|I have had multiple dreams and visions about comets,
which I have written about previously. You will find those pages in
the database file below. This one is incoming as we speak and has
not yet arrived, but has been seen by astronomers, ETs, government, etc.
You will see in the following paragraph why I'm writing about this old
The information about the new poleshift coming, you will find on this page:
Poleshift is what happened before, and Poleshift is what is going to
happen this time as well. Hopefully, positive thinking by many
people will help events to be calmer than they might otherwise be.
11-18-09 - DREAM - I found out that there were two comets incoming. One of
them was named "Watermark". The other one hadn't been named yet. A new law
was passed that forced people to pay the government more money because of
these comets, so I sat down and wrote a check for each one and sent them
I then went home to change clothes and there were "suited" people in
my apartment making decisions about something, and one of the men was a
tall black man who I knew lived next door to me. I wondered why they were
using my apartment for their meeting instead of his. All the doors were
open down the hallway at the time I noticed.
After I changed clothes, I went outside to look at the sky to watch for
the comets. The sky was a darker shade of blue but not yet dark
but the sun had gone down. I walked around outside wrapped in a white
sheet like a shroud. I didn't see anyone else out there watching the sky,
though there were people coming and going. It was like I was the only one
who knew the comets were coming, but I realized I looked like a religious
zealot walking around wearing the sheet.
I received the book 'WATERMARK' by Joseph Christy
Vitale. I haven't opened it yet. It's about the comet that caused the
catastrophe on earth 12,000 years ago. I bought this book about my
previous dream in which I found out about two comets coming and one being
This is what I dreamed last night - I felt compelled to take a nap at
quarter past 8 and this is what I dreamed:
11-25-09- DREAM - I was looking at a series of newspaper headlines and
actually plugging them into a program of some kind on a computer. The
headlines were all about disasters. The last three were, "COMETS COMING -
COMETS COMING - COMETS COMING!"
11-25-09 - DREAM - I was working in a medium size office with some men.
The program on my computer was a file called tuit2. This program
had to end on December 31st, 2009 and it was all math calculations of some
kind. A new file would be started on January 1st 2010, and would be
called tuit3 . The men did their calculations at their own desks
and the uploaded their files onto my computer when they were complete. I
told them that as of January 1st, they would have to keep their own files on
floppies because tuit3 looked like a woman dressed in pink on television
giving the news - like the calculations for tuit2 were complete by then.
I wanted to go home and when I went outside I forgot to take my sweater
or coat because it didn't seem necessary, but the farther I went along the
street, the colder it was getting - I was even seeing snow on the ground where
it wasn't before and shouldn't be that cold. So I went back to the
I was walking down the hall at work. The floor was made of wood
with tiny slats - very shiny. Ahead of me I saw my boss talking to
another man and it appeared that the other man was new and was in training to
be the new boss. I had had the same boss for quite some time, so I
didn't know how a new boss would be to work with. I hoped he'd be a good
guy and easy to work with but I had no way of knowing. We hadn't been
When I did go home, I turned on the TV which was quite large and sat on
the floor - not on a table. It was a square box. The program that
came on looked just like my computer screen at work, a lady dressed in pink
giving the news. I tried to change the station and no matter what knob I
turned, the same program came on. I even remarked that it seemed like
the knobs on the TV were upsidedown. I couldn't change the channel no
11-27-09 - VISION - The words Miranmar and
Balincourt. Then 'Ruth Montgomery', and two extremely beautiful
silver scrolled necklaces. One was hers and one was mine and they
which is on the west coast of Mexico
which is on the west coast of England.
Montgomery also predicted in the 1970s and 1980s, that America would
have a "_walk-in_ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walk-in)
" as president in the 1990s, ("unsure which term, 1992 or 1996")
before the Polar Shift, which was to happen "in the last months of
the century" as it seemed to "the Guides."
NOTE: President Ronald Reagan was a walkin after he was shot. If
there is another one to come, we just have to wait for a
Presidential incident to know.
In the late 1990s, the Guides predicted in her 1999 book, The World
To Come, that the walk-in president would not come until 2008 at the
earliest, and therefore the Shift would be delayed until 2010-2012
at least. The potential catastrophe of the shift was also reduced by
human free will. Except for Florida and the coast of California, the
Guides reported, most of America will survive.
NOTE: My own predictions are the same - the coastlines of all
countries are in danger from tsunamis from the Watermark comet.
I am also a walkin and corresponded with Ruth Montgomery back in the
1970's. I'm more correctly a 'starseed' which is a bit
different, but life on earth is the same for both types - we are
here to learn lessons just like everyone else, but expected to do
more with our lives than most people here. My page is at:
http://www.greatdreams.com/walkins.htm It's been there
many years before today.
11-26-09 - VISIONS - I a drawing of a comet
coming down into the atmosphere. Then I saw multiple yellow maps of
states but I couldn't read any of them. I just knew it was similar
to maps I've seen of states. I didn't see any large lakes or rivers
so it didn't seem to be in the Great Lakes area, nor on a coastline.
NOTE: This does not seem to match what has been
given by others about something hitting the water in an ocean and causing
a large tsunami. It could however be another object than the
'Watermark' comet. I have seen two of them coming at the same time.
A VISION FROM ANOTHER SITE
I had a vision in DEC 2003 that to
this day makes me shiver even to think about it!
I was hallucinating with few degrees of high fever and a very bad
Flu when had a vision in a dream state of mind half sleep half
The vision I saw was about the coming Pole Shift, I saw two giant
Asteroids which were Comet type coming towards the earth the first
one passed by as people prayed and landed lots of hot brim stones
from it's tail on the earth causing many cities to burn and millions
to die and injure.
About 6 month later the second Asteroid approached us hitting the
earth in Atlantic Ocean the asteroid was over 200 miles long,
causing 300 feet Tsunami waves.
As we heard the giant noise the shift was starting since the Earth
was tilted because of massive impact and few hours of roaring sound
of earth crying laud like a pregnant mother ready to deliver it's
After 6 hours of hell on earth our planet stopped rotating
completely here came the dead Silent! Our side the Americas was dark
near early morning around 5 AM dawn light but Sun Light was not
arriving all the people were waiting no one could move talk or say
anything most of them were sitting in a traffic jams in the free
ways, no radio, TV or any phone was working all satellites were off
their orbits all communications were down.
Only some people could talk with Ham Radio.
No one knew what to do all Gas stations were out due to shut down of
power no one knew what to say as clocks stopped earth stopped
rotating everyone was getting a panic attack.
As we were waiting for sun to come out over 3 long days and nights
which was all night I was praying some Angel to come and take me to
hell and burn me so that I will not see these things and go thru
this pain of truth and reality which I was experiencing.
This was not a Judgment day but almost the same since when time
stops your mind looses all references and starts going backward and
forward experiencing a total dimensional shift an Alienshift or
total ultimate Truth! At the same time it was a total fear factor.
As I woke up from the dream the vision still was haunting me and
could not come out of it completely.
I was keep looking outside was dark
about 4 AM also checking the clock and I noticed the time is not
moving again for about few minutes which was odd this was hell again
this time my eyes was wide open.
I was asking in a prayer why me, they
told me you asked for the vision that's why why was shown to you.
Then I asked are we going to die in
the Pole Shift they said no there are choices to be made.
As Bible mentions the Earth starts rotating again 3 days after the
shift with total darkness after the asteroid called Wormwood hits
So remember that the earth goes
through this shift every 12,500 years.
Alienshift believes Professor Sitchin
theory of every 3675 years of returning of planet X and Pole Shift
is wrong and correct number is every 12500 years.
CHAPTER 1: WATERMARK
Chapter One: In the Beginning
Twelve thousand years ago countless
humans, animals, and plants perished almost overnight, and
great portions of the world were drastically and violently
altered. Our ancestors, numb with shock and exhaustion,
faced a challenge: either cease to exist as a species or
survive in a grave new world. This is not exactly the
history most of us were taught in school. Yet it is there,
told in the scars on stones, the broken and buried bones of
animals, and the memories of our species.
We thrust a stick into a clear pond, and it looks broken. It
is just a distortion of light, but our eyes, ignorant of the
physics behind it, see only a broken stick. As we look back
in history, time distorts what we perceive, and even though
we believe we understand its nature, we see history like
that broken stick. This distortion is then magnified by both
facts and our subjectivity, leaving us, in the end, with a
flawed view of our past. This view, when enough people
believe it to be true, becomes our worldview or paradigm.
This book is about a subject as simple
yet as complex as that stick. It involves time, space, the
Ice Age, Paradise, the nature of God, how we came to be who
we are, and the end of the world. In other words:
Our story begins in the late 18th and
early 19th centuries when scholars and scientists developed
a global paradigm. They had grown aware, through accumulated
evidence, of immense scarred rocks scattered across the
world in unexpected places. They also found deep deposits of
sands, gravels, and mud in valleys and on mountaintops,
broken and shattered animal bones in vast numbers, and made
the first discoveries of frozen mammoth carcasses in the
Arctic. From this hard evidence these scientists and
scholars concluded that at some time in the not-too-distant
past, the world suffered an appalling disaster. The
hypothesis they developed was called Catastrophism. Much
debate determined that water, in massive and swiftly moving
amounts, was probably the main culprit. Among scientists and
the general public many saw this as evidence of the Biblical
Flood. To the surprise and pleasure of the clergy, science
now supported their religious convictions. Yet even as they
spoke of this momentous conversion from the pulpit, the
Floodwaters, in some minds, were already beginning to
In 1830, Charles Lyell, a lawyer and
amateur geologist, published his Principles of Geology. He
insisted that instead of a sudden worldwide flood, a long,
gradual accumulation of debris over millions of years had
created the evidence. The hypothesis came to be called
Uniformitarianism. He went on to say that the cause was
terrestrial rather than cosmic and divine in nature, and if
ever there was a catastrophic flood it was a regional and
not global event. Lyell's idea proved to be popular among
scientists. Over the following century his approach to
geology and history replaced the catastrophic point-of-view
and opened the door to the concept of the Ice Age, Darwin's
revolution in evolution, and more recently the belief in
continental drift and plate tectonics. Considered together
they have established the current unifying paradigm of our
Today the wind has changed. Our current
fascination with Uniformity and our belief in the long, slow
geological and evolutionary process is beginning to crumble,
like immense stone blocks falling from a walled city.
How do we know the walls are crumbling? Imagine a barking
dog nipping at your heels, demanding your attention. Most of
us would look down to see what the commotion was about,
because from our earliest memories this companion has
alerted us to things we should pay heed to. Our association
with dogs has changed us profoundly, though some consider
them a nuisance. Science would call this pesky canine
behavior an anomaly. An anomaly is an unexplained fact, a
fact that can contradict part of the prevailing paradigm.
When enough anomalies are taken together, creating a
hypothesis that better explains the nature of life, they can
alter or push aside an old crumbling worldview.
This push has been occurring, for a
number of years, with patience only Job or a glacier could
muster. It has come from many quarters. Among others, are
the observations of Immanuel Velikovsky, with his Worlds in
Collision books, which have received either howls of
indignation or the cold silence of an empty church from the
orthodox science establishment. His ideas in general have
been rejected but not refuted. Undeniable truths have
survived and become seeds that have, over the years, erupted
through to the public and are splintering and cracking the
foundations of the current paradigm.
The first seed sprouted in 1972 when
Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould proposed their
"punctuated equilibrium" hypothesis. It says that a period
of geological and/or evolutionary stability can be regularly
interrupted by swift and even radical change. In other
words, catastrophes can happen. A serious crack in Lyell's
Uniformity then appeared in 1980 when Louis and Walter
Alvarez introduced their impact hypothesis, which attempts
to explain the mass extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million
years ago. Their idea of a comet or asteroid colliding with
Earth was first met with the same shrill reception as
Velikovsky's ideas, but today most scientists accept it.
Both "punctuated equilibrium" and the Alvarez impact have
helped move science away from a narrow and extreme view of
Uniformity toward a middle ground where occasional (in
geological time) catastrophes occur.
The cracks are also appearing, rarely
noticed by the general public or even science journals, down
corridors and around coffee machines of universities,
museums, and in the field. The debates revolve around the
nature of these catastrophes and whether they ever occurred,
particularly the one central to our story. The discussions
are heated, because a new scientific revolution is being
born. For some, change is difficult.
In this book we are embarking on a
journey back through time to a momentous event 12,000 years
ago. (Sources agree that the actual event described in these
pages occurred 11,500 years ago, rather than the 12,000 year
figure I use in this book. I've added 500 years -- a blink
of an eye in the geological time span -- merely for the
convenience of a nice round number, and for ease of
discussion.) This event dramatically altered the makeup of
our solar system. It has been ignored, misrepresented, and
forgotten by most, though we glimpse it, like a phantom
darting in the shadows, out of the corner of our eye. It
haunts us every day in the reality we have created for
ourselves, and in the ways we treat one another and all life
on this planet. It haunts us in the terrible contradictions
we come to accept on a daily basis and feel powerless to
change. It haunts us because it is the source of how and why
we came to be who we are today.
We will trace a path littered with
evidence left for us by a trinity of testimony: biology,
geology, and our human memory. Combining into an image
beautiful and terrible, consistent and complete, it will
challenge what we believe we know about our distant past. We
will follow the drama from its beginning to its inevitable
end, the desperate aftermath, and life's scarred
resurrection on this third planet from the sun.
In a sense it is a pilgrimage, as we
stop along our way to look upon anomalies, recall ancient
memories, and realize that we are reclaiming our past. These
moments may startle us, like a dog's sharp bark, and when we
gaze up the world will begin to change. Not physically but
intuitively. A pilgrimage is really a journey to oneself,
and this book is no different. As we proceed, the complex
and incomplete hypotheses of science and the blinders of
religious beliefs will drop from our eyes. This journey goes
beyond dogmas to look upon the past with clear eyes and to
witness the spirit of all our ancient ancestors, as they
stood on the edge of the abyss. We are going to remove the
stick from the water, gaze upon it unbroken, and remember.
Copyright © 2004 by Joseph
Excerpts from Chapter 3
THE LIVING EVIDENCE
P. 14 - The Canary islands are located off the
Atlantic coast of northwest Africa. They are volcanic islands partially
created by volcanic eruptions 12,000 years ago. They were known to the Greeks
and the Romans over 2,000 years ago. Beneath these islands we find earthworms.
Earthworms are blind and deaf and are unable to survive immersion in salt water.
Our Canary island earthworms are so similar to European earthworms, science
suggests that Europe was once connected to the Canary islands.
P. 15 - Crossing the South Atlantic reveals another
mystery: the monk seal. Rarely venturing into open ocean, this endangered
animal is found along the eastern coast of South America and, until the last
century, in the West Indies. Back across the Atlantic monk seals can be found
barking on the shores of West Africa and the western Mediterranean. How did
these seals get from West Africa to South America without crossing the open
According to the current continental drift hypothesis, the
American continents became separated from the old world 65 to over 130 million
years ago. At that point the carnivorous, arboreal, tropical
forest-dwelling ancestor of the monk seal was not even a glimmer in Nature's
eye. Another cause is needed.
Below Earth's oceans there exist 5,000 species of sponges,
but only 20 are native to freshwater; these are unable to survive in salt water.
One, Heteromeyenia ryderi, is found only along rivers and lakes from Florida to
Newfoundland along the Atlantic Coast of North America, and across 3,000 miles
of salty ocean on the west coasts of Ireland and Scotland. This
distribution has been a puzzle to those scholars who are not worried about what
questions to ask, or what answers may arise.
Many more examples are given.
THE DEAD EVIDENCE
Lignite, sometimes called brown coal, is found world wide.
Similar to soft coal and peat, it is used as a fuel in northern climates. In
lignite you will usually find the texture of the original wood that formed it.
Because of this, its age is not considered great. Difficult questions arise,
however, when the trees found in the lignite are not local. Where do they come
from and how did they get there? In Germany many of the lignite beds are
associated with swamp bogs. But the remains found in the bogs are sequoia, a
tree that does not grow in swamps. They could only have been carried and
buried here. Australia has similar deposits. Near Morwell, in Victoria,
the lignite is found 200 feet below the surface and is nearly 800 feet thick.
They numbers of trees found are prodigious and well reserved and include many
that are not common to the region. Again, they could only have been
carried and then buried there.
In treeless Greenland, the remains of pinecones, acorns,
sequoias, oaks, maples, and magnolia are found together in confused masses in a
land today synonymous with ice, not temperate forest.
Prehistorians gave the name Fennoscandia to a landmass
that, 12,000 years ago, sank into what is today the Arctic ocean. It included
much of northern Eurasia and the now numerous island archipelagos that are found
in the Arctic Ocean, some laying less than 500 miles from the North Pole. The
remains of immense forests here staggered the first scientists who explored
these lands in the 1800s. 12,000 years ago, forests of alder, elm, and oak
reached far into the Arctic from the Ural mountains and Siberia. Today they lie
buried in frozen ground where no bushes and trees can survive.
The loss of animal life 12,000 years ago was also profound.
Biologists have difficulty communicating the magnitude of extinction that
occurred during this time period. In 'When the Earth Nearly Died',
paleogeographic researcher Derek Allan and Geological surveyor J. Bernard Delair
summarize their frustration when they write 'immense herds of diverse animals
utterly vanished off the face of the earth for no obvious biological reason.
Note: He goes on to say that in many lignite beds, bones of
animals are mixed in a jumbled mass along with trees, bushes, plants and grass.
Some of the buried forests still have their berries and nuts on them, mixed in
with the bones of mammoths, horses, hippopotamuses and other species.
Whale bones are found near the tops of mountains.
Throughout the Mediterranean region, there are caves and
fissures filled from the narrowest cracks in the walls and floors all the way up
to the roofs with the smashed remains of hundreds of species of animals,
reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans and sediment, From the Rock of Gibraltar
to Sicily, Male and Crete scientists have uncovered these dens of death.
Sea and land shells, turtle, shark, lizard, hyena, bear, elephant, hippopotamus
- including pigmy hippopotamus found living today only in West Africa - bird,
rodent, deer, ox, lion, wooly rhinoceros, and mammoth have been found crushed
together in these caves, fissures, and crevices.
Siberia is well known for its frozen mammoth carcasses.
These are still being discovered, and while few in number, speculation and
hypothesis whirl, like a blizzard, around them. Some scientists believe
numerous, gradual climate changes melted the ice sheets and broke up the land,
creating the crevasses that these mammoths fell into, where they died and were
frozen. Some think the climate changes produced occasional meltdowns, at various
times over tens of thousands of years, which sent water burning through ice dams
and caught the animals unaware. In either case the causes remain comfortably
within the Ice Age hypothesis. The climate, shown in floral studies, was
considerably milder than today. These mammoth carcasses were not found in ice,
but buried in now frozen sediment or mud, meaning the ground was not frozen when
the animals died, otherwise they could not have been buried whole. The ground
then had to freeze quickly, not gradually, before the animals decomposed.
end chapter notes
|WATERMARK - BOOK REVIEW
From Publishers Weekly
The pyramids of Egypt and Central
America; diluvial deposits high up on mountain sides; strange
collections of animal bones in North American caves—
Christy-Vitale, amateur scientist and travel industry consultant,
believes these seemingly unconnected phenomena hint at a cosmic
catastrophe 12,000 years ago: a supernova 45 light-years from
Earth that shot a chunk of the star (which he calls Phaeton) into
our solar system, shattering a 10th planet between Mars and
Jupiter into what we know as the asteroid belt, killing off
thousands of animal species and almost extinguishing an advanced
human civilization. Memories of this event live on in stories of a
golden age destroyed in a worldwide flood. While Christy-Vitale
seems never to have met a myth he didn't like, he ignores some
basic scientific facts. If a supernova had exploded in our
vicinity even in the last 100,000 years, its glowing shell would
still be visible. Also, supernovas don't shoot off
mini-stars—rather, these cosmic explosions tend to pepper the
surrounding cosmos with an iron isotope; scientists haven't found
a layer dating from this era. There is also no evidence of a
genetic "bottleneck" in humans dating back a mere 10,000 years.
Christy-Vitale believes that the chunk of star dust zooming past
us caused Earth to flip back and forth on its axis, resulting in,
among other things, the current configuration of the continents.
So much for continental drift. Christy-Vitale's scenario is an
interesting one, but he seems more a New Age Erik Von Daniken than
someone advancing a revisionist theory that will attract serious
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.
Ancient crash, epic wave
By Sandra Blakeslee
Published: Saturday, October 14, 2006
At the southern end of Madagascar lie four enormous
wedge-shaped sediment deposits, called chevrons, that are
composed of material from the ocean floor. Each covers twice
the area of Manhattan with sediment as deep as the Chrysler
Building is high.
On close inspection, the chevron
deposits contain deep ocean microfossils that are fused with
a medley of metals typically formed by cosmic impacts. And
all of them point in the same direction - toward the middle
of the Indian Ocean where a newly discovered crater, 18
miles in diameter, lies 12,500 feet below the surface.
The explanation is obvious to some scientists. A large
asteroid or comet, the kind that could kill a quarter of the
world's population, smashed into the Indian Ocean 4,800
years ago, producing a tsunami at least 600 feet high, about
13 times as big as the one that inundated Indonesia nearly
two years ago. The wave carried the huge deposits of
sediment to land.
Most astronomers doubt that any large comets or asteroids
have crashed into the Earth in the last 10,000 years. But
the self-described "band of misfits" that make up the
two-year-old Holocene Impact Working Group say that
astronomers simply have not known how or where to look for
evidence of such impacts along the world's shorelines and in
the deep ocean.
Scientists in the working group say the evidence for such
impacts during the last 10,000 years, known as the Holocene
epoch, is strong enough to overturn current estimates of how
often the Earth suffers a violent impact on the order of a
10-megaton explosion. Instead of once in 500,000 to one
million years, as astronomers now calculate, catastrophic
impacts could happen every few thousand years.
The researchers, who formed the working group after
finding one another through an international conference, are
based in the United States, Australia, Russia, France and
Ireland. They are established experts in geology,
geophysics, geomorphology, tsunamis, tree rings, soil
science and archaeology, including the structural analysis
of myth. Their efforts are just getting under way, but they
will present some of their work at the American Geophysical
Union meeting in December in San Francisco.
This year the group started using Google Earth, a free
source of satellite images, to search around the globe for
chevrons, which they interpret as evidence of past giant
tsunamis. Scores of such sites have turned up in Australia,
Africa, Europe and the United States, including the Hudson
River Valley and Long Island.
When the chevrons all point in the same direction to open
water, Dallas Abbott, an adjunct research scientist at
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., uses a
different satellite technology to look for oceanic craters.
With increasing frequency, she finds them, including an
especially large one dating back 4,800 years.
So far, astronomers are skeptical but are willing to look
at the evidence, said David Morrison, a leading authority on
asteroids and comets at the NASA Ames Research Center in
Mountain View, Calif. Surveys show that as many as 185 large
asteroids or comets hit the Earth in the far distant past,
although most of the craters are on land. No one has spent
much time looking for craters in the deep ocean, Morrison
said, assuming young ones don't exist and that old ones
would be filled with sediment.
Astronomers monitor every small space object with an
orbit close to the Earth. "We know what's out there, when
they return, how close they come," Morrison said. Given
their observations, "there is no reason to think we have had
major hits in the last 10,000 years," he continued, adding,
"But if Dallas is right and they find 10 such events, we'll
have a real contradiction on our hands."
Peter Bobrowski, a senior research scientist in natural
hazards at the Geological Survey of Canada, said "chevrons
are fantastic features" but do not prove that megatsunamis
are real. There are other interpretations for how chevrons
are formed, including erosion and glaciation. Bobrowski
said. It is up to the working group to prove its claims, he
William Ryan, a marine geologist at the Lamont
Observatory, compared Abbott's work to that of other
pioneering scientists who had to change the way their
colleagues thought about a subject.
"Many of us think Dallas is really onto something," Ryan
said. "She is building a story just like Walter Alvarez
did." Alvarez, a professor of earth and planetary sciences
at the University of California, Berkeley, spent a decade
convincing skeptics that a giant asteroid wiped out the
dinosaurs 65 million years ago.
Ted Bryant, a
geomorphologist at the University of Wollongong in New South
Wales, Australia, was the first person to recognize the palm
prints of mega-tsunamis. Large tsunamis of 30 feet or more
are caused by volcanoes, earthquakes and submarine
landslides, he said, and their deposits have different
Deposits from mega-tsunamis contain unusual rocks with
marine oyster shells, which cannot be explained by wind
erosion, storm waves, volcanoes or other natural processes,
"We're not talking about any tsunami you're ever seen,"
Bryant said. "Aceh was a dimple. No tsunami in the modern
world could have made these features. End-of-the-world
movies do not capture the size of these waves. Submarine
landslides can cause major tsunamis, but they are localized.
These are deposited along whole coastlines."
For example, Bryant identified two chevrons found over
four miles inland near Carpentaria in north central
Australia. Both point north. When Abbott visited a year ago,
he asked her to find the craters.
To locate craters, Abbott uses sea surface altimetry
data. Satellites scan the ocean surface and log the exact
height of it. Underwater mountain ranges, trenches and holes
in the ground disturb the Earth's gravitational field,
causing sea surface heights to vary by fractions of an inch.
Within 24 hours of searching the shallow water north of the
two chevrons, Abbott found two craters.
Not all depressions in the ocean are impact craters,
Abbott said. They can be sink holes, faults or remnant
volcanoes. A check is needed. So she obtained samples from
deep sea sediment cores taken in the area by the Australian
The cores contain melted rocks and magnetic spheres with
fractures and textures characteristic of a cosmic impact.
"The rock was pulverized, like it was hit with a hammer,"
Abbott said. "We found diatoms fused to tektites," a glassy
substance formed by meteors. The molten glass and shattered
rocks could not be produced by anything other than an
impact, she said.
"We think these two craters are 1,200 years old," Abbott
said. The chevrons are well preserved and date to about the
Abbott and her colleagues have located chevrons in the
Caribbean, Scotland, Vietnam and North Korea, and several in
the North Sea.
Heather Hill State Park on Long Island has a chevron
whose front edge points to a crater in Long Island Sound,
Abbott said. There is another, very faint chevron in
Connecticut, and it points in a different direction.
Marie-Agnès Courty, a soil scientist at the European
Center for Prehistoric Research in Tautavel, France, is
studying the worldwide distribution of cosmogenic particles
from what she suspects was a major impact 4,800 years ago.
But Madagascar provides the smoking gun for geologically
recent impacts. In August, Abbott, Bryant and Slava
Gusiakov, from the Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory in Russia,
visited the four huge chevrons to scoop up samples.
Last month, Dee Breger, director of microscopy at Drexel
University in Philadelphia, looked at the samples under a
scanning electron microscope and found benthic foraminifera,
tiny fossils from the ocean floor, sprinkled throughout. Her
close-ups revealed splashes of iron, nickel and chrome fused
to the fossils.
When a chondritic meteor, the most common kind, vaporizes
upon impact in the ocean, those three metals are formed in
the same relative proportions as seen in the microfossils,
Breger said the microfossils appear to have melded with
the condensing metals as both were lofted up out of the sea
and carried long distances.
About 900 miles southeast from the Madagascar chevrons,
in deep ocean, is Burckle crater, which Abbott discovered
last year. Although its sediments have not been directly
sampled, cores from the area contain high levels of nickel
and magnetic components associated with impact ejecta.
Burckle crater has not been dated, but Abbott estimates
that it is 4,500 to 5,000 years old.
It would be a great help to the cause if the National
Science Foundation sent a ship equipped with modern acoustic
equipment to take a closer look at Burckle, Ryan said. "If
it had clear impact features, the nonbelievers would
believe," he said.
But they might have more trouble believing one of the
scientists, Bruce Masse, an environmental archaeologist at
the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He thinks
he can say precisely when the comet fell: on the morning of
May 10, 2807 B.C.
Masse analyzed 175 flood myths from around the world, and
tried to relate them to known and accurately dated natural
events like solar eclipses and volcanic eruptions. Among
other evidence, he said, 14 flood myths specifically mention
a full solar eclipse, which could have been the one that
occurred in May 2807 B.C.
Half the myths talk of a torrential downpour, Masse said.
A third talk of a tsunami. Worldwide they describe hurricane
force winds and darkness during the storm. All of these
could come from a mega-tsunami.
Of course, extraordinary claims require extraordinary
proof, Masse said, "and we're not there yet."
ussian scientists to establish origin of Great Flood
Russian researchers from the University
oat the Great Flood
of 2800 BCE came as a result of Earth’s collision with
some heavenly body.
Scientists research Great Flood
Viacheslav Gusiakov, the laboratory’s
director at the Calculus and Mathematical Geophysics
Institute, told Interfax that the actual cause of the
ancient global catastrophe could be established within a
few months as soon the researchers complete their
examining of the sand hill samples.
These samples were collected by the
international expedition members in the area of difficult
access near the Madagascar Island between the Fenambosi
and Ampalaza gulfs.
With the help of the satellite images
scientists were able to discover at this particular spot
the so-called herringbone dunes, which were located far
beyond the regular shore dunes but were clearly formed by
the rising water flow judging by their design.
The size of one sand dune that
stretches out for 40 km from the shore back into the
depths of dry land suggests that the wave, which became
its source of origin, washed out onto the shore to the
distance of few dozens kilometers.
Translated by Natalia
|VELIKOVSKY - COMET
WHO WAS VELIKOVSKY?
Pole Shifts - Velikovsky
Velikovsky was born in Vitebsk,
Russia. As a child he learned several languages, and
excelled in mathematics. In 1913 he travelled to Europe,
visiting Palestine, briefly studying medicine at
Montpelier, France, and taking premedical courses at the
University of Edinburgh.
Just before the outbreak of World War
I, Velikovsky returned to his homeland and enrolled in
the University of Moscow, where he received a medical
degree in 1921. From there he went to Berlin, where he
married a young violinist and became the general editor
of the journal, Scripta Universitatis. During
this time he became acquainted with Albert Einstein, who
edited the journal's mathematical-physical section.
Velikovsky shifted to Palestine in 1924 and practiced
psychoanalysis for the next 15 years. Some of his
writings appeared in Freud's Imago.
In 1940, Velikovsky studied a number
of natural disasters that occur in the Bible, such as
the parting of the Red Sea and the eruption of Mt.
Sinai. When he compared these biblical passages to
similar entries in some obscure Egyptian texts, he
became convinced they were describing the same
catastrophes, and went about reconstructing ancient
Middle Eastern time-lines to make both sides fit.
After studying other historical
records, he became convinced that many catastrophes were
linked to a single global cataclysm, and that Venus was
involved. In 1939 he shifted to the United States and
for the next ten years he researched these topics, the
result being two separate books: Ages in Chaos -
a historical reconstruction covering the years 1450 BC
to 840 B.C, and Worlds in Collision.
In 1950 Macmillan published Worlds
in Collision. It described how 3,500 years ago Venus
was ejected from Jupiter as a comet - then started a
wayward path through the solar system. Its gravitational
field moved other planets out of their orbits or
affected their rotation - including Earth's. Macmillan,
who publish many textbooks, came under fire from
scientists and academics who considered Velikovsky's
ideas to be unacceptable - ideas at odds with
uniformitarianism. The book was consequently banned from
many academic institutions. Although it was at the top
of the New York Times non-fiction bestseller list,
Macmillan gave in and transferred the book to Doubleday.
In 1952 Doubleday pub1ished Velikovsky's Ages in
As an answer to
his critics, Velikovsky's third book, Earth in
Upheaval (1955), presented raw data that would
validate any global cataclysm theory:
"I have excluded from [these pages]
all references to ancient literature, traditions, and
folklore; and this I have done with intent, so that
careless critics cannot decry the entire work as
"tales and legends". Stones and bones are the only
It was fully
referenced and designed to gain the support of orthodox
science - however academia had already determined that
anything he ever wrote would automatically be
Meanwhile Velikovsky had been
maintaining contact with Einstein - he would send him
letters and manuscripts and Einstein would return them,
usually with comments written in the margins. With
regards to Earth in Upheaval, Einstein accepted
all the evidence of sudden violence upon the Earth, but
he rejected Venus as being the cause. Nine days after
their final meeting Einstein died, and a copy of
Worlds in Collision was found open on his desk. He
was rereading it because latest discoveries concerning
Jupiter had confirmed one of Velikovsky's predictions.
It is currently accepted that a comet
wiped out the dinosaurs, yet in the 1950s, when
Velikovsky suggested similar ideas, he was rejected. In
fact many of his radical ideas that orthodox science
originally laughed at, due to their lack of scientific
foundation, have become proven facts:
Velikovsky deduced each of these facts
many years before mainstream science found ways to prove
them. He also stated that after its close encounters
with Earth, Mars and the Sun, Venus would have a much
higher than expected temperature, would be enveloped in
hydrocarbon clouds (remnants of its comet's tail), and
would have an anomalous rotation. The scientists'
predictions - a similar temperature to Earth, an
atmosphere of carbon dioxide or water and standard
rotation - have all since been shown to be wrong. Venus
has a surface temperature of 750 degrees Kelvin - hot
enough to melt lead. Its atmosphere is full of
hydrocarbons and its rotation is in an opposite
direction to all the other planets.
becomes unstable and ejects excess mass.
Jupiter emits non-thermal radio noise.
Comets can be rich in
hydrocarbons, with highly energetic electrical tails.
The Moon has had
recent surface melting, seismic and volcanic activity,
none of which should be true for a body that had
supposedly been dead for 4.5 billion years.
With hindsight, academia should be
re-examining his work, for more of his startling ideas
could also be correct. Here is Velikovsky's hypothesis
on what may have previously happened to our planet:
".that under the impact of a force
or the influence of an agent - and the earth does not
travel in an empty universe - the axis of the earth
shifted or tilted. At that moment an earthquake would
make the globe shudder. Air and water would continue
to move through inertia; hurricanes would sweep the
earth and the seas would rush over continents,
carrying gravel and sand and marine animals, and
casting them on the land. Heat would be developed,
rocks would melt, volcanoes would erupt, and lava
would flow from fissures in the ruptured ground and
cover vast areas. Mountains would spring up from the
plains and would travel and climb on the shoulders of
other mountains, causing faults and rifts. Lakes would
be tilted and emptied, rivers would change their beds;
large land areas with all their inhabitants would slip
under the sea. Forests would burn, and the hurricanes
and wild seas would wrest them from the ground on
which they grew and pile them, branch and root, in
"Water evaporated from the oceans
would rise in clouds and fall again in torrential rains
and snowfalls. Clouds of dust, ejected by numerous
volcanoes and swept by hurricanes from the ground.all
this dust would keep the rays of the sun from
penetrating to the earth."
Perhaps the extra-terrestrial agent
was a force such as an electromagnetic field? The Earth
is a giant magnet, and the fields would act upon each
other. Duration would not be a factor - if the strength
of this field were strong enough to tip the earth over,
it would happen instantly, triggering the effects
Velikovsky listed above.
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval
JUPITER IN COLLISION: IN SEARCH OF VELIKOVSKY'S COMET
"Of all the mysterious phenomena which accompanied the Exodus, this mysterious
pillar seems the first to demand explanation."
Velikovsky came to his catastrophic thesis through a search for a reliable
chronology for ancient middle eastern history. This search, born of the
realization that both Egyptians and Israelites alike went through a great
physical upheaval, gave rise to the most influential work on catastrophism
published in this century.
Hebrew traditions of the red and poisonous Nile, the impenetrable darkness,
the hot stones from heaven, the great winds and noise, the anomalous
behaviour of insects and animals and the tidal effect at the Sea of Passage
were collected and matched to other worldwide ancient traditions, convincing
Velikovsky that the Exodus event was part of a global upheaval caused in
great part by the passage of the Earth through the tail of a giant
Velikovsky drew this original inspiration not from Exodus, but from an event
that occurred, according to Biblical sources, 52 years later in the time of
Joshua. On that great day, when the sun did not hasten to go down,
Velikovsky remembered the shower of hot stones which killed more of Joshua's
enemies than did the battling Israelites.
Velikovsky realized that these scientifically naive people could not have
deliberately coupled a large scale meteoric shower with a disturbance in the
Earth's diurnal rotation. Since meteoric showers, great and .small, are
understood to be debris entrained by comets, Velikovsky took the next logical
step by gleaning the Bible and associated Talmudic sources for evidence of a
comet during Exodus and Joshua.
It was then that the "mysterious pillar" became the tail of the protoplanet
Venus. Velikovsky claimed: "Because of the proximity of the Earth, the comet
left its own orbit and for a while followed the orbit of the Earth. The
great ball of the comet retreated, then again approached the Earth, shrouded
in a dark column of gases which looked like a pillar of smoke during the day
and of fire by night and the Earth once more passed through the atmosphere of
the comet, this time at its neck."
It has been for some time this author's opinion that this "mysterious pillar"
is not a comet's tail, but the Earth's north and south magnetic poles
illuminated by the joint action of electrical discharge and the commingling of
Earthly and cometary gases. In other words, a giant aurora.
In this paper I will argue that the early reports from the Jupiter/Comet
Shoemaker-Levy 9 event can cast further light on the aurora thesis and bring
us closer to understanding the full significance of Velikovsky's catastrophic
Comet of Typhon
It may have evaded the scrutiny of even the most assiduous Velikovskians that
there is very little direct evidence for the appearance of a comet during
both the Exodus and the Joshua stories. All the indicators of a great
meteoric shower are in place and it can be argued that any well-informed
tribal leader or court magician would have little trouble inferring its
involvement, yet we have no specific mention of a comet being observed before
or during the event. Great signs were in abundance in the heavens- in
particular the enigmatic arm of the Lord mentioned many times in Exodus and
other rabbinical sources. Little, however, in the way of a glowing body with
a tail is mentioned.
It is no wonder then that Velikovsky calls on the "mysterious pillar" for
help. Yet it is not Exodus he turns to in reconstructing the days of Exodus
and Joshua, but to the great Greek tradition of the fight between Zeus and
Typhon. Velikovsky inserted this account of a central god throwing
thunderbolts and great balls of fire at an encircling deity as an explanation
of how a comet loses and regains its tail:
"Some saw the pillar of cloud- Typhon defeated by Jupiter, the ball of fire
that emerged from the pillar and battled with it. Others interpreted the
globe as a body different from Jupiter ... the imagination of the people saw
in this the planet-god Jupiter-Marduk rushing to save the Earth by killing the
I will not dwell on the physical adequacy of this imported image, for it
contains intrinsic difficulties. The greater problem is that, inadequate as
this exotic image is, it is not described in similar terms either in Exodus or
Joshua. It is always, in Hebrew traditions, a singular body. Its only
variant is the crooked or brazen serpent. Moreover, Velikovsky does not
deal adequately with the remarkably stable nature of the pillar. Neither the
atmospheric nor the orbital elements of a comet's tail could have retained the
definite shape of a column for any length of time, yet-this same column was
reported to have shed light on the wandering tribes for over 40 years.
The Great Aurora
Velikovsky's decision to identify the "mysterious pillar" as the tail of Venus
effectively foreclosed his further access to one of the most powerful ancient
icons, for the pillar of light and smoke can be none other than the northern
extension of the world axis or Axis Mundi.
The primal universe pictured the world axis with its principal pillar to the
north- the less important southern element appearing to pass through the disc
or sphere of the Earth and extend into the underworld.
Hebrew tradition, like most major cultures, gives us many static and dynamic
variations of the pillar of smoke and fire. In Genesis it is the trunk of
the trees of life and knowledge. In the post-Exodus period, the wooden
pillar, emblematic of the Hebrew goddess, was offered human sacrifices "in
high places." So important was this idol that it replaced the ark of the
covenant in the temple on a number of occasions.
Velikovsky would have found it difficult to miss this icon in his research.
An author he referred to, Holmberg, devoted an entire chapter to the pillar
in his work on Siberian myth. Plato would not have confused the battle of
Zeus and Typhon as relating to a pillar of light. He acknowledged this symbol
as the highway for the souls of the dead to reach heaven.
Our Neon World
In other published works, I have argued that an enhanced aurora at the north
and south poles is an inevitable outcome of encounters with great meteoric
showers. Present auroral displays, sometimes called the Northern Lights, are
the product of periodic solar flares which cause temporary charge imbalances
in the Earth's magnetic field. When these entrapped charges reach a critical
point, they rush from the trailing end of the tear shaped geomagnetic belt
and cascade down the north and south magnetic poles in a spiral pattern.
These charged particles become visible as they collide with rising atoms of
oxygen and nitrogen, producing a distinctive belt of glowing gases in the
Earth's upper atmosphere.
The great pillar aurora is most easily understood as an upward extension of
the present auroral oval and its interior polar cap.
The great pillar of the Exodus would be initiated by a discharge from the
Earth's field to the impinging ionized cometary debris. This" short circuit
would cause the temporary reduction of the Earth's magnetic field, subjecting
the Earth to greater penetration of the solar wind. The Earth would also lose
some charge from its interior, depending on the relative ionization of the
impinging debris. These two conditions would lead to overcharging of the
Earth's geomagnetic field, powering great auroras until the Earth regains its
The full range of iconography provided by the great auroras of the past could
fill many volumes, and is dealt with in greater detail in Catastrophism 2000.
The essential direct image presented to our ancestors was that of a fluted
cylinder composed of the Earth's overcharged field lines, projecting upwards
thousands of kilometres, and made visible at night by rising glowing green
and red gases ionized by the electrons passing through them, and by day by
the iron-bearing dust attracted by the same electromagnetic field lines. This
effect was demonstrated by P Shoemaker-Levy 9's ferrous dust, aligning itself
along Jupiter's north-south field lines shortly after impact.
Charged particles spiraling down and reflected upwards by the ionosphere
sometimes illuminated the rising atomic oxygen and nitrogen into the single
and double helixes which are equally popular in global iconography.
The leather straps (phylacteries) wound around the left arm by pious Jews
prior to prayer, and the serpent encircling the tree of life, are Hebrew
remembrances of the illuminated spiraling electrons.
The idea is also found in the serpent Moses made of brass, which he put upon a
pole. Velikovsky himself stated: "The brazen serpent was most probably the
image of a pillar of cloud and fire which appeared as a moving serpent to all
people of the world."
The Light of Noga
The influence of Venus is never quite absent in Velikovsky's Exodus narrative,
and this quotation from Isaiah is compelling. "The people that walked in
darkness have seen a great light; they that dwell in the land of the shadow
of death, the light of Noga was upon them."
Velikovsky rightly claims, "It (Noga) is, in fact, the usual name of this
planet in Hebrew, and it is therefore an omission not to translate it so."
This construction can be understood if we acknowledge that the auroral pillar
was one of the effects of passing through the tail of the protoplanet Venus,
a hypothesis that is still compelling today.
Velikovsky's reference to Amos is also convincing. "Amos says that during the
forty years in the wilderness the Israelites did not sacrifice to the Lord,
but carried 'the star of your god, which you made to yourselves.' St. Jerome
interprets this 'star of your god' as Lucifer (the Morning Star.)"
Do We Need The Nucleus ?
In tearing apart the head and tail of the protoplanet Venus, Velikovsky was
probably on the right track. Perhaps if he had further decoupled the nucleus
and its trailing debris, he could have presented a stronger argument for a
major encounter with a comet's tail during the Exodus and Joshua episodes.
It would not shock any scientist today to suggest that the Exodus and Joshua
events were the result of an encounter with a great meteoric shower. The
fact that the comet's nucleus was not sighted during the encounters could be
explained simply by imposing a daytime event. Half of the meteoric showers,
such as the Taurids, are not seen due to sunlight which obscures the classic
radiation of glowing gas and dust that is seen during the nights of great
Leonid and Perseid showers. It has been claimed recently in Icarus that the
Tsunguska event was the product of this shower.
Enter Shoemaker-Levy 9
At this point we may bring Shoemaker-Levy 9 into the equation. One of the
greatest difficulties in Velikovsky's Exodus scenario is the significant time
lapse between catastrophes. Even making allowances for the red world that
preceded the Passover night, there existed six days between the night of the
great flash of light and profound darkness and the events at the Sea of
Passage. Velikovsky's argument that Venus became entangled in the Earth's
orbit, and then returned to display its nucleus-shrouding tail, is not
convincing. As has been stated earlier, there is no direct evidence of the
presence of either the head or the visible tail of a comet, let alone a
viable model or physical theory to explain the exotic motions necessary to
justify this sophisticated cosmic scenario. A train of asteroids captured by
the Earth's gravity a la Shoemaker-Levy 9, which took place over a five-day
period, or an angled passage through a single or multiple train of meteoric
showers, is a simpler and familiar explanation. This in no way excludes
Venus, Mars nor Super Encke from the parental role.
Creating the Great Aurora
Bringing the pillar of smoke and fire into its proper iconographic niche as
the northern extension of the Axis Mundi and explaining it as a visual
product of an encounter with a great meteoric shower, further confirms
Velikovsky's intuitions concerning the essential nature of the Exodus
catastrophes. The great wandering, like the night of July 16, 1994, began
with a great flash of light.
I presume that the dazzling light of the Passover night and the flashes of
Shoemaker-Levy 9 were similar occurrences. The Israelites had good reason to
give only a passing reference to this phenomenon, since they had other things
on their minds, but the Jovian flashes were watched by thousands of human and
electronic eyes from the Earth and sun and Earth-orbiting satellites. What
they observed and recorded of this unique event not only provides compelling
evidence of the super auroral hypothesis, but brings us closer to a clearer
understanding of the nature of comets.
Looking behind Jupiter
We do not yet fully understand what happened behind Jupiter in July. The only
satellite in a position to observe the night side of Jupiter was Galileo,
whose great distance from Jupiter could only provide very grainy images of
the 14 explosions.
But the dust marks left on the planet's atmosphere were approximately the
diameter of the Earth. If the same fragments would have exploded above the
Earth, the effects would most probably have been of a greater scale. Using
Jupiter as a model for Earth must be carefully qualified. Its magnetic field
is immense. Its magnetopause, if visible, would have the apparent diameter of
the moon. The pulse of electromagnetic energy released by its moon Io is 10
to the 18th ergs, enough to toast the city of Portland. On the other side of
the coin, a fragment of several kilometres is, in relative mass, less than a
gnat's breath to this planetary giant whose volume is 1,300 times that of the
Earth. Nevertheless, Jupiter did not take the onslaught lightly. Vincent
Caracci, an American amateur radio astronomer, monitored the same band (21.5
Mhz) that produces Jupiter's Io related electrical storms. He characterized
the energy released by the fragments as sounding like a machine gun compared
to the typical ocean surf sound released by Io.
The University of Florida, which has been monitoring Jupiter's radio signals
since their discovery in the early 1950s, did not rule out "lightning"
discharging from Jupiter's field, but the results must have surprised even
those who expected measurable disturbances in Jupiter's field. Before the
plume or ball of fire associated with each impact was observed, a flash
hotter than the sun itself was recorded. What was anomalous and still
unexplained by astronomers was the fact that these flashes were recorded by
observers on both the day and night side of Jupiter.
Galileo, the Earth-orbiting Hubble telescope, and many ground observers
witnessed the flash simultaneously. Another puzzling occurrence was the
absence of reflection from Jupiter's moons and torus. Hopes that light from
the impacts would be mirrored back to Earthbound observers were dashed when no
observable intensity of light was recorded. A simple explanation may lie in
recognizing that the flash occurred in Jupiter's magnetosphere and not on the
planet's surface. The interval of six to eight minutes from flash to the
first sight of the ball of fire gives further support to this thesis.
I would go further and suggest that the explosion of each fragment was caused
by electrical shock. Evidence is being put forth that the fragments were
solid asteroids. If this proves true, it will be helpful to find a mechanism
that explains how a solid body, more than two kilometres in diameter, can
explode well above Jupiter's atmosphere. Finally, can the discharge of fire
from Jupiter's clouds come from the impinging debris, or as part of a general
electrical discharge phenomenon? If the latter process took place, there
ought to be more than one mark on Jupiter's surface.
This suggested electrical mechanism is not critical to prove the super-Aurora
hypothesis. It is presented as further evidence that electrical
interactions, and not physical impacts, are key to understanding comets and
their effects on planetary evolution. In any event the appearance of enhanced
auroras as a direct result of cometary contact is no longer speculative. A
recent news release from the Goddard Space Flight Centre stated: "HST (Hubble
Space Telescope) detected unusual auroral activity in Jupiter's northern
hemisphere just after the impact of the comet's K fragment. This impact
completely disrupted the radiation belts which have been stable over the last
20 years of radio observations."
Moreover, evidence that Jupiter has sustained a continuing charge of greater
intensity is being compiled. Imke DePater of the University of California,
Los Angeles will be publishing, in the new year, data registering a 20 to 30
per cent sustained increase in Jupiter's geo-magnetic field. The mysterious
pillar of Exodus could well have lighted their way through their forty years
of desert wanderings.
More critical to my contention that the mysterious pillar was an auroral
phenomenon was the dynamic effect of the electromagnetic disturbances.
"Aurorae, glowing gases that create the northern and southern lights, are
common on Jupiter because energetic charged particles needed to excite the
gases are always trapped in Jupiter's magnetosphere. However, this new
feature seen by Hubble was unusual because it was temporarily as bright or
brighter than the normal aurora, short-lived, and outside the area where
Jovian aurorae are normally found."
Finding Jupiter's aurora displaced is to be expected since this is normal
operating procedure during auroral storms on Earth which can displace Earthly
aurorae as far south as Mexico City.
A similar movement of the mysterious pillar in Exodus was quoted and
interpreted by Velikovsky in Worlds In Collision. "And the Angel of God,
which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the
pillar of the cloud went from before their face and stood behind them ... and
it was a cloud and darkness but it gave light by night.' An exceedingly
strong wind and lightnings rent the cloud. In the morning the waters rose as
a wall and moved away. 'And the children of Israel went into the midst of the
sea upon the dry ground."
If the lightning which rent the cloud pillar was a discharge between the Earth
and meteoric debris, are we not then dealing with essentially the same
electromagnetic phenomena witnessed on and around Jupiter?
The aurora created by the flash on the first night of Passover- the same
aurora that the children of Israel followed on northward passage- may have
moved due to a permanent displacement of the Earth's terrestrial axis, as
Velikovsky claimed, or by the more temporary movement witnessed some months
ago on Jupiter. Either explanation is easier to maintain than Velikovsky's
elaborate detached comet tail model.
Intensive aurorae and increased radiation from Jupiter's geomagnetic field
would not be a total surprise to professional Jupiter watchers. The enormous
energies pulsed to Io could just as easily be short-circuited, in retrospect,
to highly ionized comet fragments. What is of more significance is that
Jupiter/Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 has struck a fatal blow to Whipple's
characterization of a comet as a dirty snowball. A close scrutiny of
fragments entering Jupiter's magnetopause and a similar study of ejecta
revealed little or no evidence of water. The fragments were found to contain
magnesium, a common component of asteroids and dust. If Jupiter were hit by
a series of solid bodies, what caused them to explode above Jupiter's
atmosphere? And more importantly, what forces created the clouds dust that
obscured each nucleus? Present models of comets as conglomerations of ice
and volatiles were conjured up to explain this phenomenon- the "shedding" of
cometary matter at distances well beyond any heat contribution from the sun.
If comet shedding proves to be a product of electromagnetic forces, it will
introduce a new dimension in our understanding of the way our universe
W. Phythian-Adams, The Call of Israel, in Worlds In Collision, Immanuel
Velikovsky (Garden City: Doubleday & Company, 1950), p. 81.
Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds In Collision (Garden City: Doubleday & Company),
Velikovsky, op. cit., pp. 173-174.
Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 184.
Louis Ginzberg, The Legends Of The Jews (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication
Society Of America), Volume II, p. 375.
Milton Zysman, "Let There Be Lights," in Catastrophism 2000, ed. Milton
Zysman and Clark Whelton (Toronto: Heretic Press, 1990), pp. 143-198.
Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, International Astronomical Union,
Circular No. 6036.
Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 184.
Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 175.
Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 175.
Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 176.
Jack B. Hartung, "Giordano Bruno, the June 1975 Meteoroid Storm, Encke, and
Other Taurid Complex Objects," in Icarus 104, pp. 280-290.
Public Information Office, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of
Technology, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Galileo Comet
Shoemaker-Levy Observations, 10/31/94.
Hubble Discoveries 94-161.
Hubble Discoveries 94-161.
Velikovsky, op. cit., pp. 85-86.
|ANOTHER VELIKOVSKY OPINION
Velikovsky brought with him to America an unfinished book on Freud and His
Heroes. In the study of Moses and Ikhnaton in preparation for this work,
he came upon the idea that great physical catastrophes might be used to
synchronize the the records of the ancient peoples of the Near East, and
before the end of 1940 the main outlines of his work were clear. It is so
far composed of Worlds in Collision, a natural history of the world
catastrophes, and of two further volumes called Ages in Chaos. The latter
(completed first though they will be published second) contain the
elaborately documented rewriting of ancient history assumed in Worlds in
Collision. "I ask a credence of the reader," says Dr. Velikovsky, "that he
allow me to use this chronology until Ages in Chaos is published." He has
been working on both books concurrently for the past nine years.
Horace M. Kallen, former dean of the New School For Social Research, was
among the first to read the manuscript of Worlds in Collision. "Even if I
thought that Velikovsky's theories were entirely ungrounded," writes
Professor Kallen of Velikovsky's historical and archaeological work, "I
would treat them as an extraordinary achievement of the scientific and
historical imgination....But it is myt belief that Velikovsky has
supported his thesis with substantial evidence and made an effective and
persuasive argument." Gordon A. Atwater, curator of the Hayden
Planetarium, wrote to the Macmillan Company that, "the theories presented
by Dr. Velikovsky are unique and should be presented to the world of
science in order that the underpinning of modern science can be
re-examined....I believe the author has done an outstanding job. In fact,
he has gone beyond what normally be expected of a single individual."
The comet, at the first of the two meetings reconstructed in Worlds in
Collision, touched the earth with its gaseous tail, and one of the first
signs of the encounter was a rain of fine, rusty pigment. The world turned
red. “All the waters that were in the river,” reads the Book of Exodus,
“were turned to blood.” The Manuscript Quiche’ of the Mayas tells of the
rivers turning to blood, and so does the Papyrus Ipuwer of the Egyptians.
Then, as the story continues in the Visuddhi-Magga of the Buddhists, the
fine dust turned to coarse dust, “and then fine sand, and then coarse
sand, and then grit, stones, up to boulders as large... as mighty trees on
And with the
shower of meteorites the earth stopped turning.
It came to
rest so faced to the sun that a long night, darkened by the cosmic refuse
sweeping in from interplanetary space, fell on Europe, Africa, the
Americas, and the valleys of the Euphrates and the Indus. The Babylonians,
the tribes of the Sudan, the Finns, the Greeks, the Peruvians, and the
American Indians all have traditions of a long night accompanying a
catastrophe which the earth did not survive. Further east, the Iranians
saw the sun suspended several days in the sky. In china, it is said that
in the reign of the Emperor Yahou the sun did not set for a number of days
and all the forests burned.
We suppose that if the earth stopped turning it would destroy itself, as
HG Wells imagined it would when his “man who could work miracles”
commanded the same act. Our idea of momentum - and the Law of Gravitation,
about which Dr. Velikovsky has much to say - leads us to assume that the
earth’s surface would fly onward in the direction of its rotation and be
torn apart. A great global catastrophe, with seas and continents changing
their places,is in fact described in the traditions of mankind. The world
gave every sign to its inhabitants of being on the brink of destruction.
the body of the comet, the earth was forced out of its regular motion; a
major shock convulsed its entire surface. The major shift in the
atmosphere caused by the approach of the comet and the stasis of the
planet, itself produced hurricanes of enormous velocity and force. “The
face of the earth changed,” writes Dr. Velikovsky, summarizing the Mayan
account from the Manuscript Troano, “mountains collapsed, other mountains
grew and rose over the onrushing cataract of water driven from the oceanic
spaces, numberless rivers lost their beds, and a wild tornado moved
through the debris descending from the sky.”
population was decimated and many species of animals perished entirely.
The surface of the earth burst. Three Mexican manuscripts tell how
everywhere in the Western hemisphere new mountains came into being. New
volcanos opened and fissures in the flat land threw forth fire and smoke
and liquid basalt. The rivers steamed and the sea boiled. The Zendi-Avesta
of the Persians says that a star made the sea boil. The Polynesians say
that a star caused new islands to appear.
It was the
tenth plague of Egypt, the night of Passover, when the Lord passed over
the huts of the Israelites and struck the mansions of the Egyptians (the
light rush houses would survive and earthquake more easily than heavy
stone ones). “There was not a house where there was not one dead,” says
the Book of Exodus, and St. Jerome wrote that “in the night in which
Exodus took place, all the temples of Egypt were destroyed either by an
earth shock or by the thunderbolt.” The head of the comet cam close to the
earth, breaking through the darkness of the dust cloud, and the Hebrew
tradition tells that the last night of the Jews in Egypt was as bright as
the noon of the summer solstice.
The blow fell
at midnight. Dr. Velikovsky observes in passing that as the israelites
counted the days from sunset it was for them the 14th Aviv; and, ever
since, the Passover has been celebrated on the fourteenth day of the first
month of spring. The Egyptians counted from sunrise, as we do, and for
them it was the 13th Thout, a day forever after unlucky. As for the
thirteenth of any month, said the Egyptians, “thou shalt not do anything
on this day.” The Aztecs also counted the day from sunrise, and in their
calendar it was noted that on the 13th Olin, a month called “earthquake,”
a new world age had come into being.
When a comet
encounters a planet, it may become entangled and drawn from its path, then
forced into a new orbit, and finally liberated. This is what happened to
Lexell’s comet, which was captured by Jupiter and its moons in 1767 and
did not free itself until 1779. Some form of balance between attraction
and inertia was maintained for twelve years; Jupiter and the comet did not
crash together. Neither, according to Dr. Velikovsky’s thesis, did the
earth and the comet that came near it in 1500 b.c. They exchanged
discharges of electrical potential.
The action of
the sun and the moon on the earth produces the ocean tides. If the earth
were to slow down, the seas would first recede toward the poles; but the
attraction of a large comet close to the earth would draw them back toward
itself and heap them high in the air. The story of the seas divided and
then rising to break over the land is widespread. The Choctaw Indians say
that when the land was in darkness a bright light appeared in the north,
“but it was mountain-high waves, coming nearer”; the Peruvians say that
the ocean left the shore and inundated the continent; the Chinese annals
say that in the reign of the Emperor Yahou a great tidal wave broke over
the mountains into the Chinese Empire and flooded the land for decades.
carried huge rocks along them. For instance, the Madison Boulder, near
Conway, New Hampshire, is a ten-thousand-ton piece of granite quite
different from the bedrock beneath it. An early nineteenth century
explanation of this and other “erratic” boulders was that great tidal
waves, originating in the north, must have swept the rocks and geologic
till (clay, mud and gravel) across the land. According to the calculations
based on the amount erosion under them, the boulders were deposited in
their places less than six thousand years ago. It has been assumed that
the stones were drawn along by the glacial ice sheet, but the disquieting
fact is that accumulations of rock were moved from lower latitudes to
higher latitudes - and even uphill toward the Himalaya, through the
existing glaciers push stones down, not up, the slopes.
At the Sea of
the Passage the Israelite tribes saw the water drawn aside and heaped up
in a double tide; and, after they crossed, the waters of the Mediterranean
fell and broke into the Red Sea ina great wave. “It was an unusual event,”
writes Dr. Velikovsky, “and because it was unusual it became the most
impressive recollection in the long history of this people. All peoples
and nations were blasted by the same fire and shattered in the same fury.
The tribes of Israel on the shore of a sea found in this annihilation
their salvation from bondage. They escaped destruction but their
oppressors perished before their eyes. They extolled their Creator, took
upon themselves the burden of moral rules, and considered themselves
chosen for a great destiny.”
Here is what
Dr. Velikovsky’s description of the pageant that took place in the sky:
When the tidal waves reached their highest point, and the seas were torn
a tremendous spark flew between the earth and the globe of the comet,
instantly pushed down the miles-high billows. Meanwhile, the tail of the
its head, having become entangled with each other by their close contact
earth, exchanged violent discharges of electricity. It looked like a
the brilliant globe and the dark column of smoke. In the exchange of
potentials, the tail and the head were attracted one to the other and
from the other. From the serpent like tail extensions grew, and it lost
the form of a
column. It now looked like a furious animal with legs and many heads. The
tore the column to pieces, a process that was accompanied by the brilliant
buried in the sea, or wherever the meteorites fell. The gases of the tail
enveloped the earth.
To the peoples
of the earth below who witnessed this spectacle, the head of the comet and
its tail seemed to be two separate bodies, The bright globe fought the
“crooked serpent” and destroyed it, thus saving the world from further
harm. It would be difficult, Dr. Velikovsky writes, “to find a people or a
tribe on earth that does not have the same motif at the very focus of its
religious beliefs.” The great spark that flew between the comet and Earth
is remembered as the bolt of lightning, placed in the hand of a god who
threw this thunderbolt at a world overwhelmed by water and fire: Zeus of
the Greeks, Odin of the Icelanders, Ukko of the Finns, Wotan of the
Germans, Mazda of the Persians, Marduk of the Babylonians, Siva of the
Hindus. The pattern of conflict between the comet and its tail takes
almost identical form in the battles of Zeus with Typhon, Isis with Seth,
Vishnu with the Serpent, Indra with Rahu, marduk with Tiamat, Ormuzd with
Ahriman. “A terrible comet was seen by the people of Ethiopia and Egypt,”
wrote Pliny in his Natural History, “to which Typhon , the king of that
period gave his name; it had a fiery appearance and was twisted like a
coil, and it was very grim to behold; it was not really a star so much as
what might be called a ball of fire.”
The earth was
wrapped for decades in the gases of the comet and the dust of exploding
volcanoes. No green thing could grow. The chinese called this time the
Valley of Obscurity and the Somber Residence; the Nordics called it the
Twilight of the Gods. According to the Annals of Cuauhtitlan there was
darkness in Mexico for twenty-five years. The American Indians say that it
was not until the fifteenth year that plants would bloom. And for the
Hebrew tribes, who had been led out of bondage by the pillar of smoke by
day and of fire by night, this was the Shadow of Death.
mankind live when nothing grew? The tail of a comet is composed of carbon
and hydrogen gases, and these elements were in suspension in the earth’s
atmosphere after the comet departed. The Hindu Vedas, the egyptian papyri,
and the Hebrew legends say that the wind smelled sweet, and eventually the
carbohydrates combining in the air precipitated. mankind fed on morning
dew, say the Icelandic traditions, and the Vedas tell of the honey-lash
falling - as the Greeks say ambrosia all fell - from the clouds. Where the
honey-frost fell on the waters, it turned them milky and sweet. Ovid, the
Vedas, and the Egyptians say the rivers flowed with milk and honey. The
precipitate also fell among the Israelites, they called it Manna.
The astronomical records of the ancient past raise perplexing issues. A
scholar who examined the computations of the longest and shortest shadows
observed at noontime in China about 1100 B.C. remarked that “they do not
really represent the true lengths.” The Hindu astronomical tables compiled
by the Brahmans show a uniform error of 21 degrees 46’. The astronomical
tablets of of Babylon of the eighth century B.C. present three different
schedules of planetary motion. The Venus Tables of Babylon, excavated by
Sir henry Layard from the ruins of the library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh,
show an irregular behavior of the planet Venus that differs from modern
observations not by minutes but by weeks and months. The water clock of
the Amon Temple of Karnak is consistently inaccurate for day and night, at
any season, in the latitudes of Egypt. The shadow clock found at Fayum,
Egypt, originating in the eight century B.C., will not show time correctly
at Fayum or anywhere else in Egypt. And in the tomb of Senmut, the
architect of Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt, there is an astronomical panel in
the ceiling which refers to an earlier period; it is completely reversed
and shows Orion Sirius group proceeding in the wrong direction.
presents historical evidence that these ancient records were not incorrect
at the time when they were made. Astronomers will find this particular
suggestion difficult to take, as the calculations of contemporary
astronomy are precise and the play of mechanical forces on which they are
based has been well understood for over two hundred years. Celestial
mechanics, in fact, is one of the few sciences that has not been rudely
disturbed by the discoveries of the past century, for the behavior of the
solar system can be predicted so accurately on mechanical principles that
no one has been able to replace them by another. Even with the tiny
discrepancies which need the modification of the Theory of Relativity, the
planets follow the immutable Law of Gravitation. They roll on and on, but
only because the primevil inertia implanted within them.
willingly conceded that the behavior of the earth and the comet in his
description is not in accord with the celestial mechanics of Newton.
Indeed, it invites skepticism as to the infallibility of the law of
Gravitation, a law heretofore so firmly established that it has never been
successfully combined into one system with the laws of electromagnetics.
It is Dr. Velikovsky’s contention that over three thousand years ago
Nature performed a great experiment, in which it was demonstrated that the
electromagnetic laws are as supreme in the heavens as they are inside the
Niels Bohr was one of the first to compare the atom with the sun and the
planets. The nucleus is like the sun, and the electrons are like the
planets - but in applying the quantum theory to the atom it was found that
things happen inside it that are not supposed to happen in the solar
system. John J. O’Neill, science editor of the New york Herald Tribune,
has written this description of the atom’s peculiarities:
In the atom,
electrons revolve around the nucleus of the atom in a quiet,
orderly, orbital, rotation, just like the earth moving around the sun, and
go through billions of rotations, or atomic years, without any major
taking place. Suddenly the atom emits a quantum of energy, and [an]
drops to an orbit nearer the nucleus, where its “year” is shorter, or the
may happen: a quantum of energy is absorbed by the atom, and [an] electron
jumps to a higher, or outer orbit, where its year is longer.
In the same
article from which this quotation is taken, Mr. O’Neill discussed the
probable impact of Dr. Velikovsky’s research on the comfortable assumption
that the planets and the jumping electron have nothing gin common. “Dr.
Velikovsky finds evidence for new planets appearing in the sky,” wrote Mr.
O’Neill, “and for the earth being struck by and passing through tails of
comets.... [His work] presents a stupendous panorama of terrestrial and
human history which will stand as a challenge to scientists to frame a
realistic picture of the cosmos.
A charged body
which rotates creates a magnetic field. The sun is a charged body, and it
rotates, and charged particles arrive from it in a continuous stream. The
earth is a charged body, and it rotates, and it possesses a magnetic
field. If the magnetic field of the sun were to govern the earth’s motion,
then after an encounter with a comet the earth could resume its rotation,
though on a changed orbit. If it is true that the comet and the earth
exchanged electrical discharges, as Dr. Velikovsky maintains that they
did, then there may be even reason to suppose that the earth’s “inertia”
is electrical in character. How do we know that the earth and the planets
are so different from the electrons inside the atom. The answer has been
phrased thus: “We do not read in the morning paper that Saturn and Mars
have changed their places.” But we do read in the ancient records, says
Dr. Velikovsky, that Venus, mars, and Earth have changed theirs.
Venus is the
Morning and the Evening Star. It is the most conspicuous of the planets.
Early astronomers observed its motion with great care, and the Mexicans
computed the day when they thought the world would end by a cycle of
fifty-two years based on Venus. So bright is Venus in the sky, in fact,
that it is most remarkable to fin no record of its existence prior to the
second millennium B.C.
Babylonian astronomy counted four planets and four only - Saturn, Jupiter,
Mars, and Mercury. In the Hindu table of the planets attributed to 3012
B.C., Venus alone is missing, and it is said that the Brahmans “never
mentioned five planets.” Later Venus is called “the great star that joins
the other great stars” by the Babylonians. In all traditions the Morning
Star is described as having a special birth, an event of great
significance to the Tahitians, the Eskimos, and the Buriats, the Kirghiz,
and the Yakuts of Siberia, as well as to more sophisticated peoples.
Hesiod said the Phaeton, whose name means blazing star, drove the chariot
of the sun too close to the earth, disturbing its rotation and was later
changed into the Morning Star. The Chinese tell of a “brilliant Star” that
appeared in the region of Yahou, and a Samaritan chronicle says that
during the invasion of palestine by Joshua “a star arose out of the east
against which all magic is in vain.” At the time of great catastrophes,
Quetzalcoatl, the Venus of the Mayans, appeared in the sky for the first
time. And the Chaldeans and the Chinese are in agreement that Venus
“rivaled the sun in brightness.”
brings strong evidence to bear that the comet which so terrorized the
earth was in fact the planet Venus - newly born, by eruption from a larger
planet. While is was still a comet, Venus wandered erratically, which is
why its course was so closely watched, why the Venus Tablets of Nineveh do
not seem to make sense, and why the appearance of a comet has always
aroused premonitions of disaster everywhere in the world. The dreaded
comet Venus that was later to become a planet had many names -- Tistrya,
Ishtar, Astarte, Isis, Baal, Beelzebub, Lucifer. Often it was confused
with Jupiter (Isis in Egypt and Ishtar in Babylon were first names for
Venus), for Jupiter was the planet from which Venus erupted as a planet.
Greek and Roman mythology may object that according to legend it was
Pallas Athene, or Minerva, who “sprang full grown from the brow of
Jupiter.” The classical scholar may wonder, however, why Greek mythology
contains no deity for the planet Venus and no planet for the deity Pallas
Athene. The Greek equivalent of the Roman “Venus” was Aphrodite, who was
identified with the Moon. The answer, once known but long forgotten, is
that Pallas Athene was the Greek name for the planet Venus. (Plutarch said
that Minerva of the Romans and Athene of the Greeks were the same as Isis
of the Egyptians; Pliny said that Isis was the planet Venus.) The birth of
Pallas Athene was “a day of wrath in all the calendars of ancient
Chaldea.” During the birth of Athene, described in a Homeric hymn, the
earth reeled and the sun stopped for a “long while”.
centuries the inhabitants of the earth were in such fear of Venus that
human sacrifice was practiced in both hemispheres in the hope of placating
its wrath. The Mexicans were so profoundly affected by the fifty-two year
interval between Venus’ two encounters with the earth the they adopted the
period in their calendar and made bloody sacrifices to Quetzalcoatl - the
feathered serpent” who was identified with the Morning Star - when
fifty-two years passed without harm. The years of terror lasted until the
seventh century B.C. Venus, as the result of an encounter with another
body, took up its present orbit and changed from a wild comet to a tame
planet. Venus’ flirtation with another planet - that is, with Mars -- is a
common theme in mythology. This meeting, a battle of Athene with the God
of War, is described in the lliad, a conflict in the heavens which took
place at the same time as the siege of Troy, “It is the conjunction of
venus and Mars,” wrote Kucien, “that created the poetry of Homer.
between Venus and Mars disturbed Mars’ orbit, and at intervals of fifteen
years Mars also passed close to the earth. On two days in particular -
February 26, 747 B.C. and March 23, 687 B.C. - Mars caused a repetition of
the earlier catastrophes on a smaller scale. In the year 747 B.C. a new
calendar was introduced in the Middle East. It began on the 26th of
February, and in the calendar of Mexico the 26th of February was also
counted as New Year’s Day. It is during this period that the worship of
Mars came into prominence among peoples whose institutions were not fully
formed. The Romans had a vigorous cult of mars and regarded Mars as their
national god, the founder of their state, and father of Romulus. The chief
celebration of the Roams mars cult was on the 23rd of March. On the night
of the 23rd of March, 687 B.C., the army of Sennacherib, the Assyrian king
who invaded Palestine, was destroyed by a blast of fire from the sky. “On
the 23rd of March, 687 B.C.,” wrote Edouard Biot in his catalogue of the
meteors which were observed in ancient China, the fixed stars were not
visible but, “in the middle of the night stars fell like rain.”
between Venus and Mars ended with Venus, shorn of its power to disturb
humankind, rotating on the the serene orbit it now occupies. Venus seemed
to have fallen from its earlier eminence. This was the period of the
Hebrew Prophets, men of astronomical skill who from watchtowers built in
Judea, as elsewhere in the East (“Watchman, what of the night?”) recorded
and predicted Mars’ fifteen-year approach to the earth and warned the
people and their kings of coming catastrophes. After an upheaval that took
place in the eighth century B.C., “Isaiah, Joel, Hosea, and Micah insisted
unanimously and with great emphasis on the inevitability of another
encounter of the earth with some cosmic body.” Their prophecies were
fulfilled on the days when Mars came close to the earth and moved it from
observed that a hated enemy - Beelzebub, the Morning Star, who had
provoked pagan worship - was no longer powerful. Venus, which had
“weakened the nations” and had tried to ascend on high, was cut down to
the ground. “How art thou fallen from heaven,” wrote Isaiah, “Oh Lucifer,
son of the morning.”
The history of the calendar is often used to exhibit the conquest of
ignorance. Gradually the errors seem to have been removed from its first
primitive efforts to codify time, until now we pride ourselves on a system
that closely approximates the actual movements of the earth and its moon.
Yet it is curious that the ancients should have used such hopelessly
inaccurate calendars when their measurements of celestial motion were so
carefully made. The Mexicans knew that the synodical moon period consists
of 29.5209 days, a computation more exact than that of the Gregorian
calendar, which was not introduced into Europe until long after America
introduction of a new calendar in 747 B.C. indicates to Dr. velikovsky
that the orbit of the earth - the length of the year, the months, and the
seasons - had actually changed. Previous to this time the Chinese, the
Hindus, the persians, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Israelites, the
Egyptians, the Romans,and the Mayans all used a calendar of twelve
lunations of thirty days each, a year of 360 days. During the period of
Mars’ meetings with the earth, the length of the seasons changed
repeatedly, but at some time during the seventh century B.C. all these
nations add five days to their calendars. The Persians called the five
days Gatha days, the Egyptians' called them “the days which are above the
year”, and the Mayans called them the “days without a name”. If the
earlier calendars were merely mistakes, then in a man’s lifetime and error
would have accumulated of an entire year, a dislocation in harvest cycles
which could not have been ignored even in the most primitive of
But more than
the development of the calendar hangs on the assumption we make today:
that the earth has rotated through millions of uninterrupted years, each
consisting of 365 days, 5 hours and 48 minutes. Philosophy, science,
religion - there is scarcely an area of knowledge or conviction
invulnerable to Dr. Velikovsky’s detailed and documented denial that the
earth’s history has been one of peaceful evolution. The long erosions of
wind and rain, the slow buckling and folding of sedimented rock, and the
infinitely graduated series of the developing species have hitherto
provided a background of certainty. Now these orderly images have been
challenged, and in their place a scholar has offered a basis of evidence
for the astonishing pattern of catastrophe implicit in the world
traditions. “If Velikovsky’s thesis should withstand the test of time and
become generally accepted,” Clifton Fadiman writes, “revolutionary
consequences ensue; and prevailing views in a dozen fields - including
evolution, mythology, gravitation, and particularly classical and Biblical
history - will have to be radically revised”.
amnesia” is the phrase Dr. Velikovsky uses to describe the “psychological
phenomenon ...[in which] the most terrifying events of the past may be
forgotten or displaced into the subconscious mind,” obscuring the real
meaning of many archaeological discoveries and historical texts. Trained
in psychoanalysis as well as in history, he is aware of the parallel
between the reconstruction of buried events from the past of an individual
and his own effort to bring to light the shattering experiences that
affected all mankind.
In view of the
cosmic upheavals of the past, our own time of trouble is dwarfed. There is
also a hidden purpose in Dr. Velikovsky's book, a warning to the world
that threatens to explode with hatred among the nations: the cosmic
catastrophes may repeat themselves. “This world will be destroyed;” reads
a passage from the Visuddhi-Magga which serves as motto for his final
chapter, “also the mighty ocean will dry up; and this broad earth will be
burned up. Therefore, sirs, cultivate friendliness; cultivate compassion.”
this perspective all the apparatus of learning - from astronomy and
physics to folklore, religion, geology, paleontology, biology and
psychology - Dr. Velikovsky has undertaken the awesome task of making an
“inquiry in the architectonics of the world and its history” and of
applying the techniques of scholarship and psychoanalysis to the entire
Crustal Poleshifts: Hapgood and
Charles Hapgood (1904-1982)
After graduating from Harvard,
Charles Hapgood taught history at Keene State College in
New Hampshire. In 1949 one of his students asked about
Atlantis, and he transformed the query into a research
project, questioning the gradualist rules of geology and
seeking evidence of a catastrophe large enough to
destroy the fabled land. For 10 years, aided by his
eager students, Hapgood worked on his theory of earth
crust displacement - an update of Hugh Auchincloss
Brown's theory that the entire planet has previously
capsized. Brown's theory simply stated that as the
Antarctic polar ice cap gains weight
, the planet becomes less stable, eventually
becomes unbalanced and topples over. The relative
weights are more akin to a speck of dust on an
automobile tyre than anything more serious - the
Antarctic icecap weighs less than one millionth of the
entire planet. Hapgood doubted that an accumulation of
ice at the poles was enough to tip the entire planet
over. He believed that only the crust shifted.
Crustal displacement, from Hapgood's
point of view, is a very violent and sudden shifting of
only the "skin" of the planet Earth (the crust's
thickness is only 0.005% of the equatorial diameter).
This shift causes various disasters, with each disaster
triggering another, and so on. Hapgood suggested that
each Ice Age would not affect the whole earth at the
same time, but only two regions of it - those that
shifted into polar regions.
If it were only
the skin that shifted, as Hapgood proposed, then the ice
cap mechanism becomes more likely. However I do wonder
whether this process could be infinitely repeatable, for
if the poles ever ended up in oceanic areas, then
sufficient ice would never be able to accumulate.
In 1958 an in depth explanation was
published in his book titled Earth's Shifting Crust,
with its endorsement by Albert Einstein. Perhaps his
ideas were just too radical for, despite the
endorsement, and although he managed to avoid the
ridicule previously allocated to Velikovsky, academics
and the public alike ignored his book.
Undaunted by this lack of acclaim, he
continued to work on his theory, with a major update
being published in 1970, re-named The Path of
the Pole. Helped by recent advances in geology,
Hapgood replaced the ice cap mechanism with a trigger
coming from within the Earth itself. Although he was
unsure precisely what that trigger was, it was most
likely something involving gravitational imbalances and
centrifugal forces. In the introduction he wrote:
"Polar wandering is based on the
idea that the outer shell of the earth shifts about
from time to time, moving some continents toward and
others away from the poles, changing their climates.
Continental drift is based on the idea that the
continents move individually... A few writers have
suggested that perhaps continental drift causes polar
wandering. This book advances the notion that polar
wandering is primary and causes the displacement of
continents.... This book will present evidence that
the last shift of the earth's crust (the lithosphere)
took place in recent time, at the close of the last
ice age, and that it was the cause of the improvement
Hapgood suggested three previous
locations of the poles. The most recent North Pole is
Hudson Bay, which was the epicentre of the North
American ice sheet during the last Ice Age. The previous
sites were in the Greenland Sea, and the Yukon district
of Canada, although his evidence for these is totally
dependant on radio-carbon dating.
Each shift was approximately 30°. These diagrams show
where the previous North Poles were located, with their
Interestingly, the Amazon jungle has
remained at the equator during each of these shifts,
which may account for its enormity.
James Bowles is a retired civil
engineer who worked for NASA sub-contractors on the
Apollo moon program. In his book The Gods, Gemini,
and the Great Pyramid, gives us a straightforward,
easy to grasp theory on how the crust can shift.
On the day of the pig roast
everything was ready. The spit mechanism was in place,
the pit had been dug, there were all kinds of
charcoal, and all the guests were milling about. All
we needed to start the festivities was the pig and a
match. So my dear wife, along with Bonny, led us into
the bathroom where the pig was laying covered with ice
in the bathtub. But one look at the pig and I knew we
were in trouble! . I'd figured on a fifty pound pig,
because that's what we'd talked about, but this had to
be 100 pounds if it was an ounce..
Well now that
one and a half inch of galvanized water pipe looked
like a tooth pick next to the pig, but it was too late
to do anything about it at this point, besides
somebody had lit the charcoal.. Half way through the
night, the pipe broke, and the pig fell into the
fire.. Well to make a long story short, a friend of
mine and I went into town and got a bigger pipe from
behind the garage and put everything back together
The point is that the pipe didn't
just break, it broke from fatigue.
This is torque, forces created by
rotation. Bowles calls it Rotational-Bending, or the RB-Effect.
If enough tension is happening within our planet, and it
is constant, then one day something must give, slip or
break. Everything that suffers stress will eventually
crack. In our planet's case it would be the semi-plastic
attachment of the crust to the asthenosphere. The stress
would also create heat, and this could be a simple
explanation for volcanoes - an outlet valve for all the
heat created by the stresses within the earth. Bowles
points out that an easy way to break a piece of wire is
to bend it backwards and forwards, over and over, until
it snaps. The ends of the broken wire will be quite hot
- heat being a by-product of stress.
Bowles uses the analogy of cargo on a
ship to further clarify his idea: When cargo is tied
securely, it will ride with the ship and not come to any
harm. But if the ropes are loose, and the cargo slips
and slides, then damage can occur.
The earth's crust is not securely
tied; rather it is connected to the core via a series of
semi-plastic layers, some of which are seas of molten
rock and liquid iron. The waves in the cargo analogy
correspond to the gravitational pulls of the moon, sun
and (to a much lesser extent) the other planets. Our
situation is that we have a crust that is 99.9% securely
tied to the planet's core. The sun and moon are
constantly tugging away, testing the attachment.
Eventually something has to give.
The centrifugal forces try to shift
matter towards the equator. This is where the stress is.
We talk about a pole shift, but technically it's the
entire crust that shifts, around two fulcrum points, due
to stresses towards the equator. I came across a science
Q&A website run by NASA, and found questions regarding
the number of earthquakes in Antarctica. Here are the
Antarctica is unusual in that there
are very few earthquakes there. Of all the seven or
nine continents, or of all the 7 or 25 plates
(depending on how you count), it has the fewest
earthquakes, and it has none of the big, damaging
kind.There are very few earthquakes in Antarctica. It
is one of the questions we are trying to answer out
there. There are numbers of plate boundaries and we
have always been astonished that we haven't seen more
earthquakes. We have wanted to see them, we have tried
to record them, but Antarctica is a real puzzle
because there are very few earthquakes. There should
be many more considering the type of plate boundaries
there are, and the type of continental structures
there are, but there aren't that many. We are trying
to work it out. But now it is still a puzzle.
The polar regions
of this globe are unaffected by the forces at work,
hence very few earthquakes.
It is a puzzle if the standard
continental drift model remains in use. The R-B Effect
theory of Bowles declares that the closer to the equator
you get, the more earthquakes there are, due to the
forces of tension and compression.
When I went to high school, I was
shown a trick that fascinated me. Firstly, you wedge a
ballpoint pen into your desk somehow. Then you get the
spring from inside a broken pen, and you stretch it out.
Using this wire like a two person wood saw, you cut
through the bottom of the pen's clip, and saw right
through to the top of the pen. It has to be done fast.
This action cuts the plastic, but friction creates heat
and causes the plastic to melt together again, just
behind the cutting action. The result is a pen with a
surgical scar where the clip joins. I figure this is
what happens to the earth when the crust slips - it
breaks away, and then cements itself in place again.
In recent times
orthodox scientists are re-assessing our planet's
internal mechanics, and have finally started to accept
pole shifts as a possibility:
Scientists at Columbia University in New York
confirmed that the earth's
inner core was spinning faster than the planet
itself, by approximately 1/3
of a second per day, allowing it to lap the
Earth's surface approximately once every 400 years. This
may help explain Earth's magnetic fields, and why they
Researchers at the California Institute of Technology
reported that an evolutionary big bang, with relative
evolutionary rates of more than 20 times normal,
coincided with another apparently unique event in earth
history; a 90-degree change in the direction of Earth's
spin axis relative to the continents.
began about 530 million years ago, taking roughly 15
million years to complete. [Throughout this book I ask
that you ignore these large time periods, and allow that
current dating techniques might, for some reason, be
As slow as this
sounds, normal continental drift cannot account for
movement at such a speed. Dr. Joseph Kirschvink, a
geologist and lead author of the study, speculates that
it was due to:
"true polar wander" which is caused
by "an imbalance in the mass distribution of the
planet itself, which the laws of physics force to
equalise in comparatively rapid time scales. During
this redistribution, the entire solid part of the
planet moves together, avoiding the internal shearing
effects which impose the speed limit on conventional
speculates that changing weather patterns broke up
ecosystems into smaller, isolated communities, thus
promoting rapid evolution.
The study also
implies that poleshifts and evolution have occurred in
unison, although a different reason for this will be
explained in Chapter XX
Professor Sagar of Texas A&M University and Anthony
Koppers of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography have,
while studying underwater volcanoes, found evidence of
poles shifting, albeit 84 million years ago. The shift
consisted of "rapid latitude changes in various
locales", with rapid meaning a relatively rapid
period of two million years.
"We calculate that the sites of
Washington D.C. and Dakar, Senegal would have shifted
south by 15 to 20 degrees".
The article is
highly technical but it appears they locate a previous
pole at 58.9°N, 337.4°E
How long will it
be before a poleshift of 10,000 years ago is validated
 Note: there have been numerous studies
undertaken and as many show that the Antarctic ice cap
is growing as those that show it to be melting.
 Hapgood stated that as hard as it was to find
evidence for the Hudson Bay location, the difficulties
in locating the previous poles were much greater.
Earth's Shifting Crust, page 275
[11a] James Bowles,
The Gods, Gemini, and the Great Pyramid,
Gemini Books, 1998, pages 33-34
July 25, 1997 - Evidence for a Large-Scale
Reorganization of Early Cambrian Continental Masses by
Inertial Interchange True Polar Wander by Joseph L.
Kirschvink, Robert L. Ripperdan, and David A. Evans
Jan 21, 2000, p455-459
Newswise — Two University of
Oregon researchers are on a multi-institutional
26-member team proposing a startling new theory:
that an extraterrestrial impact, possibly a comet,
set off a 1,000-year-long cold spell and wiped out
or fragmented the prehistoric Clovis culture and a
variety of animal genera across North America
almost 13,000 years ago.
Driving the theory is a
carbon-rich layer of soil that has been found, but
not definitively explained, at some 50 Clovis-age
sites in North America that date to the onset of a
cooling period known as the Younger Dryas Event.
The sites include several on the Channel Islands
off California where UO archaeologists Douglas J.
Kennett and Jon M. Erlandson have conducted
The theory is being discussed
publicly, for the first time, Wednesday, May 23,
at the 2007 Joint Assembly of the American
Geophysical Union in Acapulco, Mexico. Kennett is
among the attendees who will be available to
discuss the theory with their peers. The British
journal Nature first addressed the theory in a
news-section story in its May 18 issue.
Before today, members of the
team " including Kennett's father, James P.
Kennett of the University of California, Santa
Barbara, and Richard B. Firestone of Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory " had been quietly
introducing the theory to their professional
Douglas Kennett, with
Erlandson watching, detailed the theory May 19 to
a fully packed UO classroom, where students and
faculty members from archaeology, art history,
anthropology, biology, geology, geography,
political science and psychology, pelted Kennett
The researchers propose that
a known reversal in the world's ocean currents and
associated rapid global cooling, which some
scientists blame for the extinction of multiple
species of animals and the end of the Clovis
Period, was itself the result of a bigger event.
While generally accepted theory says glacial
melting from the North American interior caused
the shift in currents, the new proposal points to
a large extraterrestrial object exploding above or
even into the Laurentide Ice Sheet north of the
"Highest concentrations of
extraterrestrial impact materials occur in the
Great Lakes area and spread out from there,"
Kennett said. "It would have had major effects on
humans. Immediate effects would have been in the
North and East, producing shockwaves, heat,
flooding, wildfires, and a reduction and
fragmentation of the human population."
The carbon-rich layer
contains metallic microspherules, iridium, carbon
spherules, fullerenes, charcoal and soot. Some of
those ingredients were found worldwide in soils
dating to the K-T Boundary of 65 million years
The K-T layer marks the end
of the Cretaceous Period and the beginning of the
Tertiary Period, when numerous species were wiped
out after a massive asteroid is believed to have
struck Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and the Gulf of
Missing in the new theory is
a crater marking an impact, but researchers argue
that a strike above or into the Laurentide ice
sheet could have absorbed it since it was less
intense than the K-T event.
Kennett said that 35 animal
genera went extinct at the end of the Pleistocene,
with at least 15 clearly being wiped out close to
12,900 years ago. There would have been major
ecological shifts, driving Clovis survivors into
isolated groups in search of food and warmth.
There is evidence, he said, that pockets of Clovis
people survived in refugia, especially in the
western United States.
"This was a massive
continental scale, if not global, event," Kennett
said. He and Erlandson say that they are currently
evaluating the existing Paleo-Indian
archaeological datasets, which Kennett describes
as "suggestive of significant population reduction
and fragmentation, but additional work is
necessary to test this hypothesis further."
Earlier research efforts need to be re-evaluated
using new technologies that can narrow radiocarbon
date ranges, and, as funding becomes available,
new sites can be located and studied, Erlandson
"As we have grown more
confident in the theory," Erlandson said, "we've
been letting some of it out in informal talks to
gage the response to see where we are headed and
what the initial objections are, which will help
us to maintain our own objectivity."
The interest in pursuing both
old and new leads could ignite a major surge of
interdisciplinary questioning and attract a new
wave of interested students, Kennett and Erlandson
Links: Kennett faculty Web
Erlandson faculty Web page:
Two University of Oregon
researchers are on a multi-institutional 26-member
team proposing a startling new theory: that an
extraterrestrial impact, possibly a comet, set off
a 1,000-year-long cold spell and wiped out or
fragmented the prehistoric Clovis culture and a
variety of animal genera across North America
almost 13,000 years ago.
This article is about the hypothesis of pole
shift in its historical context. For a description of the modern
scientific understanding, see
true polar wander.
The pole shift hypothesis is the
hypothesis that the
axis of rotation of a planet has not always been at its
present-day locations or that the axis will not persist there; in
other words, that its physical poles had been or will be shifted
with respect to the underlying surface. The Pole shift hypothesis
is almost always discussed in the context of
but other bodies in the
Solar System may have experienced axial reorientation during
The pole shift hypothesis has attracted
pseudoscientific interest because of the idea that a sudden
change in the position of the poles could explain some past
historical calamities, such as massive floods and tectonic events.
Among the scientific community, however, the evidence shows that
no rapid shifts in the pole have occurred during the last 200
True polar wander is known to occur, but only at rates of 1°
per million years or less.
The last rapid shift in the poles may have occurred 800 million
Rodinia still existed.
Definition and clarification
geographic poles of the Earth refer to the points on the
surface of the planet that are intersected by the axis of
rotation. The pole shift hypothesis refers to a change in location
of these poles with respect to the underlying surface. Note that
this is a different phenomenon than the changes in axial
orientation with respect to the
plane of the ecliptic that are caused by
Pole shift hypotheses are not to be confused
plate tectonics, the well-accepted geological theory that the
Earth's surface consists of solid plates which shift over a fluid
asthenosphere; nor with
continental drift, the corollary to plate tectonics which
maintains that locations of the continents have moved slowly over
the face of the Earth,
resulting in the gradual emerging and breakup of continents and
oceans over hundreds of millions of years.
Pole shift hypotheses are also not to be
geomagnetic reversal, the periodic reversal of the Earth's
magnetic field (effectively switching the north and south magnetic
poles). Geomagnetic reversal has more acceptance in the scientific
community than pole shift hypotheses.
Causes and effects
It is now established that
true polar wander has occurred at various times in the past,
but at rates of 1° per million years or less.
However, in popular literature, many conjectures have been
suggested involving very rapid polar shift. The potential forces
that could cause a reorientation of the Earth's axis of rotation
- A postglacial crustal rebound.
- A high-velocity
which hits Earth at such an angle that the
lithosphere moves independent of the
- A high-velocity asteroid or comet which
hits Earth at such an angle that the entire planet shifts axis.
- An unusually magnetic
celestial object which passes close enough to Earth to
temporarily reorient the
magnetic field, which then "drags" the
lithosphere about a new axis of rotation. Eventually, the
sun's magnetic field again determines the Earth's, after the
intruding celestial object "returns" to a location from which it
cannot influence Earth.
- Perturbations of the topography of the
core-mantle boundary, perhaps induced by differential core
rotation and shift of its axial rotation vector, leading to CMB
mass redistributions. See, e.g., Bowin.
- Mass redistributions in the mantle from
mantle avalanches or other deformations. See, e.g., Ladbury,
and Steinberger and O'Connell.
A slow pole shift in the poles would display
the most minor alterations and no destruction. A more dramatic
view assumes more rapid changes, with dramatic alterations of
geography and localized areas of destruction due to earthquakes
and tsunamis. Several recent books propose changes that take place
in weeks, days, or even hours, resulting in a variety of doomsday
An early mention of a shifting of the Earth's
axis can be found in an 1872 article entitled "Chronologie
historique des Mexicains"
Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, an eccentric expert on
Mesoamerican codices who interpreted ancient Mexican myths as
evidence for four periods of global cataclysms that had begun
around 10,500 B.C.
Hugh Auchincloss Brown, an electrical engineer, advanced a
hypothesis of catastrophic pole shift. Brown also argued that
accumulation of ice at the poles caused recurring tipping of the
axis, identifying cycles of approximately seven millennia.
Charles Hapgood is now
perhaps the best remembered early proponent. In his books The
Earth's Shifting Crust (1958) (which includes a foreword by
Albert Einstein who was writing before the theory of plate
tectonics was developed) and Path of the Pole (1970). Hapgood,
building on Adhemar's much earlier model, speculated that the ice
mass at one or both poles over-accumulates and destabilizes the
Earth's rotational balance, causing slippage of all or much of
Earth's outer crust around the Earth's core, which retains its
Based on his own research, Hapgood argued
that each shift took approximately 5,000 years, followed by
20,000- to 30,000-year periods with no polar movements. Also, in
his calculations, the area of movement never covered more than 40
degrees. Hapgood's examples of recent locations for the North Pole
Hudson Bay (60˚N, 73˚W) , the Atlantic Ocean between
Norway (72˚N, 10˚E) and
However, in his subsequent work The Path of
the Pole, Hapgood conceded Einstein's point that the weight of the
polar ice would be insufficient to bring about a polar shift.
Instead, Hapgood argued that the forces that caused the shifts in
the crust must be located below the surface. He had no
satisfactory explanation for how this could occur.
Hapgood wrote to the Canadian librarian,
Rand Flem-Ath, encouraging him in his pursuit of scientific
evidence to back Hapgood's claims and in his expansion of the
hypothesis. Flem-Ath published the results of this work in 1995 in
When the Sky Fell co-written with his wife, Rose.
Starting with research published in 1981 by
Donna Jurdy, titled True Polar Wander,
interest in the hypothesis and its mechanisms has increased. In
2001, the true polar hypothesis was tested by examining
paleomagnetic data from granitic rocks from across North America.
The data from these rocks conflicted with the hypothesis. This
evidence indicated that the spin axis has not deviated by more
than about 5° over the last 130 million years.
In 2006, the early work by Donna Jurdy was
validated with empirical evidence of polar wanderings published by
Adam Maloof of
Princeton University and
Galen Halverson of
Paul Sabatier University in
Toulouse, France. They found evidence that the Earth
rebalanced around 800 million years ago during the
Precambrian time period.
- "They tested this idea by studying
magnetic minerals in sedimentary rocks in a Norwegian
archipelago. As the mineral grains were deposited or excreted by
microbes, they aligned themselves with Earth's magnetic field.
So they act as frozen compasses pointing to an ancient north
- Using these minerals, Maloof and Halverson
found that the north pole shifted more than 50 degrees--about
the current distance between Alaska and the equator--in less
than 20 million years. Earth's tectonic plates move much more
slowly than that, says Maloof, so the best explanation for this
wandering pole is planetary rebalancing. This reasoning is
supported by a record of changes in sea level and ocean
chemistry in the Norwegian sediments that could be explained by
true polar wander, the team reports in the September-October
2006 issue of the Geological Society of America Bulletin."
Subsequent research at the University of
Colorado Department of Physics published in 2007 has elaborated
the model of the effect thermal convection has on true polar
wandering. This work predicts the occurrence of polar wandering
prior to, during and after the breakup of
A Harvard University Department of Earth and
Planetary Sciences research project published in 2007 found
through modeling that the amount of polar wander on a short time
scale is less than would be expected by plate tectonics, but more
than would be expected on a long time scale. Empirical evidence of
the maximum wander predicted by the model have not been observed
by the authors.
The field has attracted
pseudoscientific authors offering a variety of evidence,
including psychic readings, possibly linked to other beliefs such
Tollmann's hypothetical bolide,
Black Sea deluge theory or the
In the 1970s and 1980s a series of
non-fiction books authored by former Washington Newspaper reporter
Ruth Shick Montgomery elaborates on Edgar Cayce readings.
Richard W. Noone published the novel 5/5/2000, ICE: The
Ultimate Disaster which depicts a cataclysmic shift of the Earth's
Antarctica caused by a
planetary alignment and
solar storms, leading to crustal displacement. This book falls
under pseudoscience rather than pop culture because Noone used
scientific reasoning and backing to support his claim that the
Earth's crust would "turn on its side" on 5 May 2000.
This did not happen.
In 1998, retired civil engineer
James G. Bowles proposed in a non-peer reviewed journal a
mechanism by which a polar shift could occur. He named this
Rotational-Bending, or the RB-effect. He hypothesized that
combined gravitational effects of the Sun and the Moon pulled at
the Earth's crust at an oblique angle. This force steadily wore
away at the underpinnings that linked the crust to the inner
mantle. This generates a plastic zone that allows the crust to
rotate with respect to the lower layers. Centrifugal forces acting
on the mass of ice at the poles, causing them to move to the
Books on this subject have been published by
William Hutton including the 1996 book Coming Earth Changes:
Causes and Consequences of the Approaching Pole Shift (ISBN
0876043619), which compared geologic records with the psychic
Edgar Cayce and predicted catastrophic
climate changes before the end of 2001. In 2004 Hutton and
co-author Jonathan Eagle published Earth's Catastrophic Past and
Future: A Scientific Analysis of Information Channeled by Edgar
1-58112-517-8), which summarizes possible mechanisms and the
timing of a future pole shift.
2012 depicts pole shift hypothesis as one of the
doomsday scenarios in the film.
Kiger, Patrick J..
Ends of the Earth: Shifting of the Poles. National
Besse, Jean; Courtillot,
Vincent. "Apparent and true polar wander and the geometry of
the geomagnetic field over the last 200 Myr". Journal of
Geophysical Research (Solid Earth) 107 (B11): EPM 6-1 to EPM
Andrews, J. A. (August 10,
True polar wander - An analysis of cenozoic and mesozoic
paleomagnetic poles. 90. pp. 7737–7750.
Maloof, Adam C.; et al.. "Combined
paleomagnetic, isotopic, and stratigraphic evidence for true
polar wander from the Neoproterozoic Akademikerbreen Group,
Svalbard, Norway". Geological Society of America Bulletin
118 (9): 1099–1124.
The PaleoMap Project
Science Magazine, “Late Cretaceous True Polar Wander: Not So
Hoffman, P. (1999). "The
break-up of Rodinia, birth of Gondwana, true polar wander and
the snowball Earth". Journal of African Earth Sciences 28
Besse, Jean; Courtillot,
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Vermeersen, L. L. A.;
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Carl Bowin, "Mass anomaly structure of the Earth," Reviews of
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^ R. Ladbury, "Model
suggests deep-mantle topography goes with the flow", Physics
Today, August 1999, 21-24.
^ B. Steinberger and
R. J. O'Connell, "Changes of the Earth's rotation axis owing
to advection of mantle density heterogeneities", Nature 387(8
historique des Mexicains" (in French), L'ethnographie
(Paris, France: Société d'Ethnographie) 7: 77–85, 1871,
Brown, Hugh Auchincloss (1967).
Cataclysms of the Earth. Twayne Publishers.
Can the Earth Capsize?". Time. September 13, 1948.
Theory of Crustal Displacement — summarized by Ellie Crystal
Perilous planet earth:
catastrophes and catastrophism through the ages. Cambridge
University Press. 2003. pp. 113–114.
Jurdy, Donna M.. "True
polar wander". Tectonophysics 74 (1-2).
Tarduno, John A.; Smirnova,
Alexei V. (January 15, 2001). "Stability of the Earth with
respect to the spin axis for the last 130 million years".
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 184 (2): 549–553.
Mason, Betsy (August 2006). "Earth's
Poles May Have Wandered". Science NOW Daily News.
Zhong, Shijie; et al.. "Supercontinent
cycles, true polar wander, and very long-wavelength mantle
convection". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261
Tsai, Victor; et al.. "Theoretical
constraints on true polar wander". JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL
^ "Threshold to
ISBN 0449201821; "Strangers Among Us", (1979); "Aliens
Among Us", (1985) and "The World to Come: The Guides'
Long-Awaited Predictions for the Dawning Age", (1999).
Noone, Richard W. (May 20, 1997).
5/5/2000, ICE: The Ultimate Disaster. New York, NY: Three
Preface, Table of Contents, Appendices.
Bowles, James (1999). "Hapgood
Revisited". Atlantis Rising (18).
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