4.1 Electron
1eV = 23,053 cal/mole;
eV =1.60207 +/- .00007 x 10 sup. -12 ergs. or
1.6020 x 10 sup. -19 joules
eV = energy required;
erg = unit of energy or force;
dyne = force
necessary ;
mole = the amount of substance.
Ionization potential = The work in (eV) required to remove a given electron from
its atomic orbit and place it at rest at an infinite distance.
4.2 Frequency of Electron
1st shell electrons = 124,000,000,000,000,000,000 cyc/sec.
4.3 Hydrogen Frequency
"1,420 MHz is the frequency emitted when the spinning electron in an atom of hydrogen
spontaneously flips over so that its direction of spin is opposite to that of the
proton comprising the nucleus of the hydrogen atom".
Unknown Source.
4.4 Equilibrium
Gravitation, nuclear force collapsing; Electron repulsion expanding; Breakdown
of electron organization = 750,000 tons/sq.in.
4.5 Ionization Potential of Iron is from :
90 eV Spectrum 1
18 eV Spectrum 2
64 eV Spectrum 3
151eV Spectrum 8
235 eV Spectrum 9
262 eV Spectrum 10
290 eV Spectrum 11
355 eV Spectrum 13
390 eV Spectrum14
457 eV Spectrum 15
489 eV Spectrum 16
Atomic Energy Levels
C13.48, #35 Vol. 2
4.6 Antisymmetric Decay
"antisymmetric decay of piano strings and sub-atomic kayons are exactly the same".
Scientific American
Jan 1979, pg. 123
4.7 Vacuum Polarization
"vacuum polarization = screening"...
Paragraph 30
Scientific American
Apr. 1985, pg. 90
4.8 Electrostatic-Repulsion within a single Electron
produces Infinite Self- Energy.
..."It was found in the 1930's that the contributions produced by processes more
complicated than single-particle exchanges usually turn out to be infinitely large.
In fact, the electrostatic-repulsion within a single electron produces an infinite
self-energy, which manifests itself whenever a photon is emitted and reabsorbed by the same electron...These
infinities arise only in Feynman diagrams with loops, and they can be traced to
the infinite number of ways that energy and momentum can flow through the loop
from one particle to another. As is usually the case when paradoxes arise in science,
the problem of infinities is both a curse and a blessing: a curse because it
keeps us from getting on with calculations we would like to perform, and a blessing
because when the solution is found, it may work for only a limited class of theories,
among which one hopes to find the correct theory. That is just what seems to have
happened with the problem of infinities...Feynman..found that in a certain limited
class of field theories the infinities occur only as "renormalizations", or corrections,
of the fundamental parameters of the theory (such as masses and charges) and can
therefore be eliminated (uh oh) if one identifies the renormalized parameters
with the measured values listed in the tables of the fundamental constants.
For example, the measured mass of the electron is the sum of its "bare" mass and
the mass associated with its electromagnetic self- energy. In order for the measured
mass to be finite, the bare mass must have a negative infinity that cancels the
positive infinity in the self-energy. One simple version of the field theory of electromagnetic
interactions not only was found to be renormalizable in the sense that all infinities
could be eliminated",
(Note: Elimination of part of the whole?),
"by a renormalization of the electron's mass and charge but also led to electrodynamic
calculations whose agreement with experiment is without precedent in physical science.
Thus the theory predicts that the value of the magnetic moment of the electron (in natural units) is:
- 0011596553, whereas the observed value is
- 0011596577. The uncertainty in both figures is in the 9th place:
+/- .0000000030".
4.9
Scientific American
July 1974, pg. 53
4.10 Nucleus
"The mass of a nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its component particles;
the lost mass becomes the binding energy holding the nucleus firmly together. This
is called the packing effect".
Scientific American
Sept 1953, pg. 52
4.11 Neutrons
"How might one rotate the spin vector of a neutron 360 degrees?
Current experimental designs take advantage of the magnetic properties of electrically
neutral properties. A neutron has not only spin angular momentum but also a magnetic
moment, which makes it resemble a bar magnet spinning about its north-south axis. Suppose the spin vector of the neutron is initially aligned with the x-axis
and a magnetic field is introduced at right angles to that axis. The torque that
aligns a bar magnet with an external field makes a spinning magnet precess about
the direction of the field. The spin vector of the neutron will precess in the plane
at right angles to the magnetic field just as a spinning gyroscope precesses in
response to the pull of gravity. Hence to rotate the spin vector of a neutron away
from the z-axis one can take advantage of its magnetic moment. Actually even if the field
is non-perpendicular to the initial spin, the neutron precesses at the rate that
is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field and that does not depend
on the orientation of the neutron. Thus all the neutrons in an unpolarized beam passing
through a magnetic field precess at the same rate; the rate is called the "Larmor
frequency".
Scientific American
July 1981 pg. 128-129
4.12 Larmor Frequency
NMR Imaging in Medicine.
A simple mathematical relation links the resonance frequency, often called the Larmor
frequency, to the value of the externally applied static magnetic field. The frequency
is equal to the strength of the field multiplied by the "gyromagnetic ratio," which is unique for each nuclear species of nonzero spin. For hydrogen nuclei (protons)
in a magnetic field of one tesla (10,000 gauss) the resonance frequency is 42.57
megahertz, or 42.57 million cycles per second. (This frequency)..is in the radio-frequency band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Such frequencies, far below
those of x- rays or even visible light, are powerless to disrupt the molecules of
living systems.
From the quantum-mechanical view-point the tipping of the bulk magnetization vector
of an assembly of nuclei away from its equilibrium position is equivalent to a
transition from a lower energy state to a higher one. The transition is effected
only when the energy of the quanta carried by the radio-frequency exactly equals the
difference in magnetic energy between the two energy states".
Scientific American
May 1982, pg. 78
4.13 Atomic Nucleus
"In some circumstances the nucleus acts like a liquid and in others like an elastic
solid. In general its response is rather like that of a class of non-Newtonian
fluids, of which silly putty is the most familiar example. These substances respond
elastically to sudden forces but flow as liquids over longer periods of time.
If a nuclear vibration is to be excited, the first and simplest condition to be
met is that the energy imparted to the nucleus must be equal to the energy associated
with the vibration. The nucleus vibrates at extremely high frequency; the energy
of the vibration is equal to the frequency multiplied by Planck's constant, and so
the energy is also comparatively high. A typical vibrational frequency is 5 x
10^21 hertz, which corresponds to a vibrational energy of 20 million electron volts
(MeV)".
Scientific American
May 1983, pg. 62