Date: 07/02/02

Update: 05/23/04

a backward supraluminal wave just as the subluminal requires a forward and backward wave?

**Positive Visible Side (3)**, the +/- Neutral Middle and the **Negative Other Side (3)**

plus**Negative Invisible Side (3)**, the -/+ Neutral Middle and the **Positive Invisible Side (3)**.

This second group is not a mirror but is more like a complimentary inversion

as a musical minor is ambidextrous to its Major. This whole double system is,

once more doubled in a similar, separate system that is the invisibly supraluminal "**negative invisible side**".

the large hyperspheres, ( The Toroidal Universe ), with weak gravity between these dynamics.

- Trinary Relativity accepts all three visible, dynamic worlds (triplet) of "
**this side**" of the forth spatial dimension, upon the surface of the Universal Toroid. - Trinary Relativity accepts three more invisible, dynamic worlds (triplet) on the "
**other side**" of the forth spatial dimension, for a total of six, upon the surface of the Universal Toroid. - Trinary Relativity accepts two more duplicate, negative dynamic worlds (triplet) on the "
**negative invisible side**" of the forth spatial dimension, for a total of six plus six, upon the surface of one Universal Toroid. - Trinary Relativity accepts a final doubling of the whole tori, encompassing "
**this side**" (3), the "**other side**" (3) and the "**negative invisible side**" (6) of the forth spatial dimension, for a total of 6 + 6 = 12, upon the surface of one Universal Toroid, making (6 + 6 = 12) added to (negative 6 + 6 = 12) = 24 total dimensions, or twenty-four 90 degree rotations around 1 path of existence, of the first plus second torus. This last doubling could possibly be a 2 center ellipse (egg) universe or it could possibly be one torus within another torus, concentrically. - The Toroidal Universe triplet has "forward entropic" and "backward negentropic" parts, plus a neutral 3rd part separating the previous two parts, making up any triplet.
- All three dynamic worlds (triplet) and elements are toroidal.
- As one ellipse center or concentric torus expands into macro space, the other torus shrinks into micro space. One torus is always feeding the other torus and reciprocally, when the cycle ends, the feeding role reverses. Human existence is always between these two dynamics.
- 186,283 miles per second velocity will be attributed to 0 dimension space, instead of to light.
- Space dragging and space twisting will be attributed to 0 dimension space, instead of to mass.
- Gravity will be attributed to 0 dimension space, instead of to mass.
- Light bending will be attributed to optical 0 dimension space, instead of to gravity.
- Time will be identified as gravity, seeing that time, gravity, the 4th dimension and 0th dimension all have commonalities.
- Measurement, in Trinary Relativity, is not needed, as measure can only measure parts, not whole systems such as this.
- Trinary Relativity uses 4 different reference systems, as follows:
- (1) A fixed reference system with Cartesian spatial coordinates; Wilson Ogg
- (2) A constantly progressing reference system, with unity being the apparent but illusory velocity of light; Wilson Ogg
- (3) A recessional reference system, going outward from the microcosm to the macrocosm, and going inward from the macrocosm to the microcosm; Wilson Ogg
- (4) A synchronous reference system that recognizes the illusory nature of the velocity of light, treats light as an acting force and not as radiant energy, and in which the synchronism of the reference system combines aspects of fixed, constantly progressing and recessional reference systems. Wilson Ogg

- Gravity operates in all three (triplet) worlds.
- Microworld gravity is contractive (centripital) space, spiraling into matter .
- Macroworld gravity is expansive (centrifugal) and pushes matter apart .
- Our 3D world gravity is both centripital and centrifugal.
- Gravity, as we know it, is the mediator and weak manifestation, a slightly asymmetric product based on Phi, of two other strong dynamics of centripital and centrifugal gravity.

- The universe is toroidal at all levels and has all of the characteristics of all three topologies: flat, positive and negative curvature.
- At all three levels of tori: micro, bio and macro, the center throat of each tori is negative curvature, only from the inside of the throat, it looks like a positive saddle. Outside the throat, upon the outer surface of the tori, it looks like Riemannian positive-spherical curvature over long distance and flat over short distance.
- Premise 1 The Invisible Universe is that invisible part of micro, bio and macro. The universe should reveal a visible/invisible ratio (99 : 1) of 1/3 (33%) dark energy plus 2/3's (66%) dark-unconscious-energy against visible matter (1%). This whole invisible component (99%) being composed of 2 components called energy and primal unconsciousness (ecu's, energy/consciousness units) in an unknown ratio. There is no dark matter, only energy and grades of unconsciousness/consciousness. If it is matter, it is visible and dead.
- Premise 2 The Invisible Universe is that invisible part of micro, bio and macro. Atomic components should symmetrically and asymmetrically arrange themselves to conform to the double sets of 14 pairs of symmetric and asymmetric scales. Tests should find correspondence between atomic charge ratio and musical ratio.
- Premise 3 The Invisible Universe is that invisible part of micro, bio and macro. The smallest unit of space is a toroidal vortex which is already a 4D object. If we rotate a point through dimensions 1, 2, 3 and 4, we assume we have 4 dimensions. However, if we realize that the hypothetical point is already a 4D torus, the resulting rotation will be a 8 dimensional object. This is the reason our common electron is called spin 1/2 which is said to rotate 2 times to return to its start point.

- If only one of the three dimensions is set to 1, the remaining two must be either equal or reciprocal. P.Plichta
- If there is a divine plan, it is based on nothing else but numbers. This notion is in the classic platonic tradition. P.Plichta
- An infinite space has its center everywhere -- any point is its center. Leibniz described the center of infinity as "monads". Each single monad contains the reflection of the entire universe. P.Plichta
- It is a peculiar feature of infinity that it can be infinitely large as well as infinitely small. The natural numbers begin with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ..., and never end. The reciprocal numbers begin with 1/1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, ..., and approach zero. The number 1 is therefore a frontier between the whole and the reciprocal numbers. P.Plichta
- In his book Timaeus, Plato describes a reflective surface consisting of two mirrors meeting at a right angle. Such a mirror reverses its image in space and always gives three reflections. P.Plichta
- The four-dimensional infinite space around a point does not possess a z axis, but only x*x*y*y plane geometry. This four dimensions has nothing to do with time. P.Plichta
- An infinite space cannot be three-dimensional. P.Plichta
- The usual sequence of prime number is 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, ... . The number 1, the foundation of all numbers, was not usually found in the sequence. P.Plichta
- I began my examination of the prime numbers with the prime number 5. Prime numbers or prime number twins will always occur around a number divisible by 6 -- [5], 6, [7], and [11], 12, [13], and [17], 18, [19], etc. The product of 0 * 6 = 0 must be found at six to the left of the number 6. The number 0 must also be surrounded by a number twin -- [-1], 0, [1]. The sequence of the first four number twins is therefore

(-1;1) ---- (5;7) ---- (11;13) ---- (17;19). P.Plichta - What I discovered resembled a clock with a 24-hour division of time. The number zero was at the top of the innermost circle. The number 24 was directly above zero in the next larger circle. P.Plichta
- The numbers 1, 2, and 3 are the inital elements of the three number categories

1 --> 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 25, 29, 31, . . .

2 --> 4, 8, 10, 14, 16, 20, 22, 26, 28, 32, . . .

3 --> 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, . . . - Since both the sum and the product of 1, 2, and 3 is equal to six, the number 6 is the scaffold on which the prime numbers within the natural numbers are built. P.Plichta
- The zeroth circle contained the values -1 and 0. The first circle contained the numbers 1 through 24. Eight rays went out though the center though the numbers 1, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, and 23 in the first circle...I decided to name this the "Prime Number Cross". P.Plichta
- I added the numbers in each circle of the Primary Number Cross. The point of intersection between the two circles was counted twice as a starting and final number. I obtained the following values:

1st circle: 0 + 1 + 2 + . . . + 24 = 300 = 1 * 300

2nd circle: 24 + 25 + 26 + . . . + 48 = 900 = 3 * 300

3rd circle: 48 + 49 + 50 + . . . + 72 = 1,500 = 5 * 300

4th circle: 72 + 73 + 74 + . . . + 96 = 2,100 = 7 * 300 - The Prime Number Cross offers the possibility of illustrating the six basic units of the universe --
e, i , pi, 1, 0, and -1.

pi -- the number used in calculating circles.

i -- imaginary number which determines the cross structure of the zero shell.

e -- provides the order for the successive numbers. P.Plichta - Geometrically speaking, reciprocal numbers are located on a curve called a hyperbola -- the inversion of infinitely small sections of increasingly large circles. P.Plichta
- The two laws, 1/2^n and 1/n^2, describe the mutually reciprocal geometries of three-dimensional and four-dimensional space. P.Plichta
- Three-dimensional gas-filled space is a reciprocal numerical space. It must be ordered by reciprocal prime numbers and be a geometric realization of the reversal of four-dimensional, empty, infinite space as ordered by prime numbers in the Prime Number Cross. P.Plichta
- Fractal geometry is coded in the prime numbers. P.Plichta
- The inversion of four-dimensional geometry which is derived from the base numbers 1, 2, and 3 and which contains eight rays must again produce a geometry which is constructed on the numbers 1, 2, and 3, is triangular, and has eight lines. P.Plichta
- Fractal geometry is not the only mathematical phenomenon that has a real existence in nature. Fractal geometry also explains why the musical note is transported with such beautiful precision. P.Plichta
- An Octave is compete after eight steps. The whole secret of music theory is contained in the fact that the halving, three-part, five-part, and seven-part of the string can be shown to result from there being two prime numbers which are not of the form 6n +/- 1.
- Two physical spaces have to exist. The four-dimensional space around a point transports electromagnetic waves according to the order of the whole numbers. If a three-dimensional body is filled with air in such a four-dimensional space, this air will transport heat or sound according to the order of the reciprocal numbers. Both spaces are pure inversions, since for each whole number the infinite reciprocal value also exists. Both types of space are formed on the base numbers 1, 2, and 3 and on the structural number 8. P.Plichta
- An hour was defined during the Babylonian period as the 24th part of a day (one rotation of the Earth). Twentyfour is the product of 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 and is the foundation of the natural prime number rhythm. P.Plichta
- I now postulated that matter only fits into such space as is arranged according to the same principles as the matter itself. Something is either material and countable, or it disappears and dissolves. It then spreads out into infinity as a wave phenomenon, just as a number is a realization of a quantity and its reciprocal value is a diminution towards eternity. P.Plichta
- The infinity of space will exist reciprocally as points of matter. Protons and electrons exist because four-dimensional space requires by its very nature central points of finite size. P.Plichta
- If matter did not exist, not one single atom, there would also be no space.
(Note: There is not one bit of mass called atom, therefore there is no space. Mass is an illusion. Grace)

- Where there is no movement, there is also no time. Energy can therefore be nothing else than the reverse of time. P.Plichta
(Note: There is movement but it is what space does....space gravitates in spirals, but it is at 186,283 mps, therefore so called time is reduced to no-time. There is really no such thing as space, no time and no spacetime. Energy is the reverse of gravity. Grace)

- Because infinity has a triple nature (space, time, and number ), the numbers themselves evolve on the basis of the first three numbers. The basic constant of the Prime Number Cross is the number 3. The expansion constant of the speed of light (of space. Grace) must also be
**3**. P.Plichta(Note: No space and no time leaves number. Of number, there is only 0 and one 0, which is the root of all number. Number 1 is not a number, it is the measure of number. There is no need for measure in wholistic systems. 0 is the only whole system there ever was. Grace)

- The speed of light (of space. Grace) was a natural constant, the value of which never changes. This speed is
**almost exactly 300,000**km per second (186,283 miles per second). P.Plichta - Shining objects are permanently emitting spheroid waves which diminish as they approach infinity with a fixed consistency through the reciprocal square law. P.Plichta
- Each individual atom contains the information and structure of the prime number space. P.Plichta
- If space expands according to the decimal system, then the material that fills this space must also be structured according to this system. The chemical elements are constructed according to the order of the natural numbers. P.Plichta
- The numbers e (2.718...) and pi (3.14159...) can be linked to each other by a formula discovered by Euler: e^(i*pi) = -1. P.Plichta
- The number e, which is the base constant of the universe, must have something to do with the order and combination of the number sequence. P.Plichta
- If there has to be a fourth dimension, this higher and final dimension must have a form of consciousness beyond the bounds of our consciousness. Since the dawn of time, this notion has gone under the name of "God". P.Plichta

From The Entropic / Negentropic Arguments below, we can safely conclude that there is, in relation to "**this side**", a "**other side**" to universe which is negentropically "winding up". From the supraluminal results of Aspect, Bell and scientific experiment, we can safely conclude that there is a faster-than-light component of the "**negative invisible side**" which also has to have a complimentary partner to complete the balanced Universe. As Byers demonstrates, below, previous energy thought to be bound for heat death, "are entrained and mixed back into the plenum of prime radiation, a natural up shift of energy toward the higher frequencies occurs", which proves itself to be the needed balance previously thought not needed, leading to a heat death misjudgment for universe. Balance is always the hallmark of a Universal system.

There are many names for the single triplets: "matter/antimatter", "worlds/antiworlds", +/neutral/-, "darkmatter/visible matter" "forward/backward".

There are many names for the simple composite of "**this side**" and the "**other side**": "Parallel universes" of mainstream science, "reciprocal systems", "binary universe", "forward time/backward time", "future to past/past to future" or "cause then effect/effect then cause".

There are many names for the "**negative invisible side**": "Faster than light", "FTL","superluminal", "supraluminal", all of which must also have a binary partner, "**positive invisible side**".

There are many names for the whole system that doesn't quite fit: Creation, Biologic System, Megaverse, Multiverse, Reciprocal Universe, Inverse Universe, Invert Universe, Ambidextrous Mirror Universe or Binary Universe...

The whole system began as a toroidal spiral. Space spiraling creates the toroidal vortex. It existed from the beginning as soon as space began to curve. The Ancients called it Anu, root of Anu.nnaki. The first Anu was considered The Creator God. The second Anu was called Satan, the Destroyer. Both Anu were spinning the exact same way and so they grated upon each other, creating the first repulsion.

The Universal Anu is any size, at any scale. I call the whole system of Anu, The Toroidal Universe. It recognizes that every level of universe is rooted in the toroidal shape. We can advance a premise that this universal toroid has all the above listed attributes, which is also drawn out in Rodin's "sunflower coil", the basic winding patterns of the basic scalar gravity and scalar consciousness producing, toroidal coil........i.e., winding paths in triplet 3's.

**Name:** Einstein Relativity. (**ER**)

**Location Ref. A:** Any single line of a triplet, left or right of the middle, neutral line. Einstein Relativity only deals with one "past to future" line.

What does each single line represent? A path of time, in motion, which progresses forward or backward, in "time", always in pairs. Trinary Relativity eliminates time and changes time to gravity, giving gravity forward and backward components, with two dimensions rather than with times' "one dimension". These forward and backward components can be considered as "future to past" and "past to future". Both gravities manifest as macro space expansion called "the cosmological constant" or the micro force which might as well be called "strong force" because the weak gravity constant and the strong force constant are measurements of the same, ever tightening spiral into the so-called "atom". Our common gravity is a near balance between the previous two gravities. Light velocity has been changed to space velocity of 186,283 miles per second.

**Name:** Triplet Unit of Trinary Relativity. (**TU**)

**Location Ref. B:** Any triplet group of 3 lines.

What does each group of 3 lines represent? Forward progression gravity/time (micro space), backward progression gravity/time (macro space) and nearly balanced gravity/time (biologic, neutral centerline). These represent the "**positive visible side**" plus the "**negative other side**", of the micro, bio and macro worlds as a subset of its complimentary, invisible worlds of the "**negative invisible side**" plus the "**positive invisible side**".

**Name:** Adjacent Triplet Unit of Trinary Relativity. (**ATU**)

**Location Ref. C:** Any triplet group of 3 lines to each side of any Ref. B triplet.

What does an adjacent group of 3 single lines represent? Exactly opposite configuration to its adjacent neighbor, excluding the neutral middle. Any adjacent group of three triplets represent a triplets path after completing one cycle around the tori, either from "past to future" or "future to past". This simply means that as any triplet advances on its toroidal path, at the "time" its path returns to its original position, it has "advanced" on the toroidal surface. In other words, the path upon a toroidal spiral path is also a spiral path, always advancing.

**Name:** Reversed Triplet Unit of Trinary Relativity. (**RTU**)

**Location Ref. D:** A group of 3 single lines represent, on the exact opposite "**negative other side**" of the torus, unseen from "**positive this side**". It is an un.equal but complimentary, invisible universal group of 3. Trinary Relativity is complete when the equal and opposite, "**pos visible/neg other side**", group of 6 (Ref. BD) is considered along with the "**pos/neg invisible side**" group of 6 (Ref. E).

**Name:** Negative Triplet Unit of Trinary Relativity. (**NTU**)

**Location Ref. E:** A group of 3 single lines represent, on the exact opposite "**negative invisible side**" of the torus, unseen from "**positive visible side**".

Those 3 single lines "**negative invisible side**" (Ref. E.) plus its partner "**positive invisible side**", represent the same as (Ref. B) and (Ref. D) on the "**positive visible side**". All are on the surface of the Universal Toroid, but across the center of the torus and are under the laws of Trinary Relativity. The "**negative invisible side**" is an un.equal but complimentary, invisible universal group of 3 on the "**negative invisible side**" plus its partner group of 3 "**positive invisible side**". Trinary Relativity is complete when the equal and opposite, "**negative invisible side**", group of 6 (Ref. E) is considered along with the "**positive visible side**" group of 6 (Ref. B) and (Ref. D).

**Name:** Gravity and Consciousness Unit of Trinary Relativity. (**GCU**)

**Location Ref. F:** The neutral center of each triplet and the center axis of any micro, bio and macro toroid contains the seed of backward gravity/time plus backward consciousness and supraluminal gravity/time plus supraluminal consciousness, which all operate in every triplet, at all three levels of micro, bio and macro, on the "**positive visible side**" and the "**negative invisible side**", which consciousness and gravity also moves forward and backward plus consciousness and gravity expand and contract at all three levels of micro, bio and macro levels.

A logician makes a logical deduction

The "Probable" Non-existence of Antimatter WorldsIf...

Time is defined as moving in the direction of increasing entropy...

And...

According to some physicists, antimatter would have time running in reverse to our own...

And...

Planets composed of antimatter would also be reversed in time...

And...

The nature of paradox doesn't eliminate this absurdity...

And...

No logical reason rules out the existence of such worlds...

Then...

Why have antimatter worlds thus far eluded discovery?A Suppositional Reason...

If...

The laws of probability favor the increase of entropy...

And...

The effect of an antimatter world is to decrease entropy...

Then...

Cause and effect can be rationalized as the mutual explanation.Footnotes...

Let's suppose you have an antimatter planet, filled with antimatter people. A "negative" (antimatter) faucet is turned on, and out spurts negative water. From our standpoint, the situation is time-reversed: water converges together...and goes up the spout, backwards.

This event, while theoretically possible, is so improbable that the odds against it are literally googols-to-one. In other words, given at most 10^11 galaxies and billions of years, it just won't happen.

So it appears obvious: the likelihood of antiparticles arranging themselves into large systems of decreasing entropy is so fantastically improbable, the possibility of an antimatter world turns out to be negligible.

Since we exist, our lives follow a statistical, natural course of events. Our forward-in-time perspective is dictated by the higher probability of entropy's increase. Being "existent" places us in the role of Prime Agent. Since we exist, antimatter worlds are highly unlikely.

The explanation above is not based on the absurdity of paradox.

It is based on relative improbability.

**But, what of this negentropic cascading into shorter and shorter wavelength?** Byers has something to say and so does Ray Tomes. Other authors describe negentropy as the "**negative other side**" of the entropic "winding down" condition of the visible universe.

The existence of the plenum and the cycle of prime radiation removes the concern for the thermodynamic concept of an inevitable "Heat Death of the Universe". The heat death concept predicts that all organized energy (low entropy) will eventually decay to unavailable disorganized energy (high entropy) as low-grade heat. This concept is viewed by some scholars as a form of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.Other popular models view the absence of excess star light energy as an indication that the Universe must be expanding and the expanding volume of space provides an expanding sink capacity for the heat death energy. This radiation and shadowing model's concept of energy frequency up-conversion does not require the Universe or space to expand or warp in order to provide a sink for the lost energy of Olbers' paradox.

It well known that two frequencies mix via supraposition. This is directly related to the suprapositional addition of force vectors in electrostatic force fields. The mixing produces Fourier frequency content consisting of the sum, difference and the two original frequencies. The energy (e) content of radiation is also known to be directly proportional to its frequency (f), e = hf, where (h) is PlanckÕs constant. This indicates that as the low-grade heat and radiant energy manifested by matter, are entrained and mixed back into the plenum of prime radiation, a natural up shift of energy toward the higher frequencies occurs. Consequently, low-grade heat is a byproduct of utilizing high-grade energy, and high-grade energy is reproduced by the mixing and absorption of up shifted radiation returning to the plenum of prime background radiation. This prevents the possibility of a universal heat death through increased entropy, which is frequency downshift.

The following simplified example of frequency mixing demonstrates the natural ultraviolet up-conversion of the process. Mixing two harmonic frequencies through supraposition andÊinterference is modeled here. The process produces a sum frequency, a difference frequency and the two originals. It should be noted that multiplication of frequencies only occurs by cascading through multiple generations. Related cascading processes are fractal geometry and cellular automata. This simplified mathematical black body mixing example is modeled here with the following assumptions:

* The waste energy being added to the ambient [sink] is a single frequency at the red end of the visual spectrum, red, and is designated as (R).

* The harmonic frequency to be mixed with the red frequency is provided by the ambient in the infrared spectra and is equal to one half of the frequency of (R). It is designated (K). Therefore, R is the second harmonic of K,... R = 2K.

* The ambient is considered an infinite source of the infrared (K).

* The artificial waste heat source for (R) is constant with an intensity above ambient during the mixing process of returning energy to the ambient plenum.

* In the following chart of the cascading generations of frequencies, only the new frequencies [sources] will be added in each generation. No attempt will be made to chart the repeat occurrences for each generation's original frequencies since there are continuous sources for both original frequencies.

* The intensity/amplitude and phase of the succeeding generations will not be considered. Relative intensities of the frequencies are best judged by the form of the standard black body radiation curve. Only the existence or absence of frequencies are charted.

The most surprising and important result for this review is that there are no sub-harmonics or fractional harmonics produced. It is readily seen that the energy quickly cascades towards the higher frequencies. There is no mechanism in the sum and difference arithmetic of integral harmonics to produce a cascade toward frequencies lower than the lowest original harmonic frequency. This suggests that all radiant energy emitted by matter, mixes via supraposition in a manner to increase the frequency above the lowest original frequency and thus returns the energy to the higher prime frequencies. This negates the concept of a universal heat death, and demonstrates a renewed Phoenix of available radiant energy returning to the plenum of prime radiation.

The above example has assumed that the returning waste frequency is mixingÊwith a lower harmonic. If mixing with a higher frequency is actually the predominant natural mode, then this would compound the frequency up shifting for available energy returning to the prime plenum.

Gary had been emailing with the rest of our group, from

07/23/01 to 01/25/03 before he speculated upon

the multiverse (March 2003).

Lui had been emailing with the rest of our group, from

05/25/02 to 05/11/03 before he sent out 11:11.pdf.

Root Theories from which Trinary Relativity is built.

1. Categories of the Forth Spatial Dimension

C. Links on a "Small" Fourth Spatial Dimension (String theory).

D. Links on a "Large" Fourth Spatial Dimension (Hyperspheres).

E. Links on a "Medium" Fourth Spatial Dimension (Gravity).

2. Hyperspheres, Hyperspace, and the Fourth Spatial Dimension

3. Suprastring Theory by Brian Green

4. Physics: Suprastrings - A Theory of Everything? Connections Through Time, Issue 6: January - March 2000

5. FTL- Mathew Orman

6. FTL data transmission

7. Multidimensional Glossary The presumptions of this glossary are highly debatable and should be read with caution.

8. Spacetime Glossary The presumptions of this glossary are highly debatable and should be read with caution.

9. Negating Relativity- Marmet

10. Supralight Velocity by Petrus

11. Suprasymmetry Stands the Test

12. Spacetime Curvature Around Nucleons (PDF)

13. Five Dimensional Unification (PDF)

14. 4 Reference Systems by Wilson Ogg

**The Unified Theory
by Wilson Ogg
**

The Two-Way Flow

Natural Reference System

Biographical Data

*An Unifying Approach to Consciousness and Matter*

**REFERENCE SYSTEMS**

The two way flow theory, which might also be designated as the unified theory, incorporates four different reference systems to the phenomena of our segue, which are as follows:

(1) A fixed reference system with Cartesian spatial coordinates;

(2) A constantly progressing reference system, with unity being the apparent but illusory velocity of light;

(3) A recessional reference system, going outward from the microcosm to the macrocosm, and going inward from the macrocosm to the microcosm; and

(4) A synchronous reference system that recognizes the illusory nature of the velocity of light, treats light as an acting force and not as radiant energy, and in which the synchronism of the reference system combines aspects of fixed, constantly progressing, and recessional reference systems.

The Cartesian reference system is a fixed system with spatial co-ordinates. The constantly progressive, the recessional, and synchronous are natural reference systems containing within the systems their own points of reference. A reference system need not have a rigid body of reference or a substitute for a rigid body to serve as a point of reference.

*As Description of Position*

Every description of an event or the position of an object in space is based on the specification of the point on a rigid body, or body of reference, with which that event or object coincides. The Cartesian co-ordinates are used in physics as means of describing a position by means of numerical measures without using marked positions on the rigid body of reference. The system of co-ordinates consists of three plane surfaces perpendicular to each other and firmly attached to a rigid body.

Thus, the scene of an event is determined largely by the specification of the lengths of three perpendiculars or co-ordinates (*x*, *y*, *z*), which can be dropped from the scene of an event to the three plane surfaces. The lengths of the three co-ordinates are determined by a series of manipulations with rigid measuring rods according to the principles of Euclidian geometry. In practice, of course, the rigid surfaces that constitute the system of co-ordinates are generally not available, and the magnitudes of the co-ordinates are not actually determined by rigid rods but by indirect means.

In relation to the special theory of relativity, Einstein stated as follows:

Every description of events in space involves the use of a rigid body to which such events have to be referred. The resulting relationship takes for granted that the laws of Euclidian geometry hold for "distances," the "distance" being represented physically by means of the conventions of two marks on a rigid body.

In the special theory of relativity, by giving up the absolute character of simultaneity, although he never applied simultaneity to light as an acting force, Einstein was able to bring in harmony with the equivalence of all inertial systems (the special principle of relativity) the assumption of the constancy of the velocity of light in empty space. In general relativity, Einstein apparently did not recognize that he might have completely dispensed with a fixed system of Cartesian coordinates. In his formulation of the principle of equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses, he unnecessarily treats this principle as an extension of the equivalence of all inertial systems (the special principle of relativity) under a fixed reference system. Under general relativity, the Cartesian coordinates become covariant with respect to arbitrary continuous transformation of the coordinates. By not formulating a completely new reference system to replace the fixed Cartesian reference system, Einstein incorporated unneeded complexity to the general theory of relativity. Perhaps he did not realize that the Cartesian reference system was not the only possible reference system or he felt that scientists were used to the Cartesian co-ordinates, and it was wiser to revise them then to eliminate them altogether, but his failure to do so either led to, or was coupled with, or was the result of, his failure to recognize the real nature of light.

The fundamental law of Galilei-Newton mechanics is the law of inertia, which can be stated as follows:

A body sufficiently removed far from other bodies continues in a state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line.This law not only relates to the motion of bodies but also to the reference bodies or systems of coordinates, generally considered permissible, for use in mechanical description. The visible fixed stars are bodies for which the law of inertia holds true to a high degree of approximation. If we use a system of co-ordinates rigidly attached to the Earth, every fixed stars describes a circle of immense radius in the course of an astronomical day or during the procession of the equinoxes. This result is inconsistent with the law of inertia. Thus, as recognized by Einstein, the law on inertia must refer only to motions in systems of co-ordinates relative to which the fixed stars do not move in a circle. A system of co-ordinates of which the state of motion is such that the law of inertia holds relative to the system is called a "Galileian system of co-ordinates." According to Einstein, the laws of mechanics of Galilei-Newton can be regarded as valid only for a Galilean system of coordinates.

In his special theory of relativity, Einstein used Galilean coordinates. He stated the special principle of relativity as follows:

If relative to K, K' is a uniformly moving co-ordinate system devoid of rotation, then natural phenomena run their course with respect to K' according to exactly the same general laws as with respect to K.

The Gaussian coordinates relate to a surface with both *u* and *v* curves. These *u*-curves must not intersect each other, and through each point of the surface one and only one curve must pass. Thus, a definable value of *u* belongs to every point on the surface. The *v* curves must satisfy the same conditions as the *u*-curves, and are provided with numbers in a corresponding manner. As a result, a value of *u* and a value of *v* belong to surface, let us say, of a table. These two numbers are Gaussian coordinates. For example, a point P on the surface of the table might have the Gaussian coordinates of *u*=3, *v*=1. Under general relativity the laws of nature of phenomena are the same regardless their motion, which Einstein stating the general principle of relativity as follows:

"All Gaussian co-ordinate systems are essentially equivalent for the formulation of the general laws of nature."

The exact formulation of the general principle of relativity set forth above, replaced a provisional definition that read as follows:

"All bodies of reference K, K', etc., are equivalent for the description of natural phenomena (formulation of the general laws of nature), whatever may be their state of motion."

Thus, Einstein used the Gauss co-ordinate system to take the place of a body of reference for the reason that in space-time description the use of a body of reference is generally not possible. In gravitational fields, there is no such thing as rigid bodies with Euclidian properties. The fictitious rigid body of reference is not usable in the general theory of relativity. Moreover, the motion of clocks is influenced by gravitational fields and a physical definition of time made directly with the aid of clocks does not have the same degree of plausibility in general relativity than in special relativity. Under general relativity, clocks satisfy only one condition, which is clock readings observed simultaneously on adjacent clocks in space differ from each other by an indefinitely small amount. In the view of Einstein, the great power possessed by the general principle of relativity is "the comprehensive limitation which is imposed on the laws of nature" under the general principle of relativity. Under the Unified Theory this comprehensive limitation is wholly unnecessary and is eliminated in its formulation of the general principle of relativity.

Under the Unified Theory there is no need for a body of reference or for the Gaussian co-ordinate system to serve in place of a rigid body of reference. Manifestation itself contains its own limitations, with no need for limitations to be imposed upon a general principle of relativity in order to describe natural phenomena. Our segue is necessarily limited by its microscopic and macrocosmic horizons of withdrawal, creating our segue as a finite unit of manifestations. All finite units of manifestations have self-contained limits. The belief-system contained in the formulation of the Cartesian co-ordinates and in variations of the Cartesian co-ordinates is no longer adequate to serve as a basis for mastery over natural phenomena. Our increased knowledge of natural phenomena requires us to discard many presuppositions that have been either disproved or shown to be inadequate to serve as an understandable description of natural phenomena.

A constantly progressing reference system is one based upon scalar movement of the reference system at the speed of light and is the one used in the reciprocal theory of Dewey Larson, who properly treats phenomena of our universe as being derived from attributes of motion (see* Nothing But Motion* by Dewey Larson: North Pacific Publishers, P.O.Box 13255, Portland, OR 97213). As the dots on an expanding balloon constantly recede from one another, the speed of the photon would not be a result of its velocity in reference to a fixed reference system, but would be a result of the fact that each photon, although stationary as to the progression of the natural reference system, moves away from other photons at the velocity of light under a fixed reference system.

As to a constantly progressive reference system, Dewey Larson stated as follows:

". . . the natural reference system in a universe of motion is not a stationary system but a moving system. . . .As seen in the context of a stationary system of reference, each absolute location is moving outward from its point of reference at a constant unit speed.Because of this motion of the natural reference system with respect to the stationary systems, an object that has no independent motion, and is not subject to any external force, does not remain stationary in any system of fixed spatial coordinates. It remains in the same

absolutelocation, and therefore moves outward at unit speed from its initial location, and from any object that occupies such a location."

In his discussion of scalar motion, Dewey stated as follows:

To illustrate the primary difference between scalar motion and the vectorial motion of our ordinary experience let us consider two cases which involve a moving object X between two points A and B on the surface of a balloon. In the first case, let us assume that the size of the balloon is maintained constant, and that the object X is something capable of independent motion. It has a specific direction in the context of a stationary spatial reference system, and if that direction is BA--that is, X is moving away from B--the distance XA decreases and the distance XB increases. In the second case, we will assume that X is a fixed spot on the balloon surface, and that its motion is due to expansion of the balloon. Here the motion is scalar. It is simply outward away from all other points on the balloon, and has no specific direction. In this case the motion away from B does not increase the distance XA.BothXB and XA increase. The motion of the natural reference system relative to any fixed spatial reference system is motion of this character. It has a positive scalar magnitude, but no inherent direction.

The Unified Theory agrees with Dewey Larson in believing that it is motion that gives rise to natural phenomena. But it differs from Larson in substantial ways. Much of what Larson would treat as motion would be treated under the Unified Theory as force, and a Larsonian universe is not infinitely divisible into patterns of centripetal and centrifugal forces.

A major contribution of the unified or two-way flow theory over general relativity by Einstein and over the reciprocal theory of Dewey Larson is its discovery of recessional and synchronous reference systems. A photon has an apparent velocity either under a fixed reference system or under a constantly progressing reference system. Under a fixed reference system, the photon is in motion at the speed of light relative to other phenomena of the reference system, and under a constantly progressing reference system, the photon is receding from our segue at the velocity of light for the reason that its location in space is receding from other locations in space at the velocity of light. Both a fixed reference system and a constantly expanding reference system presupposes either that light itself has an invariable velocity or that the speed of recession of the galaxies from one another is at an invariable speed.

Under a recessional reference system, the motion of the system is scalar and not vectorial, and in this sense similar to a constantly progressing reference system. Light is an active force but as an active force becomes a participant in the recessional movement of the system. Instead of the movement being a constantly progressing movement at the velocity of light, the reference system itself goes from zero velocity to the velocity of light. The reference system, termed a seque, under the unified theory, has limits that are at either microcosmic or macrocosmic horizons. As a reference system it is constantly expanding.

Light as an active force comes into manifestation from the effect upon each other of the centrifugal force from the microcosm and the centripetal force from the macrocosm. Thereafter, with equal probability, light become a participant in a recessional movement towards the microcosm or a recessional movement towards the macrocosm at constant accelerating speeds until withdrawal from the segue at either its macrocosmic or microcosmic horizons.

The increasing velocity is only relative to an observer in a given segue. Since motion is necessarily infinitely divisible, it is infinitely divisible into finite manifestations under which motion goes from zero velocity to that velocity falsely attributed as being the velocity of light but which is really that velocity that sets the horizon limits of a segue.

The recessional movement is a product of the energy-less interactions among centripetal and centrifugal forces. Energy may be transferred from one system to another by an energy-less means of transfer. See The Earth, Moon,and Tidal Waters (click here) for one means of such a transfer.

A synchronous reference system recognizes light as a form of inductive synchronism and recognizes the fallacy of treating light as a form of electromagnetic radiation. Instead it treats light as an acting force. Under a synchronous reference system light still originates and withdraws from our segue, with the delay between impulses at the transmitter and receiver being equal to the velocity of light under Maxwell's equations.The general principle of relativity under the synchronous reference system of the Unified Theory is as follows:

"All coordinate systems are essentially equivalent for the formulation of the general laws of nature."

Thus, the general principle of relativity is no longer limited to Gaussian co-ordinate systems.

The general principle of relativity as formulated by Einstein necessarily had to be limited to Gaussian co-ordinate systems as a result of Einstein`s treatment of light as radiant energy in a closed system.

The synchronous co-ordinate system and the Gauss co-ordinate system used by Einstein would both reach, for example, the conclusion that the the rotation of the perihelion of the planet Mercury around the sun is 43 seconds of arc per century. After taking into account the movement of the fixed stars and the effects of other planets on Mercury, Leverrier found in 1859 and Neucomb found in 1895 an unexplained perihelion movement of the orbit Mercury of 43 seconds an arc per century. Einstein properly explained that the unexplained perihelion movement was a result of the rotation of the perihelion around the sun. The Unified Theory would likewise determined that the unexplained perihelion movement was a result that the perihelion was itself engaged in a centripetal movement around the sum.

Under the Gauss co-ordinate system used by Einstein and under the improper assumption that light is radiant energy, Einstein assumed that rays of light from stars that pass close to a heavenly body would be be deviated towards that body. In 1919 in experiments made during a total eclipse his assumptions were treated as confirmed. The results, however, of the experiments would be equally consistent with the Unified Theory and the use of a synchronous reference system. Centripetal and centrifugal forces affect other centripetal and centrifugal forces, and the active force of light would clearly be affected the active force of an heavenly body. The deviation is not because radiant energy from one body is being deflected by the active force of gravity from another body but is a result of how active forces affect one another. Thus, Einstein recognized the affect of gravity as an active force but still treated light as radiant energy.

© Wilson Ogg

15. 180 FAQ about Big Bang Cosmology

16. Suprastring Theory

17. Physics: Suprastrings - A Theory of Everything?

18. Physics: A Theory of Moving Dimensions

19. The Void Theory by Steven L. Comee

20. Nat'l Acadamies Press: Einstein's Unfinished Symphony (2000)

21. Wave Interpretation of Special Relativity/Quantum Mechanics. Spassky Stanislav (Moscow)

© Copyright. Robert Grace. 2003