Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20, 2011

today's date August 31, 2012

page 281


8-31-12  -  After watching the acceptance speech of Mitt Romney on television at his convention, I had this dream.

DREAM -  I was in charge of keeping track of things involved in a business.  I kept the files and notes and anything that pertained to the people involved in the business, whatsoever.

One of the female employees came in with a 'tag' proving that a fly had been served to the head man of the company.  We were sending the 'tag' of proof to another company so that a complaint could be made about the fly.

The woman asked me to personally write a small note on a piece of pink paper the size of a 'posted note.' stating "Enclosed is the 'tag' of proof.

Just then a man by the name of Dagobert came into the room with a small can of soup wrapped in cellophane with the actual fly in the soup.

That made me confused.  Who had the real fly?  Dagobert with the can of soup, or we with the 'tag' of proof.?

For some reason, I keep seeing an image of a Mask of Romney at the head of the article being written, not a photograph of the real man.


A supporter wears a Mitt Romney mask on the back of the head during a speech by Florida Governor Jeb Bush at the Tampa Bay Times Forum in Tampa, Florida, on August 30, 2012 on the final day of the Republican National Convention (RNC). The RNC will culminate later today with the formal nomination of Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan as the GOP presidential and vice-presidential candidates in the US presidential election.

NOTE: When I first saw this mask, I immediately thought of President Richard Nixon

richard nixon



THE MASKS OF MITT ROMNEY,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=f802fd3f36971546&biw=1280&bih=775


    I saw 3 female witches books wrapped and sealed in cellophane. Then I saw 3 male witches books open and ready for use. I flipped into a dream state to tell...
  2. BATHROOM DREAMS - Similar
    In order to purchase it, I had to sign a little block of caramel wrapped in cellophane. Suddenly, the scene changed, and I was outside riding in a car driven by a ...
  3. The Bee-Hive Crop Circle Formation - Similar
    I paid for it by signing a block of caramel wrapped in cellophane. ... Cellophane is so-named because it has many little "cells," perhaps relating symbolically to ...
  4. ITALY EARTHQUAKE - 6.3 - 2009 - Similar
    Apr 6, 2009 – The 205 coffins covered in cellophane-wrapped flowers were lined up on the square in front of an altar and a platform for clergy. Thousands of ...
    If you are not comfortable visualizing the colors at first, you can purchase special colored containers, but they can easily be improvised using colored cellophane ...
    I then saw a baby coughing like he had a piece of cellophane candy wrappers stuck in his mouth and we couldn't get to him to get it out of his mouth. I saw a ...
  7. 4
    Apr 1, 2004 – I was walking down the street, trying to open the pack by pulling on the cellophane zipper not doing very well and a car pulled up next to me ...




In 1954, Golding published his first novel, Lord of the Flies, which details the adventures of British schoolboys stranded on an island in the Pacific who descend

stickey wicket
Jun 8, 2011 – I saw one of the turtles open wings on its back like it could fly, and as I closed the car door, I heard a turtle cry out, "We are planning a Sticky ...

FLY - an irritation in a life situation. To swat the flies denotes ...
Jan 10, 2012 – BEFORE I HAD THE DREAM, I WAS LUCID, watching dead flies being lined up on a screen in a neatly aligned pattern. The following dream ...

9-18-98 - DREAM - I was in the country sitting by a barn and I started to hear what sounded like flies buzzing and I looked and blackbirds were coming up from ...

25, 1992 - DREAM - I'm at the home of my grandparents who are both deceased .... I watched as the flies buzzed about and landed on it and wondered why the ...



Dagobert I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Similar
Dagobert I (c. 603 – 19 January 639) was the king of Austrasia (623–634), king of all the Franks (629–634), and king of Neustria and Burgundy (629–639).
Rule in Austrasia - United rule - Rule in Neustria, from Paris - Legacy


Dagobert II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Similar
Dagobert II (c. 650 – December 23, 679) was the king of Austrasia (676–79), the son of Sigebert III and Chimnechild of Burgundy. He is also accounted a saint ...


King Dagobert II - Similar
Dagobert II was a French king from the sacred Merovingian bloodline, the last Merovingian to hold the title "Holy Roman Emperor". The Merovingians were a ...



Who Was Dagobert II?


recovered through WayBackMachine Website

In the year 469, the Roman Catholic Church made a pact with Clovis I, King of the Franks, bestowing upon him the title "New Constantine", in exchange for his conversion to the faith. Thus began the Holy Roman Empire, with the promise that the title would be passed down to his descendants from that moment on. In the year 800, that promise was broken.

Dagobert II was a French king from the sacred Merovingian bloodline, the last Merovingian to hold the title "Holy Roman Emperor". The Merovingians were a dynasty of Frankish priest-kings who were believed by their subjects to have magical powers derived from their long red hair. There were rumors of witchcraft, fortune telling and crystal-ball gazing, among others. In fact, portraits of Merovingian kings customarily depict them holding one of these crystal balls in the left hand. Since the time of Clovis I, the Merovingians had presided over the Holy Roman Empire, but by the time Dagobert II was born, the power of the throne had already been weakened, with authority increasingly being usurped by court chancellors known as "Mayors of the Palace".

On the death of his father, the 5-year-old Dagobert was kidnapped by then Palace Mayor Grimoald, who tried to put his own son on the throne. Human compassion saved him from death, and he was exiled to Ireland, only to return years later and reclaim the throne in 679. But the problems of the Mayors of the Palace continued. Three years later, apparently displeased with Dagobert’s lack of allegiance, the Roman church entered into a conspiracy with Mayor Pepin the Fat. On December 23, while on a hunting trip, Dagobert was lanced through the eye by his own godson, supposedly on Pepin’s orders. With Roman endorsement, Pepin passed political power onto his son, Charles Martel, thus starting the Carolingian dynasty that would later become so famous. After that, the Merovingian bloodline faded into obscurity.

All subsequent Merovingian kings were essentially powerless, and they were officially thought to have died out with Dagobert’s grandson, Childeric III. 49 years later, Charles Martel’s grandson, Charlemagne was anointed Holy Roman Emperor. The church had finally washed its hands of the Merovingian problem, or so they thought.

And what was the problem, exactly? Well, rumor has it that the Merovingian bloodline was descendant from Jesus, or one of his brothers, who fled Roman persecution at the time of the crucifixion and escaped to France, where they intermarried with French royalty. This claim is made by certain members of modern European nobility, who trace their own ancestry back to Dagobert’s son Sigisbert. According to this claim, the Merovingians knew the truth about Jesus and his actual significance as King of the Jews.

They knew the Roman church had stolen their birthright - Jerusalem, co-opted the idea of Jesus and created a fictionalized version of the messiah to further their own agenda - world domination, both secular and spiritual. The Merovingians knew that the fantasy of Christ as a virgin-born deity who suffered willingly for our sins and ascended to heaven was just that - an "opiate of the masses" used by the Romans as an excuse to set themselves up as the arbiters of God in order to perpetuate their faltering empire. This might have been the whole reason for the pact with Clovis I, to effectively shut him and his family up. And with the death of Dagobert II, they thought they had eradicated this threat for good. They were sorely mistaken.

Back to Top

The Unified Field Theory of Dagobert’s Revenge
by Tracy R. Twyman

from DagobertsRevenge Website

recovered through WayBackMachine Website

Dagobert’s Revenge Magazine is based on a theory of history, a concept of theology, and a body of literature that exploded onto the public consciousness in the early 1980s with the publication of the best-selling Holy Blood, Holy Grail, by Michael Baigent, Henry Lincoln, and Richard Leigh. This book presented a radical new theory: that Jesus Christ did not die on the cross, but lived on to father children with his wife, Mary Magdalen, whose descendants intermarried with what became the Royal House of France. And it all started with Henry Lincoln’s investigation in the mystery of Rennes-le-Chateau.

It was in this tiny village in the south of France that a poor parish priest named Berenger Sauniere discovered 4 parchments that were to change his life, and the surrounding village, forever. Two of these parchments were genealogies of this magazine’s mascot, Dagobert II, the last of the Frankish dynasty of Priest-Kings known as the Merovingians. The other two contained ciphered messages which, when decoded, displayed the following:

"To Dagobert II, King, and to Sion belong this treasure and he is there dead."


"Shepherdess - No temptation that Poussin and Teniers hold the key; Peace 681 By the cross and this horse of God I destroy this dæmon of the guardian at noon blue apples."

After finding these parchments, this once-poor parish priest became suddenly and inexplicably wealthy, perhaps because of having found some buried treasure. He began hanging out with members of the Parisian upper-crust occult set, such as composer Claude Debussy and opera singer Emma Calve. He began redecorating his church and surrounding property in a most bizarre fashion, leaving behind strange clues in an effort to communicate to future generations the secret that he had learned from the parchments. These clues, many involving the use of occult, qabalistic, alchemical, Masonic, and Templar-oriented symbolism, seem to indicate the involvement of a secret society known as the Priory of Sion.

The Prieuré de Sion (Priory of Zion) was a chivalrous fraternity created in medieval France with the purpose of preserving the Merovingian bloodline and returning them to the throne of France. They were officially founded as the Order de Sion by Godfroi de Bouillon, in either 1090 or 1099. This was just prior the First Crusade, which was also headed by de Bouillon. Their official headquarters was the Abbey of Notre Dame du Mont de Sion in Jerusalem. In March 1117 they had Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem (who, it is said, owed his throne to them due to their efforts on his behalf) negotiate the constitution of the Order of the Temple, A.K.A. the Knights Templar, as the military and administrative arm of the Order de Sion.

The Templar order, which had already been around more than a decade, was headed by Hughes de Payen, who was also a founding member of the Order de Sion. They are not mentioned again in history until 1152, when King Louis VII of France brought them 95 new members and gave them the priory of Saint-Samson at Orléans.

The Templars, according to tradition, were created for the purpose of safeguarding pilgrims on the road to the Holy Land, and they are most famous for their brave fighting on behalf of Christiandom for the capture of Jerusalem. However, evidence indicates that this was not at all an orthodox Christian organization, but that their secret rituals and doctrine were much more mystical, hermetic, and occult-oriented, and derived not from the Church, but from Christ himself.

Now the Knights Templar had quite a career after the Crusades. They basically took over Europe financially, dominating all the major industries, especially that of money lending. They invented the modern checking system, and within a few years had all of Europe’s kings indebted to them. This is why, even though they were disbanded by the Pope and the Grand Master burnt at the stake for heresy, some people believe that the Templars still exist today, continuing to manipulate the affairs of Europe behind the scenes. The Swiss nation, especially, is believed to be controlled by them. The same can be said for the Priory of Sion, which continues to this day, according to the authors of Holy Blood, Holy Grail.

In fact, a number of illustrious figures in history, including Leonardo da Vinci, Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton, Victor Hugo, Claude Debussy, and Jean Cocteau have served as the Priory’s Grand Masters, or Nautionniers (Navigators.) The Priory has been credited by some with the creation of the European Union. The same insignia which they proposed for the flag of the United States of Europe in the 1950s is being used on the flag of the EU today. Former President of France François Mitterand was believed to be a member of the Priory, and many other very powerful people. They are also said to be in league with the CIA, MI5, and the Mafia. As for the Merovingians, their bloodline continues on. Through incestuous intermarriage, most of the royal families of Europe can claim descent from them. And from these royal families, have come all 44 of the United States Presidents.

Who exactly were the Merovingians, you may ask, and what is so special about them? They were the first kings of what is now France, the first to unify the kingdom, and the first to preside over the prototype of the Holy Roman Empire. They were granted the title of New Constantine in perpetuity by the Pope, some believe, because the Vatican recognized the descent of the Merovingian bloodline from that of Jesus Christ, who, according to this theory, was the husband of Mary Magdalen, and sired a child through her. Mary and her child later fled to France, were their descendants married into the local Visigothic nobility. This would explain why the Vatican granted the Merovingians the title New Constantine, in recognition of the descent from the King of Kings himself.

It also explains why the Knights Templar wished to take control of Jerusalem - because they considered it their rightful inheritance. Christ, as the biological son of Joseph, was a descendant of King David, and therefore the rightful king of Jerusalem, so his descendants would have been as well. It would also explain why the Templars were called the "Guardians of the Grail", and as many have pointed out, "Holy Grail" comes from the French word "Sangreal", which could just as easily be translated as "royal blood", meaning the bloodline of Christ.

But why, many have asked, if he was not the son of God, and did not die on the cross for our sins, should his bloodline be so important. If the people who ascribe to this theory do not believe in his divinity, why should they care about his descendants? This is something that has never been adequately explained in past genre literature, but Boyd Rice and I believe that we have the answer, which we will describe in full in our upcoming book. Fact is, Jesus was the "Son of God", but not he pseudo-mystical force that supposedly impregnated Mary’s virgin womb. It goes back to King David, and further than that, to ancient Sumer, Atlantis, and the very beginnings of human history.

For the kings of the ancient world were the "gods" whose rule is now recorded in the mythologies of every past and present culture across the globe, and their descendants are the human kings who have reigned since the Flood, when the gods left the Earth. The bloodline of Christ and King David, and of almost all royal houses throughout history can be traced back to these "gods" or Pre-diluvian kings. That is where the concept of kingship came from, and that is where all of our ancient traditions, religious principles, and all of the basic arts and sciences of civilization came from. And the secret hermetic doctrine of occultism, which is popular in the underground today, can be traced there as well.

The implications of our theory are absolutely mind-blowing. It synthesizes a number of facts and theories regarding history, folklore, secret societies, and occultism that have so far remained disparate, creating a "Unified Field Theory" of the Grail mystery, where all interpretations of the Holy Grail - as a cup, a stone, a tablet, a secret doctrine, a spiritual experience, or a royal bloodline - are reconciled with one another. We are not saying that every part of our theory is absolutely correct, but with what we’ve learned we certainly can’t be all wrong. And if even a fraction of our theory is correct, then human history will have to be rewritten. The implications of what we have to present to you, in our forthcoming book, and in the future issues of this magazine, are positively staggering.

King Dagobert II

Mascot of the OLE


recovered through WayBackMachine Website

King Dagobert II, effectively the last of the Merovingian kings of France, is the figure that the Ordo Lapsit Exillis has chosen as its mascot, and he is the namesake of the OLE’s official journal, Dagobert’s Revenge Magazine. His life exemplifies our ideals, and his death represents the defeat of those ideals that we and our ideological predecessors have suffered throughout the centuries. The concept of avenging his murder is, for us, an allegory of the struggle we are engaged in for the revival of Western civilization’s ancient spiritual traditions. Furthermore, Dagobert embodies the archetype of the Lord of the Earth, the symbolic Grand Monarch spoken of in occult lore who is destined to one day rule the nations in a holy empire built upon Hermetic principles.

Dagobert’s entire life, as historically recorded, is mythological and archetypal. His name betrays the divine origins of his bloodline. Dagobert comes, of course, from Dagon. Now the word Bert, as the author L.A. Waddell has shown, has its roots in the word Bara, or Para, or Anglicized, Pharaoh, a Priest-King of the Temple (or House.) So Dagobert’s name literally means Priest-King of the House of Dagon. Interestingly, a rarely-found but nonetheless authentic variation on Dagobert’s name was Dagobert , emphasizing his lineage from the beast of the deep waters, the dragon Leviathan.

Dagobert made use of the myth of the returning king early on in life. His father had been assassinated when he was 5 years old, and young Dagobert was kidnapped by then Palace Mayor Grimoald, who tried to put his own son on the throne. He was saved from death, but an elaborate ruse was laid out to make people think otherwise. Even his own mother believed he was dead, and allowed his father’s assassins to take over, placing Grimoald’s son on the throne. Dagobert was exiled to Ireland, where he lay in wait for the opportunity to reclaim his father’s throne. This opportunity showed itself in the year 671, when he married Giselle de Razes, daughter of the count of Razes and niece of the king of the Visigoths, allying the Merovingian house with the Visigothic royal house. This had the potential for creating a united empire that would have covered most of what is now modern France.

This marriage was celebrated at the Church of St. Madeleine in Rhedae, the same spot where Sauniere’s Church of St. Madeleine at Rennes-le-Chateau now rests. There is an existing rumor that Dagobert found something there, a clue which lead him to a treasure buried in the nearby Montsegur, and this treasure financed what was about to come. This was the reconquest of the Aquitaine and the throne of the Frankish kingdom. As Baigent, et. al write in Holy Blood, Holy Grail, At once he set about asserting and consolidating his authority, taming the anarchy that prevailed throughout Austrasia and reestablishing order. The fallen king had risen from his ashes, born anew as Dagobert II, and had come to once more establish firm rule and equilibrium in his country. The similarities to the Parzival/Grail story don’t even need to be repeated.

Sadly, Dagobert II would himself play the role of the fallen king just a few years later, in 679, and the circumstances were decidedly strange. You see, since the time of the Merovingian King Clovis I, the Merovingian Kings had been under a pact with the Vatican, in which they had pledged their allegiance to the Mother Church in exchange for Papal backing of the their united Empire of Austrasia. They would forever hold the title of New Constantine, a title that would later morph into Holy Roman Emperor.

But that allegiance on the part of the Merovingians towards the Church began to wear thin after a while. Obviously, given their infernal and divine origin, their spiritual bent was slightly different from that of organized Christianity. In addition, as direct descendants of the historical Christ himself, they would have possessed access to the secret teachings of Christ, now doubt shockingly different from the ones promoted by the Church, and reflecting more of the secret doctrine of the rebellious gods that we’ve talked about in this article.

Any public knowledge of this or the blood relationship between Christ and the Merovingians would have been disastrous for the Church. Christ would therefore be a man, with antecedents and descendants, instead of the son of God, born of a virgin concept promoted by the Church. Seeing in Dagobert a potential threat, the Roman church entered into a conspiracy with Palace Mayor Pepin the Fat.

On December 23, while on a hunting trip, Dagobert was lanced through the left eye by his own godson, supposedly on Pepin’s orders. There are many aspects to this event that appear to be mythologically significant. For one, it took place in the Forest of Woevres, long held sacred, and host to annual sacrificial bear hunts for the Goddess Diana. Indeed, this may have taken place on such a hunt. This was near the royal Merovingian residence at Stenay, a town that used to be called Satanicum. We must also consider the date itself, which was almost precisely at the beginning of the astrological period of Capricorn.

The trepanned skull of Dagobert II

from TheUnjustMedia Website

Pierced with a lance through the eye on December 23, 679 A.D. while on a ritual hunt in the sacred Forest of Woevres at Satanicum - the Merovingian Dynasty's Capitol, deep inside the haunted Ardennes.

Satanicum was so named because of the Temple of Saturn which was located there during Roman times. Satan and Saturn are the same words, one 'Early Latin', and the other 'Late Latin'...

Here some alternatives drawn from the picture which it draws of 25 listed names of the city, with their time of appearance:


  • SATANACUM (1069)


  • SETUNIA (11th S.)

  • SEPTINIACUM (1107)

  • SETENAE (1208)

  • SETTENAI (1243)

  • SATANAY (1284)

  • without forgetting the SATHANAI of the seal of Prévôte (1320)

  • and the STENA of the local patois

But 1643 should be waited until to find finally written the name of STENAY.

French-English translation from Ville de Stenay website on the origin of their towns name

As we have mentioned, Capricorn is based on Enki, the horned sea-god that spawned the Merovingian bloodline. It is also close to the Winter Solstice, the shortest day in the year, when the Sun was said to die, mythologically, and turn black, descending into the Underworld. This Black period of the Sun is associated with the god Kronos, another horned sea-god, ruler of the underworld, and king of Atlantis who figures repeatedly in this Grail/Rennes-le-Chateau mystery. Secondly, the murder is said to take place at midday, which, as I have mentioned in another article, is an extremely significant moment in time for mystery schools of the secret doctrine, like Freemasonry.

The parchments found by Berenger Sauniere and the related poem, Le Serpent Rouge make a special mention of it. This is when the sun is highest in the sky. The fact that it was done by a family member is significant too. This is similar to the Dolorous Stroke that wounds the Fisher King in the Grail story, something which also took place at midday and was inflicted by the king’s own brother. In this story, the brother who wounds the Fisher King is himself known as the Dark Lord , and during the fight he is wounded in the left eye, precisely as Dagobert was wounded. The same thing happened to Horus in Egyptian mythology, fighting his uncle, Set. The Left Eye of Horus came to symbolize the hidden knowledge of the gods, just as the left hand path does today. Dagobert’s death appears to follow the same patterns as many other fallen kings or murdered gods whose death must be avenged. And it is meant to symbolize the concept of the lost or fallen kingdom the same way the Dolorous Stroke does in the Grail story.

Clearly, Dagobert’s death meant the end for the Merovingian kingdom. All subsequent Merovingian kings were essentially powerless, and they were officially thought to have died out with Dagobert’s grandson, Childeric III. 49 years later, Charles Martel’s grandson, Charlemagne was anointed Holy Roman Emperor. But in 872, almost 200 years after his death, Dagobert was canonized as a Saint, and the date of his death, December 23, became St. Dagobert’s Day. Write Baigent, et. al.:

The reason for Dagobert’s canonization remains unclear. According to one source it was because his relics were believed to have preserved the vicinity of Stenay against Viking raids - though this explanation begs the question, for it is not clear why the relics should have possessed such powers is the first place. Ecclesiastical authorities seem embarrassingly ignorant on the matter. They admit that Dagobert, for some reason, became the object of a fully fledged cult... But they seem utterly at a loss as to why he should have been so exalted. It is possible, of course that the Church felt guilty about its role in the king’s death.

Guilty, or afraid? For surely they knew that this Priest-King of the House of Dagon, with his divine lineage, so beloved by his people that they worship him like a god 200 years later, would of course be avenged for his treacherous murder. Surely they knew that the Merovingian bloodline didn’t die out, surviving through his son Sigisbert, and continues to jockey for the throne of France to this very day through the various royal bloodlines throughout Europe. Surely they knew that this kingdom would rise again, and that the lost king would return someday.

The seeds of his return have already been planted. France is united into the political mass that Dagobert had envisioned it to be when he united Austrasia, and the Holy Roman Empire , which the Merovingian Kings were clearly attempting to form with the help of the Vatican, has now become a reality, in the form of the European Union. During WWII and immediately afterwards, the Priory of Sion, that secret order dedicated to the Merovingian agenda, openly campaigned for a United States of Europe. They even proposed a flag, consisting of stars in a circle, that is identical to the flag used by the European Union today. (This flag was carried by a divine white horse, a symbol of Poseidon and world monarchy.)

Furthermore, the world empire of the Atlantean kings who spawned the Merovingians is closer now then it has been since the gods left the earth during the Deluge. The United Nations, a feeble example, will surely give way at some point to a united world government strong enough and glorious enough to be called an empire. The fallen kingdom of the gods is clearly returning, and the new Golden Age is upon us. This is, indeed, a glorious time to be alive.



The creation of the coat of arms

Proclaimed Emperor of the French on 28 Floréal, An XII (18 May, 1804), Napoleon approached the problem of the emblems of sovereignty on 23 Prairial (12 juin) during a session of the Conseil d'Etat. The choice of the new symbols so as to make a clean break with the monarchy of the Ancien Régime proved difficult. Crétet proposed successively an eagle, a lion and an elephant. Cambacérès preferred bees since France was a republic with a head, like a hive; Ségur thought that a lion would be better, stronger than the English leopard; Laumond was for the elephant, " the strongest of animals "; Duroc preferred the oak and Lebrun the fleur de lys, which he felt was the emblem of France and not the Bourbons. The Conseil d'Etat finally went for the cockerel, but Napoleon preferred the lion. However, on 21 Messidor, An XII (10 July, 1804), the emperor crossed out the lion from the decree instituting his seal and coat of arms and imposed the eagle. Developed by Denon, Gay and Biennais, the 'armes de l'Empire' (Empire coat of arms), taking their inspiration from both Ancient Rome and Charlemagne, were re-used largely unchanged by the Second Empire. The coat of arms comprises the following elements:

The Eagle

The principal element of the new shield, this symbol of imperial Rome, Jupiter's bird, was associated from the earliest antiquity with military victory. The decree of 10 July, 1804 stipulates that the coat of arms of the emperor should be: " d'azur à l'aigle à l'antique d'or, empiétant un foudre du même " (azure with a gold, ancient eagle clutching a thunderbolt of the same colour). This eagle, very different from the motifs of traditional heraldry, also took elements from the Carolingian eagle. The day after the coronation, Napoleon had an eagle placed at the top of the shaft of every flag in the Napoleonic army.

The Bee

Symbol of immortality and resurrection, the bee was chosen so as to link the new dynasty to the very origins of France. Golden bees (in fact, cicadas) were discovered in 1653 in Tournai in the tomb of Childeric I, founder in 457 of the Merovingian dynasty and father of Clovis. They were considered as the oldest emblem of the sovereigns of France.

The chain of the Légion d'honneur

Created on 29 Floréal, An X (19 May, 1802) as a decoration for military and civil services, the Légion d'honneur took its name from ancient Rome. The chain of the Légion d'honneur, reserved for the emperor, princes of the imperial family and grand dignitaries, is composed of a gold chain made of 16 trophies linked by eagles with the ribbon and cross of the order at their necks. This chain is bordered on either side by a small chain alternating stars and bees. The central motif, the Napoleonic N, is encircled by a laurel wreath and supports the cross of the Légion d'honneur, a five-pointed pommel-pointed star, in white enamel. In the centre is the laurel-crowned profile of the emperor, the whole surmounted by the imperial crown.

The Hand of Justice and the Sceptre

Both " Honneurs " of Charlemagne and re-used for the coronation of 2 December, 1804, the hand and sceptre appear (crossed) on the imperial coat of arms. The sceptre, the baton of command, sign of sovereign authority, is that of Charlemagne and at the end is mounted a statuette of the first Emperor of the West. The reconstituted Hand of Justice is a stick mounted with a ivory hand which gives a benediction.

The Crown and the Imperial Mantle

The escutcheon stands out from the imperial cape which is similar to that used by the peers of France. Scarlet velvet spread with bees, and bordered with grape clusters, gold fringes, the cape is lined with ermine and is held in place by the crown made of eagles with raised wings alternating with arcs, the whole topped with a globe bearing a cross.


The Bees of Napoleon

Posted on 22 October 2010by

Napoleon was not a bee-keeper. However, he often wore bees, or rather images of the small, industrious insects, sometimes quite a lot of them, embroidered on some of his regal garments. They also ornamented many objects in his imperial residences, and he allowed some of his highest ranking courtiers to wear them and decorate with them as well. By the time the Prince of Wales took the oath by which he became Regent of England, the bee was one of the most important symbols of the power and prestige of Napoleon’s empire. An yet, the objects from which the little Corsican took his inspiration were not actually bees at all.

How the ornaments on a horse harness made in the Dark Ages became a symbol of Napoleonic France …

About 482 AD, Childeric I, the second king of the Merovingian dynasty of the Franks, died in his capital city of Tournai, now located in Belgium. His loyal subjects entombed his remains with a great many precious objects which had belonged to him, including a gold ring inscribed CHILDERICI REGIS, "of Childeric the king." Hundreds of gold and silver coins were also placed in the tomb, along with two large gold buckles, a gold fibula, various other pieces of jewelry fashioned of gold and cloisonné, a golden bull’s head and a crystal ball. There were also many weapons, most notably a sword with a richly ornamented hilt, as well as pikes, battle-axes, spears and shields. The remains of an ornate horse harness was found along with a horse’s skeleton. The harness had been studded with over 300 fluerons made of gold, inset with red garnets.

As the centuries passed, Childeric’s tomb was forgotten and eventually built over. Almost 1200 years later, on 27 May 1653, a construction crew was excavating in an area just north of the church of Saint Brice in Tournai. At the bottom of a pit about eight feet deep, one of the laborers, Adrien Quinquin by name, found a gold bracelet, then handfuls of coins. Additional excavation in the pit eventually revealed all of the contents of the tomb, which was identified by the gold ring inscribed with Childeric’s name and title. Tournai was then part of the Austrian Netherlands, and the objects were turned over to Leopold Wilhelm, a Hapsburg archduke, in Brussels, who was then the governor. Archduke Leopold gave the objects to his personal physician, Jean-Jacques Chifflet, a learned man who was also a noted scholar. Chifflet prepared an illustrated report on the find, which was published in 1655, under the Latin title Anastasis Childerici I. Francorvm Regis, sive Thesavrvs Sepvlchralis Tornaci Neruiorum … (The Resurrection of Childeric the First, King of the Franks, or the Funerary Treasure of Tournai). Chifflet’s report is considered to be the world’s first scientific archaeological publication.

The following year, 1656, the Childeric tomb collection was transferred from Brussels to the Austrian treasury in Vienna, where it remained for nine years. In 1665, the treasure was on the move again. This time, the Austrian Emperor Leopold presented the treasure of Childeric to King Louis XIV of France. But the Sun King, who preferred objects which glittered with light, was quite underwhelmed by his gift and consigned them to the Cabinet of Antiquities in his great Bibliothèque Royale, which would eventually become the Bibliothèque Nationale de France during the Revolution. Then for nearly a century and a half, Childeric’s treasures were ignored and once more nearly forgotten.

In January of 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte, then First Consul of France, uncovered a plot, ostensibly sponsored by the Bourbons, to assassinate him. Bonaparte used the assassination plot against him to justify re-establishing a hereditary monarchy in France, with himself as the Emperor. In so doing, he would create a stronger barrier against the restoration of the House of Bourbon to the throne of France, since he would be occupying that throne himself. There was just one small impediment to this plan. The monarchs of the House of Bourbon had held the French throne by divine right for over two hundred years. How was the upstart Corsican to justify his right of kingship, both to his subjects and the other monarchs of Europe? By his trappings, of course.

Napoleon was well aware that, at least in part, his power was based on maintaining the illusion of it. He also understood the use of display to demonstrate his authority and was fully aware of the prestige value attached to antiquity and pageantry. Therefore, in the spring of 1804, he created the Council Commission, made up of several members of his Council of State, and chaired by Emmanuel Cretet. It was the responsibility of this commission to plan everything to do with the coronation of the Emperor and Empress, which was scheduled for December of that year. Not only did the commission have to determine the protocol of the coronation, who would attend and where it would take place, they also had to select the emblems and ornamentation which would be employed on the imperial garments and decorations which would be needed. Of course, all of their choices would be subject to Bonaparte’s personal approval.

The primary emblem the commission chose was the eagle, symbolic of the empires of both Julius Caesar and Charlemagne. This choice met with the wholehearted approval of all of the commission members as well as the Emperor himself. But there was still the matter of the Emperor’s personal emblem. The French kings had used the fleur-de-lys as their personal symbol, since it had been adopted by King Clovis I, the first Christian king of France and the son of Childeric I. But the fleur-de-lys had been proscribed by the National Convention during the Revolution, not that Napoleon would have cared one whit for that. The real problem was that it was too closely associated with the Bourbon kings whom Napoleon intended to supplant. Another emblem had to be found.

The commissioners began to look further back into French history, and reviewed Chifflet’s report on the treasures found in Childeric’s tomb. Chifflet had considered that the three hundred small gold and garnet fluerons which had been found with the remains of the horse harness were intended to represent bees, and were thus a symbol of the Frankish kings. He even went so far as to suggest that the fluerons might have been the origin of the fleur-de-lys adopted by Childeric’s son, Clovis. After considerable discussion and consultation with several noted scholars, the majority of the commissioners suggested that the bee should become the personal emblem of the Emperor. Napoleon, desiring ornaments which had even greater antiquity than the fleur-de-lys, but still strongly associated with the early Merovingian kings, felt the bee would give additional legitimacy to his imperial pretensions. He therefore accepted the bee as his personal emblem. Nor was the Emperor averse to the idea that his subjects might confuse the bee with the royal fleur-de-lys.

Once the bee had been settled upon as the Emperor’s emblem, several artists spent time studying the fluerons which were part of the Childeric tomb treasure. The treasure was still housed in the Bibliothèque Nationale, where it had remained since the Austrian Emperor had given it to Louis XIV in 1665. For some purposes, the original shape of the "bees" was acceptable, but not for the imperial cloaks which the Emperor and Empress would wear during the coronation ceremonies. Jean-Baptiste Isabey, best known as a miniature painter, and a close friend of the Bonapartes, was charged with the design of these very important garments. He was also responsible for the design of the garments to be worn by the highest-ranking dignitaries who would attend the ceremony. Isabey found that the Childeric "bee" was too compact and too lacking in detail to give the desired effect when embroidered in a semé (all-over) pattern in gilt thread on the red velvet of the coronation cloaks. Isabey developed a new bee design in a larger size, and volant en arrière, that is, seen from the top with partially open wings. It was this design, with variations, which became the primary version of Napoleon’s bee emblem.

Napoleon’s bee became very busy indeed prior to his coronation, as it was used on nearly every object having to do with that grand ceremony. Not only did it cover the surface of the imperial cloaks of both the Emperor and the Empress, but Josephine‘s white satin gown was embroidered all over with golden bees and even her white satin slippers had a golden bee embroidered on each toe, surmounted by a cluster of gilt bobbin lace. The bee was incorporated into Napoleon’s coat of arms and was also added to the arms of the "Princes-Grand-Dignitaries," or the High Officers of the Empire. No one else was allowed to use the bee in their arms or other decorations, even dukes could only use stars, and those below dukes could use neither stars nor bees. The bee was scattered all over the tops of the great gold nefs which where created to stand on the table before the Emperor and Empress at the banquet held after the coronation. Bees were woven into carpets, wall-hangings and upholstery fabrics for the imperial residences. They also appeared on furniture, glass, metalwork, ceramics and paper-hangings. Josephine used bees heavily in the decoration and furnishing of her Château of Malmaison. But bees were to be used only on objects for the imperial residences and those of Napoleon’s hand-picked High Officers. No one else was allowed to use the emblem of the bee. With one exception.

In May of 1804, Napoleon established his Légion d’Honneur, which remains to this day the highest decoration awarded in France. The insignia for the Legion of Honor which Napoleon had designed included a version of his bee emblem, with partially open wings. Recipients of the Legion of Honor award were the only people outside the French imperial circle who were allowed to display the bee of Napoleon, when they wore their insignia on special occasions.

There is still confusion around the "bees" of Childeric over which scholars continue to argue, even today. Though Chifflet stated that the fluerons had been found with the remains of a horse and its harness, some scholars believe the fluerons had been attached to Childeric’s cloak, as they have tiny holes by which they could have been sewn to the cloth. However, those same holes could just as easily have been used to attach them to the leather of a harness. Three hundred of them were found in Childeric’s tomb in 1653, and if all of them had been attached to the king’s cloak, it would have been quite a heavy and uncomfortable garment to wear. There is also the identification of these small objects. Though Chifflet thought they looked like bees, many modern-day scholars believe they were intended to represent cicadas or crickets, which were the symbols of death and resurrection to the Merovingians. There are others who believe they represent flies, which are found on the coats of arms of families from both Venice and Flanders, a territory once controled by the Merovingian kings. But the fly is not often considered a noble insect, and thus not appropriate for an imperial symbol, though it would no doubt have amused the British troops to think of Boney covered with flies.

The bee has for many centuries been considered a most admirable insect. They are social, industrious, well-organized, and productive. Napoleon’s advisor, Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, suggested that a swarm of bees would be the perfect emblem of the French nation, exemplifying a great republic with a single, all-powerful leader. But Napoleon could not have cared less how bees ruled themselves, his only concern was that they help him rule by linking him to the French kings of the past. King Louis XII had used a beehive as part of his coat of arms in the Middle Ages. However, the French National Convention rejected the use of a hive as an emblem of the Republic, " … because bees do have a queen."

Napoleon and his senior officials continued to use the emblem of the bee for as long as he held power in France. Upon the restoration of Louis XVIII to the throne of France in 1815, the Napoleonic bee was replaced by the Bourbon fleur-de-lys wherever it was possible, though a few bees here and there eluded destruction. However, when Napoleon’s remains were returned to France in 1840, bees were one of the emblems used on the funeral pall and other decorations for the ceremony. When Napoleon’s nephew took power as Napoleon III, he also adopted the bee as one of his symbols, the last time a bee was to serve as symbol of French imperial power.

For further reading about Napoleon and his bees:

Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles, A Complete Guide to Heraldry. New York: Grammercy Press, 1978.

Goffart, Walter A. and Murray, Alexander C., After Rome’s Fall: Narrators and Sources of Early Medieval History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Marchese, C. Marina, Honeybee: Lessons from an Accidental Beekeeper. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, Inc., 2009.

Nouvel-Kammerer, Odile, Symbols of Power: Napoleon and the Art of the Empire Style, 1800 – 1815. New York: Abrams, Inc., 2007.

Warner Morley, Margaret, The Honey-Makers. Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company, 1899.

Wells, Peter S., Barbarians to Angels: The Dark Ages Reconsidered. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2009.

Wilson, Bee, The Hive: The Story of the Honeybee and Us. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, St. Martin’s Press, 2004.

Wilson-Smith, Timothy, Napoleon: Man of War, Man of Peace. New York: Carroll and Graff Publishers, 2002.


Beehive Symbol

From The Encyclopedia of Mormonism

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See this page in the original 1992 publication.

Author: Oman, Richard G.

Nineteenth-century leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints consciously created symbols to buttress their community. The most persistent of these pioneer symbols was the beehive.

Its origin may relate to the statement in the Book of Mormon that the jaredites carried "with them Deseret, which, by interpretation, is a honey bee" (Ether 2:3). The Deseret News (Oct. 11, 1881) described the symbol of the beehive in this way: "The hive and honey bees form our communal coat of arms…. It is a significant representation of the industry, harmony, order and frugality of the people, and of the sweet results of their toil, union and intelligent cooperation."

Working together during this early period, individuals contributed specialized talents and skills for building an integrated and well-planned community in a hostile environment. Community, not individuality, created this persistent symbol. The beehive has appeared on public and private Mormon buildings (such as temples, tabernacles, and meetinghouses, Brigham Young's Beehive House, and the mercantile institution ZCMI) as well as in folk art and on furniture.

Today it appears as a logo of some Church-related organizations, on the seals of the state of Utah and of two universities, on Church Welfare products, and on some commercial signs in Utah. It links the Mormon community across time while symbolizing the Mormon pioneer past.


Cannon, Hal. The Grand Beehive. Salt Lake City, 1980.

Oman, Richard, and Susan Oman. "Mormon Iconography." In Utah Folk Art: A Catalog of Material Culture, ed. H. Cannon. Provo, Utah, 1980.



Utah is referred to as the Beehive State due to the symbol of the beehive being associated with the state, including its use on the state flag. The beehive is considered to be synonymous with industry and perseverance, since bees are famously hard workers, toiling almost endlessly for the well being of the hive and the bees living within it. Similarly, the early settlers in Utah, primarily members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as the LDS Church and Mormon Church, saw the beehive as the perfect symbol to indicate their industriousness and hard work. This association with hard work and the industriousness of bees is also why the state motto is “Industry.”

The symbolism and use of the term “Beehive State” dates back almost as long as the founding of the territory by early pioneers. Following the death of Joseph Smith, founder of the LDS Church, Brigham Young emerged as the new leader and wanted to find a new place in which to help his followers grow and develop. He led many church members west from Illinois and ended up in Utah, where he and thousands of pioneers established new towns.


The LDS Church rejects the use of the cross as a religious symbol yet adopts those used by the Masons and Satanists prominently displaying them on their temple in Utah and other buildings.. See photographs ...

See Origins of The Beehive, The Inverted Pentagram & The All-seeing Eye

To understand the symbols one must first know something of Joseph Smith's involvement with Freemasonry. Masonic Symbols & The LDS Temple. (Also see our article on Freemasonry)

Additionally Some Mormons do not realize that their temple Endowment Ceremony was copied directly from rites in Freemasonry. The Mormon temple ceremony has no connection whatsoever with Christianity.


The Beehive
One of the principal symbols of The Masonic Lodge is predominantly displayed all over the Mormon temple in Utah.

"It will be remembered that in the process of censing the Lodge, a beehive-shaped structure was erected in front of the pedestal of each of the principal officers …"(C.W. Leadbeater, The Hidden Life in Freemasonry).

The symbolism of the Beehive (given to the candidate in the Third Degree as a hieroglyphic emblem) and the Bee was the subject of a talk given at the Mill Valley Masonic Lodge on February 29, 2000 by Thomas D. Worrel. He says that

    “At certain times the candidate is placed within these subtle structures so that (it is thought) he or she may absorb the subtle influences invoked by the rites.” And “Inside the traditions that have been transmitted to us under the name of Freemasonry, lie concealed a multitude of mysteries”.

Another interesting statement ..

    "The hive proper denotes man's physical body. The honeycomb signifies that which is interior to the physical, the astral body. And the honey is symbolical of the spiritual body, which is composed of the choicest nectars and aromas of earthly experience." (C.C. Zain, Ancient Masonry)

While there is little doubt that the bee has long been a symbol of industry and work ethic, it has unassailable ties to pagan religions.

The Hindu God Shiva has been depicted by a bee surmounting a triangle and Krishna often had a blue bee on his forehead. Yogic writings liken the hum emitted by the lowest ‘chakra’ (energy center in the body) to the sound made by the bumble bee. The second temple built at Delphi was said to be built by bees. There are coins from Ephesus from the 5th century B.C. that depict a queen bee as a symbol of the Great Mother.(Ephesus was known throughout the ancient world for its temple to the Great Mother Goddess). The mystery Rites of Eleusis, centered around the goddess Demeter, were widely regarded as the high point of Greek religion and were conducted by (among others) the Panageis Priestesses or Milissae - meaning bees.

However Mr. Worrel in an attempt to connect bees and honey to Christianity says that both have “had various meanings” in both Jewish and Christian legends, quoting the story of Sampson as an example. As far as Biblical text goes it would take an enormous stretch of the imagination to read any hidden meaning or symbolism into that story, or any other reference to honey in Old or New Testament. Sampson in satisfying his greed was guilty of handling a corpse.. nothing more, nothing less. (Leviticus 11:26.)

He also speaks of the..

    “Christian uses of the symbol”, which “as to be expected centered around Christ”. The symbol of “industry, fidelity and virtue” being predominant. And makes a reference to the monasteries who learned to cultivate bees.

There is no reference to the bee or the beehive in the New Testament and ‘industry, fidelity and virtue’, while desirable, and even necessary traits in any human, are certainly not one particularly associated with Christianity. From earliest times principal Christian traits have always been ‘faith’ and ‘righteousness’. Virtually all references to honey in the OT were ‘lands that flowed with milk and honey’ symbolizing a bountiful land. Honey could not be burned on the altar of the Lord but could be part of the offering of First fruits. Leviticus 2:11.

Simply because it was the monks who first domesticated bees cannot be taken to mean that the bees or their hives in any way symbolized Christianity.

Conclusion: While the Mormon Church may conveniently use the smoke and mirrors explanation that the symbols that adorn their temple “mean different things to us” the facts remain irrefutable. The beehive (among others) Is A symbol steeped in paganism and mystery religions with no connections to traditional Christianity. Religions and religious systems that stem from very dark and anti Christian roots and the use of these symbols would be, as Amos so eloquently quotes the Lord, as saying “A foul stench to my nostrils”.

The Nauvoo Pentagram
By Bill McKeever

The Mormon Church has received plenty of criticism regarding the many inverted pentagrams that are displayed on both the exterior and interior of the temple in Nauvoo, Illinois. Several of them are located on the perimeter of the temple and as many as 138 inverted stars can be found in the assembly room. Inverted pentagrams can also be found on the upper walls and embroidered into the curtains of the celestial room. Some have wondered why a church claiming to be Christian would blatantly use emblems currently associated with Satanism as a temple decoration.

Mormon apologists have quickly come to their church's defense by insisting that pentagrams have historically been a positive symbol and only recently have become a symbol of evil, therefore concluding that any comparison to the Nauvoo pentagrams is nothing more than sensationalism.

History of the Pentagram
The five-pointed star is a simple design that has shown up in the artwork of several cultures. Deciding when the inverted star actually came to be known as a symbol of evil can be confusing. There is no general consensus among historians and even Wiccans and witches are not in full agreement. Some say this happened around the time of the Inquisition, while others say it could have been as late as the 19th century.

Mormon apologists are correct when they insist that Christians have used the pentagram or pentacle in their artwork. For instance, at one time the five-pointed star was commonly known as the "five wounds of Christ." However, the time frame in which Christians used this symbol becomes very important, and, as I will examine later in this article, tend to discount many LDS assertions. One thing we do know and that is the inverted pentagram has come to be associated with evil. Of that there is little doubt. Consider the following:

    "The pentagram with one point upwards repels evil, but a reversed pentagram, with two points upwards, is a symbol of the Devil and attracts sinister forces because it is upside down and because it stands for the number 2. It represents the great Goat of the witches' sabbath and the two upward points are the Goat's horn." (The Black Arts, Richard Cavendish (G.P.Putnam's Sons Publishing; 1967, p.265).

    "The spiritual knowledge of the Five-pointed Star is identical with its practical application. Let us beware that the figure is always well drawn, leaving no open space, through which the enemy can enter and disturb the harmony existing in the Pentagon. Let us keep the figure always upright, with the topmost triangle pointing to heaven, for it is the seat of Wisdom, and if the figure is reversed perversion and evil will be the result" (Magic - White and Black, Franz Hartmann, M.D., Newcastle Publishing, 1971,pp.290-291).

    "Inverted Pentacle. The sacred symbol of Witchcraft often is misunderstood because of associations of the inverted pentacle, with single point down and double points up, with the infernal. If an upright five-pointed star represents God or the deity, then the reverse typically represents Satan...In Europe, some Witches have used the inverted pentacle to denote the second-degree rank. This use has declined, because of the association of the symbol with Satanism" (The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft, by Rosemary Ellen Guiley, Facts on File, Inc., 1989, p.266)

It is interesting to note that in the latter two quotes great care is expected regarding the direction of the points in order not to be associated with Satanism.

The LDS Perspective
I am not aware of any evidence that proves Smith was purposely attempting to use a symbol that society at the time would have viewed as evil, nor do I know of any LDS who feels such a symbol is meant to represent Satan either blatantly or esoterically. In fact, most Mormons have told me that the pentagrams used on LDS buildings symbolize the stars mentioned in 1 Corinthians 15:41. Perhaps that works for a Mormon, but I personally don't imagine pentagrams when I read how "one star differs from another star in glory." But then again, that's just me.

BYU professor of history William Hamblin raises some good questions when he asks what the five-pointed star meant in the 1840s in the United States (e-mail received 9/10/02). This is important because we would assume that what this emblem meant at the time the Nauvoo temple was built would probably reflect how Joseph Smith would have seen it as well.

Mr. Hamblin mentions in the same email that the "the swastika is a symbol of Nazism in the mid-twentieth century, but is a symbol of the sun-god or of good luck in India and Tibet." This is true. In fact, for thousands of years the swastika, or the reversed sauvastika, shows up in artwork all over the world, including the artwork of American Indians. However, when Adolph Hitler chose to use this emblem as an insignia for his Nazi Party, things began to change very rapidly. This, I feel, is the whole issue regarding the LDS Church's use of the inverted pentagram on its buildings. Mormons may argue that Smith's pentagram was perfectly harmless in the 1840s, but there is no denying that many people in the world today associate it with evil. Show most people a picture of an inverted pentagram and I am sure that only Mormons would insist this is the star mentioned in 1 Corinthians 15:41.

On his web site, Mr. Hamblin asks:

    "When was the inverted pentagram first explicitly said to be a symbol of Satan? As far as I have been able to ascertain, the originator of this symbol was Eliphas Levi (pseudonym for Alphonse-Louis Constant), a French defrocked Catholic priest, in his 'Dogme et rituel de la haute magic' published in 1855 and 1856 in France. (English translation Eliphas Levi, 'Transcendental magic, its doctrine and ritual.' trans. Arthur Edward Waite (New York, S. Weiser: 1970) illus. ii, p. 55.) He invented the idea in 1855." Mr. Hamblin goes on to say, "This book was published over a decade after the death of Joseph Smith. Now it is certainly true that since Eliphas Levi, the inverted pentagram has become a widespread symbol used by occultists and Satanists. But it is the height of folly to take the symbolic meaning of the pentagram today and apply in to the symbolic world of Joseph Smith in 1844 by claiming Joseph secretly used the pentagram as an occult and satanic symbol. No one in 1844 would have understood it as such."
    [ Link is not longer valid]

Unless Mr. Hamblin can supply evidence that absolutely refutes much of what historians have told us about this symbol, I don't think his conclusion is defendable. Whereas it may be argued that this symbol was not meant by Smith to have "occult or satanic" meanings, to say "no one in 1844" would have understood it as such is much too broad an assertion.

Joseph Smith's fascination with folk-magic may supply some of the answers to this mystery. His use of seer stones, amulets, and magical parchments certainly do not help us draw a conclusion that Smith had no knowledge of what was known to be "occultic" in his time period. We do know that the word occult during Smith's time meant, "to conceal." Other definitions include invisible, secret, unknown, undiscovered, and undetected. The 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language states, "...the occult sciences are magic, necromancy, &c." The fact that the LDS temple ceremony (prior to 1990) on numerous occasions used the words secret and secrecy would tend to fit well within this definition.

Even if it could be proven that prior to the 1840s the inverted pentagram did not have any relationship to evil, it does not explain why the Mormons would continue to use it during a time period when, by Hamblin's own admission, it definitely does have that connotation. The LDS Church has used the inverted star to decorate other buildings that were completed long after 1855. This would include the famous Salt Lake temple, which was finished in 1893. Several inverted stars with an elongated point at the bottom can also be found in the woodwork in the Christus Rotunda in the North Visitor's Center on Temple Square that was built in 1963. The lined, inverted star within a circle can also be found in the upper left hand corner near the entrance of the LDS Museum of Church History and Art built in 1984. And let us not forget that the Nauvoo temple we see today on Mulholland Street was not finished in the 1840's -- it was completed in 2002.

In his article entitled Inverted Stars on LDS Temples ( ), Mormon writer Matthew B. Brown also refers to Eliphas Levi as the one who gave the inverted pentagram an evil connotation. He states

    "Though Eliphas Levi is consistently credited with being the first person to associate the inverted five-pointed star with Satan, one commentator makes this important observation: "The inverted five-pointed star, with its single point downward, originally had no demonic meaning, but over the centuries it has mistakenly come to represent evil." (Source cited, Tom Ogden, Wizards and Sorcerers: From Abracadabra to Zoroaster, New York: Facts on File, 1997, 172).

How this mistakenly happened is subject to debate, but it seems to be clear that if it has come to represent evil "over the centuries," it is reasonable to assume that it did have had such a connotation when Joseph Smith was alive.

Several books on the subject, as well as several web sites sympathetic to Wicca and Witchcraft, insist that the occultic association of the inverted pentagram goes back much further than the 1850s.

    "...when the Black Mass was developed by disgruntled priests during the times of the Inquisition, the inverted cross with its vertical line moving upward, as their symbol, took on an evil connotation just the opposite of what simple geometric symbolism would suggest. Also, during the Inquisition, the Pagan Horned God, sometimes depicted as a goat, otherwise as a stag, was characterized by Inquisitors as Satan, in one of many deliberate, false and very often violent attempts to suppress the Old Religion. As if that was not bad enough, the Church of Satan, founded in America in 1966, chose the inverted pentagram as its symbol. Since then, Satanic fears and fantasies, have caused the inverted pentagram to be thoroughly suppressed in any use by Wiccans, especially in the USA. Here it is largely viewed as the antithesis of Wicca, just as the inverted cross is viewed within Christianity." (Starcrafts web site, retrieved 09/23/02,

"During the long period of the Inquisition, there was much promulgation of lies and accusations in the 'interests' of orthodoxy and elimination of heresy. The Church lapsed into a long period of the very diabolism it sought to oppose. The pentagram was seen to symbolise a Goat's Head or the Devil in the form of Baphomet and it was Baphomet whom the Inquisition accused the Templars of worshipping" (Magickal Musings, retrieved 09/23/02,

The Inquisition began under the reign of Pope Gregory IX in 1231 as a means for controlling and condemning those who were considered heretics. Coupled with the Spanish Inquisition, its effect lasted for hundreds of years. When exactly during this time period the inverted pentagram became a symbol of evil is difficult to determine. However, if the above information is even closely correct, the parallels drawn by both Brown and Hamblin regarding medieval cathedrals become irrelevant since they were designed or built prior to the time this symbol was commonly linked with evil. The same is true for the artwork they mention.

While I see this as only a minor consequence, on the web page that bears Mr. Brown's article is a picture of the "Great Star," a flag he says, "flew from 1837 to 1845." He notes "This flag displayed a large upright star in the center of the blue field with numerous smaller stars around it that were arranged so as to create one enormous inverted star." Not that this really matters, it is doubtful that any of these designs had the sanction of the US Government considering the fact that on April 4, 1818 Congress enacted a law that gave clear instructions for the design of the American flag. It read: "That the Flag of the United States be 13 horizontal stripes, alternate red and white, and that on the admission of every State into the Union, one star to be added on the Fourth of July next succeeding admission." Perhaps it should also be noted that there were also variations of the "Great Star" flag with stars arranged as an upright star as well. See:

Mr. Brown also correctly mentions that the prestigious Medal of Honor is an inverted five-pointed star. I concede that I don't have an answer for this, but then, I can't explain a lot of things our government does. I do know that it is probably not a wise thing to place too much trust in the government when it comes to things of a spiritual nature.

No Win Situation
When I heard that the LDS Church was going to rebuild the Nauvoo temple using its original design, I felt that they were going to find themselves between a rock and a hard place when it came to the pentagrams. If they kept them, they would be criticized for its now universal association to evil. If they changed them, it would be construed as somehow recognizing something was amiss. However, make no mistake about it, there is good reason to believe that Gordon Hinckley knew full well that this symbol would cause controversy. He could have easily avoided it, but he chose not to.

In his book entitled Window Maker, Charles W. Allen tells how he was commissioned by the LDS Church to build the leaded glass stars that encircle the outside of the Nauvoo temple. The original plan was to stick as closely as possible to the original design, so Allan commenced to put together stars that would be placed in an inverted fashion. However, Allan notes on page 182 of his book how on Tuesday, May 8 [2001] he was approached by three men from his church. He writes, " ...Ron Prince, Cory Karl and Keith Stepan were in the shop this morning to see how I was doing and to take a look at the colored glass in the star sash. They really liked what they saw. Keith asked me whether, if President Hinckley wanted to have the star pointed in an up position, that would be possible? I said yes, that all I had to do is to rotate the sash. He made a recorded note of that for his next meeting with President Hinckley. There is some concern by members of the temple committee that the upside down star would be interpreted as a Satanic symbol which some cults believe in today."

This paragraph is very telling since even some members of the temple committee were apprehensive as to how the stars would be interpreted. It also shows that President Hinckley had the final say as to which direction the stars would point. Since I have not read any statement as to why Hinckley chose to open his church to this criticism, I can only surmise that he probably wanted to remain true to the design Joseph Smith said he saw in a "vision" (History of the Church 6:196 -197). He apparently was unconcerned that this symbol's meaning had changed drastically since the time of Mormonism's founder. If Keith Stepan did in fact relate this concern to Hinckley then we know for sure his decision was not made ignorantly. For this reason I find it irrational for Mormon apologists to easily dismiss the concerns of Christians who find the inverted five-pointed stars troublesome.

I'd like to insist that I am not aware of any evidence that proves Smith was purposely trying to utilize what he thought was a Satanic symbol. Nor do I think that any Mormon sees it as such either. However, as I have pointed out earlier, this symbol has changed its meaning over the years. Just as any American who chooses to adorn his building with a swastika should expect to be criticized, so too should any religious group that chooses to utilize an inverted pentagram be second-guessed. If a Mormon wishes to belong to a church that purposely uses an emblem currently associated with evil, that is their choice. If a Mormon wishes to have their apologists defend such a symbol, that is their prerogative also. I personally don't see this as emblem to be proud of and to prove my point I don't expect to see pentagram necklaces being sold next to CTR rings.

What really puzzles me about this whole issue is how Mormons can defend the use of the pentagram but criticize the use of a cross as a Christian symbol. While recognizing that many who wear crosses see it as a "sincere and sacred gesture," tenth LDS President Joseph Fielding had no problem insulting millions of Christians when he went on to say, "To them the cross does not represent an emblem of torture but evidently carried the impression of sacrifice and suffering endured by the Son of God. However, to bow down before a cross or to look upon it as an emblem to be revered because of the fact that our Savior died upon a cross is repugnant to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (Answers to Gospel Questions 4:16). In light of such a comment, is it not hypocritical for Mormons to complain about Christians who find pentagrams on "sacred" buildings "repugnant"?

I personally feel that Hinckley's loyalty to Smith's original design is to blame for much of this controversy. We have no reason to believe he was compelled to remain completely true to the temple's original design given the fact that the upright angel atop the steeple is not the same as the horizontal weathervane/angel used in 1846.

If I may offer my suggestion, I think the best way this issue could have been avoided would have been for Hinckley to change the design and issue a press release that said something like, "Because the meaning of the inverted pentagram has changed drastically since the 1840's we felt that in order not to offend the many Christians who see this design in a negative light, we plan to place the stars in an upright position." In doing so he would have calmed the concerns of his temple committee and probably put to rest many undo criticisms.


Inplainsite Note: From a purely logical point of view one would assume that any symbol that may be called by names like The Goblin Cross, the Pentalpha, the Witch Foot, and the Devils Star, would have nothing to do with Christ and His church. The Mormons (who ironically call themselves “The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints) however seem to have no problem in harmonizing the two most opposing forces in the Universe and incorporating Satan’s own symbolism into their “Church”. The Lord punished the Israelite kingdom time and again, finally utterly destroying them for embracing symbolism and idols of pagan gods. The question one is forced to ask is whether the rules have changed so drastically that the God who once destroyed a nation for practices He called an abomination, would embrace a “church” that does exactly the same thing? (Top)

The All-Seeing Eye / The Eye of Horus

At the Salt Lake City Temple, over a window of the east central tower, is the All-seeing-Eye. The All-seeing-Eye is taken from the left eye, the "moon" or "sound" eye of Horus, a pagan god, the son of Osiris and Isis.

The ancient Egyptian Eye of Horus or wedjat ('Whole One') is a powerful symbol of protection, and is also considered to confer wisdom, health and prosperity. Horus was one of the most important Egyptian gods, a sun-god represented as a falcon or with the head of a hawk, whose right eye was the sun and whose left eye was the moon. He was the son of Osiris (god of the underworld) and Isis (mother goddess). Osiris was slain by his own brother, the evil Set (jackal-headed god of night), and Horus fought Set to avenge his father's death, winning the battle but losing an eye in the process. The eye was restored by the magic of the god of wisdom and the moon, Thoth, and this allowed Horus to grant Osiris rebirth in the underworld. The Eye of Horus symbol was used in funerary rites and decoration, as instructed in the Egyptian Book of the Dead. After 1200 BC, it was also used by the Egyptians to represent fractions, based on repeated division by two.

Both the right and the left eyes of Horus were depicted by the ancient Egyptians. The wounding of the left eye served as a mythical explanation of the phases of the moon, and its magical restoration meant that the left was usually the one used as an amulet and considered to be the 'Eye of Horus'. The right eye is sometimes referred to as the 'Eye of Ra', the sun god, though often little distinction is made between the two eyes.

Conclusion: The all-seeing eye of Horus! Connections to the ancient Egyptian god of the underworld, mystical creatures born of gods and reborn through magic…! And the Mormon Church would have its faithful believe that all these were inspired of God who states repeatedly in the Bible how He hates other gods, magic, paganism, witchcraft and communication with the dead. How then can the Mormon Church explain the obvious disagreement between their symbolism and the laws of the God they claim to follow? Quite simply they can’t. (Top)

The Temple Endowment Ceremony
Masonic Roots of Mormonism..

This is an excerpt from an article by Mark Hines, M.A.

Some Mormons do not realize that their temple Endowment ceremony was copied directly from rites in Masonry. The Mormon temple ceremony has no connection whatsoever with Christianity. On March 15, 1842, Joe Smith became an Entered Apprentice Mason, and the next day he became a Master Mason. The usual thirty-day wait between degrees was waived by Abraham Jonas, Grandmaster of the Illinois Lodge.

Joe Smith admitted to being a Mason in his History of the Church (vol. 4, p. 551).

Under the date of March 15, 1842 his entry is, "In the evening I received the first degree in Free Masonry in the Nauvoo Lodge, assembled in my general business office" (History of the Church vol. 4, p. 551).

The very next day he noted becoming a Master Mason, "I was with the Masonic Lodge and rose to the sublime degree" (Ibid., p. 552).

Dr. Reed Durham, who was president of the Mormon History Association, noted:

    "There is absolutely no question in my mind that the Mormon ceremony which came to be known as the Endowment, introduced by Joseph Smith to Mormon Masons, had an immediate inspiration from Masonry. It is also obvious that the Nauvoo Temple architecture was in part, at least, Masonically influenced. Indeed, it appears that there was an intentional attempt to utilize Masonic symbols and motifs. . . ." (Mormon Miscellaneous, pub. David C. Martin, October, 1975, pp. 11-16).

Less than two months after becoming a Master Mason, Joe Smith introduced the Endowment ceremony. For the Endowment ceremony, Joe Smith copied Masonic rites from a book called Freemasonry Exposed (1827) by William Morgan. When one compares the Nauvoo ceremony with the Masonic rite in Morgan's book, one easily sees the Masonic influence on the Mormon rite. The two rites resemble each other to the point of being identical at places. Morgan's account was an exposé of his local York Rite's "Craft" degrees.

One can easily see the similarities between Masonic and Mormon rites. The penalty for revealing the First Token of the Aaronic Priesthood, Smith copied from the penalty of disclosing the first degree (Entered Apprentice) of Freemasonry.

    Mormon text: "We, and each of us, covenant and promise that we will not reveal any of the secrets of this, the first token of the Aaronic priesthood, with its accompanying name, sign or penalty. Should we do so, we agree that our throats be cut from ear to ear and our tongues torn out by their roots" (W. M. Paden, Temple Mormonism, 1931, p. 18).

    Mason text: "I will . . . never reveal any part or parts, art or arts, point or points of the secret arts and mysteries of ancient Freemasonry . . . binding myself under no less penalty than to have my throat cut across, my tongue torn out by the roots. . . ." (William Morgan, Freemasonry Exposed, 1827, pp. 21-22)

Compare the Second Token of the Aaronic Priesthood with the Second Degree (Fellow Craft) oath:

    Mormon text: "We and each of us do covenant and promise that we will not reveal the secrets of this, the Second Token of the Aaronic Priesthood, with its accompanying name, sign, grip, or penalty. Should we do so, we agree to have our breasts cut open and our hearts and vitals torn from our bodies and given to the birds of the air and the beasts of the field" (Paden, p. 20)

    Mason text: "I . . . most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear . . . that I will not give the degree of a Fellow Craft Mason to any one of an inferior degree, nor to any other being in the known world . . . binding myself under no less penalty than to have my left breast torn open and my heart and vitals taken from thence . . . to become a prey to the wild beasts of the field, and vulture of the air. . . ." (Morgan, p. 52).

Besides similar penalties, there are also similar signs, arm positions, ear whisperings, passwords and handgrips. For instance, compare the "First Token of the Aaronic Priesthood" grip with the "First Degree" Masonic grip:

    Mormon text:
    Peter - "What is that?"
    Adam - "The first token of the Aaronic Priesthood."
    Peter - "Has it a name?"
    Adam - "It has."
    Peter - "Will you give it to me?"
    Adam - "I can not, for it is connected with my new name, but this is the sign" (Paden, p. 20).

    Mason text:
    "What is this?"
    Ans. "A grip."
    "A grip of what?"
    Ans. "The grip of an Entered Apprentice Mason."
    "Has it a name?"
    Ans. "It has."
    "Will you give it to me?"
    Ans. "I did not so receive it, neither can I so impart it." (Morgan, pp. 23-24).

Joe Smith copied the Mormon Endowment ceremony directly from the Blue Lodge degrees of Freemasonry, and he borrowed Masonic symbolism, such as the Masonic markings on underwear Mormons wear. Over the right breast in Mormon underwear is a carpenter's square, and over the left, a mason's compass. The opening at the navel is symbolic of the evisceration penalty for disclosing Mormon secrets. Mormons are taught that their underwear, and in particular its Masonic markings, "will be a shield and a protection" to them from the power of the destroyer (Bruce R. McConkie, The Mortal Messiah, vol. 2, p. 295).

When the underwear becomes worn, Mormons may use the garment as, say, a rag only if they cut out and burn the patches with the Masonic square and compass. The occult power is in the Masonic symbolism.

    Ashamed and embarrassed about Smith's copying Masonic rites for the Endowment ceremony, Mormon officials expunged the Five Points of Fellowship and the Penalties from the Endowment in 1990. (Top)