SAMUEL B MORSE
CODES THROUGH TIME
. . . - - - . . .
S O S
this site updated 2-21-14
|10-11-03 - DREAM - I went to work in an office as a secretary. Everything
in it was really old. There were two old-fashioned telephones in it that
hadn't been used in so long that they were covered in cobwebs.
I asked the boss if we could order new telephones. He said, "Yes!" and that made me really happy.
Then I went to get some pencils and pens to use. There was a small box there with pencils and pens standing in it - the size of a Spam can. They were all sharp, but so short, one could hardly use them. They had obviously been used a lot in the past.
The boss saw what the problem was and he came over and opened up a double-door cabinet and told me and the others working there to take out whatever we needed.
Inside the cabinet were all brand new pencils, colored pencils and colored ink pens, and large and small drawing pads. He told us to get the best because we were going to be drawing maps.
This was even more exciting to hear.
Then a young woman came down from upstairs and she put some music on a piano there and said she was going to play something for me.
The melody was really nice, but the left hand played a difficult and strange staccato sound - all on the same note that looked like morse-code to me.
I thought that was really strange and wondered if I could even play it that well as she did.
NOTE: I woke up and heard a telephone ring in my right ear very faintly.
I said mentally, "I'm ready for a message if there is one."
Then I saw a young man, dressed in a brown tweed suit and cap. He was rising upward - it appeared that he was carrying a large portfolio or satchel.
The name Samuel B Morse was impressed in my mind at that point.
I started to think if there was a connection between the dream and Samuel B Morse and the morse code.
Was there code in music?
Joe Mason and his Granny Zora Curry
NOTE: After I got up and told Joe the dream - he said there was a huge connection to his life about Samuel B Morse. He said when he was going to Junior College, he was given the Samuel B Morse award for educational and sports excellence. (He played football) He wrote a letter of thanks to the organization which was run by Samuel B Morse's cousin. He received a really nice letter back inviting him to visit the property. The organization was Del Monte Properties. It runs a gated community on the West Coast, which includes Pebble Beach Golf Course, and many nice homes.
Joe decided not to go to visit the property - he used to live in Carmel and had been to Pebble Beach Golf Course many times since his early childhood. Joe found out while reading a book on art that Samuel B Morse was an incredible artist. He painted pictures of life size angels and other things. Angels were out of favor at the time he was painting so he didn't get rich and famous for that, so as a side-line, he invented the Morse Code.
A few years later, Joe went to the Smithsonian Institute in Washington DC, and while walking around the buildings, he came upon the exact painting of the angel that he had seen in the art book earlier.
SAMUEL F.B. MORSE
The telegraph began as an optical system in France after the revolution, invented by Claude Chappe. His systems of towers, telescopes, and various signaling devices spread across Europe so that by the mid 1830's there were almost 1000 telegraph towers in a half-dozen countries. But, the optical telegraphs suffered from many drawbacks, not the least of them being rain, mist, and darkness, all fairly frequent occurrences in much of Europe.
The idea of an electrical telegraph was bandied about by many, often with enough fervor that it joined the perpetual motion machine as one of those topics that signaled the presence of a perhaps-crazed inventor. In 1832, Samuel B. Morse, a painter, was on a ship back from Europe when he caught the telegraph bug. Seven years earlier, he had been traveling to Washington, D.C. to do Lafayette's portrait and had received a letter that his wife had died. He raced back home, but the letter took so long in transit that he missed her funeral. That experience marked him, and the idea of an electric telegraph hit home.
Morse got off the boat from Europe with the sketches for an electric telegraph in hand and the beginnings of the Morse code already done. In Europe, William Fothergill Cooke started work on the electrical telegraph in 1836, a few years after Morse. He had the same problem Morse did, trying to get the electrical signal to go long distances. As Morse was doing in the United States, Cooke sought advice from a variety of experts on the electrical transmission issue, consulting with Michael Faraday, Peter Roget, and ultimately teaming up with Professor Charles Wheatstone, the inventor of the concertina.
Morse in the United States and Cooke and Wheatstone in England met with many skeptics, but finally in 1844 Morse got his line up and running between Washington and Baltimore and transmitted his first message:
Samuel F. B. Morse conceived of his version of an electromagnetic telegraph in 1832 and constructed an experimental version in 1835. He did not construct a truly practical system until 1844, when he built a line from Baltimore to Washington, D.C. This model incorporates basic features of the 1844 receiver. It accompanied an application for a patent, granted in 1849, in which he described a method for marking dots and dashes on strips of paper.
Morse's invention transformed communications almost overnight. Within ten years after the first telegraph line opened, 23,000 miles of wire crisscrossed the country. The development of the telegraph had a significant impact on the development of the West, made railroad travel safer, and allowed businessmen to conduct their operations more quickly and profitably. Very few inventions have had such an immediate and long-lasting impact.
Adapted from America's Smithsonian, Celebrating 150 Years, © 1996 Smithsonian Institution
With this new method of communication messages could travel over telegraph lines and be received in seconds. Telegraphs made sending and receiving messages much quicker, but there were also problems. Telegraphs needed to be sent and received by trained people in telegraph offices. Not every town had its own office, and sending messages was expensive. Telegraphs improved communication, but it was not easy for everyone to use.
|[Note from Editor: I personally don't believe in the Bible Code,
though they are intriguing.]
The Bible (or Torah) Code
The Bible (or Torah) Code is a code alleged embedded in the Bible by God. The code is revealed by searching for equidistant letter sequences (ELS). For example, start with any letter ("L") and read every nth letter ("N") thereafter in the book, not counting spaces. If an entire book such as Genesis is searched, the result is a long string of letters. Using different values for L and N, one can generate many strings of letters. Imagine wrapping the string of letters around a cylinder in such a way that all the letters can be displayed. Flatten the cylinder to reveal several rows with columns of equal length, except perhaps the last column, which might be shorter than all the rest. Now search for meaningful names in proximity to dates. Search horizontally, vertically, diagonally, any which way. A group of Israeli mathematicians did just this and claimed that when they searched for names in close proximity to birth or death dates (as published in the Encyclopedia of Great Men in Israel) they found many matches, for example, the date of the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin was in close proximity to letters spelling out his name.. Doron Witztum, Eliyahu Rips and Yoav Rosenberg (1994) published their findings under the title of "On Equidistant Letter Sequences in the Book of Genesis." The editor of the journal commented:
That is, the probability of getting the results they did was 16 out of one million or 1 out of 62,500. The authors state: "Randomization analysis shows that the effect is significant at the level of 0.00002 [and] the proximity of ELS's with related meanings in the Book of Genesis is not due to chance." Harold Gans, a former cryptologist at the US Defense Department, replicated the work of the Israeli team and agreed with their conclusion. Witztum later claimed that, according to one measure, the probability of getting these results by chance is 1 in 4 million. He has apparently changed his mind and now claims that the probability p = 0.00000019 (1 out of 5.3 million).
As further evidence of the statistical significance of their results, the Israeli team analyzed the Hebrew version of the Book of Isaiah and the first 78,064 characters of a Hebrew translation of Tolstoy's War and Peace. They found many names in close proximity to birth or death dates, but the results were statistically insignificant. (The book of Genesis used in their study, the Koren version, has 78,064 characters.)
What does this all mean? To some it means that the patterns in Genesis are intentional and that God is the ultimate author of the code. If so, should the Book of Isaiah, and any other book in the Bible that fails the ELS test, be dumped? Should we conclude that these statistics verify the claim that the Jews are the chosen people of God, or that no more names should be added to list of Great Men in Israel unless they pass the ELS test? Unless other religions can duplicate such statistically improbable results, the mathematically minded supernaturalist might well consider them to be imposters. Should we translate all the sacred books of all the religions of the world into Hebrew and see how many great men of Israel are encoded there?
Can a computer really read the mind of God? Apparently. For on this theory God dictated in His favorite language, Hebrew, a set of words that are more or less intelligible if taken at face value, containing stories of creation, floods, fratricide, wars, miracles, and so on, with many moral messages. But this Hebrew God chose his words carefully, encoding the Bible with prophecies and messages of absolutely no religious value.
Many, however, are not at a loss at all. Some Christian "creation scientists" claim the Bible Code provides scientific proof of God's existence. If they are right, they should convert to Judaism. Doron Witztum can't do that, since he is already a Jew. But he has taken the work done on Genesis a bit further than his colleagues. Witztum went on Israeli television and claimed that the names of the sub-camps on a map of Auschwitz appeared remarkably close to the phrase "in Auschwitz." The odds of such occurring, he said, are "one in a million." Some of his students did the math and claim their mentor was off by "a factor of 289,149." Witztum's math may not be as good as his intentions, but it is difficult to see what those intentions might be. Was God revealing in an odd way that the sub-camps of Auschwitz are in Auschwitz?
Line - 20 Questions Answered
1. Are Bible codes real?
Some ELS phenomena [see 13-16 below] must be real because they are far too improbable to be due to chance.
2. Isn't the Bible just a collection of myths and fables?
The existence of real code phenomena provides compelling evidence that when the text was written 2,500+ years ago, the author(s) of the Hebrew Bible had knowledge of modern day events. Given the prescience and super-human intelligence of the author(s), the view that the Bible is merely a collection of ancient myths should be rejected.
3. Has any relationship been discovered between the content of the literal text and its underlying codes?
Yes. there is a very strong relationship. For virtually all significant code clusters, such a relationship is immediately evident.
4. Who wrote the Bible?
Because of 1, 2 and 3, considered together, and the clear message of the literal text regarding its authorship, the claim that the author of the Bible is God, not human beings or aliens, has compelling support.
b) Spaces selected between words may differ from those originally intended.
c) Interpretations of Hebrew experts may differ.
d) Copying errors in manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible can create unintended ELSs and eliminate intended ELSs. However, the possibility that the most recent copying errors corrected earlier ones, should not be ruled out.
e) Some intended encoded words may now be extinct (i.e., not part of the vocabulary of either Biblical or contemporary Hebrew).
f) Any individual word or phrase in an ELS may be coincidental, in part or in whole, or its translation may differ from its original content and/or meaning.
g) A long ELS could represent a conversation where the viewpoint shifts.
7. Why would God encode unreliable messages?
None of the cluster examples in published books significantly exceed this benchmark.
13. Why are clusters of codes important?
Some extensive clusters of lengthy codes (e.g., Ezekiel 37 and Isaiah 53 must be real, at least in part, because the total number of lengthy ELSs in them decisively exceeds the benchmark in 11. For example, Bible Code Digest researchers examined 295 initial ELSs about post-911 events in Ezekiel 37. According to the formula in 12, they should have found only seven ELSs with three or more extensions if the text were not encoded. In actuality, they found 33 such ELSs-more than four times expected. This is very compelling evidence of the extreme improbability of their appearance by chance. The indicated discovery rate in these clusters is decidedly higher than in the non-encoded control text.
14. What other phenomena tell you that Bible codes are real?
King David ELS underscoring is highly improbable.
15. Are there any others?
Some ELS mosaics are so improbable that they must be real.
16. Do Bible codes show up only in the Old Testament?
Highly improbable mosaics have been discovered in the Aramaic New Testament.
17. Are the codes you find in both ancient and modern Hebrew?
Nearly all ELSs discovered to date (by BCD) are expressed in Biblical Hebrew.
18. Can codes predict the future? Why can't we use them to avert disasters like the September 11 attacks?
Some intended prophecies may have been preserved intact. But although many codes appear to be prescient, none are completely reliable as predictions [see 6].
19. What is the connection between Bible codes and the Kabbalah?
The scientific exploration of improbable Bible code phenomena has no connection to the mystical practices of the Kabbalah.
20. What about the claim that aliens wrote the Bible?
Though some have claimed that real codes are evidence that aliens wrote the Bible, to our knowledge no one has formulated a substantive hypothesis that can be examined (or tested statistically) in support of such a belief.
|Coded maps include elevation maps, rainfall maps, sea surface
temperature, detailed maps show just where future earthquakes could cause
damage, demographic and business data, geographic data, maps of countries,
states, cities, counties, parks, city recreation maps, etc
An American agent named Charles Dumas, a Swiss journalist and friend of Benjamin Franklin, planted stories in a Dutch newspaper, Gazette de Leide, intended to give the United States a favorable rating in Dutch credit markets.
The first intelligence agent enlisted by the Committee of Secret Correspondence was Arthur Lee, of Stratford, a physician then living in London. On November 30, 1775, the day after its founding, the Committee appointed Dr. Lee as its agent in England and informed him that "it is considered of utmost consequence to the cause of liberty that the Committee be kept informed of developments in Europe." Following the first Congressional appropriation for the work of the Committee on December 11, 1775, two hundred pounds was forwarded to Lee with the urging that he find out the "disposition of foreign powers towards us, and the admonition that we need not hint that great circumspection and impenetrable security are necessary."
The next agent recruited abroad by the Committee of Secret Correspondence was Charles W. F. Dumas, a Swiss journalist at The Hague. Dumas was briefed personally by Thomas Story, a courier of the Committee, and instructed on the use of cover names and letter drops to be used for his reports to the Committee and for communication with Dr. Lee in London.
On March 1, 1776, the Committee of Secret Correspondence appointed Silas Deane, a former delegate to the Continental Congress, as its agent in France. He was instructed to pose as a Bermudian merchant dealing in Indian goods. He was also appointed as an agent of the Secret Committee, charged with making secret purchases and with attempting to gain secret assistance from the French Crown. Later, both Deane and Lee would be converted from agents to commissioners to the French Crown, albeit secret ones, until the open and formal alliance of France with the Americans.
Other agents of the Committee of Secret Correspondence included William Bingham, who served first in France and then in Martinique, where he had once been British Consul; Major Jonathan Loring Austin, William Carmichael, and William Hodge.
After Benedict Arnold turned traitor, several special operations, none successful, were mounted in an effort to capture him. In September 1780, Major Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee presented to General Washington a secret plan to return the defector to American control and bring him to the gallows. Washington approved the plan, but insisted that Arnold not be killed or injured in carrying it out, even at the risk of allowing him to escape. "Public punishment," said Washington, "is the sole object in view."
Lee's sergeant major, John Champe of Loudoun County, Virginia, was assigned to this special mission, and on the evening of October 19, 1780, "deserted" to the British under a hail of gunfire. The official documents he carried and his cooperative attitude during interrogation convinced the British of his bonafides. He was appointed sergeant major of Benedict Arnold's so-called American Legion, which was made up of deserters and Tories. Champe, now wearing a British uniform and having obtained freedom of movement in British-occupied New York, made contact with Patriot agents there and laid plans for Arnold's capture. Arnold's legion embarked for Virginia on the night the operation was to take place, and the plan was aborted. Champe accomplished his other mission, however: finding out if other American officers were collaborating with the enemy. He found no evidence that any were. In March 1781, an attempt to capture Arnold during his daily ride to the Virginia shore of the Chesapeake Bay was foiled by the chance anchoring of some British ships in the area. Yet another plan, devised by Thomas Jefferson, called for General John Peter Muhlenberg to send hand-picked soldiers "to seize and bring off this greatest of traitors" at Portsmouth, Virginia. Unusual security precautions at the British outpost thwarted the attempt.
Recognizing the value of an important hostage, General Washington in 1782 approved a plan to capture the son of King George III, Prince William Henry (the future William IV), during the young naval officer's royal visit to New York. The operation failed to come off after British intelligence heard about it and the Prince increased security around himself. After William later became monarch, the American ambassador told him of the wartime plan and of Washington's edict that, if the mission were successful, the young Prince should suffer no "insult or indignity." Upon hearing the story, William IV responded: "I am obliged to General Washington for his humanity, but I'm damned glad I did not give him an opportunity of exercising it towards me."
On the high seas, British supply ships and troop ships often fell to American privateers operating under letters of marque and reprisal from the Continental Congress. Franklin, for example, ran a flotilla of Irish and French privateers from the American mission in Paris. Success in intercepting British vessels was so great that the British accused their captains of taking bribes from the Americans to surrender their ships. One privateer, operating under contract to Silas Deane and a French business associate and utilizing a French ship obtained by Benjamin Franklin, was the Bonhomme Richard, commanded by John Paul Jones.
Of the sabotage operations conducted by the American patriots, only one mission is known to have been launched in England. Sometime after his arrival in Paris, Silas Deane was visited by young James Aitken, recently returned from America. Aitken produced crudely drawn but accurate plans of Royal dockyards in England and proposed to sabotage them by utilizing a unique incendiary device of his own design. Deane engaged his services and issued Aitken a passport signed by French Foreign Minister Vergennes with instructions to French officials: "We will and command you very expressly to let pass safely and freely, Mr. James Actzen, going to England, without giving him or suffering him any hindrance; but on the contrary giving every aid and assistance that he shall want or occasion for." In late November 1776, Aitken landed at Dover, and on December 7, he ignited a fire at the Portsmouth dockyard that burned from late in the afternoon until the following morning, destroying twenty tons of hemp, ten one-hundred-fathom cables, and six tons of ship cordage. After failing to penetrate the security at Plymouth, Aitken proceeded to Bristol, where he destroyed two warehouses and several houses. On January 16, 1777, the British cabinet met in emergency session and urged immediate measures to locate the mysterious "John the Painter" (Aitken was a house painter). Guards were augmented at all military facilities and arsenals, and a reward was posted. By January 20 the cabinet, again in extraordinary session, discussed suspending habeas corpus and placing the country under martial law. Five days later the reward was increased to one thousand pounds and newspapers reported panic throughout England. Aitken was soon apprehended, with a pistol and inflammables in his possession. He would not admit to the sabotage when interrogated, but eventually confided in a friendly American visitor-who was secretly in the pay of the British. Based on these confidences, personal effects, including the passport from Vergennes, were located, His trial was speedy, and on March 10, 1777, Aitken went to the gallows at Portsmouth dockyard, where his exploits had begun.
Probably the first Patriot organization created for counterintelligence purposes was the Committee (later called the Commission) for Detecting and Defeating Conspiracies. It was made up of a series of groups established in New York between June 1776 and January 1778 to collect intelligence, apprehend British spies and couriers, and examine suspected British sympathizers. In effect, there was created a "secret service" for New York which had the power to arrest, to convict, to grant bail or parole, and to jail or to deport. A company of militia was placed under its command to implement its broad charter. The Committee heard over 500 cases involving disloyalty and subversion. John Jay has been called the first chief of American counterintelligence because of his role in directing this Committee's work.
Nathanial Sackett and Colonel William Duer were particularly successful in ferreting out British agents, but found their greatest success in the missions of one of the dozen or so agents of their own, Enoch Crosby. Crosby, a veteran of the Continental Army, had been mistaken by a Westchester County Tory as being someone who shared his views. He confided to Crosby that a secret Tory military company was being formed and introduced him to the group. Crosby reported the plot to the Committee and was "captured" with the group. He managed to "escape" and, at Committee direction, infiltrated another secret Tory unit. This unit, including Crosby, was also taken and he "escaped" once more. He repeated the operation at least two more times, before Tory suspicions made it necessary for him to retire from counterintelligence work. Crosby was the model for the central character in James Fenimore Cooper's book The Spy (1821)-the first espionage novel written in English.
Another successful American agent was Captain David Gray of Massachusetts. Posing as a deserter, Gray entered the service of Colonel Beverly Robinson, a Tory intelligence officer, and became Robinson's courier. As a result, the contents of each of Robinson's dispatches were read by the Americans before their delivery. Gray eventually became the courier for Major Oliver DeLancey, Jr., the head of the British secret service in New York. For two years, Gray, as DeLancey's courier to Canada, successfully penetrated the principal communications link of the British secret service. Upon completing his assignment, Gray returned to the ranks of the Continental Army and his name was struck from the deserter list, where George Washington had placed it at the beginning of the operation.
Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge, a senior intelligence officer under Washington, is credited with the capture of Major John Andre, who preceded DeLancey as chief of the British secret service in New York. Although Tallmadge declined to discuss the episode in his memoirs, it is said that one of his agents had reported to him that Major Andre was in contact with a "John Anderson" who was expecting the surrender of a major Patriot installation. Learning that a "John Anderson" had passed through the lines en route to General Benedict Arnold, the commander at West Point, Tallmadge had "Anderson" apprehended and returned for interrogation. "Anderson" admitted to his true identity-he was Major Andre-and was tried, convicted, and executed as a spy. Arnold, learning that Andre had been taken and that his own traitorous role no doubt was exposed, fled West Point before he could be captured, and joined the British forces.
General Washington demanded effective counterintelligence work from his subordinates. On March 24, 1776, for example, he wrote: "There is one evil I dread, and that is, their spies. I could wish, therefore, the most attentive watch be kept... I wish a dozen or more of honest, sensible and diligent men, were employed... in order to question, cross-question etc., all such persons as are unknown, and cannot give an account of themselves in a straight and satisfactory line.... I think it a matter of importance to prevent them from obtaining intelligence of our situation." Washington occasionally had to deal with rogue intelligence officers in his own ranks who used their positions for personal gain or undertook unauthorized or illegal operations that might have compromised parts of the Patriot intelligence apparatus. In one instance, Washington discovered that two of his agents who supposedly were collecting intelligence on Long Island actually were "mere plundering parties." He set up a special team to investigate and arrest the renegade operatives.
To offset British superiority in firepower and number of troops, General Washington made frequent use of deception operations. He allowed fabricated documents to fall into the hands of enemy agents or be discussed in their presence. He allowed his couriers -carrying bogus information-to be "captured" by the British, and inserted forged documents in intercepted British pouches that were then permitted to go on to their destination. He had army procurement officers make false purchases of large quantities of supplies in places picked to convince the British that a sizeable Continental force was massing. Washington even had fake military facilities built. He managed to make the British believe that his three-thousand-man army outside Philadelphia was forty thousand strong!
After learning from the Culper Ring that the British planned to attack a French expedition that had just landed in Newport, Rhode Island, Washington planted information with known British agents indicating that he intended to move against New York City. The British commander was tricked into holding back the troops headed for Rhode Island. With elaborate deception, Washington masked his movement toward Chesapeake Bay-and victory at Yorktown-by convincing the British initially that he was moving on New York.
At Yorktown, James Armistead, a slave who had joined Lafayette's service with his master's permission, crossed into Cornwallis' lines in the guise of an escaped slave, and was recruited by Cornwallis to return to American lines as a spy. Lafayette gave him a fabricated order that supposedly was destined for a large number of patriot replacements-a force that did not exist. Armistead delivered the bogus order in crumpled, dirty condition to Cornwallis, claiming to have found it along the road during his spy mission. Cornwallis believed him and did not learn he had been tricked until after the Battle of Yorktown. Armistead was granted his freedom by the Virginia Legislature as a result of this and other intelligence service.
Another deception operation at Yorktown found Charles Morgan entering Cornwallis' camp as a "deserter." When debriefed by the British, he convinced them that Lafayette had sufficient boats to move all his troops against the British in one landing operation. Cornwallis was duped by the operation and dug in rather than march out of Yorktown. Morgan, in turn, escaped in a British uniform and returned to American lines with five British deserters and a prisoner!
Upon receiving accurate intelligence that the British were hiring Hessian mercenaries for service in America, the Continental Congress appointed a three-man committee "to devise a plan for encouraging the Hessions and other foreigners... to quit that iniquitous service." The result was a resolution, believed to have been drafted by Thomas Jefferson, offering land grants to German deserters. It was translated into German and sent among the Hessians.
Benjamin Franklin, who joined the committee to implement the operation, arranged for the leaflets to be disguised as tobacco packets to make sure they would fall into the hands of ordinary Hessian soldiers. Christopher Ludwick was dispatched by Washington into the enemy camp, posing as a deserter, to contact the Hessians and encourage them to defect. He is credited with the defection of "many hundred soldiers" from the German ranks.
In 1777, after his arrival in France, Benjamin Franklin fabricated a letter purportedly sent by a German prince to the commander of his mercenaries in America. The letter disputed British casualty figures for the German troops, arguing that the actual number was much higher and that he was entitled to a great amount of "blood money," the amount paid to the prince for each of his men killed or wounded.
The prince also encouraged the officer to be humane and to allow his wounded to die, rather than try to save men who might only become cripples unfit for service to their prince. Between 5,000 and 6,000 Hessians deserted from the British side during the war, in part because of American propaganda.
Franklin also produced a newspaper report purporting to describe the transmittal of scalps of soldiers, settlers, women and children to the Royal Governor of Canada by Britain's Indian allies. The Indian transmittal letter indicated that a certain mark on scalps indicated they were those of women who "were knocked dead or had their brains beat out."
While Jefferson knew that for much of the journey he and his travelers would be out of touch, the president thought Indians and fur traders might carry small messages back to him. A life-long fascination for gadgets and secret codes led Jefferson to present Lewis with this key-word cipher. Lewis was instructed to "communicate to us, at seasonable intervals, a copy of your journal, notes & observations, of every kind, putting into cipher whatever might do injury if betrayed." The scheme was never used but the sample message reveals much about Jefferson's expectations for the expedition.
|Free Blacks, fugitive slaves and those who assisted them in their
escape used secret words and songs to communicate important messages. One
of the most famous of these code songs, "Follow the Drinking Gourd", gives
the escape route from Alabama and Mississippi. The drinking gourd are code
words for the Big Dipper. Secret messages were also hidden in their work
songs. Follow the Drinking Gourd devised by. Peg Leg Joe, a white abolitionist,
posed as a traveling handyman and went from plantation to plantation teaching
the slaves this song to freedom. The drinking gourd simply means find the
Big Dipper and follow the North Star out of bondage. The song also included
clues for the fleeing slaves to watch for as they attempted their escape.
Many slaves found their freedom by following the word map cleverly disguised
as a song.
Those colorful quilts created by African-American slaves are beautiful to look at, it turns out they contained coded maps to the Underground Railroad.
One of the most loved types of music to come from this kind of message sending was the African American Spiritual. Many of these spiritual talked about how God saved his people, the Israelites, from bondage and enslavement. Boy, did the African Americans relate! Naturally, their songs reflected these stories of Moses and the Israelites, but they also continued to include secret coded messages. "Pharaoh" would refer to slave owners or "Egypt" to the slave states, while "the promised land" referred to Canada.
Secret Songs and Words of the Underground Railroad
Follow the Drinking Gourd
When the Sun comes back
The riverbank makes a very good road.
The river ends between two hills
When the great big river meets the little river
American quilter and co-author (with Jacqueline Tobin) of "Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad." tells Jim Fleming how slaves encoded secret maps of the route north into quilts that were hung in sequence over the fences on the plantation. Dobard explains some of the code, and how escaped slaves used it. We also hear another such coded map set to music - the Negro Spiritual "Follow the Drinking Gourd."
'Bed rug' might hold Underground Railroad map
At least, that's what Dan and Daphne Battle think it was.
Swing low, sweet chariot
As a religious song, Swing Low Sweet Chariot spoke of being carried up to heaven. As a secret coded message it expressed the desire to be carried to a better place by the angels of the Underground Railroad.
Slaves wishing to run away learned of safe houses where they could hide in the daytime and find food and water. In preparation for the journey, the women who worked in the main plantation houses would hide supplies for the journey under their large skirts (Hubert). Many slaves made quilts with coded designs that gave directions for finding their way north. Quilts of a certain design were also hung outside abolitionist homes to let runaways know they had reached a stop on the Underground Railroad (Hubert). Another type of coded message was transmitted through music. When African slaves first came to North America they made and played drums as they had in their homelands (Jones, par. 3). The masters thought the slaves were just making their African music. They knew those drum sounds carried far, even to the next plantation, but it didnt occur to them that the drumbeats were a sort of Morse Code that slaves used to make plans for revolts or escapes (Jones, par. 3). When drumming was banned, the slaves turned to song. Singing while working was another tradition brought from Africa (Belafonte, 88). The masters actually thought the slaves were happy with their situation because they were always singing. In truth, the songs provided work rhythms so that a group could work at a common pace and stay on task (Epstein, 322). In Africa songs were also used to send factual information and relate histories (Jones, par. 6). It was through that singing tradition that African American slaves were able to communicate secret plans and messages. The traditional spiritual Let Us Break Bread Together was a coded call for a secret meeting in the morning (at or before sunrise) to discuss issues of concern, plans for escape, or a time for prayer (Harris).
Let us break bread together,
Code words were used in slave songs to send messages which were interpreted by the masters as songs of faith. By singing these coded messages the slaves were able to pass on information to each other, to slaves in the neighboring fields of other plantations, and to persons who might be in hiding nearby as they attempted to escape (see Appendix). An abolitionist named Peg Leg Joe spent his winters as an itinerant carpenter in the South. He would pass on escape route instructions to the slaves on the plantations where he worked (James, par. 7). His wooden peg leg left distinctive footprints for runaways to follow. A reference to left foot, peg foot would let slaves know that he was in the area and leaving a trail. The drinking gourd referred to the Big Dipper constellation which contained the North Star. That star guided runaway slaves to freedom in the North. When the first quail calls refers to early spring. The song Follow the Drinking Gourd gave instructions for escaping from Alabama and Mississippi (James, par. 7).
|NAVAJO CODE TALKERS
By: John Shepler
Private First Class Mitchell Bobb had the weight of the battalion on his shoulders that day. The message he spoke into the field telephone was almost certain to be intercepted by German troops who had tapped their lines and knew every move of the American forces whom they surrounded. To Ben Carterby, stationed at headquarters, Bobb spoke the message intended for the Battalion Commander, certain that it would remain a secret. He was right. To the listening Germans it sounded like someone had scrambled the transmission. But that was impossible. Voice scrambling technology wouldn't be available for decades. How were they doing it?
This secret of Carterby and Bobb turned the tide of the battle within 24 hours after they implemented their "scrambled" voice messages. Within 72 hours the Germans were in retreat, and the Allies had taken the offensive. The amazing invention they deployed that day had no new technology at all. The men were simply speaking in their native Choctaw language. The Choctaw Code Talkers saved their battalion and invented secure communications in the closing days of World War I. It was to remain their secret, however, as the Armistice was signed and the Chocktaw men returned to their reservations.
Twenty five years later, America was embroiled in another World War. Again, it was a war with few secrets. Allied Intelligence had broken the German and Japanese communications codes. But the Japanese had also broken every code the Americans thought up. Many of the top Japanese code breakers had been educated in the United States and were savvy even to local references and slang that the American forces tried to use to disguise their intentions. Perhaps the Choctaw Code Talkers might have had some success again, but there had only been eight of them in that test of World War I and they had long since been forgotten...or had they?
Seventeen Comanches were assigned to the Comanche Signal Corps of the Army and, like the Chocktaws before them, passed messages among themselves that could not be understood by the Germans. Little did the Germans listening-in realize that the words posah-tai-vo meant crazy white man, and were used to identify none other than Adolph Hitler.
The most ambitious effort to employ native languages as secret codes was championed by Philip Johnston. Johnston was a World War I veteran who had come by covered wagon to settle on Navajo land in northern Arizona with his missionary family. By age 9, he had gained such proficiency in Navajo language that he acted as interpreter between two Navajo leaders and President Theodore Roosevelt when they met in 1901. Johnston had heard of the Choctaw Code Talkers, and he was convinced that the Navajo language would also be nearly impossible for an enemy to understand. After all, he was one of perhaps 30 non-natives who understood the complex and subtle Navajo expressions. Now, all he needed to do was convince the skeptical military that he had the answer to their security problems.
|Spy DOT - WWII
What better way to conceal a message than to shrink it until it's virtually invisible? During World War II, German agents traded secret codes in the form of dots hidden within the period of a sentence. Now Carter Bancroft, a molecular biologist at New York's Mount Sinai School of Medicine, has concealed a message in a site hundreds of times smaller than a period--human DNA (hereditary material in cells that determine physical and personality traits)!
How did Bancroft do it? Each strand of human DNA contains just four chemical bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine (A, T, C, G). The four bases line up in countless ways to form more than 3 billion pairs in a single DNA strand. "Since DNA is itself a code, why not use its enormous complexity to hide a message?" says Bancroft.
In his lab, Bancroft took a human cell and rearranged a sequence of about 100 bases to embed a message in DNA. Three A's in a row, for example, might mean "Hi!" The 100 bases should easily go undetected in a sequence of 3 billion pairs of A, T, C, and G. Bancroft then took other strands of DNA and mixed them together in a process of concealment called steganography, or hiding one thing among many similar things. Shades of "Where's Waldo?" End result: an encoded message virtually impossible to detect or decode.
To test the success of his message, Bancroft mailed a letter to his own laboratory, hiding the encoded DNA in a period at the end of a sentence! On receiving the letter, Bancroft's lab partner--who was told which DNA strand to search--used a microscope to find and decipher the message. Would a spy be able to crack the code?
"To decode our message you not only code-cracking skills but expert knowledge of biochemistry [science of chemicals in cells]," Bancroft says. Guess that leaves most spies out in the cold.
|A BIG OOPS
Generals red-faced as secret codes free to air
Reality TV has finally caught up with the Israeli military.
But the country's generals had no idea that their every move was being watched, their secret missile codes broadcast to their enemies or their conversations potentially overheard from Libya to Iran.
For two days this week, Israel's communications satellite accidentally beamed a live feed from the control room of a highly classified test missile firing, meaning that they could be viewed by anyone in the Middle East with the simplest satellite dish.
Four of Israel's most senior generals and their foreign guests were shown in the control room discussing the relative merits of weapons systems and who they might be used against. Officials were seen punching in launch codes, and the latest missile control equipment and maps were on display to anyone viewing.
At one point, believing they were in a secure area, Israeli officials were heard discussing access codes to defence industry computers.
The broadcast went out when someone - as yet none of the agencies
involved wants to accept responsibility - failed to encrypt the live feed
that is sent from one testing control room to another via the satellite.
The mistake became known to the broader public after an Israeli television station taped the preparations and launch over 48 hours, and then broadcast segments to the nation.
The Israeli newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth called it "one of the most embarrassing fiascos ever to happen to the security establishment".
The defense contractor that developed the missile in question, Israel Aircraft Industries, tried to claim otherwise. "This is a completely unclassified project," its security officer, Naor Zeidman, told Ha'aretz newspaper. "Had this been anything connected to the Israel defense forces, I assure you that there would have been IDF encryption on the launch."
But that was not what Channel 10 television found when it told the army it planned to broadcast the feed.
Considerable pressure was put on the station not to screen the footage. The military censor ordered significant cuts to the news report, including reference to anything that identified the type, range and flight path of the test missile.
Perhaps the most embarrassing part of the fiasco was the test firing itself, from a barge off the coast. The missile was supposed to fly straight for three minutes and then hit a target at sea. But after two minutes it strayed from its course and fell into the water.
The defence contractor was terse on the subject. "Not all the goals of the test were achieved," it said.
|Who Gave Chalabi Top-Secret Info?
NEW YORK, June 2, 2004
(CBS) FBI agents are questioning Defense Department officials in an effort to find out who told Iraqi leader Ahmad Chalabi that the U.S. had cracked secret codes used by Iran.
CBS News has learned that Chalabi recently told an Iranian intelligence official that the U.S. had cracked the codes, allowing the U.S. to read communications on everything from Iran's sponsorship of terrorists to its covert operations inside Iraq.
Chalabi has denied passing any classified information to Iran, and Chalabi supporters have asserted that the CIA is out to destroy the former exile.
In Najaf, Iraq, Chalabi said Wednesday it was "false" and "stupid" to assert he had tipped Iran to the code break.
"Where would I get this from?" he asked. "I have no such information. How would I know anything about that? That's stupid from every aspect."
Chalabli was once touted as a strong candidate to lead postwar Iraq by some White House and Pentagon officials, but he has suffered a rapid fall from the grace, in no small measure because the U.S. learned he was giving secret information to Iran.
On May 20, Iraqi police backed by American soldiers raided Chalabi's Baghdad home and offices. Chalabi is a controversial figure who provided the Bush administration with prewar intelligence on supposed weapons of mass destruction in Iraq -- including the now-discredited information about mobile weapons labs.
After the raid on his home and offices, 60 Minutes Correspondent Lesley Stahl reported that the U.S. had evidence Chalabi has been passing highly classified U.S. intelligence to Iran.
The New York Times, citing U.S. intelligence officials, said the U.S. learned of Chalabi's activities when an Iranian intelligence agent in Baghdad sent a coded message to Tehran reporting that Chalabi had told him the U.S. had broken the codes.
According to the message, which was read by the U.S., Chalabi claimed to have gotten the information from an unnamed American who was drunk, the Times said.
Chalabi is still active and visible on the scene in Iraq where he is a member of the Iraqi Governing Council.
Over the Memorial Day weekend, Chalabi was reportedly involved in negotiations to maintain a faltering ceasefire in the city of Kufa between U.S. military and radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr.
Chalabi and other Shiite leaders met with al-Sadr representatives and declared there was "a momentum for peace."
|SECRET CODES ON THE COMPUTER|
Mozart’s famous comic opera “Don Giovanni” contains musical codes about the rising importance of the middle class in 18th century Europe, according to PCC music professor Dr. Kay Lipton. Mozart’s message made for a provocative social statement in its time, signaling in effect “the times they are a changin.”
“Mozart was writing opera at the end of the Age of Enlightenment, when the middle class was emerging strongly,” Dr. Lipton said. “He saw that they were the ones who were really going to be in charge. In fact, he magnifies the role of the middle class in his three operas, ‘Le nozze di Figaro,’ ‘Don Giovanni’ and ‘Così fan tutte.’ Previously middle class characters did not have leading roles and equal numbers of arias as did the opera seria or high-style characters. This change was Mozart’s way of letting everybody know about the change in society,” Lipton said.
Not incidentally, Lipton’s dissertation on 18th century opera showed that Mozart and his contemporary composers were often at the mercy of famous singers, any one of whom might demand that a favorite composer rewrite portions of another composer’s work to suit the singer’s vanity and capabilities.
As Chief of Radio, Paley Sr. worked closely with General Eisenhower in London. Bill Paley Jr. implied that the Reveille with Beverly broadcasts were used at times for larger purposes than entertaining our troops. Sure enough, Dean Opperman dove into the National Archives and unearthed a stack of GI Jive programs which I had hosted. They were identified as "UNIT FIVE - Parts A through F, June 1944".
Instead of the usual chatter and hot swing music, Beverly sounded wooden and stilted. Her record introductions were sparse and mechanical as she announced strange song titles --- Opening Night, Torpedo Junction, I Dug a Ditch and Knocking One Out for (Uncle) Sam. Two organizations BMI (Broadcast Music Inc.) and ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers) keep updated records of all musical numbers published in the United States. Not one of the above named songs could be found listed. Some of the orchestras involved also used names unrecognized in the music industry.
"This was the missing link to something that I had often wondered about. At times I would receive orders from 'on high' as to which records to play; they were handed to me personally, along with written introductions that I was required to read word for word . It was mystifying to me, but I never argued with the top brass."
"In the years since, we have all heard stories about Radio London playing certain songs at certain times preceding the D-Day Invasion. The BBC was said to have broadcast a recording of the French folk song Sur Le Pont d' Avignon fourteen times in one day. I feel sure that they were using me for something similar. Apparently I was a 'carrier pigeon' relaying secret messages to the French Underground on behalf of the Allies."
"Even though I didn't carry a lipstick case with a bullet inside, I nevertheless became part of a long list of women who spied throughout history --- Including Mata Hari and Marlene Dietrich, the glamorous agent of WWI."
|Part of the legacy of the repressive Soviet regime is that we may
never satisfactorily resolve the controversy that now swirls around its most
respected composer, Dmitri Shostakovich. Twice reprimanded by his government
for writing subversive music, Shostakovich nevertheless seemed to have been
a model Soviet citizen overall, quietly accepting these rebukes and turning
his attention ever more diligently to writing music that officially celebrated
the state. But there have long been rumors that his music has a secret subtext:
thus, heard "properly," it represents a passionate indictment of his government
rather than an endorsement. Central to the controversy has been the supposedly
autobiographical Testimony (1979), in which he appears as a secret dissident,
but the book has proven more distracting than clarifying. While responsible
music historians have denounced Testimony as a fraud, and while those who
support the book's authenticity have seemed more like conspiracy theorists
than scholars, the picture of Shostakovich presented by Testimony is not
as easy to dismiss as the book itself. Even if it would be hard to imagine
a composer outwardly serving his state more loyally than Shostakovich, his
status as a "secret dissident" has been attested to by many intimates, and
there is no doubt that he embedded secret (if cryptic) messages in his music.
Thus, for example, his Tenth Symphony (1953) is built around his own initials
("D. Sch." after the German spelling of his name, which according to convention
produces the notes D / E-flat / C / B), forming a motive that emerges ever
more powerfully as the symphony progresses. But what does this musical obsession
with his own initials actually mean? Does it represent the individual voice
against the state? Are these notes the proud signature of the first major
symphonist after Beethoven to complete a tenth symphony (which Schoenberg
believed to be metaphysically impossible)? Is the symphony a coded record
of his own persecution under Stalin, who had died earlier in 1953? Certainly
it is easy to hear personal pain, and perhaps even political protest, in
the repetitions of these four notes, but to interpret beyond these general
qualities is to incite passionate confrontation with those who would understand
things quite differently. Nor, ultimately, are Shostakovich's own intentions,
whatever they might have been, the final arbiter. To quote Richard Taruskin
(a prominent Russianist who has denounced Testimony while arguing persuasively
for covert anti-Soviet protests in much of Shostakovich's music), "no one
owns the meaning of this music, ... and no one can ever own it." And, as
Taruskin goes on to say, this applies above all to Shostakovich himself,
whose control in this area ended as soon as he surrendered the symphony to
the world: "Imagine Edgar Bergen making himself very small and trying to
sit on Charlie McCarthy's lap."
Preludes and Fugues, Opus 87: Prelude No. 3 in G
MIDI format. Track 1: acoustic grand piano, Track 2: acoustic grand piano
CODES USED TODAY
Hijackers May Have Used Secret Internet Messaging Technique
By Brian Ross
Oct. 4, 2003 The terrorists responsible for the Sept. 11 attacks may have communicated over the Internet using a computer version of invisible ink that allows secret messages to be concealed in image and music files.
Western intelligence officials say they have learned that instructors at Osama bin Laden's camps in remote Afghanistan train his followers in the high-tech secret-messaging technique.
And French investigators believe that suspects arrested in an alleged plot to blow up the U.S. Embassy in Paris were to get the go-ahead for the attack via a message hidden in a picture posted on the Internet, former French defense official Alexis Debat told ABCNEWS.
One of the men in custody, described by French officials as a computer nerd well-versed in the messaging technique, was captured with a notebook full of secret codes. "This code book is major breakthrough in the investigation," said Debat.
To transmit a hidden message, the sender uses specialized software to hide a text message or a graphical file such as a building plan inside another file, such as an image file or an MP3 music file.
"Criminal organizations, terrorist organizations around the world use this," said Chet Hosmer, an Internet security expert who has been helping the FBI and military intelligence since Sept. 11 track down hidden communications on the Internet.
"Images that might be in an e-mail message that I send to you, that has a picture of my dog or my cat I hide an actual secret message inside that image that no one else would be able to detect or see," Hosmer said.
For example, with a few clicks and the right password, a terrorist could use a picture of the Mona Lisa, or an MP3 of the U.S. national anthem, to carry a secret coded message, such as a seating chart for an airliner or a list of flights out of Boston.
The technique is known as "steganography," meaning covered writing.
"It actually goes back to Roman times when they used to shave the head of messengers, and tattoo secret messages on their scalp," said Hosmer. "It really doesn't have very many legitimate purposes. The purpose is to actually hide the fact that you are communicating."
Instructions Via E-mail
In addition to low-tech equipment like box-cutters, the alleged hijackers in the Sept. 11 attacks also had e-mail accounts at Yahoo! and Hotmail.
Suspected ringleader Mohamed Atta was seen repeatedly by witnesses using his Hotmail account at public libraries in Florida to surf the Internet, downloading what appeared to be pictures of children and scenes of the Middle East.
Special FBI squads are working full-time on the Internet connections of the 19 alleged hijackers, going through accounts at America Online and other service providers.
Investigators are also searching cyberspace for more deadly messages and warnings that could help them take precautions against future terrorist attacks.
|November 12, 2001
Scientists clued in to secret code transmitted on the Web
By Lesley Harding
Take a good look. Can you unravel the secret code in this picture? U-M graduate student Niels Provos and other CITI researchers embedded the first chapter of Lewis Carrolls The Hunting of the Snark into this image. Chances are you dont see a thing. Thats the key to stegonagraphy. Delivering secret message in an existing image without altering the original content. (Photo courtesy of CITI)
Its the stuff spy novels are made of and according to some published reports, could be the means of communication for many terrorists around the world. Steganography is peaking the interest of law enforcement agencies and spurring more in-depth research at places like the University.
Steganography, Greek for hidden writing is the art and science of secret communication, says Peter Honeyman, scientific director at the Center for Information Technology Integration (CITI). Its the ability for people to communicate without anyone else knowing that communication is taking place. Its different from cryptography which carries an encrypted or coded message. People see the means of communication, know the message is taking place but dont know how to decipher it. The whole basis of steganography is to conceal that the communication is even taking place.
The digital world has opened the door for this type of coded communication. That means e-mails, CD-ROMS, photos, even compressed music files or MP3s. Any digital representation of information offers an opportunity for steganography, says Honeyman, who also is an adjunct professor of electrical engineering and computer science. It doesnt require any special equipment, just someone who knows their way around a computer and can use a mouse.
A few extra spaces, dots or dashes to any original program or file is all thats needed to create a steganographic message . These additions dont disturb the original content but embed a secret note. A simple computer program can break the code.
About 10 percent of an image or file can be used to hide a message, says U-M graduate student Niels Provos. Beyond that, you run the risk of altering the original content. But 10 percent is enough to get the word out.
Steganography has always been of research interest at CITI, but its now more in the global spotlight because of a Feb. 2001 article in USA Today in which it was reported that terrorists are using steganography to hide communication in Internet images.
Spurred by these reports, Provos developed a steganographic detection framework. He analyzed two million images from the Internet auction site eBay using several computer tools, including a crawler that downloads images from the Web; Stegdetect, which identifies images that might contain hidden messages; Stegbreak, which then tries to conjure up a key to break the code; and a distributing computer framework that runs multiple instances of Stegbreak on a cluster of workstations.
Despite all the hype, Provos came up empty handed. Not a single image contained any steganographic message. This could mean one of three things, says Honeyman. One, stegano-graphy isnt being used. Two, our analysis techniques arent effective. Or, three, we just cant break the encrypted codes.
Even though the CITI group found no evidence of steganography on eBay, the government may still believe these messages are out there. An Oct. 30 article in the New York Times cites several computer experts who are working with government agencies to detect possible hidden messages on the Internet. So far, these agencies arent saying what, if anything, theyve found hidden while surfing the Web.
|Barak Jolish argues that it is impossible for the U.S. to stop terrorists
from using advanced encryption technologies and attempting to do so would
sap U.S. economic strength.
Relatively weak encryption appears to have been used to protect files recovered from two computers believed to have belonged to al-Qaeda operatives in Afghanistan.
Andy Carvin of the Benton Foundation reviews the practice and history of steganography, the science of hiding secret messages in publicly accessible material. He argues that there is insufficient proof that terrorists are using steganography to communicate to justify legislation restricting its use.
The investigation of the terrorist attacks on the United States is drawing new attention to a stealthy method of sending messages through the Internet. The method, called steganography, can hide messages in digital photographs or in music files but leave no outward trace that the files were altered.
FBI officials have stated that the agency has as yet found no evidence that the hijackers who attacked America used electronic encryption methods to communicate on the internet. But this has not prevented politicians and journalists repeating lurid rumours that the coded orders for the attack were secretly hidden inside pornographic web images, or from making claiming that the hijacks could have been prevented if only western governments had been given the power to prevent internet users from using secret codes.
The terrorists responsible for the Sept. 11 attacks may have communicated over the Internet using a computer version of invisible ink that allows secret messages to be concealed in image and music files. Western intelligence officials say they have learned that instructors at Osama bin Laden's camps in remote Afghanistan train his followers in the high-tech secret-messaging technique.
Leading cryptographers and others whose work spawned the commercialization of high-level cryptography are wondering if they did the right thing. They are haunted by the idea that law enforcement agencies may have figured out what the terrorists were planning, if only powerful encryption techniques had been kept secret.
Three in four Americans favour tough anti-encryption laws, in the wake of last week's terrorist atrocities, a survey finds. Seventy-two per cent believe anti-encryption laws will be "somewhat" or "very" helpful in combating terrorism, according to the survey, conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates.
John Horvath argues against calls to search the internet for terrorist use of steganography because by invoking the evils of terrorism, the government is able to justify "the loss of privacy and a state of surveillance [society] would otherwise not accept."
Hacker Seizes Top Secret U.S. Computer Codes For Missiles
March 4 (News Agencies) - An unidentified computer hacker has seized top
secret U.S. computer codes used for guiding missiles, satellites and
spacecraft, according to press reports here.
HAM RADIO CODES
Morse Code is an International Language. The code was developed by Samuel Morse (1791-1872). All Morse code alphabets are a combination of two elementary characters: a dot (.) and a dash(-). A dot has a length of one time unit and the dash have a length of three units. The length of pause between dot or dash in character is one time unit and length of pause between characters is three units. Similarly length of pause between words equals six time units.
Morse Code is the simplest mode which can be operated upon with simple equipment and can cover large distances that any other mode and therefore will become handy in any emergency situation. Morse code have the ability to override noise and static and still make itself readable. It occupies only a fraction of the bandwidth of radio telephony signals.
Learning morse code is considered as a major stumbing block in passing the examination for a license. The best way to study morse code is by associationg the sounds with the particular letter. For example the sound dah-di-di-dit is letter B. You can practice morse code by listening to morse code transmissions. I have written a program on C++, which can be used for practicing Morse code. Click here to find more about Morse Tutor.
Below are the morse code characters.
|AMATEUR RADIO CODES|
Morse Code and Radio Guide for Beginners
OTHER PAGES ABOUT CODES ON THIS SITE
CODE OF CARL MUNCK, AND ANCIENT GEMATRIAN NUMBERS - PART THREE
OF THE ORGANS OF THE BODY AND PLANETS
- Codes, Rules and Regulation
- PAST AND FUTURE
TUNING AND OUR PART IN IT
BIBLE CODES CONTROVERSY
CIRCLES, THEIR MEANING AND CONNECTIONS TO DREAMS
MAGNETIC FIELD - A CROP CIRCLE UNDER SCRUTINY FOR MEANING
CODE OF CARL MUNCK, AND ANCIENT GEMATRIAN NUMBERS - PART SEVEN
LIVED WITH MAN
IRAN - ANOTHER WAR?
Against the Hoax Theory of Crop Circles
AMERICAN -ART AND TECHNOLOGY - THE ATROCITIES AGAINST THE ...
DREAMS AND VISIONS ARCHIVE PAGE - AUGUST, 2003
AND 11:11 - PART III
Symbolism and Spiritual Significance of the Number Three
NUMBER 555 - 500 TRUMPETS and 250 DRUMS
PYRAMID AT GIZA AND THE MAGNETIC NULL ZONE
OR MASS HALLUCINATIONS? - PAST AND FUTURE
DREAMS AND VISIONS - JANUARY, 2000
SAFE HOUSE - HOLOGRAMS
Beethoven Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major. The Napoleon ...
AND COMPARISONS OF MAJOR RELIGIONS
ON FOREIGN RELATIONS (CFR)
- THE DOG STAR - THE LOST AND MISSING STAR
- US NATIVE AMERICAN POLICY
American Tragedy: A Symbolic Event, Part Two
Law - The History - Everything Celtic - The Druids
CODE OF CARL MUNCK, AND ANCIENT GEMATRIAN NUMBERS - PART ONE
MAYAN FACTOR... In The Mayan Factor I refer to Pacal
VOTAN as the head navigator of the Mayan technical
SICKNESS - WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND THE SYMPTOMS?
Changing of the Guard: Part V: The Oracle
CHANGING OF THE GUARD - Part Two: Illuminati Revealed
Changing of the Guard: Part III: Illuminati Life and ...
State Meteor Footage
VS THE SUN
Changing of the Guard Part Four: Secrets of Skolnick
CAMPS IN THE US?
CHILDREN - CHRYSTALLINE CHILDREN
Buns and the BeaST
PUNISHMENT IN SCHOOLS
Masonic History - What Are America's True Roots?
HOLES, STARGATES, AND TIME TRAVEL
- THE FIVE LAWS OF FREEDOM
WOULD YOU DO IF THE ELECTRICITY WENT OFF?
Master Lanto - Lord of the Illumination Ray
ANGELES NEEDS TO BE AWARE
ANSWERS IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
- WORLD TRADE CENTER - 9-11-2001 - PAGE 9
DREAMS AND VISIONS - SEPTEMBER, 2001
DREAMS AND VISIONS - APRIL, 2001
SEVEN RAY COLORS
- DREAMS - BIBLICAL - EXTRATERRESTRIAL
SPECIAL DREAMS AND VISIONS - 1991