


The "Message of Cydonia"
First Communication from an Extraterrestrial Civilization?
By
Richard C.Hoagland* and
Erol O. Torun @
Copyright (C) 1989
All Rights Reserved
Introduction
For the past 13 years  ever since an unmanned NASA Viking spacecraft successfully photographed the surface of the planet Mars in 1976  a mystery has loomed . . . a milelong, 1500ft high humanoid "face" discovered in a northern Martian desert called "Cydonia." In its immediate vicinity have been identified other "anthropomorphic objects": most notable, several "pyramids" (see Fig. 1). Various investigators [Owen, 1976  see Hoagland (1987); DiPietro and Molenaar (1980); Hoagland (1986);Pozos (1986); Hoagland (1987); and Carlotto (1988)] have examined this collection of objects over the past 13 years, and have reached widely varying conclusions. The essence of the controversey  its potential importance or nonimportance as a "scientific" problem  is perhaps summed up best by Hoagland (1987):
"Either these features on Mars are natural and this investigation is a complete waste of time, or they are artificial and this is one of the most important discoveries of our entire existence on Earth. If they are artificial it is imperative that we figure them out, because they 'do not belong there.' There presence may be trying very hard to tell us something extraordinary." 
Background to This Study
The initial purpose of this study was an examination of the "Cydonia mathematics," which at first glance emphasize the importance of two "dimensionless constants": "e" (the base of natural logarithms = 2.718282);and "pi" [the ratio of the circumference of a circle (or sphere) to its diameter = 3.14159]. These two constants appear, both separately (as "e" and "pi"), and apparantly together (as "e/pi"), redundantly encoded in the fundamental geometry of the layout of the "anomalous features" at Cydonia.

* The Mars Mission: Box 981, Wytheville, VA 24382; (703)2287822
@ The Defense Mapping Agency: Reston, VA 220903207

Following Hoagland's proposal (op cit) that a mathematical "relationship model" would be the key to validating the basic reality of Cydonia as an architectural construction, and that "e/pi" might be one significant relationship related to the Complex, Torun (1988) made key mathematical discoveries within a major geometric "Rosetta Stone" located at Cydonia  a unique, fivesided, symmetrical "pyramid": the socalled "D&M." He elegantly "decoded" a series of internal angles found within the pyramid, and discovered the two mathematical constants, "e" and "pi," encoded several times and in several different ways (via angleratios, trignometric functions, and radian measure)  to three significantfigure accuracy (see Fig. 2).
Hoagland (1988), in remeasuring the "complex" he initially proposed, promptly verified the existence of identical constants, encoded via identical "dimensionless ratios," in geometry linking *all* the previously identified key objects at Cydonia  and to at least the same measurement accuracy as Torun (see Fig. 3a, "Cydonia Geometric Relationship Model").
Subsequently, using geodetic data from "The 1982 Control Network of Mars" (Davies and Katayama, 1983), updated by Davies for Cydonia (1988), Hoagland discovered (op cit) that the critical object Torun had "decoded"  the Pyramid  lies precisely astride the key geodetic Martian latitude expressive of the ArcTangent equivalent of "e/pi": 40.87 degrees = ArcTan 0.865!
The Significance of "e/pi"
Following these discoveries, the authors (this paper) began the current systematic inquiry into whether there was indeed a "message" at Cydonia: encoded geometrically in terms of specific placement of specific objects, by means of redundant mathematical ratios derived by dividing the observed angular relationships into one another. Over the last century or so, several prominent proposals have been made for encoding "CETI" messages by means of mathematical constants (Cocconi and Morrison, 1959; Sagan, 1973; Rubtsov and Ursal, 1984), and even physical geometric relationships on planetary surfaces (Gauss, et al.,  see Crowe, 1986).
In particular, the authors were attempting to determine if e/pi = 0.865 [as opposed to the more fundamental ratio (sqrt 3)/2 = 0.866] was the ratio specifically intended at Cydonia. Others (notably Davies) had already raised key questions regarding this potential ambiguity.
Other constants demonstrated at Cydonia by Hoagland and Torun being "sqrt 2," "3" and "sqrt 3" (1988), this confusion regarding which constant was "really" represented by the observed, redundant angle ratios, trig functions, and radian measure was considered an important question to resolve. Since "3" and "sqrt 3" are numbers essential to calculating "areas" and "volumes," Torun decided to explore their geometric implications first, following on Gauss (op cit).
He began by investigating geometrical relationships among several fundamental "Platonic solids": the tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, icosohedron, and dodecahedron. In pursuing these explorations, Torun examined the mathematical properties of "circumscribed polyhedra"  the Platonic solids embedded in a sphere.
Almost immediately, he discovered something quite astonishing (to a nonspecialist): the surface area of a tetrahedron (the "lowest order," simplest Platonic form), inscribed inside a "higherorder" form  a sphere results in a surface ratio (sphere/tetrahedron) almost precisely equivalent to "e," the base of natural logarithms:
e = 2.718282
surface of sphere
 = 2.720699
surface of circumscribed tetrahedron
Difference = 0.002417
The derivation of the above is as follows:
(expressions are written in FORTRAN notation)
Let A(t) = surface area of tetrahedron
A(s) = surface area of circumscribing sphere
R = radius of circumscribing sphere
For a regular tetrahedron of edge a:
A(t) = a**2 * sqrt(3) and R = a * sqrt(6)/4
For the circumscribing sphere:
A(s) = 4*pi*R**2 = 4*pi * (a*sqrt(6)/4)**2 = (3/2)*pi*a**2
Area of sphere/area of circumscribed tetrahedron
A(s)/A(t) = (3/2)*pi*a**2/(a**2 * sqrt(3)) = 3*pi/(2*sqrt (3))
A(s)/A(t) = 2.720699  an approximation of e = 2.718282
When Torun substituted this "close approximation of e", termed e', in the equation most approximated at Cydonia:
e/pi = 0.865
He discovered that:
e'/pi = 2.720699/3.141593 = 0.866025 = (sqrt 3)/2
Or . . . precisely the observed "e/pi" ratio discovered at Cydonia!
The fact that e'/pi equals (sqrt 3)/2 can be demonstrated algebraically:
Since e' was defined as 3*pi/(2*sqrt (3)),
e'/pi = 3*pi/(2*sqrt (3)) / pi = 3/(2*sqrt (3)) = sqrt(3)/2
To place the above math in simple terms:
The values of e/pi and (sqrt 3)/2 are
precisely equal when e/pi is evaluated using
the approximation of e that is generated by
the geometry of a circumscribed tetrahedron.
This simple fact completely resolves the ambiguity regarding which ratio  e/pi or (sqrt 3)/2  was intended at Cydonia (see Fig. 4):
Apparently, both were!
Since the most redundantly observed Cydonia ratio is 0.866 and not 0.865 (the true ratio of the base of natural logarithms, divided by Pi  to three significantfigures), it must now be clear, however, that the *primary* meaning of the "geometry of Cydonia" was in all likelihood intended to memoralize the (sphere)/(circumscribed tetrahedron) ratio[which is also (sqrt 3/2)], and not "e/pi".
Further examples of "e/pi" at Cydonia  appearing in connection with the ArcTan of 50.6 degrees (present at least twice in association with the Face)  when examined by Hoagland, confirm that Torun's "circumscribed tetrahedral ratio"  e' = 2.72069  and NOT the base of natural logarithms (e = 2.718282) provides a closer fit to the observed number
Thus strongly implying that "tetrahedral geometry" (and NOT the usual association of "e" with "growth equations") is the predominent meaning of "e/(sqrt 5)" and "(sqrt 5)/e"  two other specific ratios found redundantly throughout the complex:
e/(sqrt 5) = 1.215652
e'/(sqrt 5) = 1.216734
Cydonia ratio = 1.217 = ArcTan 50.6 degrees
(The detailed implications of this association  e' and (sqrt 5)  will be examined in a subsequent paper.)
These results, combined with other examples in the Complex (D&M Pyramid angles 60 degrees/ 69.4 degrees = 0.865 ) are what lead us to the conclusion that in fact *both* constants  e and e'  are deliberately encoded at Cydonia. In particular:
D&M Pyramid apex = 40.868 deg N
= ArcTan 0.865256 = e/pi
But another feature on the D&M  the wedgeshaped projection on the front  defines the Pyramid's bilateral symmetry and orientation directly toward the Face. This feature also now seems to mark an equally important latitude:
D&M "wedge" = 40.893 deg N
= ArcTan 0.866025 = e'/pi = (sqrt 3)2
Torun identifies a conspicuous "knob," lying at the end of this wedge, as the "benchmark" designed to mark precisely the correct "e'/pi" latitude  40.893 degrees, approx. 1/40th degree North of the true apex of the Pyramid. The terminus of this wedge, together with the NW corner of the pyramid, are the only two points on the pyramid that, when connected, denote a line of latitude (see Fig. 5).
Again, putting this in simple terms:
The geometry of a circumscribed tetrahedron is not only suggested by the alignments in Cydonia, but also by the siting latitude,size, shape, and orientation of the D&M Pyramid itself. 
This discovery only underscores the importance apparently attached to "circumscribed tetrahedral geometry" in the construction of Cydonia  raising the important question:
Why?
The "Message of Cydonia"
Verification of a highlyspecific and redundant communication of "circumscribed tetrahedral geometry"  including its obviously *deliberate* extension to the siting of the Cydonia Complex on the planet  would be deemed a phenomenonal discovery. If this is indeed "the message of Cydonia," crafted by what Mars' hostile environment strongly implies was a visiting interstellar culture (Hoagland, 1987), then what could have been its purpose?
Apparently:
To communicate the "importance" of tetrahedral geometry itself!
If this is the successful "decoding of the Message"  its existence (if not the sheer effort expended in its communication) must in turn raise obvious questions regarding "hitherto unrecognized properties" of circumscribed tetrahedra.
Understanding the Meaning of "the Message": Verification in Hitherto Unrecognized Geophysical Phenomena
Since the latitude of the entire Cydonia Complex seems to have been carefully chosen to reflect the ArcTANGENT of this circumscribed tetrahedral "message, it occurred to the authors that "something important might lie at the LATITUDE represented by the vertices of a circumscribed tetrahedron  placed 'inside a planet'." This would represent the most elegent expression of the ArcTANGENT trignometric function emphasized repeatedly within the Complex  especially the choice (out of more than 18,000 possible other choices, to equal numerical precision) of the specific Martian latitude: 40.87 N.
In working out the several possible implications of such geometry, Torun promptly discovered the following: if a circumscribed tetrahedron is placed inside a globe representing a gridded planetary surface, with one vertex located either on the geographical "North" or "South" polar axis, the resulting latitude TANGENT to the other three vertices will lie at 19.5degrees N. or S.  120 degrees of longitude apart.
Torun (1989) immediately noted on Earth the existence of several significant MesoAmerican ceremonial complexes at this specific northern latitude  raising intriguing cultural and scientific possibilities for lost or forgotten "ancient knowledge of the significance of circumscribed tetrahedral geometry" (Becker and Hagen, 1987). Unfortunately, these implications are too extensive for inclusion here.
Hoagland noted something more physically significant: the largest shield volcanic complex on Earth  the Hawaiian Caldera  is located very close to 19.5 North! He then realized that a similar latitude marks the location of the largest shield volcano currently known in the entire solar system: Olympus Mons, at 19 N.  on Mars.
Subsequent survey of solar system geodetic maps  made from spacecraft photography of the past thirty years, encompassing planetary surfaces from Lunar Orbiter images of the Farside of the Moon, to Voyager 2 closeups of Uranus, its satellites, and now (at this writing) the planet Neptune  revealed a remarkable (and currently inexplicable) geophysical phenomenon (see Table 1):
The majority of "active centers" on these objects  from the greatest shield volcanos on the "terrestrial planets" (including equivalent features on their most anomalously active satellites!), to the enormous atmospheric disturbances seen on some "gas giants" ("The Great Red Spots" of Jupiter and, now, of Neptune) seem preferentially to occur very close to 19.5 degrees N. or S., irrespective of other planetary factors  mass, rotation rate, obliquity to their respective orbits, etc. (see Fig. 6)!
There was some indication, however, that the polarity of the dipole magnetic field, offset from the spinaxis, determined in *which hemisphere* the phenomenon appeared; Jupiter's GRS, at approximately 20 degrees S., is consistent (in this model) with its opposite (from terrestrial convention) dipole field polarity. [This raises the interesting possibility of a "magnetic field prediction" vis a vis Neptune, before the upcoming Voyager Encounter (Aug 25, 1989)  based on observation that its "Great Red Spot" is at the same latitude, and in the same hemisphere, as Jupiter's . . .]
"Embedded Tetrahedral Latitude" Discovered At Cydonia
Following this striking, systemwide geophysical confirmation of a predictive (if baffling) "embedded tetrahedral model," the authors made another significant geometrical discovery at Cydonia itself:
The critical 19.5degree tangential latitude of the "embedded tetrahedron" is specifically associated with a massive, *tetrahedral pyramid* located TANGENTIALLY, on the circular rim, of a 2mile impact crater; in turn, this "pyramid" is connected TANGENTIALLY (via a line denoting the exact North/South meridian) to a circular (planetlike?) feature termed "the Tholus"; which, in turn, is connected to a third, linear feature ("the Cliff") positioned TANGENTIAL to the same crater (see Fig. 3b).
This highlyspecific geometric "statement"  a 19.5degree angle offset to the local meridian, connecting three objects (one of them a tetrahedron!) in a way that reinforces the TANGENTIAL importance of that relationship  seems to explicitly establish a "geometric connection" between "a tetrahedron" (the pyramid), a circular, "planetlike" construction (the Tholus), and the linear "Cliff' (the 19.5degree offset reference), a relationship also known to be coded elsewhere in the Complex, in terms of derived mathematical constants: specifically, "e'/pi."
This explicit geometric statement also uniquely establishes an *identical* 19.5degree angle offset between the D&M (at the other end of the Complex) and the resulting "map grid"  further underscoring the significance of the D&M's unique latitude relationships (see Fig. 5).
Conclusion:
These interlocking, extremely meaningful, and highly predictive relationships  coded now in both the mathematical and blatant geometric aspects of the Complex  can only be interpretated with extraordinary effort as anything other than the result of a deliberate and systematic plan  designed to underscore the importance of "tetrahedral geometry." 
That the anomalies predicted by this "geometry" encompass a range of demonstrable solar system phenomena  from deeplyburied planetary mantle "hot spots," to associated shield volcanoes, to atmospheric thermal "upwellings," etc.  is also now readily apparent
Even if the reason for their specific "latitudedependence" is not!
The Significance of the "Cydonia Message"
Lest there be any confusion, the authors are NOT claiming there is "a tetrahedron buried inside each planet!" Rather, it is suggested that the "tetrahedral geometry" explicitly designated by "Cydonia" is revealing an equivalent higherorder mathematical topology: i.e., a vorticular "twotorus" energy flow and internal fluid dynamics, equivalent to tetrahedral mathematics. That such an internal "vorticular pattern" could be explicitly modeled by an "embedded tetrahedral topology" is mathematically wellknown (Porteous, I. R., 1981). That such a "geometric shorthand"  directing us specifically to some underlying physical manifestation of tetrahedral mathematics  was left specifically for us at Cydonia, seems now almost inescapable . . . if not inescapably significant.
A quantitative treatment of the physics underlying this phenomenon would appear likely to advance our understanding of energy transfer inside planets considerably  a not unexpected outcome, if this indeed is "Mankind's first successfullydecoded extraterrestrial message." Additional observations suggest, however, that the significance of these predictions could extend far beyond "the simple siting of active volcanic centers on the surfaces of nearby worlds . . ."
"Cydonia Tetrahedral Model" Extended to the Giant Planets
We have already alluded to the surprising conformance of the planet Neptune to this mysterious "embedded tetrahedral model." Its newlydiscovered "Great Red Spot" (as imaged by the Voyager 2 spacecraft) now strikingly coincides with the "19.5degree latitude predictions" communicated by Cydonia. It is the growing suspicion of the authors, however, that the imminent Voyager studies of Neptune, coupled with a reanalysis of those studies it conducted of Uranus, may provide vital evidence that the "Cydonia equations" are trying to tell us about more than just energy transfer . . .
Based on the evidence detailed below, it is our suggestion that these observations may relate to actual energy generation.
For many years there have been observed "energy excesses" in the overall energy balances exhibited by the four major planets of the outer solar system: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. These planets, inexplicably, all radiate significantly more energy into space than they receive from the Sun at their respective distances (Hubbard, 1980).
Jupiter's positive energy balance (1.67  compared to solar input) apparently derives mainly from primordial heat retained during it's "collapse phase" from the original solar nebula, 4.5 billion years ago. A secondary contribution is calculated as created by the internal separation of helium from hydrogen ("helium drip"), with the resulting release of additional gravitational potential energy (Smoluchowski, 1967; Graboske et al., 1975).
Saturn, far less massive than Jupiter, is considered too small to have retained significant primordial heat. Thus, it's observed "excess" (1.78 solar input) is wholly ascribed to the gravitational separation of helium from hydrogen, tentatively verified by the 1980 and 1981 Voyager infrared observations of Saturn (Hanel, et al., 1983).
Groundbased data prior to Voyager's 1986 Uranus Encounter indicated that Uranus and Neptune, similar telescopically from Earth, differ dramatically in their observed "energy excesses" (Pollack, et al., 1986). Uranus from groundbased studies seemed to possess only a marginal (if any) heat source, compared to Jupiter and Saturn; Voyager's January, 1986 flybyenabled investigators to lower even this minimal estimate (Pearl, et al., 1989). The new upperlimit on the ratio of internal Uranian heat to solar input is 1.14  almost nonexistent compared to Jupiter and Saturn, and dramatically lower (by comparison) than current groundbased measurements of Neptune's radiated excess (2.7) over solar input.
Conventional sources for explaining Uranus' internal energy, as slight as it is, encounter difficulties. Based on Voyager data interpreted as evidence of a nondepleted helium/hydrogen ratio in the Uranian atmosphere, the "helium drip" model (so successful for Saturn) is not thought applicable (Conrath, et al., 1987). And, for assumed early solar system nebula compositions, resulting in a "rocky core" for Uranus equal to between one and three earth masses, only 1550% of the formal excess can beaccounted for in terms of "radiogenic heating" (decay of radioactive elements  Williams and von Herzen, 1974). This leaves "exotic elemental compositions" (more than 6 earth masses of "rocky materials") and novel energy transport mechanisms ("suppressed deepatmosphere convection") as remaining "conventional" possibilities (Stevenson, 1987). These difficulties in accounting for the source of Uranus' internal heat are only made more difficult when the planet is compared to Neptune  it's supposed "twin" in terms of size and (presumably) composition.
Because of these potential compositional problems, and the great disparity in internal energygeneration between these two otherwise sosimilar planets, the authors are led to propose another possibility:
That the "Cydonia equations" may really be attempting to describe, not merely internal energy transport, but internal energy generation  most evident (because of sheer distance from the Sun) in the overall energy balances of Uranus and Neptune.
Further, the authors believe study of the detailed Voyager infrared Uranus observations support this possibility:
Uranus, because of its extreme obliquity (98 degrees) relative to its orbit, alternates each pole toward and away from the Sun for a quarter of its 84year revolution. Despite this unique geometric shadowing effect (the Uranian south pole not having "seen" sunlight for over 20 years, at the time of the Voyager Encounter)
THERE WAS NO GLOBAL TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OBSERVED BETWEEN THE DAY AND NIGHTSIDE POLES.
Because of the problems cited above with any internal Uranian heat source, and the distinct possibility that (within the error's of Voyager's measurements) Uranus actually possesses zero internal energy, discussion in the literature has attempted to explain this global temperature uniformity as "redistribution of intercepted solar input," via "shallow atmospheric advection" (Friedson and Ingersoll, 1987); if the solar energy is being transported around to the nightside of the planet by a shallow, upper atmospheric mechanism, this would radically decrease (because of the nonnecessity for warming the entire nightside atmosphere) the amount of heat (energy) required for transport to the nightside  otherwise needed to account for Voyager's globaltemperature distribution measurements.
A major problem for this model, however, was the Voyager observation that the winds (clocked by observing several discrete clouds) blow in the same direction as the rotation of the planet (Smith, et al., 1986); preEncounter theoretical predictions had firmly anticipated a fourday retrograde rotation of the upper atmosphere, driven by external solar radiation. [The planet Venus, where such opposite winds (to the rotation of the planet) are observed, has its atmosphere dynamicallydetermined by intense external solar radiation.] Further, the fact that the observed Uranian clouds were seen circling the pole in a series of concentric circles (parallel to decreasing latitude) as Voyager approached, leads to difficulties in modeling heat transport to the nightside, pole to pole  across the latitudinal windflow.
These observations make it at least plausible to the authors that internal energy, not "shallow advection of absorbed solar radiation" constitute the primary driver for the Uranian atmosphere; a final, detailed Voyager infrared observation, would seem to add significant support to this hypothesis.
In scanning both hemispheres  the dayside South pole and the nightside North  the Voyager IR instrument detected a small but significant 12 K temperature drop in both hemispheres  at approx. 20 degrees N. and S. latitude (Pearl, et al, op cit). Interpretated as the spacecraft viewing smallscale emissive and reflected temperature profiles of colder, higher clouds (consistent with similar observations made at Jupiter and Saturn  including measured temperatures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot, which is also colder because it is higher than the surrounding Jovian atmosphere), the Uranus' observations could be interpreted as "some kind of massive 'upwelling' within the Uranian atmosphere," creating condensation products  clouds  as the atmosphere rises to higher altitudes
Narrowly straddling the "plus and minus 19.5degree latitude" where the "embedded tetrahedral model" of the Cydonia equations would predict  for an internal, energydriven "upwelling" on the planet!
The difficulties involved in modeling a process, driven by external solar radiation, which could create such upwellings and then "know" where to create them  at the "magic 19.5degree latitude" predicted by Cydonia  are formidable. In the opinion of the authors, it is much easier to ascribe these symmetrical upwellings to an internal energy source  released according to the nowfamiliar Cydonia pattern observed elsewhere in the solar system of "internallydriven energy emission."
The fact that these upwellings appear symmetrically in Voyager IR scans of both hemispheres presents, however, an interesting contradiction to other "planetary upwellings"  which seem to be restricted to one hemisphere, and to one localized latitude region. Those on Uranus (if the model is applicable) are not.
The apparent enigma is resolved, we think, by the fact that the Uranian magnetic field is radically different from any other planet: aligned at approximately 55 degrees to the inertial spin axis (Ness, et al., 1986). It is at least interesting to propose that somehow this almost rightangles magnetic orientation with respect to the geographic poles "allows" the internal energy processes predicted by the "embedded tetrahedral model" to manifest symmetrically in both hemispheres. If true, this in turn allows some insight into the role of planetary magnetic fields in the "Cydonia phenomenon": in some geometries, that of selective hemispheric suppression of an internal energytransport mechanism.
Based on all of the above, it is the considered opinion of the authors that at Uranus, the Cydonia "embedded tetrahedral model" reveals itself as not only a mechanism for energy tranport within planets  but, quite likely, as a process of internal energy generation as well. The implications of verifying this hypothesis  for all planets where these phenomenon are observed to follow the "Cydonia predictions," including Earth  the authors think are obvious . . . if not highly significant in terms of other astrophysical environments, where involving a potential "new source" of energy might lead to wholly different fundamental models.
Extension of the Cydonia "Tetrahedral Model" Beyond Planets
Heartened by the apparent success of this "embedded tetrahedral model" in empirically predicting surface manifestatons of internal planetary dynamics, the authors decided to extend the model to the Sun. This is the result.
With no solid lithosphere, the solar plasma "photospheric surface" is of course far more like the banded, turbulant atmospheres of the giant outer planets (though much hotter!), than the dense, solid crusts of the "terrestrial" planets. And like the atmospheres of the giant planets, there is a recurring "surface phenomenon" which is measurable  in terms of a coordinate system referenced with relation to the rotational axis: sunspots.
Though appearing dark against the surrounding photospheric background, sunspots are still measured at approximately 3500 K, and radiate enormous energy per unit area. More significant for our discussion here, though convection within the spot "umbra" (the darkest, central part) is suppressed by intense, local magnetic field strengths (Hale, 1913), there is evidence of enhanced energy emission around the spot itself  perhaps as much as one or two percent over the normal photospheric background.
When flare activity is considered (which occurs in the intense, tangled magnetic fields between sunspot groups), spots  as opposed to being "regions of lower solar output"  are in fact localized areas of "enhanced energy emission" (Brandt, 1966)
The recurring 22year solar sunspot cycle is made up on average of two backtoback 11year components. Sunspots at the beginning of each cycle usually appear in pairs, with opposite magnetic polarity  N. and S. (though, entire localized "sunspot regions"  see above  can also form), at high solar latitudes ( 40 degrees). The appearance of new additional "spot pairs" (and the dying of "old" ones), as the cycle progresses, subsequently drift North and South (depending on the hemisphere)  eventually converging late in the cycle in the solar equatorial regions. 11 years later, on average, a new cycle begins, with sunspot pairs of now opposite polarity (compared to the initial cycle) "breaking out" once again at high solar latitudes  with subsequent spots appearing at decreasing latitudes as the new cycle moves toward its 11year completion.
To our amazement, when the mean latitude of the majority of sunspot and associated flare activity was examined, the mean in both hemispheres  from beginning to end of each cycle  was found to be remarkably close to 20 degrees (Fig. 7)!
The apparent appearance in the Sun of the same phenomenon so successfully predicted by Cydonia for planets  including the possibility that the effect is somehow related to a new source of energy generation and not "merely" energy transport  opens up extraordinary possibilities.
These must include consideration that solar luminosity could be a mixture of two energy sources: the "traditional" fusion of hydrogen within the solar core; and another, still inexplicable process, somehow modulated by the general wax and wane of solar magnetic activity! [R. C. Wilson, after many years of careful observations at Mt. Wilson, has demonstrated direct variation of the solar constant in synchronization with the solar sunspot cycle (Wilson, et al., 1980). Newer Solar Max satellite data from above the atmosphere confirm the findings.]
Discussion
A detailed discussion of these observations is beyond the scope of this inquiry. However, the authors feel they would be remiss if they did not conclude by at least mentioning two additional areas where future observations could greatly increase our confidence in the reality of this phenomenon  if not our understanding of its nature.
In view of apparent solar conformance with "circumscribed tetrahedral geometry," one area for further research seems immediately apparent: "exotic stars."
In addition to "flare stars" and other highlyvariable stellar objects with surface phenomenon thought to be similar to solar processes, we feel that, if the Cydonia mathematics are attempting to describe not only energy "flow" but somehow "energy generation"  then the ability to test these ideas via radio astronomy should be the highest in terms of one class of exotic objects in particular: pulsars.
The common link connecting all the objects for which the Cydonia "embedded tetrahedral model" seems to work  from the planets to the Sunseems at this stage to be based on one significant association: angular momentum and magnetic fields. Before the adoption of the present, complex "selfexcited dynamo theory" (with internal, circulating, conducting "fluids" as the mechanism for general planetary and stellar magnetism), another  strictly empirical  hypothesis was proposed: a strikingly simple relationship between the observed total angular momentum of the object, and a resulting dipole.
Termed "Schuster's Hypothesis" (Schuster, 1912), it has been successful in predicting magnetic field strengths (Blackett, 1947; Warwick, 1971) ranging from the earth's, to the sun's, to Jupiter's vast field (20,000 times the terrestrial dipole moment)  a prediction made over sixty years prior to the 197374 Pioneers' 10 and 11 closeup confirmations (Warwick, 1976).
(It should be pointed out, groundbased radio astronomy had successfully deduced Jupiter's magnetic field strength  thus its conformance with "Schuster's Hypothesis"  some twenty years before the Pioneer magnetometer observations confirmed the radio data and Schuster  who's very name and empirical discovery is, inexplicably, completely missing from all NASA literature on planetary magnetism.)
Commented Warwick on the remarkably predictive power of "Schuster's Hypothesis," even in 1971: "Dynamo theory has not yet successfully predicted any cosmical fields. It's use today rests on the ASSUMPTION that no alternative theory corresponds more closely to observations [original emphasis]."
Taking Schuster's 1912 proposal, the authors have plotted contemporary parameters for angular momentum versus observed the magnetic dipole moment (for all planetary objects now visited by spacecraft with magnetometers), and find Schuster's Hypothesis amazingly confirmed (see Fig. 8)  with the exception of Mars (for which we have extremely poor data  no American spacecraft since Mariner 4, including Viking, has carried a magnetometer toMars!), and Uranus (discussed below).
It is tempting to propose that what we have observed in terms of the "Cydonia equations"  a remarkable correlation between external, localized energy emission and a planetary spinaxis, somehow modulated by the orientation (if not the intrinsic value) of the magnetic field  may be trying to tell us about the physical process underlying "Schuster's Hypothesis": how magnetic fields in spinning bodies form . . . if not how their formation may be associated with internal energy generation.
In terms of an observable, visible connection between these two parameters  planetary magnetism and planetary surface features  it is interesting that Warwick in 1976 already had observed:
"It seems likely that, corresponding to atmospheric belts and zones as seen in Jupiter's cloud top level, there is a beltlike structure in the magnetic field not strong enough to alter the dipole structure radically [thus not mappable by spacecraft' instruments  unless in very closein orbits] but still sufficient to play a role in magnetospheric diffusion as Neil Brice suggested some years ago. This magnetic fine structure also must play a role in decametric [radio emission] phenomenonology . . .[which], especially [as exhibited in] longitude patterns throughout the Jupiter year, is strictly reproducible over the two decades of radio observations. The conclusion I draw from this fact is that the magnetic fine structure near the [cloud top] surface of Jupiter has remained constant over the same time interval. In support of this conclusion is the more orless constant belt and zone structure of Jupiter since 1950 . . . Such a correlation, which is ultimately [in this theory, associated] with magnetic fine structure, would tend to confirm the existence of magnetohydrodynamic turbulance near the surface of Jupiter."
Warwick's inferences regarding the role of magnetism and fluid physics, in possibly generating the patterns longobserved in radio astronomy's "decametric observations," would seem to lend support to our own tentative proposals:
That the Cydonia "embedded tetrahedral model" (merely, if we're correct, an equivalent geometrical expression of the far more complex mathematics associated with a "vorticular fluidflow") is in fact predicting the latitudes and sizes of the Great Red Spots on Jupiter (and now on Neptune!), and the largest volcanic centers of emission on "terrestrial planets," through deepseated, vorticular magnetohydrodynamic processes  operating in the highly conducting mantles of these bodies. Asimilar mechanism probably underlies the Sun's conformance to "tetrahedral geometry" as well.
That each "upwelling" (at least in the atmospheres of these two giant planets), seems scaled strictly in terms of the respective size of each respective body, provides further elegant support for an internallydetermined "fluid" model.
The fascinating, observed correlation between angular momentum and magnetic dipole moment  if not field polarity, evidenced by the selective hemispheric appearance of energy emission at 19.5 N. or S.  has made us wonder, however, about more fundamental correlations . . . . We suspect that the puzzling and periodic "fieldreversals" of the terrestrial geomagnetic field are another indication of the "Cydonia embedded tetrahedral model"  modulated by the constant gravitational "tidal kneading" of the Moon. If this process is involved in periodically "flipping" the entire magnetic field (and the resulting "hot spots"), then the precise physical mechanism should raise provocative questions involvingelectromagnetism, mass, inertia . . . and possibly gravity itself. Sirag, in observing this same remarkable correlation between angular momentum and electromagnetism (1979), raised similar considerations.
If the Cydonia mathematics are attempting to direct us to energy generation and subsequent energy transfer inside astronomical objects, involving a hitherto unknown relationship between two of the four basic forces of the Universe  gravity and electromagnetism: i.e. a "UnifiedField"  this process in our opinion cannot help but manifest itself more clearly in astrophysical environments where both parameters have reachedextraordinary values
Which brings us once again to pulsars.
Even the "average" spinning neutron star (the favored "pulsar model") possesses surface gravitational accelerations, angular momentum, and magnetic field strengths billions of times more intense than similar quantities in any solar system object. Moreover, since Schuster's Hypothesis strikingly succeeds in its prediction of even these extraordinary magnetic dipole moments (see Fig. 8), we cannot help but wonder at what rich new confirmations of the "Cydonia mathematics" may lie hidden in existing  and currently mystifying  pulsar observations . . .
If in the "Cydonia tetrahedral mathematics" we are truly seeing the deliberate communication of demonstrable astrophysical effects of a longsought "Unified Field Theory," this in itself would be remarkable confirmation of current efforts to discover such fundamental mathematical connections between Nature's elemental forces. For, most provocative: one leading mathematical approach to successfully modeling such connections is essentially based on a tetrahedral model, and a resulting mathematical expansion into "higherdimensional, nspace relationships" (recently discovered) between the five Platonic solids (Sirag, 1989). In particlular, these studies relate tetrahedral geometry as being topologically equivalent to threetoruses  tori extending into "one more dimension than our familiar three." [Many current efforts in pursuit of "unified field models," such as the muchacclaimed "superstring theory," routinely involve up to ten mathematical dimensions. Some more recent theories are exploring twentysix (Sirag, ibid).]
Phrased in simple terms:
The routine mathematical representation of vorticular flow in more than three dimensions  a threetorus  by means of threedimensional tetrahedral models, opens up the possibility that the demonstrable geophysical effects of the "Cydonia tetrahedral message" are attempting to communicate the reality of additional dimensions (as opposed to mere mathematical abstractions)  and the observable reality of vorticular energy flow between adjoining "nspaces." 
Such totally unexpected (to nonspecialists) and remarkable mathematical
correlations  between as yet unpublished theoretical work into Unified Field
Models, and the specific tetrahedral geometry apparently intended at Cydonia 
gives added confidence that such a linkage was in fact intended. If so, there
may be an additional confirmation of a such a radical "Cydonia Unified Field
Model"
In the continuing, puzzling departure of some celestial objects from strict "Newtonian mechanics."
Careful observation of the outer planets over the last two centuries has revealed that "the motions of Uranus and Neptune cannot be adequately represented within the present gravitational model of the solar system" (Harrington, 1988). While gravitational perturbations originally ascribed to Pluto (Tombaugh and Moore, 1980) have now definitely been eliminated as of adequate magnitude to explain these astrometric deviations (Harrington, op cit), "the suspicion of the existence of a tenth planet" has resulted in renewed efforts (Seidelmann and Harrington, 1988) to search for another unseen object which could gravitationally account for the persistant residuals of Uranus and Neptune.
However, other experts in celestial mechanics are open to the possibility that (as opposed to a new planet) a fundamental modification to gravitational theory itself may in fact be necessary, in order to adequately model the puzzling outer planet motions (Anderson, 1989)  which, curiously, are most "anomalous" for Uranus.
As a direct consequence of the apparently successful application of the "Cydonia predictions" to Uranus and Neptune, and because of a probable fundamental link this has revealed between angular momentum (rotating mass) and electromagnetism, we suggest a third alternative should be considered:
A derivative "anomalous gravitational effect," somehow created by these interactions.
Such an admittedly radical proposal must of course be subject to some stringent observational tests; we believe that Voyager's own 1986 Encounter has fortuitously supplied us with just such an opportunity
In the form of "anomalous" Voyager 2 Xband rangerate residuals, acquired during the flyby of Uranus itself.
For over a month prior and subsequent to the January, 1986 Encounter, calibrated ranging signals were transmitted to and from the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Examination of five days of ranging data, centered on the timeof Closest Approach, reveals a series of curious, systematic "range errors"  seen only around the time of periapsis of Voyager to Uranus (see Fig. 9); at this time, the spacecraft exhibited a range error of up to 100 meters (an order of magnitude larger than instrumentationlimited range uncertainties of approx. 9 meters, introduced by the Voyager/DSN radio ranging system itself.) These systematic errors were also inexplicably centered symmetrically on periapsis (Anderson, et al., 1988).
Explanations which would attribute this effect to "group delay of the ranging modulation by free electrons between Earth and Voyager 2" remain unconvincing, when the data are compared to similar residuals (Fig. 9) recorded during Voyager 2's Encounter of Saturn (Campbell, et al, 1989). The latter, by comparison, are "flat" (as opposed to the systematic increase and decrease observed at Uranus): reflecting no similar "symmetricallycentered curve," mirrored around the moment of Closest Approach to Saturn.
We believe therefore that these demonstrably unique, and highly suggestive ranging observations are interpretable as potentially direct evidence of the modification of the Uranian gravitational metric, by some additional "spacetime effect" associated with the Cydonia "embedded tetrahedral model." We further suspect that the highly anomalous Uranian magnetic fieldgeometry Voyager observed with respect to the planetary spin axis (>60 degrees)  if not the significant departure of the planet's overall magnetic dipole moment from "Schuster's Hypothesis" (see Fig. 8)  may somehow be involved.
One important reason for raising this possibility now is the imminent Voyager 2 Encounter with Neptune.
Uranus and Neptune  essentially "twins" in terms of mass, angular momentum and (probably) composition  provide important constraints on several fundamental predictions of the Cydonia mathematics. The great difference in internal energy balance between the two planets (1.14 for Uranus; 2.7 for Neptune), coupled with the unique configuration of the Uranian magnetic field, leads us to propose that the field orientation with respect to the planetary spin axis is an important element in determining in what form the internallygenerated energy appears: in Uranus, with an almost 90degree field orientation, little energy appears as heat. In consonance with conservation of energy, we suggest it may be "appearing" in some other form  possibly as a change in the local "spacetime metric."
The authors, based on this energy discrepancy, and the conformance of Neptune's "Great Red Spot" with the "embedded tetrahedral mathematics," feel a prediction of the Neptune field polarity (opposite the earth's), an estimate of its specific orientation with respect to the planetary spin axis (within 20 degrees), and its overall intensity (approximately onetenth Saturn's) is now possible
Before the Voyager August 25, 1989 Encounter.
The relevance of these predictions to the question of "anomalous solar system motions" of these respective planets is fundamental: in Uranus, the energy not dissipated as internal heat (in comparison with Neptune) may be appearing as an associated distortion of the "overall metric" connecting the planet with the Sun, resulting in its anomalous motions with respect to current gravitational model for the solar system.
If similar metric distortions are underlying Neptune's (smaller though equallypuzzling) astrometric residuals, we predict that Voyager should experience a smaller (when corrected for the difference in periapsis radii) though significant set of "range residuals"  when compared to its Encounter at Uranus; in addition, its instruments should verify our predictions of the magnetic field parameters.
In terms of those, one complicating factor is the orbit of Neptune's largest natural satellite: Triton. The essentially circular (though retrograde) orbit, indicates significant internal tidal dissipation of Triton's kinetic energy within Neptune  and thus a significant source of internal heating, in addition to possible radiogenic and other ("embedded tetrahedral?") sources; Triton's retrograde "drag" on Neptune's interior must also have some (currently unknown) effect on any process that couples overall planetary angular momentum with the creation of a magnetic dipole moment.
Thus, predictions of internal heating, or "exotic gravitational/electromagnetic interactions," indicated by the success of the "Cydonia equations" on the other planets, are at this point somewhat ambiguous when applied to Neptune; the only positive indication so far that this unknown process is somehow effectively operating in the Neptune interior, is the discovery of Neptune's "Great Red Spot"  precisely where "embedded tetrahedral mathematics" would predict.
Thus, whatever is discovered during Voyager's Encounter of Neptune, in our opinion, cannot help but provide important additional constraints on the nature and applicability of the "Cydonia equations."
[We also suggest that all the giant outer planets, by virture of their vastly larger angular momenta and magnetic dipole moments  compared to the "terrestrial planets"  exhibit to a greater or lesser degree these effects exhibited by Uranus and Neptune  including internal energy release and small (but perhaps measureable) distortions of the "local" gravitational metric; however, other mechanisms dominate at Jupiter and Saturn, relegating these potential "tetrahedral model contributions" to a minor role, if any, in comparison to other sources (primordial energy release, and helium/hydrogen gravitational separation.
[Beyond the Voyager Neptune Encounter, the imminent (mid1990's) insertion into Jovian orbit of the Galileo Orbiter may provide the only solar system opportunity for some time to come for longterm tests of certain subtle aspects of these suggestions.]
The true astronomical tests of these extraordinary possibilities  apart from a manned landing at Cydonia, and discovery of additional records specifically supporting these suggestions  will come, in our opinion, only with redundant astrophysical observations of objects far beyond the solar system, and over a far longer span of time. In particular, we suggest that radio astronomy observations of peculiar binary pulsar systems (such as newlydiscovered PSR 1957 + 20  Fruchter, et al., 1988)  where, once again, conditions should be uniquely maximized for key observational effects created by "nonrelativistic, gravitational distortions"  could provide enlightening confirmation.
If these observations do lead to substantiation of this (admittedly, most speculative) aspect of the "Cydonia equations"  an inextricable link between gravity and electromagnetism  in our opinion this would certainly represent the ultimate manifestation of a Unified Field Model, if not verification of the true intent of the "Cydonia Message" itself.
Conclusion
In terms of the overall reality of such a "Message at Cydonia," the authors feel the observable geophysical phenomena photographed all across the solar system, and cited in this paper, now substantially demonstrate the likelihood of such a "deliberate, technical communication." The full extent of its predictions, beyond these initial observations however, is currently unknown  as must be the answer to the Ultimate Question: "What was their intent?"
Common sense dictates that, whatever the origin and culture of the "senders," their purpose clearly would have been to communicate something "of fundamental significance." This has been a common theme in discussions involving "radio messages" that someday might be successfully intercepted and decoded, as part of "Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence" [CETI  (Sagan, op cit)]. The existence of a "Unified Field" message  potentially capable of demonstrating an intrinsic connection between gravity and electromagnetism, and already yielding a range of other, observable astrophysical effects  would certainly in our opinion qualify as "fundamental."
Particularly . . . if it leads to nearterm technological control and application (Holt, 1980).
It will be left to future studies to decide if this is indeed "the Message of Cydonia."
Summary
A set of remarkable "anomalous objects" on Mars, when examined by two investigators using a "geometric relationship model," has yielded specific, mathematical predictions which have been subsequently verified across the solar system. The discovery of a redundant "tetrahedral geometry," encoded at the Martian site known as "Cydonia," has led the authors to the discovery that every major energy center  on the sun, and on most of the planets and their active satellites  emerges at the surface in conformance with predictions of an "embedded tetrahedral model": primarily at either 19.5 degrees north or south latitude.
The implications are significant: from identification of a potential new source of energy and laws governing its transfer within stars and planets, to possible discovery of a longsought fundamental link between gravity and electromagnetism itself. At the least  besides confirmation that there is a "message at Cydonia"  these discoveries could hold out the prospect for eventual human utilization of a new energy resource (Smith, W. B., 1950). Learning to control the associated electromagnetic/gravitational forces (if any), could however result in a nearterm, dramatic breakthrough in fundamental space propulsion technology (Holt, ibid)  with obvious implications for space exploration and eventual settlement.
In the opinion of the authors, these possible "breakthrough applications," of a currently unexplained but demonstrable physical phenomenon in operation throughout the solar system, are an urgent reason for immediate verification of the "Message of Cydonia"  not least, through additional highresolution imaging by Mars Observer in 1993, and ultimately
With a manned landing at Cydonia itself.
[Because of the inherent limitations of pictorial data viewed via computer, the GRAPHICS and computerenganced Viking photographic halftone figures for this paper are not included in this file  but are available through THE MARS MISSION (P.O. Box 981, Wytheville, VA. 24382), or by downloading "RESOURCES" in THE MARS MISSION BBS (703) 2287822]
Acknowledgements:
The authors would like to acknowledge the following people for their support of our continuing research into the reality and meaning of Cydonia, as well others for their specific help in the preparation of this paper: Dr. Mark Carlotto (The Analytic Science Corporation; Mars Mission Imaging Consultant), for continued Cydonia imaging enhancements and threedimensional modeling of Viking data; Mr. Merton Davies (the RAND Corporation), for updating his "1982 Mars Control Network" as applied specifically to the problem of accurate Cydonia control points; Dr. John Anderson (JPL; Voyager Celestial Mechanics), for providing detailed Voyager Saturn and Uranus tracking data, and historical Uranus and Neptune astrometric information; Dr. J. C. Pearl (Goddard Space Flight Center; member, Voyager IR Experiment), for furnishing the latest Voyager IR Team Uranus conclusions; Dr. James Warwick (University of Colorado, Boulder; Principal Investigator, Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy Experiment), for introducing us to "Schuster's Hypothesis," and its potentially unique application to this problem; Mr. SaulPaul Sirag, for furnishing important references linking tetrahedral mathematics with "two and threetorus topologies," and for providing examples from his own research of not only Schuster's Hypothesis as potentially applicable to a Unified Field Model but for specifically referencing tetrahedral mathematical topology and the Platonic Solids as directly applicable; and finally, Mr. Stan Tenen (The Meru Foundation), for introducing us to SaulPaul Sirag, for furnishing examples of his own research into the historical importance of the Platonic Solids (tetrahedra, in particular), and for valued general discussion of some of the more controversial aspects of our work.All opinions and conclusions presented in this paper, however, are strictly the responsibility of the authors.
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Table I
Planetary Latitudes of Emergent Energy Phenomena
Object 
Feature 
Lattitude 
Comment 




Earth  Hawaiian Caldera  19.6 N.  Largest shield volcano 
Moon  Tsiolkovskii  19.6 S. 
Unique Farside "marelike" lava extrusion 
Venus  Alta Regio  19.5 N.  Current volcanic region 
Beta Regio  25.0 S  Current volcanic region  
Mars  Olympus Mons  19.3 N.  Largest shield volcano 
Jupiter  Great Red Spot  22.0 S. 
Vast atmospheric "vorticular upwelling" 
Io  Loki (2) Maui (6) Pele (1) Volund (4) 
19.0 N. 19.0 N. 19.0 S. 22.0 N. 
(Voyager 1 & 2 volcanic plumes) Presumably driven by intense Jovian tidal forces and/or Jovian magnetic field 
Saturn  North Equatorial Belt  20.0 N. 
Region of "storms" observed from Earth 
South Equatorial Belt  20.0 S.  Same as above  
Uranus  (Voyager 2 IR Observations)  
Northern IR 12 K "dip"  20.N.  Presumably, deep "upwellings,"creating highaltitude clouds  
Southern IR 12 K "dip"  20.0 S.  Same as above  
Neptune  (Voyager 2 Imagery)  
"Neptune Great Red Spot"  20.0 S. 
Presumably same as Jovian counterpart 
Source: NASA and U.S. Geological Survey