compiled by Dee Finney


I have had multiple dreams and visions about comets, which I have written about previously.  You will find those pages in the database file below.  This one is incoming as we speak and has not yet arrived, but has been seen by astronomers, ETs, government, etc.   You will see in the following paragraph why I'm writing about this old poleshift. 

The information about the new poleshift coming, you will find on this page:  http://www.greatdreams.com/poleshift.htm    

Poleshift is what happened before, and Poleshift is what is going to happen this time as well.  Hopefully, positive thinking by many people will help events to be calmer than they might otherwise be.


11-18-09 - DREAM - I found out that there were two comets incoming. One of them was named "Watermark". The other one hadn't been named yet. A new law was passed that forced people to pay the government more money because of these comets, so I sat down and wrote a check for each one and sent them in.

I then went home to change clothes  and there were "suited" people in my apartment making decisions about something, and one of the men was a tall black man who I knew lived next door to me. I wondered why they were using my apartment for their meeting instead of his. All the doors were open down the hallway at the time I noticed.

After I changed clothes, I went outside to look at the sky to watch for the comets. The sky was a darker shade of blue but not yet dark but the sun had gone down. I walked around outside wrapped in a white sheet like a shroud. I didn't see anyone else out there watching the sky, though there were people coming and going. It was like I was the only one who knew the comets were coming, but I realized I looked like a religious zealot walking around wearing the sheet.
Amazon.com: Watermark: The Disaster That Changed the World and ...
Watermark: The Disaster That Changed the World and Humanity 12000 Years Ago, +, The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes: How a Stone-Age Comet Changed the Course ...

I received the book 'WATERMARK' by Joseph Christy Vitale. I haven't opened it yet. It's about the comet that caused the catastrophe on earth 12,000 years ago. I bought this book about my previous dream in which I found out about two comets coming and one being called 'Watermark'.

This is what I dreamed last night - I felt compelled to take a nap at quarter past 8 and this is what I dreamed:

11-25-09- DREAM - I was looking at a series of newspaper headlines and actually plugging them into a program of some kind on a computer. The headlines were all about disasters. The last three were, "COMETS COMING - COMETS COMING - COMETS COMING!"

11-25-09 - DREAM - I was working in a medium size office with some men.  The program on my computer was a file called  tuit2.  This program had to end on December 31st, 2009 and it was all math calculations of some kind.  A new file would be started on January 1st 2010, and would be called  tuit3 .  The men did their calculations at their own desks and the uploaded their files onto my computer when they were complete.  I told them that as of January 1st, they would have to keep their own files on floppies because tuit3 looked like a woman dressed in pink on television giving the news - like the calculations for tuit2 were complete by then.

I wanted to go home and when I went outside I forgot to take my sweater or coat because it didn't seem necessary, but the farther I went along the street, the colder it was getting - I was even seeing snow on the ground where it wasn't before and shouldn't be that cold.  So I went back to the office.

I was walking down the hall at work.  The floor was made of wood with tiny slats - very shiny.  Ahead of me I saw my boss talking to another man and it appeared that the other man was new and was in training to be the new boss.  I had had the same boss for quite some time, so I didn't know how a new boss would be to work with.  I hoped he'd be a good guy and easy to work with but I had no way of knowing.  We hadn't been introduced yet.

When I did go home, I turned on the TV which was quite large and sat on the floor - not on a table.  It was a square box.  The program that came on looked just like my computer screen at work, a lady dressed in pink giving the news.  I tried to change the station and no matter what knob I turned, the same program came on.  I even remarked that it seemed like the knobs on the TV were upsidedown.  I couldn't change the channel no matter what.

11-27-09 - VISION - The words Miranmar and Balincourt. Then 'Ruth Montgomery', and two extremely beautiful silver scrolled necklaces. One was hers and one was mine and they were identical.

http://www.dealbase.com/Destin/Majestic-Condos-Seascape-Resort-hotel-deals-4209  which is on the west coast of Mexico
http://www.balincourt.co.uk/_ (http://www.balincourt.co.uk/  which is on the west coast of England.


Montgomery also predicted in the 1970s and 1980s, that America would have a "_walk-in_ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walk-in) " as president in the 1990s, ("unsure which term, 1992 or 1996") before the Polar Shift, which was to happen "in the last months of the century" as it seemed to "the Guides."

NOTE: President Ronald Reagan was a walkin after he was shot. If there is another one to come, we just have to wait for a Presidential incident to know.

In the late 1990s, the Guides predicted in her 1999 book, The World To Come, that the walk-in president would not come until 2008 at the earliest, and therefore the Shift would be delayed until 2010-2012 at least. The potential catastrophe of the shift was also reduced by human free will. Except for Florida and the coast of California, the Guides reported, most of America will survive.

NOTE: My own predictions are the same - the coastlines of all countries are in danger from tsunamis from the Watermark comet.

I am also a walkin and corresponded with Ruth Montgomery back in the 1970's.  I'm more correctly a 'starseed' which is a bit different, but life on earth is the same for both types - we are here to learn lessons just like everyone else, but expected to do more with our lives than most people here.  My page is at:  http://www.greatdreams.com/walkins.htm  It's been there many years before today.


11-26-09 - VISIONS -  I a drawing of a comet coming down into the atmosphere.  Then I saw multiple yellow maps of states but I couldn't read any of them.  I just knew it was similar to maps I've seen of states.  I didn't see any large lakes or rivers so it didn't seem to be in the Great Lakes area, nor on a coastline.

NOTE:  This does not seem to match what has been given by others about something hitting the water in an ocean and causing a large tsunami.  It could however be another object than the 'Watermark' comet. I have seen two of them coming at the same time.


I had a vision in DEC 2003 that to this day makes me shiver even to think about it!

I was hallucinating with few degrees of high fever and a very bad Flu when had a vision in a dream state of mind half sleep half awake. 

The vision I saw was about the coming Pole Shift, I saw two giant Asteroids which were Comet type coming towards the earth the first one passed by as people prayed and landed lots of hot brim stones from it's tail on the earth causing many cities to burn and millions to die and injure.

About 6 month later the second Asteroid approached us hitting the earth in Atlantic Ocean the asteroid was over 200 miles long, causing 300 feet Tsunami waves.

As we heard the giant noise the shift was starting since the Earth was tilted because of massive impact and few hours of roaring sound of earth crying laud like a pregnant mother ready to deliver it's baby!

After 6 hours of hell on earth our planet stopped rotating completely here came the dead Silent! Our side the Americas was dark near early morning around 5 AM dawn light but Sun Light was not arriving all the people were waiting no one could move talk or say anything most of them were sitting in a traffic jams in the free ways, no radio, TV or any phone was working all satellites were off their orbits all communications were down.

Only some people could talk with Ham Radio.

No one knew what to do all Gas stations were out due to shut down of power no one knew what to say as clocks stopped earth stopped rotating everyone was getting a panic attack.

As we were waiting for sun to come out over 3 long days and nights which was all night I was praying some Angel to come and take me to hell and burn me so that I will not see these things and go thru this pain of truth and reality which I was experiencing.

This was not a Judgment day but almost the same since when time stops your mind looses all references and starts going backward and forward experiencing a total dimensional shift an Alienshift or total ultimate Truth! At the same time it was a total fear factor.

As I woke up from the dream the vision still was haunting me and could not come out of it completely.

I was keep looking outside was dark about 4 AM also checking the clock and I noticed the time is not moving again for about few minutes which was odd this was hell again this time my eyes was wide open.
I was asking in a prayer why me, they told me you asked for the vision that's why why was shown to you.
Then I asked are we going to die in the Pole Shift they said no there are choices to be made.   

As Bible mentions the Earth starts rotating again 3 days after the shift with total darkness after the asteroid called Wormwood hits the Earth.
So remember that the earth goes through this shift every 12,500 years.
Alienshift believes Professor Sitchin theory of every 3675 years of returning of planet X and Pole Shift is wrong and correct number is every 12500 years.

FROM:  http://www.alienshift.com/id1.html


Chapter One: In the Beginning

Twelve thousand years ago countless humans, animals, and plants perished almost overnight, and great portions of the world were drastically and violently altered. Our ancestors, numb with shock and exhaustion, faced a challenge: either cease to exist as a species or survive in a grave new world. This is not exactly the history most of us were taught in school. Yet it is there, told in the scars on stones, the broken and buried bones of animals, and the memories of our species.

We thrust a stick into a clear pond, and it looks broken. It is just a distortion of light, but our eyes, ignorant of the physics behind it, see only a broken stick. As we look back in history, time distorts what we perceive, and even though we believe we understand its nature, we see history like that broken stick. This distortion is then magnified by both facts and our subjectivity, leaving us, in the end, with a flawed view of our past. This view, when enough people believe it to be true, becomes our worldview or paradigm.

This book is about a subject as simple yet as complex as that stick. It involves time, space, the Ice Age, Paradise, the nature of God, how we came to be who we are, and the end of the world. In other words: everything.

Our story begins in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when scholars and scientists developed a global paradigm. They had grown aware, through accumulated evidence, of immense scarred rocks scattered across the world in unexpected places. They also found deep deposits of sands, gravels, and mud in valleys and on mountaintops, broken and shattered animal bones in vast numbers, and made the first discoveries of frozen mammoth carcasses in the Arctic. From this hard evidence these scientists and scholars concluded that at some time in the not-too-distant past, the world suffered an appalling disaster. The hypothesis they developed was called Catastrophism. Much debate determined that water, in massive and swiftly moving amounts, was probably the main culprit. Among scientists and the general public many saw this as evidence of the Biblical Flood. To the surprise and pleasure of the clergy, science now supported their religious convictions. Yet even as they spoke of this momentous conversion from the pulpit, the Floodwaters, in some minds, were already beginning to freeze.

In 1830, Charles Lyell, a lawyer and amateur geologist, published his Principles of Geology. He insisted that instead of a sudden worldwide flood, a long, gradual accumulation of debris over millions of years had created the evidence. The hypothesis came to be called Uniformitarianism. He went on to say that the cause was terrestrial rather than cosmic and divine in nature, and if ever there was a catastrophic flood it was a regional and not global event. Lyell's idea proved to be popular among scientists. Over the following century his approach to geology and history replaced the catastrophic point-of-view and opened the door to the concept of the Ice Age, Darwin's revolution in evolution, and more recently the belief in continental drift and plate tectonics. Considered together they have established the current unifying paradigm of our world.

Today the wind has changed. Our current fascination with Uniformity and our belief in the long, slow geological and evolutionary process is beginning to crumble, like immense stone blocks falling from a walled city.

How do we know the walls are crumbling? Imagine a barking dog nipping at your heels, demanding your attention. Most of us would look down to see what the commotion was about, because from our earliest memories this companion has alerted us to things we should pay heed to. Our association with dogs has changed us profoundly, though some consider them a nuisance. Science would call this pesky canine behavior an anomaly. An anomaly is an unexplained fact, a fact that can contradict part of the prevailing paradigm. When enough anomalies are taken together, creating a hypothesis that better explains the nature of life, they can alter or push aside an old crumbling worldview.

This push has been occurring, for a number of years, with patience only Job or a glacier could muster. It has come from many quarters. Among others, are the observations of Immanuel Velikovsky, with his Worlds in Collision books, which have received either howls of indignation or the cold silence of an empty church from the orthodox science establishment. His ideas in general have been rejected but not refuted. Undeniable truths have survived and become seeds that have, over the years, erupted through to the public and are splintering and cracking the foundations of the current paradigm.

The first seed sprouted in 1972 when Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould proposed their "punctuated equilibrium" hypothesis. It says that a period of geological and/or evolutionary stability can be regularly interrupted by swift and even radical change. In other words, catastrophes can happen. A serious crack in Lyell's Uniformity then appeared in 1980 when Louis and Walter Alvarez introduced their impact hypothesis, which attempts to explain the mass extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Their idea of a comet or asteroid colliding with Earth was first met with the same shrill reception as Velikovsky's ideas, but today most scientists accept it. Both "punctuated equilibrium" and the Alvarez impact have helped move science away from a narrow and extreme view of Uniformity toward a middle ground where occasional (in geological time) catastrophes occur.

The cracks are also appearing, rarely noticed by the general public or even science journals, down corridors and around coffee machines of universities, museums, and in the field. The debates revolve around the nature of these catastrophes and whether they ever occurred, particularly the one central to our story. The discussions are heated, because a new scientific revolution is being born. For some, change is difficult.

In this book we are embarking on a journey back through time to a momentous event 12,000 years ago. (Sources agree that the actual event described in these pages occurred 11,500 years ago, rather than the 12,000 year figure I use in this book. I've added 500 years -- a blink of an eye in the geological time span -- merely for the convenience of a nice round number, and for ease of discussion.) This event dramatically altered the makeup of our solar system. It has been ignored, misrepresented, and forgotten by most, though we glimpse it, like a phantom darting in the shadows, out of the corner of our eye. It haunts us every day in the reality we have created for ourselves, and in the ways we treat one another and all life on this planet. It haunts us in the terrible contradictions we come to accept on a daily basis and feel powerless to change. It haunts us because it is the source of how and why we came to be who we are today.

We will trace a path littered with evidence left for us by a trinity of testimony: biology, geology, and our human memory. Combining into an image beautiful and terrible, consistent and complete, it will challenge what we believe we know about our distant past. We will follow the drama from its beginning to its inevitable end, the desperate aftermath, and life's scarred resurrection on this third planet from the sun.

In a sense it is a pilgrimage, as we stop along our way to look upon anomalies, recall ancient memories, and realize that we are reclaiming our past. These moments may startle us, like a dog's sharp bark, and when we gaze up the world will begin to change. Not physically but intuitively. A pilgrimage is really a journey to oneself, and this book is no different. As we proceed, the complex and incomplete hypotheses of science and the blinders of religious beliefs will drop from our eyes. This journey goes beyond dogmas to look upon the past with clear eyes and to witness the spirit of all our ancient ancestors, as they stood on the edge of the abyss. We are going to remove the stick from the water, gaze upon it unbroken, and remember.

Copyright © 2004 by Joseph Christy-Vitale

Excerpts from Chapter 3



P. 14 -   The Canary islands are located off the Atlantic coast of northwest Africa.  They are volcanic islands partially created by volcanic eruptions 12,000 years ago. They were known to the Greeks and the Romans over 2,000 years ago. Beneath these islands we find earthworms.  Earthworms are blind and deaf and are unable to survive immersion in salt water. Our Canary island earthworms are so similar to European earthworms, science suggests that Europe was once connected to the Canary islands.

P. 15 - Crossing the South Atlantic reveals another mystery:  the monk seal. Rarely venturing into open ocean, this endangered animal is found along the eastern coast of South America and, until the last century, in the West Indies. Back across the Atlantic monk seals can be found barking on the shores of West Africa and the western Mediterranean. How did these seals get from West Africa to South America without crossing the open ocean?

According to the current continental drift hypothesis, the American continents became separated from the old world 65 to over 130 million years ago.  At  that point the carnivorous, arboreal, tropical forest-dwelling ancestor of the monk seal was not even a glimmer in Nature's eye. Another cause is needed.

Below Earth's oceans there exist 5,000 species of sponges, but only 20 are native to freshwater; these are unable to survive in salt water.  One, Heteromeyenia ryderi, is found only along rivers and lakes from Florida to Newfoundland along the Atlantic Coast of North America, and across 3,000 miles of salty ocean on the west coasts of Ireland and Scotland.  This distribution has been a puzzle to those scholars who are not worried about what questions to ask, or what answers may arise.

Many more examples are given.


P. 21

Lignite, sometimes called brown coal, is found world wide. Similar to soft coal and peat, it is used as a fuel in northern climates. In lignite you will usually find the texture of the original wood that formed it. Because of this, its age is not considered great. Difficult questions arise, however, when the trees found in the lignite are not local. Where do they come from and how did they get there?  In Germany many of the lignite beds are associated with swamp bogs. But the remains found in the bogs are sequoia, a tree that does not grow in swamps.  They could only have been carried and buried here.  Australia has similar deposits. Near Morwell, in Victoria, the lignite is found 200 feet below the surface and is nearly 800 feet thick.  They numbers of trees found are prodigious and well reserved and include many that are not common to the region.  Again, they could only have been carried and then buried there.

P. 23

In treeless Greenland, the remains of pinecones, acorns, sequoias, oaks, maples, and magnolia are found together in confused masses in a land today synonymous with ice, not temperate forest. 

Prehistorians gave the name Fennoscandia to a landmass that, 12,000 years ago, sank into what is today the Arctic ocean. It included much of northern Eurasia and the now numerous island archipelagos that are found in the Arctic Ocean, some laying less than 500 miles from the North Pole. The remains of immense forests here staggered the first scientists who explored these lands in the 1800s. 12,000 years ago, forests of alder, elm, and oak reached far into the Arctic from the Ural mountains and Siberia. Today they lie buried in frozen ground where no bushes and trees can survive.

P. 24

The loss of animal life 12,000 years ago was also profound. Biologists have difficulty communicating the magnitude of extinction that occurred during this time period.  In 'When the Earth Nearly Died', paleogeographic researcher Derek Allan and Geological surveyor J. Bernard Delair summarize their frustration when they write 'immense herds of diverse animals utterly vanished off the face of the earth for no obvious biological reason.

Note: He goes on to say that in many lignite beds, bones of animals are mixed in a jumbled mass along with trees, bushes, plants and grass. Some of the buried forests still have their berries and nuts on them, mixed in with the bones of mammoths, horses, hippopotamuses and other species.

Whale bones are found near the tops of mountains. 

P 26.

Throughout the Mediterranean region, there are caves and fissures filled from the narrowest cracks in the walls and floors all the way up to the roofs with the smashed remains of hundreds of species of animals, reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans and sediment,  From the Rock of Gibraltar to Sicily, Male and Crete scientists have uncovered these dens of death.  Sea and land shells, turtle, shark, lizard, hyena, bear, elephant, hippopotamus - including pigmy hippopotamus found living today only in West Africa - bird, rodent, deer, ox, lion, wooly rhinoceros, and mammoth have been found crushed together in these caves, fissures, and crevices.

P. 29

Siberia is well known for its frozen mammoth carcasses. These are still being discovered, and while few in number, speculation and hypothesis whirl, like a blizzard, around them. Some scientists believe numerous, gradual climate changes melted the ice sheets and broke up the land, creating the crevasses that these mammoths fell into, where they died and were frozen. Some think the climate changes produced occasional meltdowns, at various times over tens of thousands of years, which sent water burning through ice dams and caught the animals unaware. In either case the causes remain comfortably within the Ice Age hypothesis.  The climate, shown in floral studies, was considerably milder than today. These mammoth carcasses were not found in ice, but buried in now frozen sediment or mud, meaning the ground was not frozen when the animals died, otherwise they could not have been buried whole. The ground then had to freeze quickly, not gradually, before the animals decomposed.

end chapter notes


From Publishers Weekly
The pyramids of Egypt and Central America; diluvial deposits high up on mountain sides; strange collections of animal bones in North American caves— Christy-Vitale, amateur scientist and travel industry consultant, believes these seemingly unconnected phenomena hint at a cosmic catastrophe 12,000 years ago: a supernova 45 light-years from Earth that shot a chunk of the star (which he calls Phaeton) into our solar system, shattering a 10th planet between Mars and Jupiter into what we know as the asteroid belt, killing off thousands of animal species and almost extinguishing an advanced human civilization. Memories of this event live on in stories of a golden age destroyed in a worldwide flood. While Christy-Vitale seems never to have met a myth he didn't like, he ignores some basic scientific facts. If a supernova had exploded in our vicinity even in the last 100,000 years, its glowing shell would still be visible. Also, supernovas don't shoot off mini-stars—rather, these cosmic explosions tend to pepper the surrounding cosmos with an iron isotope; scientists haven't found a layer dating from this era. There is also no evidence of a genetic "bottleneck" in humans dating back a mere 10,000 years. Christy-Vitale believes that the chunk of star dust zooming past us caused Earth to flip back and forth on its axis, resulting in, among other things, the current configuration of the continents. So much for continental drift. Christy-Vitale's scenario is an interesting one, but he seems more a New Age Erik Von Daniken than someone advancing a revisionist theory that will attract serious scientific attention.

Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Ancient crash, epic wave

At the southern end of Madagascar lie four enormous wedge-shaped sediment deposits, called chevrons, that are composed of material from the ocean floor. Each covers twice the area of Manhattan with sediment as deep as the Chrysler Building is high.

On close inspection, the chevron deposits contain deep ocean microfossils that are fused with a medley of metals typically formed by cosmic impacts. And all of them point in the same direction - toward the middle of the Indian Ocean where a newly discovered crater, 18 miles in diameter, lies 12,500 feet below the surface.

The explanation is obvious to some scientists. A large asteroid or comet, the kind that could kill a quarter of the world's population, smashed into the Indian Ocean 4,800 years ago, producing a tsunami at least 600 feet high, about 13 times as big as the one that inundated Indonesia nearly two years ago. The wave carried the huge deposits of sediment to land.

Most astronomers doubt that any large comets or asteroids have crashed into the Earth in the last 10,000 years. But the self-described "band of misfits" that make up the two-year-old Holocene Impact Working Group say that astronomers simply have not known how or where to look for evidence of such impacts along the world's shorelines and in the deep ocean.

Scientists in the working group say the evidence for such impacts during the last 10,000 years, known as the Holocene epoch, is strong enough to overturn current estimates of how often the Earth suffers a violent impact on the order of a 10-megaton explosion. Instead of once in 500,000 to one million years, as astronomers now calculate, catastrophic impacts could happen every few thousand years.

The researchers, who formed the working group after finding one another through an international conference, are based in the United States, Australia, Russia, France and Ireland. They are established experts in geology, geophysics, geomorphology, tsunamis, tree rings, soil science and archaeology, including the structural analysis of myth. Their efforts are just getting under way, but they will present some of their work at the American Geophysical Union meeting in December in San Francisco.

This year the group started using Google Earth, a free source of satellite images, to search around the globe for chevrons, which they interpret as evidence of past giant tsunamis. Scores of such sites have turned up in Australia, Africa, Europe and the United States, including the Hudson River Valley and Long Island.

When the chevrons all point in the same direction to open water, Dallas Abbott, an adjunct research scientist at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., uses a different satellite technology to look for oceanic craters. With increasing frequency, she finds them, including an especially large one dating back 4,800 years.

So far, astronomers are skeptical but are willing to look at the evidence, said David Morrison, a leading authority on asteroids and comets at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, Calif. Surveys show that as many as 185 large asteroids or comets hit the Earth in the far distant past, although most of the craters are on land. No one has spent much time looking for craters in the deep ocean, Morrison said, assuming young ones don't exist and that old ones would be filled with sediment.

Astronomers monitor every small space object with an orbit close to the Earth. "We know what's out there, when they return, how close they come," Morrison said. Given their observations, "there is no reason to think we have had major hits in the last 10,000 years," he continued, adding, "But if Dallas is right and they find 10 such events, we'll have a real contradiction on our hands."

Peter Bobrowski, a senior research scientist in natural hazards at the Geological Survey of Canada, said "chevrons are fantastic features" but do not prove that megatsunamis are real. There are other interpretations for how chevrons are formed, including erosion and glaciation. Bobrowski said. It is up to the working group to prove its claims, he said.

William Ryan, a marine geologist at the Lamont Observatory, compared Abbott's work to that of other pioneering scientists who had to change the way their colleagues thought about a subject.

"Many of us think Dallas is really onto something," Ryan said. "She is building a story just like Walter Alvarez did." Alvarez, a professor of earth and planetary sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, spent a decade convincing skeptics that a giant asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

Ted Bryant, a geomorphologist at the University of Wollongong in New South Wales, Australia, was the first person to recognize the palm prints of mega-tsunamis. Large tsunamis of 30 feet or more are caused by volcanoes, earthquakes and submarine landslides, he said, and their deposits have different features.

Deposits from mega-tsunamis contain unusual rocks with marine oyster shells, which cannot be explained by wind erosion, storm waves, volcanoes or other natural processes, Bryant said.

"We're not talking about any tsunami you're ever seen," Bryant said. "Aceh was a dimple. No tsunami in the modern world could have made these features. End-of-the-world movies do not capture the size of these waves. Submarine landslides can cause major tsunamis, but they are localized. These are deposited along whole coastlines."

For example, Bryant identified two chevrons found over four miles inland near Carpentaria in north central Australia. Both point north. When Abbott visited a year ago, he asked her to find the craters.

To locate craters, Abbott uses sea surface altimetry data. Satellites scan the ocean surface and log the exact height of it. Underwater mountain ranges, trenches and holes in the ground disturb the Earth's gravitational field, causing sea surface heights to vary by fractions of an inch. Within 24 hours of searching the shallow water north of the two chevrons, Abbott found two craters.

Not all depressions in the ocean are impact craters, Abbott said. They can be sink holes, faults or remnant volcanoes. A check is needed. So she obtained samples from deep sea sediment cores taken in the area by the Australian Geological Survey.

The cores contain melted rocks and magnetic spheres with fractures and textures characteristic of a cosmic impact. "The rock was pulverized, like it was hit with a hammer," Abbott said. "We found diatoms fused to tektites," a glassy substance formed by meteors. The molten glass and shattered rocks could not be produced by anything other than an impact, she said.

"We think these two craters are 1,200 years old," Abbott said. The chevrons are well preserved and date to about the same time.

Abbott and her colleagues have located chevrons in the Caribbean, Scotland, Vietnam and North Korea, and several in the North Sea.

Heather Hill State Park on Long Island has a chevron whose front edge points to a crater in Long Island Sound, Abbott said. There is another, very faint chevron in Connecticut, and it points in a different direction.

Marie-Agnès Courty, a soil scientist at the European Center for Prehistoric Research in Tautavel, France, is studying the worldwide distribution of cosmogenic particles from what she suspects was a major impact 4,800 years ago.

But Madagascar provides the smoking gun for geologically recent impacts. In August, Abbott, Bryant and Slava Gusiakov, from the Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory in Russia, visited the four huge chevrons to scoop up samples.

Last month, Dee Breger, director of microscopy at Drexel University in Philadelphia, looked at the samples under a scanning electron microscope and found benthic foraminifera, tiny fossils from the ocean floor, sprinkled throughout. Her close-ups revealed splashes of iron, nickel and chrome fused to the fossils.

When a chondritic meteor, the most common kind, vaporizes upon impact in the ocean, those three metals are formed in the same relative proportions as seen in the microfossils, Abbott said.

Breger said the microfossils appear to have melded with the condensing metals as both were lofted up out of the sea and carried long distances.

About 900 miles southeast from the Madagascar chevrons, in deep ocean, is Burckle crater, which Abbott discovered last year. Although its sediments have not been directly sampled, cores from the area contain high levels of nickel and magnetic components associated with impact ejecta.

Burckle crater has not been dated, but Abbott estimates that it is 4,500 to 5,000 years old.

It would be a great help to the cause if the National Science Foundation sent a ship equipped with modern acoustic equipment to take a closer look at Burckle, Ryan said. "If it had clear impact features, the nonbelievers would believe," he said.

But they might have more trouble believing one of the scientists, Bruce Masse, an environmental archaeologist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He thinks he can say precisely when the comet fell: on the morning of May 10, 2807 B.C.

Masse analyzed 175 flood myths from around the world, and tried to relate them to known and accurately dated natural events like solar eclipses and volcanic eruptions. Among other evidence, he said, 14 flood myths specifically mention a full solar eclipse, which could have been the one that occurred in May 2807 B.C.

Half the myths talk of a torrential downpour, Masse said. A third talk of a tsunami. Worldwide they describe hurricane force winds and darkness during the storm. All of these could come from a mega-tsunami.

Of course, extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof, Masse said, "and we're not there yet."

FROM: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/14/health/14iht-web.1114meteor.3522140.html?_r=1


ussian scientists to establish origin of Great Flood

Russian researchers from the University oat the Great Flood of 2800 BCE came as a result of Earth’s collision with some heavenly body.

Scientists research Great Flood theories

Scientists research Great Flood theories

Viacheslav Gusiakov, the laboratory’s director at the Calculus and Mathematical Geophysics Institute, told Interfax that the actual cause of the ancient global catastrophe could be established within a few months as soon the researchers complete their examining of the sand hill samples.

These samples were collected by the international expedition members in the area of difficult access near the Madagascar Island between the Fenambosi and Ampalaza gulfs.

With the help of the satellite images scientists were able to discover at this particular spot the so-called herringbone dunes, which were located far beyond the regular shore dunes but were clearly formed by the rising water flow judging by their design.

The size of one sand dune that stretches out for 40 km from the shore back into the depths of dry land suggests that the wave, which became its source of origin, washed out onto the shore to the distance of few dozens kilometers.

Source: Agencies

Translated by Natalia Vysotskaya

FROM: http://english.pravda.ru/science/earth/23-10-2006/85159-dunes-0



Pole Shifts - Velikovsky

Immanuel Velikovsky(1895-1979)

Velikovsky was born in Vitebsk, Russia. As a child he learned several languages, and excelled in mathematics. In 1913 he travelled to Europe, visiting Palestine, briefly studying medicine at Montpelier, France, and taking premedical courses at the University of Edinburgh.

Just before the outbreak of World War I, Velikovsky returned to his homeland and enrolled in the University of Moscow, where he received a medical degree in 1921. From there he went to Berlin, where he married a young violinist and became the general editor of the journal, Scripta Universitatis. During this time he became acquainted with Albert Einstein, who edited the journal's mathematical-physical section. Velikovsky shifted to Palestine in 1924 and practiced psychoanalysis for the next 15 years. Some of his writings appeared in Freud's Imago.

In 1940, Velikovsky studied a number of natural disasters that occur in the Bible, such as the parting of the Red Sea and the eruption of Mt. Sinai. When he compared these biblical passages to similar entries in some obscure Egyptian texts, he became convinced they were describing the same catastrophes, and went about reconstructing ancient Middle Eastern time-lines to make both sides fit.

After studying other historical records, he became convinced that many catastrophes were linked to a single global cataclysm, and that Venus was involved. In 1939 he shifted to the United States and for the next ten years he researched these topics, the result being two separate books: Ages in Chaos - a historical reconstruction covering the years 1450 BC to 840 B.C, and Worlds in Collision.

In 1950 Macmillan published Worlds in Collision. It described how 3,500 years ago Venus was ejected from Jupiter as a comet - then started a wayward path through the solar system. Its gravitational field moved other planets out of their orbits or affected their rotation - including Earth's. Macmillan, who publish many textbooks, came under fire from scientists and academics who considered Velikovsky's ideas to be unacceptable - ideas at odds with uniformitarianism. The book was consequently banned from many academic institutions. Although it was at the top of the New York Times non-fiction bestseller list, Macmillan gave in and transferred the book to Doubleday. In 1952 Doubleday pub1ished Velikovsky's Ages in Chaos.

As an answer to his critics, Velikovsky's third book, Earth in Upheaval (1955), presented raw data that would validate any global cataclysm theory:

"I have excluded from [these pages] all references to ancient literature, traditions, and folklore; and this I have done with intent, so that careless critics cannot decry the entire work as "tales and legends". Stones and bones are the only witness."[4]

It was fully referenced and designed to gain the support of orthodox science - however academia had already determined that anything he ever wrote would automatically be unacceptable.

Meanwhile Velikovsky had been maintaining contact with Einstein - he would send him letters and manuscripts and Einstein would return them, usually with comments written in the margins. With regards to Earth in Upheaval, Einstein accepted all the evidence of sudden violence upon the Earth, but he rejected Venus as being the cause. Nine days after their final meeting Einstein died, and a copy of Worlds in Collision was found open on his desk. He was rereading it because latest discoveries concerning Jupiter had confirmed one of Velikovsky's predictions.

It is currently accepted that a comet wiped out the dinosaurs, yet in the 1950s, when Velikovsky suggested similar ideas, he was rejected. In fact many of his radical ideas that orthodox science originally laughed at, due to their lack of scientific foundation, have become proven facts:

· Jupiter periodically becomes unstable and ejects excess mass.

· Jupiter emits non-thermal radio noise.

· Comets can be rich in hydrocarbons, with highly energetic electrical tails.

· The Moon has had recent surface melting, seismic and volcanic activity, none of which should be true for a body that had supposedly been dead for 4.5 billion years.

Velikovsky deduced each of these facts many years before mainstream science found ways to prove them. He also stated that after its close encounters with Earth, Mars and the Sun, Venus would have a much higher than expected temperature, would be enveloped in hydrocarbon clouds (remnants of its comet's tail), and would have an anomalous rotation. The scientists' predictions - a similar temperature to Earth, an atmosphere of carbon dioxide or water and standard rotation - have all since been shown to be wrong. Venus has a surface temperature of 750 degrees Kelvin - hot enough to melt lead. Its atmosphere is full of hydrocarbons and its rotation is in an opposite direction to all the other planets.

With hindsight, academia should be re-examining his work, for more of his startling ideas could also be correct. Here is Velikovsky's hypothesis on what may have previously happened to our planet:

".that under the impact of a force or the influence of an agent - and the earth does not travel in an empty universe - the axis of the earth shifted or tilted. At that moment an earthquake would make the globe shudder. Air and water would continue to move through inertia; hurricanes would sweep the earth and the seas would rush over continents, carrying gravel and sand and marine animals, and casting them on the land. Heat would be developed, rocks would melt, volcanoes would erupt, and lava would flow from fissures in the ruptured ground and cover vast areas. Mountains would spring up from the plains and would travel and climb on the shoulders of other mountains, causing faults and rifts. Lakes would be tilted and emptied, rivers would change their beds; large land areas with all their inhabitants would slip under the sea. Forests would burn, and the hurricanes and wild seas would wrest them from the ground on which they grew and pile them, branch and root, in huge heaps."

"Water evaporated from the oceans would rise in clouds and fall again in torrential rains and snowfalls. Clouds of dust, ejected by numerous volcanoes and swept by hurricanes from the ground.all this dust would keep the rays of the sun from penetrating to the earth."[5]

Perhaps the extra-terrestrial agent was a force such as an electromagnetic field? The Earth is a giant magnet, and the fields would act upon each other. Duration would not be a factor - if the strength of this field were strong enough to tip the earth over, it would happen instantly, triggering the effects Velikovsky listed above.

[4] Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval (1955), preface.

[5] Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval (1955), p.120-121

  FROM: http://survive2012.com/index.php/pole-shifts-velikovsky.html



Milton Zysman


"Of all the mysterious phenomena which accompanied the Exodus, this mysterious
pillar seems the first to demand explanation."

Velikovsky came to his catastrophic thesis through a search for a reliable
chronology for ancient middle eastern history.  This search, born of the
realization that both Egyptians and Israelites alike went through a great
physical upheaval, gave rise to the most influential work on catastrophism
published in this century.

Hebrew traditions of the red and poisonous Nile, the impenetrable darkness,
the hot stones from heaven, the great winds and noise, the anomalous
behaviour of insects and animals and the tidal effect at the Sea of Passage
were collected and matched to other worldwide ancient traditions, convincing
Velikovsky that the Exodus event was part of a global upheaval caused in
great part by the passage of the Earth through the tail of a giant

Velikovsky drew this original inspiration not from Exodus, but from an event
that occurred, according to Biblical sources, 52 years later in the time of
Joshua.  On that great day, when the sun did not hasten to go down,
Velikovsky remembered the shower of hot stones which killed more of Joshua's
enemies than did the battling Israelites.

Velikovsky realized that these scientifically naive people could not have
deliberately coupled a large scale meteoric shower with a disturbance in the
Earth's diurnal rotation.  Since meteoric showers, great and .small, are
understood to be debris entrained by comets, Velikovsky took the next logical
step by gleaning the Bible and associated Talmudic sources for evidence of a
comet during Exodus and Joshua.

It was then that the "mysterious pillar" became the tail of the protoplanet
Venus.  Velikovsky claimed: "Because of the proximity of the Earth, the comet
left its own orbit and for a while followed the orbit of the Earth.  The
great ball of the comet retreated, then again approached the Earth, shrouded
in a dark column of gases which looked like a pillar of smoke during the day
and of fire by night and the Earth once more passed through the atmosphere of
the comet, this time at its neck."

It has been for some time this author's opinion that this "mysterious pillar"
is not a comet's tail, but the Earth's north and south magnetic poles
illuminated by the joint action of electrical discharge and the commingling of
Earthly and cometary gases.  In other words, a giant aurora.

In this paper I will argue that the early reports from the Jupiter/Comet
Shoemaker-Levy 9 event can cast further light on the aurora thesis and bring
us closer to understanding the full significance of Velikovsky's catastrophic

Comet of Typhon

It may have evaded the scrutiny of even the most assiduous Velikovskians that
there is very little direct evidence for the appearance of a comet during
both the Exodus and the Joshua stories. All the indicators of a great
meteoric shower are in place and it can be argued that any well-informed
tribal leader or court magician would have little trouble inferring its
involvement, yet we have no specific mention of a comet being observed before
or during the event. Great signs were in abundance in the heavens- in
particular the enigmatic arm of the Lord mentioned many times in Exodus and
other rabbinical sources.  Little, however, in the way of a glowing body with
a tail is mentioned.

It is no wonder then that Velikovsky calls on the "mysterious pillar" for
help.  Yet it is not Exodus he turns to in reconstructing the days of Exodus
and Joshua, but to the great Greek tradition of the fight between Zeus and
Typhon.  Velikovsky inserted this account of a central god throwing
thunderbolts and great balls of fire at an encircling deity as an explanation
of how a comet loses and regains its tail:

"Some saw the pillar of cloud- Typhon defeated by Jupiter, the ball of fire
that emerged from the pillar and battled with it.  Others interpreted the
globe as a body different from Jupiter ... the imagination of the people saw
in this the planet-god Jupiter-Marduk rushing to save the Earth by killing the
serpent-monster Typhon/Tiamat."

I will not dwell on the physical adequacy of this imported image, for it
contains intrinsic difficulties.  The greater problem is that, inadequate as
this exotic image is, it is not described in similar terms either in Exodus or
Joshua.  It is always, in Hebrew traditions, a singular body.  Its only
variant is the crooked or brazen serpent. Moreover, Velikovsky does not
deal adequately with the remarkably stable nature of the pillar.  Neither the
atmospheric nor the orbital elements of a comet's tail could have retained the
definite shape of a column for any length of time, yet-this same column was
reported to have shed light on the wandering tribes for over 40 years.

The Great Aurora

Velikovsky's decision to identify the "mysterious pillar" as the tail of Venus
effectively foreclosed his further access to one of the most powerful ancient
icons, for the pillar of light and smoke can be none other than the northern
extension of the world axis or Axis Mundi.

The primal universe pictured the world axis with its principal pillar to the
north- the less important southern element appearing to pass through the disc
or sphere of the Earth and extend into the underworld.

Hebrew tradition, like most major cultures, gives us many static and dynamic
variations of the pillar of smoke and fire.  In Genesis it is the trunk of
the trees of life and knowledge.  In the post-Exodus period, the wooden
pillar, emblematic of the Hebrew goddess, was offered human sacrifices "in
high places."  So important was this idol that it replaced the ark of the
covenant in the temple on a number of occasions.

Velikovsky would have found it difficult to miss this icon in his research. 
An author he referred to, Holmberg, devoted an entire chapter to the pillar
in his work on Siberian myth.  Plato would not have confused the battle of
Zeus and Typhon as relating to a pillar of light.  He acknowledged this symbol
as the highway for the souls of the dead to reach heaven.

Our Neon World

In other published works, I have argued that an enhanced aurora at the north
and south poles is an inevitable outcome of encounters with great meteoric
showers.  Present auroral displays, sometimes called the Northern Lights, are
the product of periodic solar flares which cause temporary charge imbalances
in the Earth's magnetic field.  When these entrapped charges reach a critical
point, they rush from the trailing end of the tear shaped geomagnetic belt
and cascade down the north and south magnetic poles in a spiral pattern. 
These charged particles become visible as they collide with rising atoms of
oxygen and nitrogen, producing a distinctive belt of glowing gases in the
Earth's upper atmosphere.

The great pillar aurora is most easily understood as an upward extension of
the present auroral oval and its interior polar cap.

The great pillar of the Exodus would be initiated by a discharge from the
Earth's field to the impinging ionized cometary debris.  This" short circuit
would cause the temporary reduction of the Earth's magnetic field, subjecting
the Earth to greater penetration of the solar wind.  The Earth would also lose
some charge from its interior, depending on the relative ionization of the
impinging debris.  These two conditions would lead to overcharging of the
Earth's geomagnetic field, powering great auroras until the Earth regains its
electrical equilibrium.

Auroral Icons

The full range of iconography provided by the great auroras of the past could
fill many volumes, and is dealt with in greater detail in Catastrophism 2000.
  The essential direct image presented to our ancestors was that of a fluted
cylinder composed of the Earth's overcharged field lines, projecting upwards
thousands of kilometres, and made visible at night by rising glowing green
and red gases ionized by the electrons passing through them, and by day by
the iron-bearing dust attracted by the same electromagnetic field lines.  This
effect was demonstrated by P Shoemaker-Levy 9's ferrous dust, aligning itself
along Jupiter's north-south field lines shortly after impact.

The Serpents

Charged particles spiraling down and reflected upwards by the ionosphere
sometimes illuminated the rising atomic oxygen and nitrogen into the single
and double helixes which are equally popular in global iconography.

The leather straps (phylacteries) wound around the left arm by pious Jews
prior to prayer, and the serpent encircling the tree of life, are Hebrew
remembrances of the illuminated spiraling electrons.

The idea is also found in the serpent Moses made of brass, which he put upon a
pole. Velikovsky himself stated: "The brazen serpent was most probably the
image of a pillar of cloud and fire which appeared as a moving serpent to all
people of the world."

The Light of Noga

The influence of Venus is never quite absent in Velikovsky's Exodus narrative,
and this quotation from Isaiah is compelling. "The people that walked in
darkness have seen a great light; they that dwell in the land of the shadow
of death, the light of Noga was upon them."

Velikovsky rightly claims, "It (Noga) is, in fact, the usual name of this
planet in Hebrew, and it is therefore an omission not to translate it so."

This construction can be understood if we acknowledge that the auroral pillar
was one of the effects of passing through the tail of the protoplanet Venus,
a hypothesis that is still compelling today.

Velikovsky's reference to Amos is also convincing. "Amos says that during the
forty years in the wilderness the Israelites did not sacrifice to the Lord,
but carried 'the star of your god, which you made to yourselves.'  St. Jerome
interprets this 'star of your god' as Lucifer (the Morning Star.)"

Do We Need The Nucleus ?

In tearing apart the head and tail of the protoplanet Venus, Velikovsky was
probably on the right track. Perhaps if he had further decoupled the nucleus
and its trailing debris, he could have presented a stronger argument for a
major encounter with a comet's tail during the Exodus and Joshua episodes.

It would not shock any scientist today to suggest that the Exodus and Joshua
events were the result of an encounter with a great meteoric shower.  The
fact that the comet's nucleus was not sighted during the encounters could be
explained simply by imposing a daytime event.  Half of the meteoric showers,
such as the Taurids, are not seen due to sunlight which obscures the classic
radiation of glowing gas and dust that is seen during the nights of great
Leonid and Perseid showers.  It has been claimed recently in Icarus that the
Tsunguska event was the product of this shower.

Enter Shoemaker-Levy 9

At this point we may bring Shoemaker-Levy 9 into the equation.  One of the
greatest difficulties in Velikovsky's Exodus scenario is the significant time
lapse between catastrophes.  Even making allowances for the red world that
preceded the Passover night, there existed six days between the night of the
great flash of light and profound darkness and the events at the Sea of
Passage. Velikovsky's argument that Venus became entangled in the Earth's
orbit, and then returned to display its nucleus-shrouding tail, is not
convincing.  As has been stated earlier, there is no direct evidence of the
presence of either the head or the visible tail of a comet, let alone a
viable model or physical theory to explain the exotic motions necessary to
justify this sophisticated cosmic scenario.  A train of asteroids captured by
the Earth's gravity a la Shoemaker-Levy 9, which took place over a five-day
period, or an angled passage through a single or multiple train of meteoric
showers, is a simpler and familiar explanation.  This  in no way excludes
Venus, Mars nor Super Encke from the parental role.

Creating the Great Aurora

Bringing the pillar of smoke and fire into its proper iconographic niche as
the northern extension of the Axis Mundi and explaining it as a visual
product of an encounter with a great meteoric shower, further confirms
Velikovsky's intuitions concerning the essential nature of the Exodus
catastrophes.  The great wandering, like the night of July 16, 1994, began
with a great flash of light.

I presume that the dazzling light of the Passover night and the flashes of
Shoemaker-Levy 9 were similar occurrences.  The Israelites had good reason to
give only a passing reference to this phenomenon, since they had other things
on their minds, but the Jovian flashes were watched by thousands of human and
electronic eyes from the Earth and sun and Earth-orbiting satellites.  What
they observed and recorded of this unique event not only provides compelling
evidence of the super auroral hypothesis, but brings us closer to a clearer
understanding of the nature of comets.

Looking behind Jupiter

We do not yet fully understand what happened behind Jupiter in July.  The only
satellite in a position to observe the night side of Jupiter was Galileo,
whose great distance from Jupiter could only provide very grainy images of
the 14  explosions.

But the dust marks left on the planet's atmosphere were approximately the
diameter of the Earth.  If the same fragments would have exploded above the
Earth, the effects would most probably have been of a greater scale.  Using
Jupiter as a model for Earth must be carefully qualified. Its magnetic field
is immense. Its magnetopause, if visible, would have the apparent diameter of
the moon.  The pulse of electromagnetic energy released by its moon Io is 10
to the 18th ergs, enough to toast the city of Portland.  On the other side of
the coin, a fragment of several kilometres is, in relative mass, less than a
gnat's breath to this planetary giant whose volume is 1,300 times that of the
Earth.  Nevertheless, Jupiter did not take the onslaught lightly.  Vincent
Caracci, an American amateur radio astronomer, monitored the same band (21.5
Mhz) that produces Jupiter's Io related electrical storms.  He characterized
the energy released by the fragments as sounding like a machine gun compared
to the typical ocean surf sound released by Io.

The University of Florida, which has been monitoring Jupiter's radio signals
since their discovery in the early 1950s, did not rule out "lightning"
discharging from Jupiter's field, but the results must have surprised even
those who expected measurable disturbances in Jupiter's field.  Before the
plume or ball of fire associated with each impact was observed, a flash
hotter than the sun itself was recorded.    What was anomalous and still
unexplained by astronomers was the fact that these flashes were recorded by
observers on both the day and night side of Jupiter.

Galileo, the Earth-orbiting Hubble telescope, and many ground observers
witnessed the flash simultaneously. Another puzzling occurrence was the
absence of reflection from Jupiter's moons and torus.  Hopes that light from
the impacts would be mirrored back to Earthbound observers were dashed when no
observable intensity of light was recorded.  A simple explanation may lie in
recognizing that the flash occurred in Jupiter's magnetosphere and not on the
planet's surface.  The interval of six to eight minutes from flash to the
first sight of the ball of fire gives further support to this thesis.

I would go further and suggest that the explosion of each fragment was caused
by electrical shock.  Evidence is being put forth that the fragments were
solid asteroids.  If this proves true, it will be helpful to find a mechanism
that explains how a solid body, more than two kilometres in diameter, can
explode well above Jupiter's atmosphere.  Finally, can the discharge of fire
from Jupiter's clouds come from the impinging debris, or as part of a general
electrical discharge phenomenon?  If the latter process took place, there
ought to be more than one mark on Jupiter's surface.

This suggested electrical mechanism is not critical to prove the super-Aurora
hypothesis.  It is presented as further evidence that electrical
interactions, and not physical impacts, are key to understanding comets and
their effects on planetary evolution.  In any event the appearance of enhanced
auroras as a direct result of cometary contact is no longer speculative.  A
recent news release from the Goddard Space Flight Centre stated: "HST (Hubble
Space Telescope) detected unusual auroral activity in Jupiter's northern
hemisphere just after the impact of the comet's K fragment.  This impact
completely disrupted the radiation belts which have been stable over the last
20 years of radio observations."

Moreover, evidence that Jupiter has sustained a continuing charge of greater
intensity is being compiled. Imke DePater of the University of California,
Los Angeles will be publishing, in the new year, data registering a 20 to 30
per cent sustained increase in Jupiter's geo-magnetic field.  The mysterious
pillar of Exodus could well have lighted their way through their forty years
of desert wanderings.

More critical to my contention that the mysterious pillar was an auroral
phenomenon was the dynamic effect of the electromagnetic disturbances. 
"Aurorae, glowing gases that create the northern and southern lights, are
common on Jupiter because energetic charged particles needed to excite the
gases are always trapped in Jupiter's magnetosphere.  However, this new
feature seen by Hubble was unusual because it was temporarily as bright or
brighter than the normal aurora, short-lived, and outside the area where
Jovian aurorae are normally found."

Finding Jupiter's aurora displaced is to be expected since this is normal
operating procedure during auroral storms on Earth which can displace Earthly
aurorae as far south as Mexico City.

A similar movement of the mysterious pillar in Exodus was quoted and
interpreted by Velikovsky in Worlds In Collision. "And the Angel of God,
which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the
pillar of the cloud went from before their face and stood behind them ... and
it was a cloud and darkness but it gave light by night.'  An exceedingly
strong wind and lightnings rent the cloud.  In the morning the waters rose as
a wall and moved away.  'And the children of Israel went into the midst of the
sea upon the dry ground."

If the lightning which rent the cloud pillar was a discharge between the Earth
and meteoric debris, are we not then dealing with essentially the same
electromagnetic phenomena witnessed on and around Jupiter?

The aurora created by the flash on the first night of Passover- the same
aurora that the children of Israel followed on northward passage- may have
moved due to a permanent displacement of the Earth's terrestrial axis, as
Velikovsky claimed, or by the more temporary movement witnessed some months
ago on Jupiter. Either explanation is easier to maintain than Velikovsky's
elaborate detached comet tail model.


Intensive aurorae and increased radiation from Jupiter's geomagnetic field
would not be a total surprise to professional Jupiter watchers.  The enormous
energies pulsed to Io could just as easily be short-circuited, in retrospect,
to highly ionized comet fragments.  What is of more significance is that
Jupiter/Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 has struck a fatal blow to Whipple's
characterization of a comet as a dirty snowball.  A close scrutiny of
fragments entering Jupiter's magnetopause and a similar study of ejecta
revealed little or no evidence of water.  The fragments were found to contain
magnesium, a common component of asteroids and dust.  If Jupiter were hit by
a series of solid bodies, what caused them to explode above Jupiter's
atmosphere?  And more importantly, what forces created the clouds dust that
obscured each nucleus?  Present models of comets as conglomerations of ice
and volatiles were conjured up to explain this phenomenon- the "shedding" of
cometary matter at distances well beyond any heat contribution from the sun. 
If comet shedding proves to be a product of electromagnetic forces, it will
introduce a new dimension in our understanding of the way our universe

 W. Phythian-Adams, The Call of Israel, in Worlds In Collision, Immanuel
Velikovsky (Garden City: Doubleday & Company, 1950), p. 81.
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds In Collision  (Garden City: Doubleday & Company),
 Velikovsky, op. cit., pp. 173-174.
 Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 184.
 Louis Ginzberg, The Legends Of The Jews (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication
Society Of America), Volume II, p. 375.
 Milton Zysman, "Let There Be Lights," in Catastrophism 2000, ed. Milton
Zysman and Clark Whelton (Toronto: Heretic Press, 1990), pp. 143-198.
 Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, International Astronomical Union,
Circular No. 6036.
 Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 184.
 Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 175.
 Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 175.
 Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 176.
 Jack B. Hartung, "Giordano Bruno, the June 1975 Meteoroid Storm, Encke, and
Other Taurid Complex Objects," in Icarus 104, pp. 280-290.
 Public Information Office, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of
Technology, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Galileo Comet
Shoemaker-Levy Observations, 10/31/94.
 Hubble Discoveries 94-161.
 Hubble Discoveries 94-161.
 Velikovsky, op. cit., pp. 85-86.

FROM: http://www.kronia.com/symposium/zysman.txt



Dr. Velikovsky brought with him to America an unfinished book on Freud and His Heroes. In the study of Moses and Ikhnaton in preparation for this work, he came upon the idea that great physical catastrophes might be used to synchronize the the records of the ancient peoples of the Near East, and before the end of 1940 the main outlines of his work were clear. It is so far composed of Worlds in Collision, a natural history of the world catastrophes, and of two further volumes called Ages in Chaos. The latter (completed first though they will be published second) contain the elaborately documented rewriting of ancient history assumed in Worlds in Collision. "I ask a credence of the reader," says Dr. Velikovsky, "that he allow me to use this chronology until Ages in Chaos is published." He has been working on both books concurrently for the past nine years.

Professor Horace M. Kallen, former dean of the New School For Social Research, was among the first to read the manuscript of Worlds in Collision. "Even if I thought that Velikovsky's theories were entirely ungrounded," writes Professor Kallen of Velikovsky's historical and archaeological work, "I would treat them as an extraordinary achievement of the scientific and historical imgination....But it is myt belief that Velikovsky has supported his thesis with substantial evidence and made an effective and persuasive argument." Gordon A. Atwater, curator of the Hayden Planetarium, wrote to the Macmillan Company that, "the theories presented by Dr. Velikovsky are unique and should be presented to the world of science in order that the underpinning of modern science can be re-examined....I believe the author has done an outstanding job. In fact, he has gone beyond what normally be expected of a single individual."

The comet, at the first of the two meetings reconstructed in Worlds in Collision, touched the earth with its gaseous tail, and one of the first signs of the encounter was a rain of fine, rusty pigment. The world turned red. “All the waters that were in the river,” reads the Book of Exodus, “were turned to blood.” The Manuscript Quiche’ of the Mayas tells of the rivers turning to blood, and so does the Papyrus Ipuwer of the Egyptians. Then, as the story continues in the Visuddhi-Magga of the Buddhists, the fine dust turned to coarse dust, “and then fine sand, and then coarse sand, and then grit, stones, up to boulders as large... as mighty trees on the hilltops.”

And with the shower of meteorites the earth stopped turning.

It came to rest so faced to the sun that a long night, darkened by the cosmic refuse sweeping in from interplanetary space, fell on Europe, Africa, the Americas, and the valleys of the Euphrates and the Indus. The Babylonians, the tribes of the Sudan, the Finns, the Greeks, the Peruvians, and the American Indians all have traditions of a long night accompanying a catastrophe which the earth did not survive. Further east, the Iranians saw the sun suspended several days in the sky. In china, it is said that in the reign of the Emperor Yahou the sun did not set for a number of days and all the forests burned.
We suppose that if the earth stopped turning it would destroy itself, as HG Wells imagined it would when his “man who could work miracles” commanded the same act. Our idea of momentum - and the Law of Gravitation, about which Dr. Velikovsky has much to say - leads us to assume that the earth’s surface would fly onward in the direction of its rotation and be torn apart. A great global catastrophe, with seas and continents changing their places,is in fact described in the traditions of mankind. The world gave every sign to its inhabitants of being on the brink of destruction.

Approached by the body of the comet, the earth was forced out of its regular motion; a major shock convulsed its entire surface. The major shift in the atmosphere caused by the approach of the comet and the stasis of the planet, itself produced hurricanes of enormous velocity and force. “The face of the earth changed,” writes Dr. Velikovsky, summarizing the Mayan account from the Manuscript Troano, “mountains collapsed, other mountains grew and rose over the onrushing cataract of water driven from the oceanic spaces, numberless rivers lost their beds, and a wild tornado moved through the debris descending from the sky.”

The human population was decimated and many species of animals perished entirely. The surface of the earth burst. Three Mexican manuscripts tell how everywhere in the Western hemisphere new mountains came into being. New volcanos opened and fissures in the flat land threw forth fire and smoke and liquid basalt. The rivers steamed and the sea boiled. The Zendi-Avesta of the Persians says that a star made the sea boil. The Polynesians say that a star caused new islands to appear.

It was the tenth plague of Egypt, the night of Passover, when the Lord passed over the huts of the Israelites and struck the mansions of the Egyptians (the light rush houses would survive and earthquake more easily than heavy stone ones). “There was not a house where there was not one dead,” says the Book of Exodus, and St. Jerome wrote that “in the night in which Exodus took place, all the temples of Egypt were destroyed either by an earth shock or by the thunderbolt.” The head of the comet cam close to the earth, breaking through the darkness of the dust cloud, and the Hebrew tradition tells that the last night of the Jews in Egypt was as bright as the noon of the summer solstice.

The blow fell at midnight. Dr. Velikovsky observes in passing that as the israelites counted the days from sunset it was for them the 14th Aviv; and, ever since, the Passover has been celebrated on the fourteenth day of the first month of spring. The Egyptians counted from sunrise, as we do, and for them it was the 13th Thout, a day forever after unlucky. As for the thirteenth of any month, said the Egyptians, “thou shalt not do anything on this day.” The Aztecs also counted the day from sunrise, and in their calendar it was noted that on the 13th Olin, a month called “earthquake,” a new world age had come into being.

When a comet encounters a planet, it may become entangled and drawn from its path, then forced into a new orbit, and finally liberated. This is what happened to Lexell’s comet, which was captured by Jupiter and its moons in 1767 and did not free itself until 1779. Some form of balance between attraction and inertia was maintained for twelve years; Jupiter and the comet did not crash together. Neither, according to Dr. Velikovsky’s thesis, did the earth and the comet that came near it in 1500 b.c. They exchanged discharges of electrical potential.

The action of the sun and the moon on the earth produces the ocean tides. If the earth were to slow down, the seas would first recede toward the poles; but the attraction of a large comet close to the earth would draw them back toward itself and heap them high in the air. The story of the seas divided and then rising to break over the land is widespread. The Choctaw Indians say that when the land was in darkness a bright light appeared in the north, “but it was mountain-high waves, coming nearer”; the Peruvians say that the ocean left the shore and inundated the continent; the Chinese annals say that in the reign of the Emperor Yahou a great tidal wave broke over the mountains into the Chinese Empire and flooded the land for decades.

The tides carried huge rocks along them. For instance, the Madison Boulder, near Conway, New Hampshire, is a ten-thousand-ton piece of granite quite different from the bedrock beneath it. An early nineteenth century explanation of this and other “erratic” boulders was that great tidal waves, originating in the north, must have swept the rocks and geologic till (clay, mud and gravel) across the land. According to the calculations based on the amount erosion under them, the boulders were deposited in their places less than six thousand years ago. It has been assumed that the stones were drawn along by the glacial ice sheet, but the disquieting fact is that accumulations of rock were moved from lower latitudes to higher latitudes - and even uphill toward the Himalaya, through the existing glaciers push stones down, not up, the slopes.

At the Sea of the Passage the Israelite tribes saw the water drawn aside and heaped up in a double tide; and, after they crossed, the waters of the Mediterranean fell and broke into the Red Sea ina great wave. “It was an unusual event,” writes Dr. Velikovsky, “and because it was unusual it became the most impressive recollection in the long history of this people. All peoples and nations were blasted by the same fire and shattered in the same fury. The tribes of Israel on the shore of a sea found in this annihilation their salvation from bondage. They escaped destruction but their oppressors perished before their eyes. They extolled their Creator, took upon themselves the burden of moral rules, and considered themselves chosen for a great destiny.”

Here is what Dr. Velikovsky’s description of the pageant that took place in the sky:
When the tidal waves reached their highest point, and the seas were torn apart,
a tremendous spark flew between the earth and the globe of the comet, which
instantly pushed down the miles-high billows. Meanwhile, the tail of the comet and
its head, having become entangled with each other by their close contact with the
earth, exchanged violent discharges of electricity. It looked like a battle between
the brilliant globe and the dark column of smoke. In the exchange of electrical
potentials, the tail and the head were attracted one to the other and repelled one
from the other. From the serpent like tail extensions grew, and it lost the form of a
column. It now looked like a furious animal with legs and many heads. The discharges
tore the column to pieces, a process that was accompanied by the brilliant globe
buried in the sea, or wherever the meteorites fell. The gases of the tail subsequently
enveloped the earth.

To the peoples of the earth below who witnessed this spectacle, the head of the comet and its tail seemed to be two separate bodies, The bright globe fought the “crooked serpent” and destroyed it, thus saving the world from further harm. It would be difficult, Dr. Velikovsky writes, “to find a people or a tribe on earth that does not have the same motif at the very focus of its religious beliefs.” The great spark that flew between the comet and Earth is remembered as the bolt of lightning, placed in the hand of a god who threw this thunderbolt at a world overwhelmed by water and fire: Zeus of the Greeks, Odin of the Icelanders, Ukko of the Finns, Wotan of the Germans, Mazda of the Persians, Marduk of the Babylonians, Siva of the Hindus. The pattern of conflict between the comet and its tail takes almost identical form in the battles of Zeus with Typhon, Isis with Seth, Vishnu with the Serpent, Indra with Rahu, marduk with Tiamat, Ormuzd with Ahriman. “A terrible comet was seen by the people of Ethiopia and Egypt,” wrote Pliny in his Natural History, “to which Typhon , the king of that period gave his name; it had a fiery appearance and was twisted like a coil, and it was very grim to behold; it was not really a star so much as what might be called a ball of fire.”

The earth was wrapped for decades in the gases of the comet and the dust of exploding volcanoes. No green thing could grow. The chinese called this time the Valley of Obscurity and the Somber Residence; the Nordics called it the Twilight of the Gods. According to the Annals of Cuauhtitlan there was darkness in Mexico for twenty-five years. The American Indians say that it was not until the fifteenth year that plants would bloom. And for the Hebrew tribes, who had been led out of bondage by the pillar of smoke by day and of fire by night, this was the Shadow of Death.

How did mankind live when nothing grew? The tail of a comet is composed of carbon and hydrogen gases, and these elements were in suspension in the earth’s atmosphere after the comet departed. The Hindu Vedas, the egyptian papyri, and the Hebrew legends say that the wind smelled sweet, and eventually the carbohydrates combining in the air precipitated. mankind fed on morning dew, say the Icelandic traditions, and the Vedas tell of the honey-lash falling - as the Greeks say ambrosia all fell - from the clouds. Where the honey-frost fell on the waters, it turned them milky and sweet. Ovid, the Vedas, and the Egyptians say the rivers flowed with milk and honey. The precipitate also fell among the Israelites, they called it Manna.

The astronomical records of the ancient past raise perplexing issues. A scholar who examined the computations of the longest and shortest shadows observed at noontime in China about 1100 B.C. remarked that “they do not really represent the true lengths.” The Hindu astronomical tables compiled by the Brahmans show a uniform error of 21 degrees 46’. The astronomical tablets of of Babylon of the eighth century B.C. present three different schedules of planetary motion. The Venus Tables of Babylon, excavated by Sir henry Layard from the ruins of the library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh, show an irregular behavior of the planet Venus that differs from modern observations not by minutes but by weeks and months. The water clock of the Amon Temple of Karnak is consistently inaccurate for day and night, at any season, in the latitudes of Egypt. The shadow clock found at Fayum, Egypt, originating in the eight century B.C., will not show time correctly at Fayum or anywhere else in Egypt. And in the tomb of Senmut, the architect of Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt, there is an astronomical panel in the ceiling which refers to an earlier period; it is completely reversed and shows Orion Sirius group proceeding in the wrong direction.

Dr. Velikovsky presents historical evidence that these ancient records were not incorrect at the time when they were made. Astronomers will find this particular suggestion difficult to take, as the calculations of contemporary astronomy are precise and the play of mechanical forces on which they are based has been well understood for over two hundred years. Celestial mechanics, in fact, is one of the few sciences that has not been rudely disturbed by the discoveries of the past century, for the behavior of the solar system can be predicted so accurately on mechanical principles that no one has been able to replace them by another. Even with the tiny discrepancies which need the modification of the Theory of Relativity, the planets follow the immutable Law of Gravitation. They roll on and on, but only because the primevil inertia implanted within them.

Dr. Velikovsky willingly conceded that the behavior of the earth and the comet in his description is not in accord with the celestial mechanics of Newton. Indeed, it invites skepticism as to the infallibility of the law of Gravitation, a law heretofore so firmly established that it has never been successfully combined into one system with the laws of electromagnetics. It is Dr. Velikovsky’s contention that over three thousand years ago Nature performed a great experiment, in which it was demonstrated that the electromagnetic laws are as supreme in the heavens as they are inside the atom.
Niels Bohr was one of the first to compare the atom with the sun and the planets. The nucleus is like the sun, and the electrons are like the planets - but in applying the quantum theory to the atom it was found that things happen inside it that are not supposed to happen in the solar system. John J. O’Neill, science editor of the New york Herald Tribune, has written this description of the atom’s peculiarities:

In the atom, electrons revolve around the nucleus of the atom in a quiet,
orderly, orbital, rotation, just like the earth moving around the sun, and may
go through billions of rotations, or atomic years, without any major changes
taking place. Suddenly the atom emits a quantum of energy, and [an] electron
drops to an orbit nearer the nucleus, where its “year” is shorter, or the reverse
may happen: a quantum of energy is absorbed by the atom, and [an] electron
jumps to a higher, or outer orbit, where its year is longer.

In the same article from which this quotation is taken, Mr. O’Neill discussed the probable impact of Dr. Velikovsky’s research on the comfortable assumption that the planets and the jumping electron have nothing gin common. “Dr. Velikovsky finds evidence for new planets appearing in the sky,” wrote Mr. O’Neill, “and for the earth being struck by and passing through tails of comets.... [His work] presents a stupendous panorama of terrestrial and human history which will stand as a challenge to scientists to frame a realistic picture of the cosmos.

A charged body which rotates creates a magnetic field. The sun is a charged body, and it rotates, and charged particles arrive from it in a continuous stream. The earth is a charged body, and it rotates, and it possesses a magnetic field. If the magnetic field of the sun were to govern the earth’s motion, then after an encounter with a comet the earth could resume its rotation, though on a changed orbit. If it is true that the comet and the earth exchanged electrical discharges, as Dr. Velikovsky maintains that they did, then there may be even reason to suppose that the earth’s “inertia” is electrical in character. How do we know that the earth and the planets are so different from the electrons inside the atom. The answer has been phrased thus: “We do not read in the morning paper that Saturn and Mars have changed their places.” But we do read in the ancient records, says Dr. Velikovsky, that Venus, mars, and Earth have changed theirs.

Venus is the Morning and the Evening Star. It is the most conspicuous of the planets. Early astronomers observed its motion with great care, and the Mexicans computed the day when they thought the world would end by a cycle of fifty-two years based on Venus. So bright is Venus in the sky, in fact, that it is most remarkable to fin no record of its existence prior to the second millennium B.C.

Early Babylonian astronomy counted four planets and four only - Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and Mercury. In the Hindu table of the planets attributed to 3012 B.C., Venus alone is missing, and it is said that the Brahmans “never mentioned five planets.” Later Venus is called “the great star that joins the other great stars” by the Babylonians. In all traditions the Morning Star is described as having a special birth, an event of great significance to the Tahitians, the Eskimos, and the Buriats, the Kirghiz, and the Yakuts of Siberia, as well as to more sophisticated peoples. Hesiod said the Phaeton, whose name means blazing star, drove the chariot of the sun too close to the earth, disturbing its rotation and was later changed into the Morning Star. The Chinese tell of a “brilliant Star” that appeared in the region of Yahou, and a Samaritan chronicle says that during the invasion of palestine by Joshua “a star arose out of the east against which all magic is in vain.” At the time of great catastrophes, Quetzalcoatl, the Venus of the Mayans, appeared in the sky for the first time. And the Chaldeans and the Chinese are in agreement that Venus “rivaled the sun in brightness.”

Dr. Velikovsky brings strong evidence to bear that the comet which so terrorized the earth was in fact the planet Venus - newly born, by eruption from a larger planet. While is was still a comet, Venus wandered erratically, which is why its course was so closely watched, why the Venus Tablets of Nineveh do not seem to make sense, and why the appearance of a comet has always aroused premonitions of disaster everywhere in the world. The dreaded comet Venus that was later to become a planet had many names -- Tistrya, Ishtar, Astarte, Isis, Baal, Beelzebub, Lucifer. Often it was confused with Jupiter (Isis in Egypt and Ishtar in Babylon were first names for Venus), for Jupiter was the planet from which Venus erupted as a planet.

Student of Greek and Roman mythology may object that according to legend it was Pallas Athene, or Minerva, who “sprang full grown from the brow of Jupiter.” The classical scholar may wonder, however, why Greek mythology contains no deity for the planet Venus and no planet for the deity Pallas Athene. The Greek equivalent of the Roman “Venus” was Aphrodite, who was identified with the Moon. The answer, once known but long forgotten, is that Pallas Athene was the Greek name for the planet Venus. (Plutarch said that Minerva of the Romans and Athene of the Greeks were the same as Isis of the Egyptians; Pliny said that Isis was the planet Venus.) The birth of Pallas Athene was “a day of wrath in all the calendars of ancient Chaldea.” During the birth of Athene, described in a Homeric hymn, the earth reeled and the sun stopped for a “long while”.

For many centuries the inhabitants of the earth were in such fear of Venus that human sacrifice was practiced in both hemispheres in the hope of placating its wrath. The Mexicans were so profoundly affected by the fifty-two year interval between Venus’ two encounters with the earth the they adopted the period in their calendar and made bloody sacrifices to Quetzalcoatl - the feathered serpent” who was identified with the Morning Star - when fifty-two years passed without harm. The years of terror lasted until the seventh century B.C. Venus, as the result of an encounter with another body, took up its present orbit and changed from a wild comet to a tame planet. Venus’ flirtation with another planet - that is, with Mars -- is a common theme in mythology. This meeting, a battle of Athene with the God of War, is described in the lliad, a conflict in the heavens which took place at the same time as the siege of Troy, “It is the conjunction of venus and Mars,” wrote Kucien, “that created the poetry of Homer.

The encounter between Venus and Mars disturbed Mars’ orbit, and at intervals of fifteen years Mars also passed close to the earth. On two days in particular - February 26, 747 B.C. and March 23, 687 B.C. - Mars caused a repetition of the earlier catastrophes on a smaller scale. In the year 747 B.C. a new calendar was introduced in the Middle East. It began on the 26th of February, and in the calendar of Mexico the 26th of February was also counted as New Year’s Day. It is during this period that the worship of Mars came into prominence among peoples whose institutions were not fully formed. The Romans had a vigorous cult of mars and regarded Mars as their national god, the founder of their state, and father of Romulus. The chief celebration of the Roams mars cult was on the 23rd of March. On the night of the 23rd of March, 687 B.C., the army of Sennacherib, the Assyrian king who invaded Palestine, was destroyed by a blast of fire from the sky. “On the 23rd of March, 687 B.C.,” wrote Edouard Biot in his catalogue of the meteors which were observed in ancient China, the fixed stars were not visible but, “in the middle of the night stars fell like rain.”

The battle between Venus and Mars ended with Venus, shorn of its power to disturb humankind, rotating on the the serene orbit it now occupies. Venus seemed to have fallen from its earlier eminence. This was the period of the Hebrew Prophets, men of astronomical skill who from watchtowers built in Judea, as elsewhere in the East (“Watchman, what of the night?”) recorded and predicted Mars’ fifteen-year approach to the earth and warned the people and their kings of coming catastrophes. After an upheaval that took place in the eighth century B.C., “Isaiah, Joel, Hosea, and Micah insisted unanimously and with great emphasis on the inevitability of another encounter of the earth with some cosmic body.” Their prophecies were fulfilled on the days when Mars came close to the earth and moved it from its place.

Finally they observed that a hated enemy - Beelzebub, the Morning Star, who had provoked pagan worship - was no longer powerful. Venus, which had “weakened the nations” and had tried to ascend on high, was cut down to the ground. “How art thou fallen from heaven,” wrote Isaiah, “Oh Lucifer, son of the morning.”

The history of the calendar is often used to exhibit the conquest of ignorance. Gradually the errors seem to have been removed from its first primitive efforts to codify time, until now we pride ourselves on a system that closely approximates the actual movements of the earth and its moon. Yet it is curious that the ancients should have used such hopelessly inaccurate calendars when their measurements of celestial motion were so carefully made. The Mexicans knew that the synodical moon period consists of 29.5209 days, a computation more exact than that of the Gregorian calendar, which was not introduced into Europe until long after America was discovered.

The introduction of a new calendar in 747 B.C. indicates to Dr. velikovsky that the orbit of the earth - the length of the year, the months, and the seasons - had actually changed. Previous to this time the Chinese, the Hindus, the persians, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Israelites, the Egyptians, the Romans,and the Mayans all used a calendar of twelve lunations of thirty days each, a year of 360 days. During the period of Mars’ meetings with the earth, the length of the seasons changed repeatedly, but at some time during the seventh century B.C. all these nations add five days to their calendars. The Persians called the five days Gatha days, the Egyptians' called them “the days which are above the year”, and the Mayans called them the “days without a name”. If the earlier calendars were merely mistakes, then in a man’s lifetime and error would have accumulated of an entire year, a dislocation in harvest cycles which could not have been ignored even in the most primitive of agricultural societies.

But more than the development of the calendar hangs on the assumption we make today: that the earth has rotated through millions of uninterrupted years, each consisting of 365 days, 5 hours and 48 minutes. Philosophy, science, religion - there is scarcely an area of knowledge or conviction invulnerable to Dr. Velikovsky’s detailed and documented denial that the earth’s history has been one of peaceful evolution. The long erosions of wind and rain, the slow buckling and folding of sedimented rock, and the infinitely graduated series of the developing species have hitherto provided a background of certainty. Now these orderly images have been challenged, and in their place a scholar has offered a basis of evidence for the astonishing pattern of catastrophe implicit in the world traditions. “If Velikovsky’s thesis should withstand the test of time and become generally accepted,” Clifton Fadiman writes, “revolutionary consequences ensue; and prevailing views in a dozen fields - including evolution, mythology, gravitation, and particularly classical and Biblical history - will have to be radically revised”.

“Collective amnesia” is the phrase Dr. Velikovsky uses to describe the “psychological phenomenon ...[in which] the most terrifying events of the past may be forgotten or displaced into the subconscious mind,” obscuring the real meaning of many archaeological discoveries and historical texts. Trained in psychoanalysis as well as in history, he is aware of the parallel between the reconstruction of buried events from the past of an individual and his own effort to bring to light the shattering experiences that affected all mankind.

In view of the cosmic upheavals of the past, our own time of trouble is dwarfed. There is also a hidden purpose in Dr. Velikovsky's book, a warning to the world that threatens to explode with hatred among the nations: the cosmic catastrophes may repeat themselves. “This world will be destroyed;” reads a passage from the Visuddhi-Magga which serves as motto for his final chapter, “also the mighty ocean will dry up; and this broad earth will be burned up. Therefore, sirs, cultivate friendliness; cultivate compassion.”

Bringing to this perspective all the apparatus of learning - from astronomy and physics to folklore, religion, geology, paleontology, biology and psychology - Dr. Velikovsky has undertaken the awesome task of making an “inquiry in the architectonics of the world and its history” and of applying the techniques of scholarship and psychoanalysis to the entire human race.

FROM: http://www.tmgnow.com/repository/secret/velikovsky.html


Crustal Poleshifts: Hapgood and Bowles

Charles Hapgood (1904-1982)

After graduating from Harvard, Charles Hapgood taught history at Keene State College in New Hampshire. In 1949 one of his students asked about Atlantis, and he transformed the query into a research project, questioning the gradualist rules of geology and seeking evidence of a catastrophe large enough to destroy the fabled land. For 10 years, aided by his eager students, Hapgood worked on his theory of earth crust displacement - an update of Hugh Auchincloss Brown's theory that the entire planet has previously capsized. Brown's theory simply stated that as the Antarctic polar ice cap gains weight [9], the planet becomes less stable, eventually becomes unbalanced and topples over. The relative weights are more akin to a speck of dust on an automobile tyre than anything more serious - the Antarctic icecap weighs less than one millionth of the entire planet. Hapgood doubted that an accumulation of ice at the poles was enough to tip the entire planet over. He believed that only the crust shifted.

Crustal displacement, from Hapgood's point of view, is a very violent and sudden shifting of only the "skin" of the planet Earth (the crust's thickness is only 0.005% of the equatorial diameter). This shift causes various disasters, with each disaster triggering another, and so on. Hapgood suggested that each Ice Age would not affect the whole earth at the same time, but only two regions of it - those that shifted into polar regions.

If it were only the skin that shifted, as Hapgood proposed, then the ice cap mechanism becomes more likely. However I do wonder whether this process could be infinitely repeatable, for if the poles ever ended up in oceanic areas, then sufficient ice would never be able to accumulate.

In 1958 an in depth explanation was published in his book titled Earth's Shifting Crust, with its endorsement by Albert Einstein. Perhaps his ideas were just too radical for, despite the endorsement, and although he managed to avoid the ridicule previously allocated to Velikovsky, academics and the public alike ignored his book.

Undaunted by this lack of acclaim, he continued to work on his theory, with a major update being published in 1970, re-named The Path of the Pole. Helped by recent advances in geology, Hapgood replaced the ice cap mechanism with a trigger coming from within the Earth itself. Although he was unsure precisely what that trigger was, it was most likely something involving gravitational imbalances and centrifugal forces. In the introduction he wrote:

"Polar wandering is based on the idea that the outer shell of the earth shifts about from time to time, moving some continents toward and others away from the poles, changing their climates. Continental drift is based on the idea that the continents move individually... A few writers have suggested that perhaps continental drift causes polar wandering. This book advances the notion that polar wandering is primary and causes the displacement of continents.... This book will present evidence that the last shift of the earth's crust (the lithosphere) took place in recent time, at the close of the last ice age, and that it was the cause of the improvement in climate."[10]

Hapgood suggested three previous locations of the poles. The most recent North Pole is Hudson Bay, which was the epicentre of the North American ice sheet during the last Ice Age. The previous sites were in the Greenland Sea, and the Yukon district of Canada, although his evidence for these is totally dependant on radio-carbon dating.[11] Each shift was approximately 30°. These diagrams show where the previous North Poles were located, with their corresponding equators:

  1. Yukon
  2. Greenland Sea
  3. Hudson Bay
  4. Present Pole

1. Yukon

2. Greenland Sea

3. Hudson Bay

Interestingly, the Amazon jungle has remained at the equator during each of these shifts, which may account for its enormity.

James Bowles

James Bowles is a retired civil engineer who worked for NASA sub-contractors on the Apollo moon program. In his book The Gods, Gemini, and the Great Pyramid, gives us a straightforward, easy to grasp theory on how the crust can shift.

On the day of the pig roast everything was ready. The spit mechanism was in place, the pit had been dug, there were all kinds of charcoal, and all the guests were milling about. All we needed to start the festivities was the pig and a match. So my dear wife, along with Bonny, led us into the bathroom where the pig was laying covered with ice in the bathtub. But one look at the pig and I knew we were in trouble! . I'd figured on a fifty pound pig, because that's what we'd talked about, but this had to be 100 pounds if it was an ounce..

Well now that one and a half inch of galvanized water pipe looked like a tooth pick next to the pig, but it was too late to do anything about it at this point, besides somebody had lit the charcoal.. Half way through the night, the pipe broke, and the pig fell into the fire.. Well to make a long story short, a friend of mine and I went into town and got a bigger pipe from behind the garage and put everything back together again.[11a]

The Spit Mechanism H&PFig4Gear.jpg - 49.72 K


The point is that the pipe didn't just break, it broke from fatigue.

This is torque, forces created by rotation. Bowles calls it Rotational-Bending, or the RB-Effect. If enough tension is happening within our planet, and it is constant, then one day something must give, slip or break. Everything that suffers stress will eventually crack. In our planet's case it would be the semi-plastic attachment of the crust to the asthenosphere. The stress would also create heat, and this could be a simple explanation for volcanoes - an outlet valve for all the heat created by the stresses within the earth. Bowles points out that an easy way to break a piece of wire is to bend it backwards and forwards, over and over, until it snaps. The ends of the broken wire will be quite hot - heat being a by-product of stress.

Bowles uses the analogy of cargo on a ship to further clarify his idea: When cargo is tied securely, it will ride with the ship and not come to any harm. But if the ropes are loose, and the cargo slips and slides, then damage can occur.

The earth's crust is not securely tied; rather it is connected to the core via a series of semi-plastic layers, some of which are seas of molten rock and liquid iron. The waves in the cargo analogy correspond to the gravitational pulls of the moon, sun and (to a much lesser extent) the other planets. Our situation is that we have a crust that is 99.9% securely tied to the planet's core. The sun and moon are constantly tugging away, testing the attachment. Eventually something has to give.


The centrifugal forces try to shift matter towards the equator. This is where the stress is. We talk about a pole shift, but technically it's the entire crust that shifts, around two fulcrum points, due to stresses towards the equator. I came across a science Q&A website run by NASA, and found questions regarding the number of earthquakes in Antarctica. Here are the expert's answers:

Antarctica is unusual in that there are very few earthquakes there. Of all the seven or nine continents, or of all the 7 or 25 plates (depending on how you count), it has the fewest earthquakes, and it has none of the big, damaging kind.There are very few earthquakes in Antarctica. It is one of the questions we are trying to answer out there. There are numbers of plate boundaries and we have always been astonished that we haven't seen more earthquakes. We have wanted to see them, we have tried to record them, but Antarctica is a real puzzle because there are very few earthquakes. There should be many more considering the type of plate boundaries there are, and the type of continental structures there are, but there aren't that many. We are trying to work it out. But now it is still a puzzle.

The polar regions of this globe are unaffected by the forces at work, hence very few earthquakes.

It is a puzzle if the standard continental drift model remains in use. The R-B Effect theory of Bowles declares that the closer to the equator you get, the more earthquakes there are, due to the forces of tension and compression.

When I went to high school, I was shown a trick that fascinated me. Firstly, you wedge a ballpoint pen into your desk somehow. Then you get the spring from inside a broken pen, and you stretch it out. Using this wire like a two person wood saw, you cut through the bottom of the pen's clip, and saw right through to the top of the pen. It has to be done fast. This action cuts the plastic, but friction creates heat and causes the plastic to melt together again, just behind the cutting action. The result is a pen with a surgical scar where the clip joins. I figure this is what happens to the earth when the crust slips - it breaks away, and then cements itself in place again.

In recent times orthodox scientists are re-assessing our planet's internal mechanics, and have finally started to accept pole shifts as a possibility:

July 1996: Scientists at Columbia University in New York confirmed that the earth's inner core was spinning faster than the planet itself, by approximately 1/3 of a second per day, allowing it to lap the Earth's surface approximately once every 400 years. This may help explain Earth's magnetic fields, and why they periodically reverse.

1997: Researchers at the California Institute of Technology reported that an evolutionary big bang, with relative evolutionary rates of more than 20 times normal, coincided with another apparently unique event in earth history; a 90-degree change in the direction of Earth's spin axis relative to the continents.

The poleshift began about 530 million years ago, taking roughly 15 million years to complete. [Throughout this book I ask that you ignore these large time periods, and allow that current dating techniques might, for some reason, be fallible.]

As slow as this sounds, normal continental drift cannot account for movement at such a speed. Dr. Joseph Kirschvink, a geologist and lead author of the study, speculates that it was due to:

"true polar wander" which is caused by "an imbalance in the mass distribution of the planet itself, which the laws of physics force to equalise in comparatively rapid time scales. During this redistribution, the entire solid part of the planet moves together, avoiding the internal shearing effects which impose the speed limit on conventional plate motions." [12]

The study speculates that changing weather patterns broke up ecosystems into smaller, isolated communities, thus promoting rapid evolution.

The study also implies that poleshifts and evolution have occurred in unison, although a different reason for this will be explained in Chapter XX

January 2000: Professor Sagar of Texas A&M University and Anthony Koppers of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography have, while studying underwater volcanoes, found evidence of poles shifting, albeit 84 million years ago. The shift consisted of "rapid latitude changes in various locales", with rapid meaning a relatively rapid period of two million years.

"We calculate that the sites of Washington D.C. and Dakar, Senegal would have shifted south by 15 to 20 degrees".

The article is highly technical but it appears they locate a previous pole at 58.9°N, 337.4°E[13]

How long will it be before a poleshift of 10,000 years ago is validated by scientists?

[9] Note: there have been numerous studies undertaken and as many show that the Antarctic ice cap is growing as those that show it to be melting.

[10] Charles Hapgood, Path of the Pole, Author's Note, page xvi

[11] Hapgood stated that as hard as it was to find evidence for the Hudson Bay location, the difficulties in locating the previous poles were much greater. Earth's Shifting Crust, page 275

[11a] James Bowles, The Gods, Gemini, and the Great Pyramid, Gemini Books, 1998, pages 33-34

[12] Science, July 25, 1997 - Evidence for a Large-Scale Reorganization of Early Cambrian Continental Masses by Inertial Interchange True Polar Wander by Joseph L. Kirschvink, Robert L. Ripperdan, and David A. Evans

[13] Science, Jan 21, 2000, p455-459

FROM:  http://survive2012.com/index.php/hapgood-bowles.html


New Clovis-Age Comet Impact Theory

Released: 5/21/2007 10:00 AM EDT
University of Oregon

Newswise — Two University of Oregon researchers are on a multi-institutional 26-member team proposing a startling new theory: that an extraterrestrial impact, possibly a comet, set off a 1,000-year-long cold spell and wiped out or fragmented the prehistoric Clovis culture and a variety of animal genera across North America almost 13,000 years ago.

Driving the theory is a carbon-rich layer of soil that has been found, but not definitively explained, at some 50 Clovis-age sites in North America that date to the onset of a cooling period known as the Younger Dryas Event. The sites include several on the Channel Islands off California where UO archaeologists Douglas J. Kennett and Jon M. Erlandson have conducted research.

The theory is being discussed publicly, for the first time, Wednesday, May 23, at the 2007 Joint Assembly of the American Geophysical Union in Acapulco, Mexico. Kennett is among the attendees who will be available to discuss the theory with their peers. The British journal Nature first addressed the theory in a news-section story in its May 18 issue.

Before today, members of the team " including Kennett's father, James P. Kennett of the University of California, Santa Barbara, and Richard B. Firestone of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory " had been quietly introducing the theory to their professional colleagues.

Douglas Kennett, with Erlandson watching, detailed the theory May 19 to a fully packed UO classroom, where students and faculty members from archaeology, art history, anthropology, biology, geology, geography, political science and psychology, pelted Kennett with questions.

The researchers propose that a known reversal in the world's ocean currents and associated rapid global cooling, which some scientists blame for the extinction of multiple species of animals and the end of the Clovis Period, was itself the result of a bigger event. While generally accepted theory says glacial melting from the North American interior caused the shift in currents, the new proposal points to a large extraterrestrial object exploding above or even into the Laurentide Ice Sheet north of the Great Lakes.

"Highest concentrations of extraterrestrial impact materials occur in the Great Lakes area and spread out from there," Kennett said. "It would have had major effects on humans. Immediate effects would have been in the North and East, producing shockwaves, heat, flooding, wildfires, and a reduction and fragmentation of the human population."

The carbon-rich layer contains metallic microspherules, iridium, carbon spherules, fullerenes, charcoal and soot. Some of those ingredients were found worldwide in soils dating to the K-T Boundary of 65 million years ago.

The K-T layer marks the end of the Cretaceous Period and the beginning of the Tertiary Period, when numerous species were wiped out after a massive asteroid is believed to have struck Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico.

Missing in the new theory is a crater marking an impact, but researchers argue that a strike above or into the Laurentide ice sheet could have absorbed it since it was less intense than the K-T event.

Kennett said that 35 animal genera went extinct at the end of the Pleistocene, with at least 15 clearly being wiped out close to 12,900 years ago. There would have been major ecological shifts, driving Clovis survivors into isolated groups in search of food and warmth. There is evidence, he said, that pockets of Clovis people survived in refugia, especially in the western United States.

"This was a massive continental scale, if not global, event," Kennett said. He and Erlandson say that they are currently evaluating the existing Paleo-Indian archaeological datasets, which Kennett describes as "suggestive of significant population reduction and fragmentation, but additional work is necessary to test this hypothesis further." Earlier research efforts need to be re-evaluated using new technologies that can narrow radiocarbon date ranges, and, as funding becomes available, new sites can be located and studied, Erlandson said.

"As we have grown more confident in the theory," Erlandson said, "we've been letting some of it out in informal talks to gage the response to see where we are headed and what the initial objections are, which will help us to maintain our own objectivity."

The interest in pursuing both old and new leads could ignite a major surge of interdisciplinary questioning and attract a new wave of interested students, Kennett and Erlandson said.

Links: Kennett faculty Web page: http://www.uoregon.edu/~dkennett/Welcome.html;
Erlandson faculty Web page:

Two University of Oregon researchers are on a multi-institutional 26-member team proposing a startling new theory: that an extraterrestrial impact, possibly a comet, set off a 1,000-year-long cold spell and wiped out or fragmented the prehistoric Clovis culture and a variety of animal genera across North America almost 13,000 years ago.


Pole shift hypothesis


The pole shift hypothesis is the hypothesis that the axis of rotation of a planet has not always been at its present-day locations or that the axis will not persist there; in other words, that its physical poles had been or will be shifted with respect to the underlying surface. The Pole shift hypothesis is almost always discussed in the context of Earth, but other bodies in the Solar System may have experienced axial reorientation during their existences.

The pole shift hypothesis has attracted pseudoscientific interest because of the idea that a sudden change in the position of the poles could explain some past historical calamities, such as massive floods and tectonic events.[1] Among the scientific community, however, the evidence shows that no rapid shifts in the pole have occurred during the last 200 million years.[2] True polar wander is known to occur, but only at rates of 1° per million years or less.[3] The last rapid shift in the poles may have occurred 800 million years ago,[4] when the supercontinent Rodinia still existed.

Definition and clarification

The geographic poles of the Earth refer to the points on the surface of the planet that are intersected by the axis of rotation. The pole shift hypothesis refers to a change in location of these poles with respect to the underlying surface. Note that this is a different phenomenon than the changes in axial orientation with respect to the plane of the ecliptic that are caused by precession and nutation.

Pole shift hypotheses are not to be confused with plate tectonics, the well-accepted geological theory that the Earth's surface consists of solid plates which shift over a fluid asthenosphere; nor with continental drift, the corollary to plate tectonics which maintains that locations of the continents have moved slowly over the face of the Earth,[5] resulting in the gradual emerging and breakup of continents and oceans over hundreds of millions of years.[6]

Pole shift hypotheses are also not to be confused with geomagnetic reversal, the periodic reversal of the Earth's magnetic field (effectively switching the north and south magnetic poles). Geomagnetic reversal has more acceptance in the scientific community than pole shift hypotheses.

Causes and effects

It is now established that true polar wander has occurred at various times in the past, but at rates of 1° per million years or less.[3][7][8] However, in popular literature, many conjectures have been suggested involving very rapid polar shift. The potential forces that could cause a reorientation of the Earth's axis of rotation include:

  • A postglacial crustal rebound.[9]
  • A high-velocity asteroid or comet which hits Earth at such an angle that the lithosphere moves independent of the mantle.
  • A high-velocity asteroid or comet which hits Earth at such an angle that the entire planet shifts axis.
  • An unusually magnetic celestial object which passes close enough to Earth to temporarily reorient the magnetic field, which then "drags" the lithosphere about a new axis of rotation. Eventually, the sun's magnetic field again determines the Earth's, after the intruding celestial object "returns" to a location from which it cannot influence Earth.
  • Perturbations of the topography of the core-mantle boundary, perhaps induced by differential core rotation and shift of its axial rotation vector, leading to CMB mass redistributions. See, e.g., Bowin.[10]
  • Mass redistributions in the mantle from mantle avalanches or other deformations. See, e.g., Ladbury,[11] and Steinberger and O'Connell.[12]

A slow pole shift in the poles would display the most minor alterations and no destruction. A more dramatic view assumes more rapid changes, with dramatic alterations of geography and localized areas of destruction due to earthquakes and tsunamis. Several recent books propose changes that take place in weeks, days, or even hours, resulting in a variety of doomsday scenarios.

Early proponents

An early mention of a shifting of the Earth's axis can be found in an 1872 article entitled "Chronologie historique des Mexicains"[13] by Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, an eccentric expert on Mesoamerican codices who interpreted ancient Mexican myths as evidence for four periods of global cataclysms that had begun around 10,500 B.C.

In 1948, Hugh Auchincloss Brown, an electrical engineer, advanced a hypothesis of catastrophic pole shift. Brown also argued that accumulation of ice at the poles caused recurring tipping of the axis, identifying cycles of approximately seven millennia.[14][15]

Charles Hapgood is now perhaps the best remembered early proponent. In his books The Earth's Shifting Crust (1958) (which includes a foreword by Albert Einstein who was writing before the theory of plate tectonics was developed) and Path of the Pole (1970). Hapgood, building on Adhemar's much earlier model, speculated that the ice mass at one or both poles over-accumulates and destabilizes the Earth's rotational balance, causing slippage of all or much of Earth's outer crust around the Earth's core, which retains its axial orientation.

Based on his own research, Hapgood argued that each shift took approximately 5,000 years, followed by 20,000- to 30,000-year periods with no polar movements. Also, in his calculations, the area of movement never covered more than 40 degrees. Hapgood's examples of recent locations for the North Pole include Hudson Bay (60˚N, 73˚W) , the Atlantic Ocean between Iceland and Norway (72˚N, 10˚E) and Yukon (63˚N, 135˚W).[16]

However, in his subsequent work The Path of the Pole, Hapgood conceded Einstein's point that the weight of the polar ice would be insufficient to bring about a polar shift. Instead, Hapgood argued that the forces that caused the shifts in the crust must be located below the surface. He had no satisfactory explanation for how this could occur.[17]

Hapgood wrote to the Canadian librarian, Rand Flem-Ath, encouraging him in his pursuit of scientific evidence to back Hapgood's claims and in his expansion of the hypothesis. Flem-Ath published the results of this work in 1995 in When the Sky Fell co-written with his wife, Rose.

Recent research

Starting with research published in 1981 by Donna Jurdy, titled True Polar Wander,[18] interest in the hypothesis and its mechanisms has increased. In 2001, the true polar hypothesis was tested by examining paleomagnetic data from granitic rocks from across North America. The data from these rocks conflicted with the hypothesis. This evidence indicated that the spin axis has not deviated by more than about 5° over the last 130 million years.[19]

In 2006, the early work by Donna Jurdy was validated with empirical evidence of polar wanderings published by Adam Maloof of Princeton University and Galen Halverson of Paul Sabatier University in Toulouse, France. They found evidence that the Earth rebalanced around 800 million years ago during the Precambrian time period.

"They tested this idea by studying magnetic minerals in sedimentary rocks in a Norwegian archipelago. As the mineral grains were deposited or excreted by microbes, they aligned themselves with Earth's magnetic field. So they act as frozen compasses pointing to an ancient north pole.
Using these minerals, Maloof and Halverson found that the north pole shifted more than 50 degrees--about the current distance between Alaska and the equator--in less than 20 million years. Earth's tectonic plates move much more slowly than that, says Maloof, so the best explanation for this wandering pole is planetary rebalancing. This reasoning is supported by a record of changes in sea level and ocean chemistry in the Norwegian sediments that could be explained by true polar wander, the team reports in the September-October 2006 issue of the Geological Society of America Bulletin."[4][20]

Subsequent research at the University of Colorado Department of Physics published in 2007 has elaborated the model of the effect thermal convection has on true polar wandering. This work predicts the occurrence of polar wandering prior to, during and after the breakup of Pangaea.[21]

A Harvard University Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences research project published in 2007 found through modeling that the amount of polar wander on a short time scale is less than would be expected by plate tectonics, but more than would be expected on a long time scale. Empirical evidence of the maximum wander predicted by the model have not been observed by the authors.[22]


The field has attracted pseudoscientific authors offering a variety of evidence, including psychic readings, possibly linked to other beliefs such as Tollmann's hypothetical bolide, Black Sea deluge theory or the Deluge myth.

In the 1970s and 1980s a series of non-fiction books authored by former Washington Newspaper reporter Ruth Shick Montgomery elaborates on Edgar Cayce readings.[23]

In 1997, Richard W. Noone published the novel 5/5/2000, ICE: The Ultimate Disaster which depicts a cataclysmic shift of the Earth's ice cap covering Antarctica caused by a planetary alignment and solar storms, leading to crustal displacement. This book falls under pseudoscience rather than pop culture because Noone used scientific reasoning and backing to support his claim that the Earth's crust would "turn on its side" on 5 May 2000.[24] This did not happen.

In 1998, retired civil engineer James G. Bowles proposed in a non-peer reviewed journal a mechanism by which a polar shift could occur. He named this Rotational-Bending, or the RB-effect. He hypothesized that combined gravitational effects of the Sun and the Moon pulled at the Earth's crust at an oblique angle. This force steadily wore away at the underpinnings that linked the crust to the inner mantle. This generates a plastic zone that allows the crust to rotate with respect to the lower layers. Centrifugal forces acting on the mass of ice at the poles, causing them to move to the equator.[25]

Books on this subject have been published by William Hutton including the 1996 book Coming Earth Changes: Causes and Consequences of the Approaching Pole Shift (ISBN 0876043619), which compared geologic records with the psychic readings of Edgar Cayce and predicted catastrophic climate changes before the end of 2001. In 2004 Hutton and co-author Jonathan Eagle published Earth's Catastrophic Past and Future: A Scientific Analysis of Information Channeled by Edgar Cayce (ISBN 1-58112-517-8), which summarizes possible mechanisms and the timing of a future pole shift.

In media

The movie 2012 depicts pole shift hypothesis as one of the doomsday scenarios in the film[26].

See also


  1. ^ Kiger, Patrick J.. Ends of the Earth: Shifting of the Poles. National Geographic. http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/ends-of-the-earth-pole-shift-2. Retrieved 2009-11-22. 
  2. ^ Besse, Jean; Courtillot, Vincent. "Apparent and true polar wander and the geometry of the geomagnetic field over the last 200 Myr". Journal of Geophysical Research (Solid Earth) 107 (B11): EPM 6-1 to EPM 6-31. doi:10.1029/2000JB000050. 
  3. ^ a b Andrews, J. A. (August 10, 1985). True polar wander - An analysis of cenozoic and mesozoic paleomagnetic poles. 90. pp. 7737–7750. doi:10.1029/JB090iB09p07737. http://adsabs.harvard.edu//abs/1985JGR....90.7737A. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  4. ^ a b Maloof, Adam C.; et al.. "Combined paleomagnetic, isotopic, and stratigraphic evidence for true polar wander from the Neoproterozoic Akademikerbreen Group, Svalbard, Norway". Geological Society of America Bulletin 118 (9): 1099–1124. doi:10.1130/B25892.1. http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/118/9-10/1099.abstract. 
  5. ^ The PaleoMap Project
  6. ^ Science Magazine, “Late Cretaceous True Polar Wander: Not So Fast”
  7. ^ Hoffman, P. (1999). "The break-up of Rodinia, birth of Gondwana, true polar wander and the snowball Earth". Journal of African Earth Sciences 28 (1): 17–33. doi:10.1016/S0899-5362(99)00018-4. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JAfES..28...17H. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  8. ^ Besse, Jean; Courtillot, Vincent (November 2002). "Apparent and true polar wander and the geometry of the geomagnetic field over the last 200 Myr". Journal of Geophysical Research (Solid Earth) 107 (B11): EPM 6-1. doi:10.1029/2000JB000050. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRB..107.2300B. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  9. ^ Vermeersen, L. L. A.; Fournier, A.; Sabadini, R.. "Changes in rotation induced by Pleistocene ice masses with stratified analytical Earth models". Journal of Geophysical Research 102 (B12): 27689–27702. doi:10.1029/97JB01738. Bibcode1997JGR...10227689V. 
  10. ^ Carl Bowin, "Mass anomaly structure of the Earth," Reviews of Geophysics 38(3; August 2000):355-387.
  11. ^ R. Ladbury, "Model suggests deep-mantle topography goes with the flow", Physics Today, August 1999, 21-24.
  12. ^ B. Steinberger and R. J. O'Connell, "Changes of the Earth's rotation axis owing to advection of mantle density heterogeneities", Nature 387(8 May 1997):169.
  13. ^ "Chronologie historique des Mexicains" (in French), L'ethnographie (Paris, France: Société d'Ethnographie) 7: 77–85, 1871, http://books.google.com/books?id=BvwpAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA77#v=onepage&q=&f=false, retrieved 2009-11-08 
  14. ^ Brown, Hugh Auchincloss (1967). Cataclysms of the Earth. Twayne Publishers. 
  15. ^ "Science: Can the Earth Capsize?". Time. September 13, 1948. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,888482,00.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  16. ^ Theory of Crustal Displacement — summarized by Ellie Crystal
  17. ^ Perilous planet earth: catastrophes and catastrophism through the ages. Cambridge University Press. 2003. pp. 113–114. ISBN 0521819288. 
  18. ^ Jurdy, Donna M.. "True polar wander". Tectonophysics 74 (1-2). doi:10.1016/0040-1951(81)90124-4.. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V72-48B5CJV-20/2/fceafe7c2b9eab38d796c22ab1a6f6e5. 
  19. ^ Tarduno, John A.; Smirnova, Alexei V. (January 15, 2001). "Stability of the Earth with respect to the spin axis for the last 130 million years". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 184 (2): 549–553. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00348-4. 
  20. ^ Mason, Betsy (August 2006). "Earth's Poles May Have Wandered". Science NOW Daily News. http://sciencenow.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2006/830/2. 
  21. ^ Zhong, Shijie; et al.. "Supercontinent cycles, true polar wander, and very long-wavelength mantle convection". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261 (3-4): 551-564. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.07.049.. http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~jhr/research/Zhong_etal_EPSL2007.pdf. 
  22. ^ Tsai, Victor; et al.. "Theoretical constraints on true polar wander". JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH 112. doi:10.1029/2005JB003923. http://people.seas.harvard.edu/~vtsai/files/TsaiStevenson_JGR2007.pdf. 
  23. ^ "Threshold to Tomorrow", (1984) ISBN 9780449201824 ISBN 0449201821; "Strangers Among Us", (1979); "Aliens Among Us", (1985) and "The World to Come: The Guides' Long-Awaited Predictions for the Dawning Age", (1999).
  24. ^ Noone, Richard W. (May 20, 1997). 5/5/2000, ICE: The Ultimate Disaster. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-60980-067-1.  Preface, Table of Contents, Appendices.
  25. ^ Bowles, James (1999). "Hapgood Revisited". Atlantis Rising (18). http://www.atlantisrising.com/backissues/issue18/18hapgood.html. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  26. ^ http://www.instituteforhumancontinuity.org/

External links