting “G.I. Jane” type paintings. One wall also bore the names of the soldiers who were billeted there, and there were also beams in the room on which was written “MIND YOUR HEADS” and “CARBON.” Fortunately the man who demolished the building rescued the large pieces of one mural, and rebuilt it at his own home in Portadown.  Others have been photographed. It is thought possible that the murals may have been painted by Joe Ben Wheat, from Chicago whose name was found on one of the walls.  On his return to America he became academically famous for his anthropological studies of the patterns and history of Native American quilts etc.

It took a few months for the new Americans troops to settle in. There were numerous road marches, extensive firing courses, physical and mental toughening and routine housekeeping details to be undertaken. Eventually their vehicles and armoured cars arrived, and on Armistice Day 1943, the entire Regiment, including the Gilford troops, formed in Tandragee to pay tribute to the soldiers who had fallen in World War I.


The 6th Cavalry Regiment in Tandragee - Armistice Day 1943

Many local families befriended the young men, and welcomed them into their homes, hopefully making their stay in Gilford as happy as possible. Even the animals were friendly and near the end of the year, a litter of collie pups was born on an old pair of overalls in the Commander's quarters at Gilford Castle. The men adopted one of the puppies and called it "Shamrock." It remained with the American soldiers throughout the rest of the war.

Christmas was quiet for the men, although there were lots of informal parties and dances held in Bannvale and in outbuildings at Elmfield. Sweets, cakes, and soap were donated by the soldiers from their personal rations, and given to the local children. The two Gilford Camps swarmed with children all day. Although local families befriended the young Americans, they did miss their own families especially at Christmas and local Post Office staff recall how they were kept busy with young soldiers sending telegrams back home at this time.

At the end of 1943 the Regiment was reorganised, and the final parade of the old 6th Cavalry Regiment was held on December 31 1943 in Tandragee. Under the new reorganisation it became the Sixth Cavalry Group, the Sixth Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, and the 28th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron. General George S. Patton carried out an informal inspection tour of the U.S. troops in Northern Ireland at this time, and was guest-of-honour at a dance in Tandragee Castle. He commented how much he enjoyed the 6th Cavalry band playing at the event, and perhaps not surprisingly, a short time later the band was transferred and became the 61st Army Ground Forces Band. Whilst in the area General Patton visited the American troops at Gilford Castle and also at the Gilford Bannvale camp.

After reorganisation, training continued with map exercises, combat courses, crew drills, communications and command post exercises, as well as mounted and dismounted marches. Finally at the end of May 1944 the Cavalry left Gilford for England, and eventually crossed the English Channel on the 8th and 9th July disembarking on Utah Beach in France on D Day+33. The ships crossed with two convoys, each comprising craft of all types, screened from above by Allied fighter aircraft. No enemy aircraft or surface vessels were encountered throughout the voyage.

In recent years Captain Jim Dunlap from Gainsville, Georgia, returned to visit Tandragee Castle. In Gilford he called with Albert Uprichard, whose family had owned Bannvale, where many of the U.S. troops had been based. Major Calvin Satterfield from Richmond, Virginia, also visited in 1992.

Mr Dunlap said that he had been stationed with the American forces at Tandragee Castle, and had participated with activities of the 28th Cavalry Squadron, 6th Cavalry Group, 3rd U.S. Army under General George S Patton until Germany surrendered. They had participated in the following campaigns – Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland, Ardennes (Battle of the Bulge) and Central Europe.

In December 2003, we received an email from Mr Maurice Lusk, an American from Dalto, Georgia, seeking information about Gilford. During the war he had been stationed in Gilford Orange Hall with a U.S. Chemical Warfare Company. He explained that their units needed the nearby river Bann to process their product. Some of their Company were also in the Masonic Hall building, and in the old R.U.C. station (now the Royal British Legion Hall), in Mill Street.

He explained that the exact name of their Company was the 115th Chemical Processing Unit. They had originally been called the 115th Chemical Impregnating Company, but had undergone a name-change, having found it difficult explaining the meaning of the word "impregnating." Their role was to impregnate clothes with a compound which would protect the wearer from gas attacks. The equipment used was similar to that used in commercial laundries, in fact whilst in Gilford they washed the hospital laundry to test their equipment. They arrived in Gilford on 18th October 1943 and remained until 16th June 1944.



Orange v. Blue in Bavaria

In maneuvers, at least, a winner

Opposing waves of mammoth tanks maneuvered for position on Bavaria's rain-drenched farm lands. Mechanized units of infantrymen clattered through gingerbread villages, clashing for control of strategic bridges and road junctions. Overhead, missile-bearing Cobra helicopters and F-4 Phantom jets thundered across the skies, "firing" at one another and at targets on the ground.

For ten grueling days that ended last week, a mock combat raged in southern Germany between two opposing powerful military forces: the "invading" Orange and the defending Blue. Code-named Carbon Edge, the "war" was a NATO military exercise involving more than 50,000 troops, 4,000 tanks and armored personnel carriers, 7,500 other vehicles, 90 fixed-wing aircraft and 500 helicopters. Carbon Edge was by far the biggest single event of Reforger 77, this year's edition of NATO's traditional fall training extravaganza. West German, British, Canadian, Dutch and Belgian troops and American forces based in Europe were mobilized for the event, and 14,000 G.I.s were airlifted across the Atlantic. (Reforger, in fact, is an acronym for return of forces to Germany.) To the north, a special all-NATO defense team battled British and Danish "enemy" troops, while in the Mediterranean the alliance conducted a massive naval exercise, culminating in an amphibious landing along the Turkish coast.

In Carbon Edge, the Orange force (played by some U.S. and West German units) took the role of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. Reflecting its impressive firepower advantage on the Central European front, Orange quickly penetrated the Blue lines, raced 40 miles and crossed the upper Danube. After falling back and regrouping, Blue counterattacked; its main forces hammered away across the invader's broad front, while airborne rangers hit Orange from behind. When the exercises ended, Blue had clearly triumphed.

One purpose of the massive maneuvers was to give the Americans practice in moving reinforcements to Europe from U.S. bases. Two weeks before the Orange "attack," the U.S. 1st Infantry Division was airlifted from Fort Riley, Kans., the 3rd Brigade of the 4th Infantry Division arrived from Fort Carson, Colo., and the 2nd Battalion (Ranger) of the 75th Infantry came from Fort Lewis, Wash. The exercises were the first large-scale test of "interoperability"—coordination of the somewhat different communications systems, tactics and equipment used by the alliance's armed forces. Thus U.S. Cobra helicopters, armed with TOW antitank missiles, provided cover for West German tank units and were directed to targets by West German officers. Old tricks were also polished, like dropping a Sheridan light tank from a low-flying C-130 transport plane.

No shots were actually fired. Instead, 1,900 umpires—sporting white armbands and riding in Jeeps flying white pennants—clambered about the battlefield. Over field radios, commanders were told "You're dead," while "killed" vehicles were marked with yellow flags. There were, however, real casualties; in ground accidents and one mid-air collision, two American servicemen and six German civilians were killed.


Mirage 2000D, Nancy 2001. Copyright Hugo Mambour/AviaScribe 2001

ODAX 2001, the fifth edition of the French Air Force international aerial warfare exercise took place throughout the country in March and April. Hugo Mambour/AviaScribe describes what it's all about

During the Cold War and for a few more years yet after the general collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe, France used to conduct an annual air defence exercise called AIREX and later DATEX. Its main objective was to test the ability of the French air defence assets to detect and intercept enemy air attacks against the national territory. On some occasions and particularly during the last exercises, allied countries had aircraft based in France to participate in the air defence exercise, and although NATO air forces were invited to attack various targets in France during the two-day exercise period, DATEX remained essentially a national exercise. However, after 1989 the probabilities of an air raid originating from the former Warsaw Pact air forces soon evaporated and the usefulness of a very specialised exercise like DATEX became questionable. In order to meet the new challenges of the post Cold War world, a new more complex international annual exercise, organised accordingly to reflect the type of multi-national military operations of the nineties (Gulf War, Yugoslavia etc.), was created in 1996 to supersede DATEX: ODAX was born

Since then, ODAX has taken place each year, except for a notable exception in 1999 when the exercise was cancelled on operational and economical grounds as a consequence of the Operation Trident (the FAF contribution to Operation Allied Force in former Yugoslavia). Each exercise has been the opportunity to try a new scenario – for example, the first in 1996 was linked with ‘Brilliant Foil’, whereas the 1998 version took place in the south of France and the Mediterranean area – and has seen new and unusual participants like the United Arab Emirates.

France's independent E3F force was prominent in the exerciseAs for 2000, this year's vintage was divided into two different phases. The first, which took place between 26 February and 9 March, was a Computer Assisted (CAX) Command Post Exercise (CPX). This phase was aimed at training commanders and the personnel in charge of planning and conduct of air operations by simulating an air campaign. Contrary to past habits, the second phase or Live Exercise (LIVEX), which saw actual operations of aircraft within the limits of French airspace, was clearly separated from the first one as it took place more than one month later, between 19-27 April.

Traditionally, ODAX is based on a fictitious scenario inspired by real events - this year, the French territory was divided into three areas, each one representing a different nation (Blue, Yellow and Orange), which were once united into a common federation. After the Blue land decided to quit the federation to integrate into an international democratic North-European structure, Yellow land declared its intention to follow the same destiny. However, an ethnical minority living in Yellow land, but closely linked to Orange land, did not agree with that secession and Clickasked for a referendum about the decision to break its relationship with the federation. As Yellow land rejected that idea, significant troubles and violent acts were perpetrated against Yellow populations in areas mainly controlled by the Orange community, which was secretly manipulated by Orange land. As a consequence of the deteriorating situation, the United Nations mandated a coalition with France as the leading nation, in order to set up an interposition and peacekeeping force to avoid a general conflict in the area. This did not impress Orange land much, so it decided to attack Yellow land to isolate it from Blue land. A massive air campaign was then launched by the coalition forces against economical and military targets of Orange land, the two latter aspects constituting the LIVEX part of the exercise. The Moroccan F1s participated for the fourth time in ODAXArmée de l’air public relation and information service had a special section devoted to the exercise on its internet site. Detailed information about the federation history and its political leaders were available and it was even possible to check the evolution of the fictitious scenario day by day. Information about real activities were added during the LIVEX period.

The main goal of the exercise was to verify the ability of the coalition forces to operate theatre air assets from deployed multi-national command structures in a crisis or a conflict of high intensity within an implementation period of 24 hours, as well as to conduct up to 600 missions per day. In reaching that target, France demonstrated at the same time its own ability (without the Americans) to organise and operate communication and information systems related to combined elements for a thorough air campaign and functioning with real-time information in an international environment.

Jaguars at Saint DizierThe exercise director was Air Marshal Fouquet, who is the commander of the FAF Air Operations and Air Defence Command (CDAOA) based underground at Taverny, north-west of Paris. For the exercise purpose, he was also in charge of the Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) set up to implement the UN mandate. Commanded by Air Commodore Michel, the air component of the CJTF, known as Joint Force Air Component (JFAC), was responsible for the overall support, offensive and defensive air assets. JFAC was assisted in its mission by three main structures comprising a headquarter responsible for the planning of air operations, an air intelligence centre and a Deployable Combined Air Operations Centre (DCAOC) in charge of command and control of coalition air operations. The latter was deployed at Creil air base, on Blue land territory.

No less than twenty allied and neutral countries (1) took part in the CPX/CAX phase of ODAX whereas nine of those participants (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Poland, Singapore, Spain and The Netherlands) took also part in the LIVEX phase. Thirteen other countries (2) sent observers to France for the occasion.

C160 TransallsFrance was divided in two parts, with the northern half playing as Blue land and the southern half as Orange land. The smaller Yellow land was right in the middle, north of Orange land against Blue land border. While some coalition aircraft were operating from their home base (for example BAF F-16s and GAF Tornados (four aircraft each)), the main forces were deployed on Blue land territory. One German Navy Atlantic ELINT/SIGINT aircraft was based at Metz from where it operated along the FAF electronic C.160G Gabriel. More German assets were deployed in the north-east with four to six Tornados of AG-51, equipped with their new reconnaissance pods and operating along with the Mirage F1CRs of ER1/33 and 2/33 at Reims, as well as two Tornado ECRs of JBG-32 based at Nancy and operating together with local Mirage 2000Ds capable of SEAD missions with their Martel ARM. SEAD aircraft had the opportunity to test their abilities against live radar threats above Yellow land in the centre of France and above the Alps. Moreover, airfield anti-aircraft defence units were deployed at each airbase throughout France. Luxeuil airbase and its Mirage 2000Ns also took part in the exercise as in fact did all the FAF operational bases.

ClickClickWhile four RNLAF F-16s of 323 Squadron were deployed at Cambrai, more unusual participants were based at Dijon (two updated Polish AF MiG-29s) and Saint-Dizier (three updated PAF Su-22M4s of 40.elt). The Republic of Singapore AF deployed six A-4SU and TA-4SU Super Skyhawks at Colmar for their second ODAX participation. A detachment of thirteen operational pilots, commanded by Major Keith Rodrigues, had come straight from Singapore to France for the occasion. They spent one week in Cazaux to learn French procedures as well as to accustom themselves with a new flying environment, quite different to their own country, and two weeks in Colmar for fighter affiliation before the exercise. As last year, they operated the Super Skyhawk of the Advanced Jet Training unit based at Cazaux. As the A-4s detached in France are training aircraft, they are not comprehensively equipped for operational missions. The six aircraft taking part in ODAX were therefore equipped with internal ECM kits for the exercise period only, the equipment being removed and taken back to Singapore at the end of the period.

An-26 of 13.plt normally based at Krakow BaliceBesides AWACS and tankers, attack packages were usually composed of sixteen to twenty coalition aircraft, including reconnaissance, attack, air defence and SEAD assets. Finally, two PAF An-26s, German and French C160s, CSAR Pumas and ALAT Gazelles and Pumas were deployed at Avord, the home base of the FAF AWACS fleet. Ground operations, supported by French army helicopters, were indeed planned for the exercise and the transport aircraft were used to drop paratroopers and to evacuate populations. More assets were deployed on Yellow land territory itself, comprising Hunter reconnaissance drones and Horizon battlefield surveillance helicopters.

Orange land air force was composed of air defence Mirage 2000C based at Orange (of course!) with EC1/5 and 2/5, and ground-attack Mirage 2000Ns of EC3/4 based at Istres. More Mirage 2000Cs of EC1/5 had been deployed at Cazaux together with four Italian Air Force F-104S-ASA/Ms. The busiest airbase of Orange land was undoubtedly Mont-de-Marsan, where more Mirage 2000Cs of EC2/5 had been detached together with Mirage F1Cs of EC3/33. One local Mirage IVP was responsible for reconnaissance missions. Four Spanish AF Mirage F1CEs and four Greek AF Mirage 2000CGs were deployed there together with five Morocco AF Mirage F1CHs. This was the fourth time Morocco had participated in ODAX (they also took part in one of the last DATEX exercises).

AS555AN Fennecs were detached to Avord for SAR missionsClickThe exercise went off smoothly without incidents despite difficult weather conditions, allowing all-weather missions. Although most of French AF was implicated in ODAX, normal missions went on during the exercise. Security remained of paramount importance: on 26 April, two Mirage 2000-5Fs from Dijon interrupted their mission to assist a civilian light aircraft in difficulty. For once priority was given to military aircraft during the LIVEX period - press releases warned potential travellers that regular flight schedules could be delayed because of a 'military air exercise'!

(1) Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Morocco, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, The Netherlands, UAE, United Kingdom, USA.

(2) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, India, Japan, Jordan, Oman, Slovakia, Taiwan, Ukraine.




I went back to where I had originally been sitting. I sat on the floor and looked up at the ceiling. I wanted to know the truth about where these strange jelly-like animals came from. On the ceiling was a round white light fixture. Around the circular light fixture was a larger circle and written on that circle was the name Phil Schneider.

A man came towards me and handed me a folded over sheet of blue paper. The paper was like a long sheet of paper like one would get by printing along web page on a single sheet of paper like computer printouts used to come.

On the top of the blue paper was the name Phil Schneider. I knew he was the one who knew the truth.

At the same time the radio came on with the familiar voice of the radio personalities from WTMJ radio in Milwaukee which broadcasts on  620 on the dial. I knew that Phil Schneider was going to broadcast on that station.

NOTE:  Art Bell has his show on that station.

SECRET UNDERGROUND BASES - PHIL SCHNEIDER    131 underground bases in the U.S.  1470 in the world
The United States has known about aliens and UFOs since 1909

PART 2  Groom Lake map


PART 4  The Alien Agenda; They want to kill off 3/4 of the people on the planet by 2025.

PART 5  Alien takeover is a threat.  It is the threat of the New World Order - discussion of the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center -  This was not done by foreign terrorists any more than the 2001 bombing that brought down the buildings.  The bomb came from Mather AFB.


PART 7  NEMESIS - coming towards earth - will arrive about 2052 - Russia is shooting down about 50 UFOs per month.  The war is going on in China as well.

In January of 1996, an ex-U.S. government geologist and structural engineer by the name of Phil Schneider was found dead in his apartment. His good friend and co-conspirator Ron Rummel had been found dead in a park three years prior to Schneider's death, due to a gunshot wound to the head. Cause of death: suicide. Prior to their deaths, Schneider and Rummel had worked for the federal government for 17 years, after which they began to publish a magazine called "The Alien Digest." The magazine received wide circulation, but was soon brought to a halt in 1993 with Rummel's death.

Phil was convinced that his friend had not committed suicide, and had in fact been murdered. Subsequent to Rummel's death, Phil quit his job and toured the country for the next two years, lecturing on the secrets he had been privy to during his work for the federal government.

As Schneider began his lecture tour he made clear that he was going to be targeted for revealing government secrets and probably would not live long. Schneider revealed that he had been working with the U.S military to build thirteen underground military bunkers across the United States.

Schneider's story was particularly interesting because he was the first man with such a high level of security clearance - Rhyolite, one of the highest levels attainable - to spread classified information. He made claims ranging from the pernicious intentions of the United Nations to the government development of the AIDS virus. Most importantly, he spoke about the U.S. government's extraterrestrial relations.

Schneider maintained that the U.S. government has had relations with extraterrestrials for more than half a century. He attested that in 1954 the extraterrestrials signed the Greade Treaty, arranging an exchange of extraterrestrial technology for the rights to test extraterrestrial implanting techniques on U.S. citizens and livestock.

Schneider went into details about his first and only encounter with the aliens in August of 1979 while he and a crew of military government employees were working on a new underground milita
ry base in Dulce, New Mexico. After their drilling machines repeatedly broke down, Schneider and others were sent into a subterranean orifice to collect rock samples. Upon entering the hole Schneider distinctly noted a repugnant smell unlike anything he had ever experienced. After reaching the bottom of the shaft, Schneider found himself in an opening with what appeared to be some kind of humanoid creature.

Schneider was naturally startled and began to reach for his pistol. He fumbled for several moments, trying to free his pistol from his bulky suit, when he made out the distinct figure of what appeared to be an extraterrestrial humanoid soon joined by other similar creatures. Schneider shot and seemingly killed two of the extraterrestrials, and the military personnel also began shooting the creatures. After two extraterrestrials had been shot, a third made some kind of rubbing motion across its stomach and Schneider was blown backward.

The blast from the creature had split S
chneider's chest open, destroyed several fingers, burned off his toenails and severely burned his bones. He was in radiation/isolation therapy for more than four hundred days and later discovered that he was only one of three men who made it out alive. Sixty-six others had perished in battle with the humanoids.

Schneider was found dead seven months after giving a lecture on his story. Cause of death: suicide. All of his research and collected evidence of extraterrestrial mineral samples were missing from his apartment. His blood and urine samples sent to medical examiners were conveniently lost.

Was the U.S. government responsible for Phil Schneider's death? If so, does this lend validity to Schneider's claims?

Although his story sounds outlandish, we have to consider the possibility that Schneider might have known something that our government does not want us to know.

Source - UFODigest


Philip Schneider, Murder By Suicide?
by Michael Naisbitt

Posted: 12:00 April 29, 2007

Source - UFODigest

Philip Schneider was born April 23, 1947 and died (many assume murdered) in January 1996. Now Philip Schneider claimed to be an ex-government geologist and structural engineer who was involved in building underground military bases around the United States (possessing a level 3 security clearance, “Rhyolite 38”).

Not only that, but Philip Schneider also claimed he was one of only three people to have survived a deadly battle in which 66 American and NATO “Delta Force” soldiers were killed. This battle allegedly occurred in 1979 between Grey aliens and U.S. military and NATO forces at an underground base at Dulce , New Mexico.

The following is taken from a letter from the ex-wife of Philip Schneider (Cynthia Drayer) after learning of his death.


Philip's background was as a Structural Engineer. He was an expert on explosives and their effects on geologic structures. He worked under two social security numbers.

Most of his early work in underground mountain bases with Morrison-Knudsen was done using the wrong social security number. I was later able to prove that he had two numbers through the social security office when I applied for his daughter's death benefits. He worked for the Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. Navy with the same wrong number. Only after he obtained SSI in 1981 did his “real” number come into play. He always told me that he had a Rhyolitic Clearance and that his father had a Cosmic Clearance from his work with NATO. And that is the second reason why Philip began lecturing.

For the last two years of his life, Schneider gave over 30 lectures to a variety of audiences across the globe, concerning conspiracy theories in which he claimed to be leaking information exposing them. However, Schneider was never able or willing to prove his allegations (e.g. showing the entrance to Dulce Base). His claims received little mainstream notice, but caused quite a buzz in UFO enthusiast circles.

Schneider was found dead in his Wilsonville, Oregon apartment on January 17, 1996. He had apparently been dead for several days (perhaps up to a week), and reportedly had a rubber hose wrapped three times around his neck. Tim Swartz writes that "Clackamas County Coroner's office initially attributed Philip Schneider's death to a stroke or heart attack." Some suggest Schneider was murdered; supposedly because he was leaking information to the public, unveiling conspiracies. He in fact claimed to have avoided 13 murder attempts taken on his life during the time in which he was lecturing on conspiracy theories. He suffered multiple physical illnesses (osteoporosis, cancer, injuries).

Officially, suicide is now stated as the cause of death. The medical examiner took blood and urine samples at the autopsy but refused to analyze them, saying that the county would not "waste their money on a suicide".

Although samples would be kept for 12 months, when asked for these samples to be sent to an independent lab 11 months later they were "missing" and presumed "destroyed".

Schneider had missing fingers on his left hand, and limited motion in his shoulders. It may have been physically impossible for him to have held the rubber hose in his left hand with missing fingers and then wrap the hose three times with shoulders that had limited motion. In order to end up where his body was, he had to sit on the edge of his bed, wrap the hose around his neck, slowly and painfully strangle to death, and fallen head first into a wheel chair. Philip was an expert in chemicals and his own medical needs. He had multiple pills at hand that could have ended his life quickly and painlessly. He also had a 9 mm gun that he had borrowed to protect himself.

Source - UFODigest

These entities largely converge beneath southern Nevada, northern New Mexico and possibly Utah. Some sources refer to a  'human' race with stalky yellow, red or orange hair, others of  a genetically-altered, humanoid-reptiloid strain or hybrid. They are often described often as having a humanoid form yet certain 'reptilian' genetic features. They are also said to possess human-like reproductive organs, and possibly (or not) a human 'soul-matrix', and therefore a divergent branch of the human race, or reptiloid race depending on which 'type' of Orange one is referring to. as some accounts suggest there MAY also be  orange-colored reptilians which possess no soul-matrix. Some of the "Orange" allegedly have connections to Bernard's Star.

A race of peaceable humans some 7-8 ft. tall, with pale-blue skin and large 'wrap-around' eyes which are extremely sensitive to light. They MAY be the same as the large humans allegedly encountered on the moon by our 'astronauts' according to John Lear and others, who in turn were silenced and not allowed to tell what they saw. These people may, according to some accounts, be allied to the 'Nordics' and/or 'Blondes'. They claim to be descendants of Noah who traveled to the Western Hemisphere a few centuries following the deluge and discovered ancient antediluvian cavern systems and ancient technologies which had been abandoned by the antediluvians in deep subterranean recesses. They have been encountered mostly in deep cavern-systems beneath the general region of the Ozarks-Arkansas and surrounding regions.


A Reader responds

Subject: The Blue and Orange War. Past or Future.
Date: Tuesday, March 10, 2009, 12:54 PM

I talked with Phil Schneider in Seattle at a suvival expo about 6 months before he was murdered. It was just the two of us sitting around a table for about an hour talking about his father, the Eldridge, Valient Thor, looking at photographs the U.S. wanted.
He showed me the round red radiation-like burn mark on his chest where he was shot when the Dulce base was broken into, and the crescent shape of what was left of his hand that he reflectively used to try to block the beam shot at him by one of the tall greys. That's what saved his life. He said it was a vat room that was broken into and he said he shot 3 greys with a pistol he carried strapped to his ankle.

He told me about numerous attempts to murder him. He was recovering from multiple stab wounds from an assault, and he showed the wounds to me.  He told of being run off the road in his car,  of a man in an air force uniform trying to shoot him in an
airport and how an FBI agent slid a revolver to him that he shot the assailant with. 

Those pictures he showed me had belonged to his father and he had won the right to them in a court case against the U.S. government. That was why they wanted him

I'll make you a bet the photographs disappeared when he supposedly garroted himself.




Political Pulse December 14, 2004

A victory for Viktor Yushchenko in Ukraine would confirm the West's increasing influence there.

William Schneider

Ukraine's 'Orange Revolution'

The Ukrainian election story has everything—a little bit of the Cold War, echoes of Tiananmen Square, parallels with Poland's Solidarity movement, and perhaps a hint of last month's U.S. presidential election.

The country is severely divided as it stands," Sen. Richard Lugar, R-Ind., said after he returned from monitoring the November 21 runoff in Ukraine. "Some leaders in the eastern part of the country are talking about dividing the country. Clearly, the election divided it absolutely down the center, between the red and the blue states, to use the analogy from the United States."

The division in Ukraine goes back 350 years. In 1654, when Ukrainians were fighting Polish rule, a Cossack leader named Bohdan Khmelnitsky swore allegiance to the Russian czar. Since then, Ukrainians have been dominated by Russia.

Ukraine's east is mostly Russian-speaking, Orthodox in religion, and strongly pro-Russian. Most people in Ukraine's west speak Ukrainian and adhere to a church that acknowledges the authority of the Roman Catholic pope. Western Ukrainians are intensely nationalistic and distrustful of Russia.

In the November runoff, the east voted for Viktor Yanukovich, a favorite of Moscow. Western Ukraine voted for Viktor Yushchenko, who favors stronger ties with Europe and the rest of the West. Yanukovich, the current president's hand-picked successor, was officially declared the election's winner.

But election observers spotted massive fraud. According to Nelson Ledsky of the National Democratic Institute, observers "reported that the rigged voting was in the neighborhood of over 1 million extra votes." Yushchenko's supporters massed in the streets of Kiev, demanding that the results be annulled. It became orange versus blue, with orange being the color of the media-savvy Yushchenko protesters, blue the color of the pro-Yanukovich government supporters. Apparently, in the post-Soviet era, nobody wants to be red.

Ukraine's "orange revolution" is a genuine outpouring of popular sentiment for freedom and justice. It's a media-savvy revolution, almost like a democracy festival, aimed at winning the sympathy of Europeans and Americans.

Both the European Union and the United States denounced the runoff as fraudulent. Secretary of State Colin Powell was the most direct, saying, "We cannot accept this result as legitimate, because it does not meet international standards and because there has not been an investigation of the numerous and credible reports of fraud and abuse." Powell threatened: "If the Ukrainian government does not act immediately and responsibly, there will be consequences for our relationship."

President Vladimir Putin supported Yanukovich and warned the West to back off. Polish leader Lech Walesa showed up to support the protesters. Poles versus Russians—as it was in 1654.

The runoff brought Ukraine's division to a head. So how will it get resolved? Forget recounts. How about repeating the whole election? That's what Ukraine's Supreme Court has ordered, after it ruled that the runoff was invalid. On hearing the news, Yushchenko raised his arms in triumph before the orange-bedecked protesters in Kiev and said, "Today, Ukraine has turned to justice, democracy, and freedom."

The crowds on the streets of Kiev responded by defiantly singing Ukraine's national anthem. Whom were they defying? One sign, in English, read, "Putin: Hands off Ukraine!" In Ukraine, nationalism means resentment of Russia.

On December 1, Putin contemptuously declared, "A repeat of the second round would yield nothing." He asked, "Are you going to conduct it three, four, maybe 25 times?" Within days, the Supreme Court issued its order. It was a humiliating putdown for the fallen superpower.

Many Russians and pro-Russian Ukrainians think that the protests in Kiev were orchestrated by the West and financed by American money. Putin has accused the United States of pursuing a "dictatorial" foreign policy, packaged, he said, in "beautiful, pseudo-democratic phraseology."

President Bush did not return the insult, despite pleas from Ukrainian protesters to take their side. "If he wore an orange tie, people here would be crying," one protester told The New York Times. But Bush's comments have been noticeably more guarded than the secretary of State's. Bush is eager to preserve a good relationship with Putin, a key ally in the war on terror. Bush said on December 2, "We will continue to monitor and be involved in a process that encourages there to be a peaceful resolution to this issue."

With the Supreme Court's decision, the outcome seems inevitable. "Yushchenko is going to be president of Ukraine," former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Richard Holbrooke said. "One way or another, it's going to happen."

This election represents a big leap for Ukrainians. After centuries of Russian domination, they are deciding on whether their nation's future lies with the West or the East.

A victory for Yushchenko would confirm the West's increasing influence in Ukraine at the expense of Russia—something Western leaders may not want to celebrate for fear of reviving Cold War tensions and of feeding Russia's ancient paranoia about being encircled and threatened by the West.

William Schneider is the Cable News Network's senior political analyst. He is also a resident fellow at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C., and a contributing editor for the Los Angeles Times, National Journal, and The Atlantic Monthly. His column appears every week in National Journal, a weekly magazine covering politics and government published in Washington, D.C.



  "Disengagement" Plan
An orange anti-pullout flag beside a blue-and-white Israeli flag. (AP)
  IDF clashes with settlers in Gaza
  40 Gaza families announce they're moving, police draft new non-violence rules
  Bethlehem to be handed over next week
  Pullout opponents resolute as outposts dismantled and graves issue resolved
  Summit: Sharon offers all, Abbas still disappointed
  Peace Now launches blue-and-white pro-disengagement ribbons
  Soldiers get special "disengagement bonus"
Blue vs. Orange: Israel's pullout 'color war' faces off
By Israel Insider staff and partners  June 27, 2005
On the orange side are Jewish settlers and their supporters. On the blue side, a former security chief and "peace activists". Their weapon of choice: ribbons.

In the rush to the finish line, each side is tying as many ribbons as possible to as many cars, backpacks, and even wedding bouquets, as possible, to express opposition or support for the upcoming withdrawal.

Activists stand on street corners and major intersections, tying ribbons on cars before the light changes. Morning newspapers on Monday came with blue-and-white ribbons folded inside. And Roni Ratzon, the owner of the Jaffa textile factory, cutting ribbons for both pros and cons, is cashing in.

Nayot Pachenik, a 23-year-old native of the Gush Katif bloc of settlements, tied an orange ribbon to her bouquet and wore orange shoes to her June 14 wedding. And she posed for one of her wedding pictures with the orange ribbon around her neck, tie-style.

"It was my way of expressing my commitment to the cause and allowed me to have some influence," said Pachenik, who now wears an orange ribbon tied to her headscarf.

In this flood of withdrawal activity -- not only the ribbons are trendy, so are the colors.

Anti-pullout activists wear orange shirts, hats and other paraphernalia -- making the color largely off-limits to those who favor the withdrawal.

Self-proclaimed "peace activists" think twice today before slipping on an orange shirt. Security guards at Israel's parliament even confiscated the orange scarves of a visiting delegation of lawmakers from India.

Ami Ayalon, a former head of Israel's Shin Bet security service is now among the blue team's top brass, and even took to the streets on Friday to hand out ribbons.

The pro-pullout activists chose blue-and-white because the colors of Israel's flag best represent their views, Ayalon said. They copied the settlers' ribbon idea because it seemed easy and cheap. "You don't have to explain anything. Blue and white says it all," he added.

With an audience quick to pick up on the latest trend, the activists have been quite successful. Israel is now awash in ribbons.

An unofficial count of car ribbons shows orange has the upperhand for the moment -- pullout opponents have been handing out ribbons longer than supporters.

But the blues are convinced they will ultimately be victorious once the actual withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and four West Bank settlements gets underway in August.

Opinion polls support the ribbon count, showing backing for disengagement has dropped from a high of nearly 70 percent to just around 50 percent. Opposition has risen from 27 percent to 38 percent.

But parliament and Cabinet have approved the plan, and the army and police are training.

And Prime Minister Ariel Sharon is determined to push ahead, even in the face of possible violent resistance by orange-clad settlers -- some of whom have pinned orange stars to their lapels, reminiscent of the yellow Star of David the Nazis forced the Jews to wear in World War II.

Rafi Sari, head of the orange ribbon brigade, said pullout opponents have already distributed two million ribbons. A nationwide campaign scheduled to begin next week has set the goal of handing out another million ribbons, he said.

At a few cents per ribbon, it is a cheap way of sending the anti-pullout message, Sari said, explaining how his camp came up with the idea.

"A ribbon can be tied on anything: a car, a neck, a bag, anywhere. It's practical," he said.

For Ratzon, it's all very profitable. The owner of a textile cutting factory in the port city of Jaffa, he doesn't discriminate. He has hired three more workers and extended working hours from 10 to 24 hours a day so he can cut up to 100,000 orange and blue ribbons daily.

"I have no political opinion. I am not a political person. I just want to make money," Ratzon said.

Lisa Cohen, a 38-year-old American-born psychologist, rushed to tie a blue ribbon on her car after her husband tied an orange ribbon on his, breaking their decades-old promise to stay away from politics. Tensions built in their Jerusalem home as their divergent political views clashed in the garage.

Finally, Cohen's husband, Elimelech, folded and the ribbon came off his car.

"Now we're back to the status quo, which is don't discuss politics," Cohen said laughing.

The AP contributed to this report.


US Foreign Policy

War Plan Orange

US War plans for possible actions against Japan.


Blue vrs. Orange: The Early Years, 1906-1914
Phase I The Invasion

Day of Infamy—Orange initiates action against Blue targets in the Pacific.

Phase II

The Counter-attack

The Western Base—Early plans to counter Orange with a strong fortified base in the Pacific, 1906.

The Through Ticket—Blue counters Orange through a direct attack upon the Philippines, 1908.

Step-by-Step—Blue stepwise advance through temporary bases throughout the Pacific, 1911.

Phase III

The Counter-offensive

On to Ryukyus—Blue assumes the offensive into the Orange sphere of influence.

More Scenarios


The Valour of Ignorance—Homer Lea's 1909 vision of the Japanese invasion of San Francisco.

The Great Western Base—The Battle for Guam, Apr 1914.

Fortress Guam—Rear Admiral Coontz vision for an American Gibraltar

Through Ticket to Manila—The Thrusters plan to recapture the Philippines, Jan 1925

The Ladder to Japan—Blue asserts control of the Far East, Jan 1928

Dumonquila Bay—The Grand Battle for the Philippines, Jun 1928

The Royal Road—July 1934

The Mandate's Campaign—Oct 1935

The Defense of Pearl Harbor—The Defensivists plan for the defense of Oahu, May 1938


Strategic Map

Naval Plan Orange Strategic Map—Strategic Map for extending Naval Plan Orange to include the entire Pacific Theater of Operations.

Pacific Theater Operational Maps

Philippine Island Extension—An operational map that extends the NPO map to include the entire Philippine Islands.

Pacific Coast—An operational map of the Pacific Coast of North America from Victoria to Los Angelas.

Baja California—An operational map of the Pacific Coast of North America from Los Angelas to Mazatlan.

Extended Pacific Theater Operational Maps

These maps overlap each other as well as the Philippine Island extension and the SOPAC map of the Solomon Islands. During the period of the Colored War Plans the bases and ports in this area frequently changed hands and there was much speculation about the use of temporary and potential air bases. As a result no ports and air bases are represented on the maps. Use of counters for ports and air bases is recommended.

Mariana Islands—Extended Pacific Theater operational map including the Mariana, Bonin and Volcanic Islands.

Caroline Islands—Extended Pacific Theater operational map including the Yap, Truk and Pohnpei groups of the Caroline Islands.

Marshall Islands—Extended Pacific Theater operational map including the Marshall, Gilbert and Wake Islands.

Palau and Indonesia—Extended Pacific Theater operational map including Palau and parts of the Indonesian and Philippine Islands.

Tactical Maps
Pacific Theater Maps (hex numbers from GWAS Naval Plan Orange Map)

Cavite/Manila V09 Davao
Zamboanga U8 (Philippines Extension) Macao B07
Canton A07 Hong Kong B08

Extended Pacific Theater Maps

Savaii, Samoa Upolu, Samoa
Tutuila, Samoa Manua, Samoa
Guam C20 (Mariana Islands) Honolulu, Oahu
San Francisco AA11 (Pacific Coast)

North American Theater (hex numbers from Baja California Map)

Mazatlan CC19 La Paz Y12
Guaymas Q13 Puerto Magdalean W10
Santa Rosalia R10 Bahia de Tortugas P05
Rosarito N07 Ensenada G05
San Diego D04 Los Angelas A03



War Plan Orange is an American strategy against Japan in case of war with Japan. War Plan Orange was started, by Theodore Roosevelt, in 1890 because Japanese warships started snooping around Hawaii after many Japanese laborers had emigrated to Hawaii, a US protectorate. War Plan Orange has changed as the threat from Japan changed. After Hawaii was annex in 1898, the fear of Japan laying a claim on Japan faded. However, there were suspicions that the Japanese wanted the Philippine Islands to resettle their growing population. There was evidence of a secret society that aided in a native insurrection against the US rule in the Philippines; however, only Japan’s covetousness of Blue possessions was mentioned in the Orange plan.

After thousands of Japanese immigrated to California between 1891 and 1906, white racists victimized the Orientals. Politicians passed laws that violated treaties between Japan and the United States. These actions caused the Japanese to become outraged. Fear that war with Japan was imminent, the Naval War College staff pondered on a Blue-Orange war scenario.

War Plan Orange had assigned color codes to different countries; Japan was named, Orange and US was named, Blue. War Plan Orange was never enacted by Congress or signed by the President until after 1941. This war policy was determined by varied and informal manner.

Due to the distance and geography, War Plan Orange was stated in three phases.

Phase I:      United States expected that Japan would take over lightly defended American
                    outposts to secure supply of oil and other raw materials. These territories would involve the
                    American outposts to the south and west of Japan. The United States would not be able to defend
                    these territories successfully due to the War Plan Orange War Plan Orange concentration of the US
                    Navy at home ports. However, the US Navy could mobilize in the Eastern Pacific.

Phase II:     With superior naval and air power, the United States would advance to the West.  Each intense
                    small-scale battle would procure Japanese Islands. Supply lines would be secure with the
                    establishment of advanced naval and air bases.  Resisting with expendable forces, Japan would trade
                    distance for time and destruction of the attacking fleet. However, due to the United States
                    greater production power, the United States would will the attrition battles. The United States would
                    regain the base in the Philippines after two or three years. Japan would be severed from ocean trade
                    by the tightening blockade. This will result in a battle where both fleets would meet in a cataclysmic
                    engagement where the United States would be victorious.

Phase III:    United States would advance toward Japan using the islands parallel to the coast of Asia. This will
                    allow the building of new bases for economic warfare. These bases would allow the United States to
                    choke Japan of all trade and air bombardment on Japan’s cities and industries until peace was
                    established with their army intact in Japan and in China. Japan’s pride would prove fatal.

War Plan Orange

FDR Changes Foreign Policy

Although President Roosevelt close the case on the Japanese sinking of the USS Panay on December 25, 1937 due to Japan’s apology, promise to pay damages, and guaranteeing the safety of the rights and interests of the American nationals in China. Japanese continued to harass and abuse American citizens in China. This caused President Roosevelt to take a firmer stance against Japan. President Roosevelt supported British proposal to establish a naval blockade around Japan; however, the British changed their decision and only issued a verbal disagreement toward Japan’s actions in China. President Roosevelt did not go through with the naval blockade due to the lack of support by British government. President Roosevelt did move up the cruise for the American Fleet for a time earlier than mid-March.

Due to the strong isolationistic tendencies of the American public and policies, President Roosevelt was unable to take a firmer stand against Japanese aggression in China. The United States wanted to avoided conflicted at all costs. Therefore, the President’s hands were tied and he could not take further action against Japan.




"Between 1962 and 1971, US military forces sprayed 
millions of gallons of herbicides 
over South Vietnam. 

Agent Orange accounted for much of the total sprayed."

NAS Press Release - July 28, 1993  [REPORT]

the Rainbow

Herbicides were used by the U.S. during the Vietnam War to defoliate the hiding places of the Viet Cong (VC) guerillas and North Vietnamese Army (NVA) regulars.

The most infamous herbicide used was called Agent Orange. The steel drums in which the herbicide was transported were color-coded with an orange stripe.  Other colors such as Blue, White, Purple and Pink, were used to designate different herbicide formulations.

The largest volume of herbicide was applied from the air by C-123 "Provider" twin-engine aircraft.  This air spray program was code named Operation Ranch Hand. 

Herbicides were also used around the perimeters of fire bases to keep the concertina wire clear of vegetation, providing an open view for sentries on guard duty.  Herbicides were also sprayed along river banks to reduce the number of US casualties in the Brown Water Navy. 

Below is a map of the provinces of the Central Highlands showing the total volume sprayed of the three major herbicides used in the war; Agents Orange, Blue and White.


NOTE: This map features only the provinces near the 7/15th Field Artillery's area of operations in the II CORPS region of Vietnam.  Herbicides were also used in other provinces of Vietnam.


Figures indicate the number of gallons of herbicide applied during the Vietnam war.

Agent Orange

Agent Blue

Agent White

Date indicates the last time herbicides were used in that province.

Also see: Operation Ranch Hand statistics page








Agent Orange 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T

1/65 - 4/70

Agent Orange II
"Super Orange"
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T 1968 and 1969
Agent Purple 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T 1/62 - 1964
Agent Pink 2,4,5-T 1962 - 1964
Agent Green 2,4,5-T 1962 - 1964
Agent White Picloram and 2,4-D


Agent Blue Cacodylic acid (arsenic)


Dinoxol 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T 1962 - 1964
Trinoxol 2,4,5-T 1962 - 1964
Diquat Diquat 1962 - 1964
Bromacil Bromacil 1962 - 1964
Tandex Tandex 1962 - 1964
Monuron Monuron 1962 - 1964
Diuron Diuron 1962 - 1964
Dalapon Dalapon 1962 - 1964


Transports fly in close formation as they
spray defoliation chemicals on the jungle
to deprive the enemy of hiding places


Following the war, veterans began to experience health problems that they attributed to herbicide exposure.   Finally, almost 20 years after the war ended, Congress asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to perform an in-depth study.  The length of time that had elapsed since the end of the war certainly didn't help the committee.

On July 28, 1993 the following Press Release was issued by the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences:


July 28, 1993

WASHINGTON - Evidence exists linking three cancers and two other health problems with chemicals used in herbicides in the Vietnam War, a committee of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has concluded.  Those diseases are soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease, as well as skin diseases chloracne and porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT).  The committee also concluded that new studies piecing together different types of information could help determine how much the risk of disease is increased in veterans who were exposed to such herbicides as Agent Orange.

The committee's report specifically focuses on Agent Orange and other herbicides used in Vietnam, some of which contained dioxin, and unintended byproduct of the manufacturing process.
"Over the years, extreme views have evolved on the issue," said Harold Fallon, IOM committee chair and dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Alabama, Birmingham.  "On one extreme is the view that Agent Orange has not led to health problems.  Our committee has determined through an extensive review of the scientific literature that indeed, there does appear to be a link between exposure to herbicides and certain diseases."

Most of the evidence the committee reviewed about adverse health effects came from studies of people who were exposed as a result of their jobs or from industrial accidents.  These types of exposures often were at high levels and for long periods of time.  Getting a clear picture of the health risks for Vietnam veterans is not so straightforward, the committee said, because the levels of exposure were extremely wide ranging.  Indeed, while most veterans probably had lower exposure levels, some may have experienced levels as high as that of occupational or agricultural exposures.  What is uncertain is how many veterans may have been exposed to those higher levels and who those individuals are.
"We simply do not know the degree of risk for Vietnam veterans," said committee vice chair David Tollerud, director of occupational and environmental medicine, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.  "We do feel, however, that enough information exists to allow studies to be done that would lead to a better understanding of the risk that veterans face for contracting diseases related to herbicide exposure in Vietnam."


The committee examined more than 230 epidemiological studies in detail on a range of health problems and their possible association with herbicides. It found sufficient evidence of a statistical association between exposure to herbicides or dioxin and soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. The committee also found sufficient evidence of an association between herbicides or dioxin and chloracne and PCT. Chloracne is a specific acne-like skin disorder; PCT is a liver disorder characterized by thinning and blistering of the skin.

The category of sufficient evidence represented the strongest link the committee made between adverse health effects and exposure to herbicides, including Agent Orange or dioxin.

The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs currently compensates Vietnam veterans for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and chloracne.

The link between herbicides or dioxin and other adverse health effects the committee studied fell into three remaining categories:

> Limited or Suggestive Evidence. The committee found limited or suggestive evidence of an association between exposure to herbicides of the kind used in Vietnam and three other cancers: respiratory cancers, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma.

> Inadequate Evidence. The scientific data for most cancers and other diseases, such as adverse neurological and reproductive effects, were inadequate or insufficient to determine whether an association exists, the report says (see attached list).

> No Association. For a small group of cancers, the committee found that a sufficient number and variety of well-designed studies exist to conclude that there is limited or suggestive evidence of no association between these cancers and the herbicides or dioxin. This group includes skin cancer, gastrointestinal tumors (colon, rectal, stomach, and pancreatic), bladder cancer, and brain tumors.


In reviewing the literature, the committee found that exposure assessment was the weakest element in most epidemiological studies of veterans. While some studies show a link between adverse health effects and herbicides or dioxin, there are few data indicating which individuals may have received high exposures during service in Vietnam.

The evidence about exposure during the war suggests that Vietnam veterans as a group had substantially lower exposure to herbicides and dioxins than the subjects in many occupational studies, the committee said. Veterans who were participants in Operation Ranch Hand -- the extensive spraying of some 19 million gallons of herbicide over 3.6 million acres of South Vietnam from airplanes -- are an exception to this pattern, however, because of their direct involvement in the spraying missions.

But the committee also said that, among the approximately 3 million Vietnam veterans, there may be some former ground troops not directly involved in the spraying who were exposed to herbicides at levels associated with adverse health effects.

The committee emphasized that it may be possible to develop better exposure measures for Vietnam veterans by relying on "less formal" sources of historical information than have been used in the past. Previous studies have relied primarily on the carefully recorded information on aerial spraying in Operation Ranch Hand and on blood tests for dioxin, but these measures may not reflect the full range of exposures of Vietnam veterans to herbicides.

The committee urged that a non-government organization be commissioned to develop and test new methods of evaluating herbicide exposure in Vietnam veterans. These new methods would draw on historical reconstructions and include information on the spraying that occurred around base camps and other areas which could have led to higher human exposures, the committee said. Important information could be gained from historical records of ground and perimeter spraying, herbicide shipments to various military bases, and knowledge of the type of terrain and foliage typical of the locations sprayed and the military mission of the troops located there. These new methods of measuring exposure should be evaluated by an independent, non-government scientific panel.

If they prove to be valid, a new series of epidemiological studies of veterans should be undertaken to assess the degree to which veterans may be at risk of cancer and other disease as a result of exposure, the committee said.

It also urged continued follow-up of the Ranch Hand veterans and its comparison group, and recommended that members of the Army Chemical Corps also be studied for adverse health effects from exposure. Studies should be done by an independent agency, noting that such an independent body could do much to 'satisfy the public's concern about impartiality and scientific credibility."

In addition, the committee recommended that -- for the purpose of facilitating the collection of data for new studies -- the U.S. Department of Defense identify in its computerized index of military service records which veterans served in Vietnam. Currently, this index does not indicate whether an individual served in the Vietnam War. "Lack of an indicator of Vietnam service complicates every epidemiologic study of veterans . . . and leads to methodologic inconsistencies."


Between 1962 and 1971, U.S. military forces sprayed millions of gallons of herbicides over South Vietnam. Agent Orange accounted for much of the total sprayed.

After a scientific report in 1969 concluded that one of the primary chemicals used in Agent Orange could cause birth defects in laboratory animals, use of the herbicide was suspended. All U.S.-authorized herbicide use in Vietnam was halted in 1971. As the decade wore on, concern about possible long-term health consequences of Agent Orange and other herbicides heightened, fueled in part by reports from Vietnam veterans that they had developed cancer or fathered handicapped children. Some veterans attributed these health problems to wartime exposure to herbicides.

Since then, thousands of scientific studies have been conducted. Faced with lingering uncertainty, Congress asked the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine to conduct a comprehensive review of available scientific information regarding the health effects of exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides used in Vietnam. The report is the product of the IOM committee's work, begun in 1992.

The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

The Institute of Medicine is a private, non-profit organization that provides health policy advice under a congressional charter granted to the National Academy of Sciences.

TABLE 1-1 Summary of Findings in Occupational, Environmental, and Veterans Studies Regarding the Association Between Specific Health Problems and Exposure to Herbicides

Sufficient Evidence of an Association

Evidence is sufficient to conclude that there is a positive association. That is, a positive association has been observed between herbicides and the outcome in studies in which chance, bias, and confounding could be ruled out with reasonable confidence. For example, if several small studies that are free from bias and confounding show an association that is consistent in magnitude and direction, there may be sufficient evidence for an association. There is sufficient evidence of an association between exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:

Soft tissue sarcoma

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's disease


Porphyria cutanea tarda (in genetically susceptible individuals)

Limited/Suggestive Evidence of an Association

Evidence is suggestive of an association between herbicides and the outcome but is limited because chance, bias, and confounding could not be ruled out with confidence. For example, at least one high-quality study shows a positive association, but the results of other studies are inconsistent. There is limited/suggestive evidence of an association between exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:

Respiratory cancers (lung, larynx, trachea)

Prostate cancer

Multiple myeloma

Indequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine Whether an Association Exists

The available studies are of insufficient quality, consistency, or statistical power to permit a conclusion regarding the presence or absence of an association. For example, studies fail to control for confounding, have inadequate exposure assessment, or fail to address latency. There is inadequate or insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists between exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:

Hepatobiliary cancers

Nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer

Bone cancer

Female reproductive cancers (breast, cervical, uterine, ovarian)

Renal cancer

Testicular cancer


Spontaneous abortion

Birth defects

Neonatal/infant death and stillbirths

Low birthweight

Childhood cancer in offspring

Abnormal sperm parameters and infertility

Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine Whether an Association Exists

Cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders

Motor/coordination dysfunction

Peripheral nervous system disorders

Metabolic and digestive disorders (diabetes, changes in liver enzymes, lipid abnormalities, ulcers)

Immune system disorders (immune modulation and autoimmunity)

Circulatory disorders

Respiratory disorders

Limited/Suggestive Evidence of No Association

Several adequate studies, covering the full range of levels of exposure that human beings are known to encounter, are mutually consistent in not showing a positive association between exposure to herbicides and the outcome at any level of exposure. A conclusion of 'no association' is inevitably limited to the conditions, level of exposure, and length of observation covered by the available studies. In addition, the possibility of a very small elevation in risk at the levels of exposure studied can never be excluded. There is limited/suggestive evidence of no association between exposure to herbicides and the following health outcomes:

Skin cancer

Gastrointestinal tumors (stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer)

Bladder cancer

Brain tumors

NOTE: 'Herbicides' refers to the major herbicides used in Vietnam: 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid); 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-tricbIorophenoxyacetic acid) and its contaminant TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); cacodylic acid; and picloram. The evidence regarding association is drawn from occupational and other studies in which subjects were exposed to a variety of herbicides and herbicide components.


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