"Tremendous amounts of talent are being lost to our society
just because that talent wears a skirt."

Shirley Chisholm, the first Black woman elected to Congress

Not all dreams are clear about the subject matter under examination and I have to admit that this is one of those. However, when I was searching on the internet for the 1791 clue from the second dream of this night, I came to pages about slavery in America.  Starting in 1791, there was a revolution in Haiti which brought many more black people to America who became slaves in the Southern states.  There was slavery before that, but 1791 is the starmark from my dream which seems to be very important in the 'black' timeline. See the dream below to see how this came about.


7-22-00- LUCID DREAM - I was working with two separate timelines of stars or star events. I was placing them on a white screen. This took a long time as I was putting them on either alphabetically or numerically by date... but there were two lists. I was thinking about merging the list and wondering if I should when I started to wake up.


7-22-00 - DREAM - I was with my family. The kids were young college age. I was moving to another house but the kids weren't going with me.  Michael and Kenneth, my two oldest sons, had to find somewhere else to live.

My Father came to visit and I told him I would give him some magazines to read that he would be interested in. I can't remember what I gave him in particular, but it seems like they were picture magazines ... like Time or Life.

While I was getting ready to move, we had many visitors, but I discovered that there was some 'shit' smeared on the walls on the stairway. It seemed that my son Robert, who was young ... about 3 years old ... did it, but I couldn't prove it.  I had to clean it off the walls and went to get a big rag to scrub it off before everyone who visited could smell it.

While I was going to go to the bathroom to get a rag to do this, a huge 18 wheeler  truck went down the stairs. It made a tremendous noise. I watched it as it went down into the basement on a huge ramp into an underground garage.

I went into the bathroom on the first floor to get water and soap on the rag to scrub the stairway walls and I heard the truck coming back up. I hid in the bathroom and listened to the noise as it came closer. I was waiting for the truck to go past but it didn't ... the noise came to a steady sound right outside the bathroom door.

I stood there, hiding behind the door, and I heard someone at the door. The truck driver appeared and I apologized for hiding in the bathroom and told him what I was going to do. He was a huge man and I recall that he was dressed in a reddish-brown color clothing .

 I took the green rag I found, put plenty of soap on it and went up the stairs to scrub the walls, letting the truck driver use the bathroom in the meantime.

I went up the stairs and it was dark up there. I hollered up the stairs for someone to turn the light on, but I could see there was no bulb in the light socket on the ceiling. My son Kenneth said he would bring a lightbulb. While I waited for him to get a bulb to put in the socket, I scrubbed what I could reach. It was worse than I thought. It would take numerous trips for soap and water to do this job.

On the stairs, I found some rectangular packages the same size as the stairs. They were sitting on the stairs so it seemed like they were stairs themselves. But they were loose and there was a big drop off down the stairs further if I didn't remove them. I decided to look inside and see what it was. I opened the first package and it was a bag of rags. They were white, old and almost moldy. I was afraid I was going to find maggots in the bag. I said I wasn't taking those with me and intended to throw them in the trash when I got to the bottom of the steps. I didn't think it was a good idea to use old rags to scrub the walls with either. The new green one was better.

I went back down to the bathroom to get more water and soap and this time I ran into Michael and Kenneth and they told me that they were going to move in with some friends of theirs who lived in the 100's housing project though their friends weren't aware they were coming there permanently.  They were laughing that their friends were in trouble for spraying some kind of anti-bacterial spray on the walls there.

I told them there was a lot worse that could be sprayed and I wouldn't get excited about that at all. As I scrubbed the walls more, two female friends of mine came onto the stairway. One was white and one was black and they were discussing a timeline of sorts; of things that they did or were concerned with and it seems like it had to do with something in the sky ... eclipses or star movements or something.

I then saw a tiny cup and inside the cup was a mark put on by the manufacturer. It said 'starmark 1791'.

NOTE: I found the term 'starmark' used in the subjects of graphology, astronomy, and astrology as a system of 'benchmarking' events in the future. This makes some kind of sense when you view the following:



(Some dates may be in dispute. I found 3 different dates for
the landing of the Mayflower.  I have used dates published
on the internet on this page.)



(suffrage is the right of voting : FRANCHISE; also : the exercise of such right)

(NOTE: I have placed Native American Women in the Black Category
so as to separate them from being in the White Category. It would have
been an impossible task to make a separate category for each ethnicity.
The dream was about black and white, not about all ethnic backgrounds
but I didn't want to leave out the success of other American women)



The very first discovery of North America by Norwegian Vikings around year 1000. Obtaining the first date of white women in America is difficult. 

Cartier was the first of the early navigators to drop anchor in a New Brunswick harbor. This was in the summer of 1534, and the place was on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, near the mouth of the Miramich River. This was on the 30th of June. Knowing how mankind is, there could well have been brave women on those ships.

Awashonks, the "squaw sachem" Indian queen, ruled over the Seaconnet Indians in the territory now mainly comprised of Little Compton. She and the Seaconnet Indians were reluctant allies of the Narragansetts in King Phillip's War in 1890. At negotiations with Benjamin Church, the first white settler of the area, the Seaconnet Indians defected thus sealing Philip's defeat.

Pekenimme Alive in 1611 in Monhigon Island. He was among the three Natives captured by Capt. Edward Harlow at Monhigon Island.

1619 - August 20. Twenty Africans arrive in Jamestown, Virginia, aboard a Dutch Ship. They are the first blacks to be forcibly settled as involuntary laborers in the North American British Colonies.

Initial arrival of the Mayflower in December 1620. The departure of the ship back to England four months later in April 1621. When the Pilgrims first arrived the ship was anchored offshore, and its inhabitants disembarked in a smaller boat.
1638 - Eight years after the original settlement of Boston, a ship named Desire arrived in Boston with the first African slaves.
1641 - Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth were the first colonies to authorize slavery through legislation as part of the 1641 Body of Liberties.

1647 A "witch" was executed for the first time in the United States.
Anne Bradstreet - 1612 - 1672 - She was the first woman to be recognized as an accomplished New World poet. 1650 Anne Bradstreet- First published poet in American History.
1663 - September 13. The first documented attempt at a rebellion by slaves takes place in Gloucester County, Virginia.

1678 Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia- First woman to receive a doctorate. She received this degree at the University of Padua.
1688 - February 18. The Quakers of Germantown, Pennsylvania, pass the first formal antislavery resolution.
1739 - September 9. The Cato revolt is the first serious disturbance among slaves. After killing more than 25 whites, most of the rebels, led by slave named Cato, are rounded up as they attempt to escape. More than 30 blacks are executed as participants
1754 - John Woolman addresses his fellow Quakers in "Some Consideration of the Keeping of Negroes."
1770 - Crispus Attucks, a black, was the first American killed by the British soldiers in the Boston Massacre. 1770 - William Penn began monthly meetings for Blacks, advocating emancipation.
Phillis Wheatley- First African-American to publish a book. - 1773 - Phillis Wheatley

America's First Black Woman Poet - MORE

1775 - April 19. Free Blacks fight with the Minutemen in the initial skirmishes of the Revolutionary War at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. 1775 - The First Quaker anti-slavery society, The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage, is organized in Philadelphia.
1777 - July 2. Vermont is the first state to abolish slavery.

1777 - December 31. George Washington reverses previous policy and allows the recruitment of black soldiers. Some 5,000 participate in the Revolutionary War.

Gradual abolition laws are passed in the northern states: Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey.

The African-American presence in West Virginia dates from the 1780s, when slaves were brought to the Greenbrier and New River valleys by European exploring parties 1780 - Declaration of Rights was added to the state constitution abolishing slavery in Massachusetts. In the 1781 court case Commonwealth v. Jennison, slavery in the state was declared unconstitutional.
1782 Disguised as a man, Plympton's Deborah Sampson was the First Woman to Serve in a U.S. military uniform. MORE
1784 Marie Thible- First woman to fly in a hot-air balloon.
1787 - While drafting the Constitution, the issue of condemning slavery was retracted because of the need to get Southern states to ratify. A Provision in the Constitution allowed Congress to forbid the slave trade in the U.S. no sooner than 1808.

1787 - September. The U.S. Constitution provides for a male slave to count as 3/5ths of a man in determining representation.

1787 - Prince Hall petitions the Boston School Committee for a public school for black students due to the severity of the prejudice and discrimination in the schools. His request is denied.

1787 - July 13. The Continental Congress passes the Northwest Ordinance, forbidding slavery northwest of the Ohio River.

1787 - Prince Hall founded the First Black Masonic Lodge in Boston.

1787 - Philadelphia’s Free Africa Society organized.

1787 - The Northwest Ordinance bans slavery in the Northwest Territory.

1789 - The Pennsylvania Abolition Society is organized by Benjamin Franklin.
1791 A legacy from Hingham's Sarah Hersey Derby led to the establishment of Derby Academy, the First Co-educational School in New England.
This is an interesting discrepancy in historical records on Eli Whitney - rich woman or slave?

1793 - Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin, based on the ideas and plans of a slave, revitalizing the slave industry in the U.S. 

1793 - February 12. Congress passes the first Fugitive Slave Law provides for the return of slaves escaped across state boundaries.

1793 Catherine Lidfield Greene- Proposed the idea of the Cotton Gin, financed it, and made the final changes in it. Eli Whitney received all the credit.

In 1793, Hannah Wilkinson Slater became the first woman to file for a patent. Her product? cotton sewing thread!
1794 - The first national antislavery society, the American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, is founded.
1796 - A group of Boston Blacks founded the African Society for Mutual Aid and Charity. The Society provided social-welfare services, financial relief, and job placement to its members and their families.
1798 - A private school, the African School, is established in the home of Primus Hall (son of Prince Hall).
The Health and Death Rate of Negroes in the 1800's in Philadelphia 1800 - Prince Hall petitions the School Committee again for a public school for black children. By this time only five black students attend the predominantly white public schools.
 1804 - January 5. The Ohio legislature passes "Black Laws" designed to restrict the legal rights of free blacks-a trend in both the North and South before the Civil War.
1805 - On August 8, 1805, Thomas Paul, a black preacher from New Hampshire, with twenty members officially formed the First African Baptist Church.
1807 - Slave trade abolished by British Parliament.
1808 - January 1. The federal law prohibiting the importation of African slaves goes into effect. It is largely circumvented. 1808 - Congress passes a law prohibiting the importation of slaves into the United States after January 1, 1808.
War of 1812 between United States and Great Britain over freedom of the seas. Black soldiers fought in the defense of Washington, D.C. After the city was burned by the British, some 2,500 Blacks worked to rebuild the defenses.
1816 - American Colonization Society organized to encourage free blacks in the United States to settle in Liberia in West Africa.
1820 - First organized emigration of U.S. Blacks back to Africa, from New York to Sierra Leone. 1820 - The Missouri Compromise settled the issue of slavery in the areas obtained by the Louisiana Purchase. Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state, while Maine balanced it as a free state. All remaining parts of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36 degrees 30’ forbidden to slavery.
1821 - The Quaker, Benjamin Lundry, starts publishing his anti-slavery paper, the Genius of Universal Emancipation.
1822 -  A slave revolt occurs in Charleston, South Carolina, led by the free black, Denmark Vesey. May 30. The Denmark Vessey conspiracy is betrayed in Charleston, South Carolina. It is claimed that some 5,000 blacks were prepared to rise in July.
1824 - Freed American slaves established country of Liberia, on the west coast of Africa.

1825 Hannah Lord Montague- Made the first detachable shirt collar.
1826 - A group of Black Bostonians founded the Massachusetts General Colored Association to fight for an end to slavery, they became Boston's primary abolition organization.
1829 - September. David Walker's militant antislavery pamphlet, An Appeal to the Colored People of the World, is in circulation in the South. This work is the first of its kind written by a black person. Hetty Green's family got rich dealing in slavery and whaling

Hetty Green Historical Museum

1831 - August 21-22. The Nat Turner revolt runs its course in Southampton County, Virginia.

1831 -Maria W. Stewart, America's first Black political writer, championed women's rights and Black self-improvement in a series of speeches and essays written. Probably the first Black American to lecture publicly in defense of women's rights. Spoke at the African Meeting House.

1831 - Emancipation is narrowly defeated by the National by the Virginia constitutional convention.
1833 - Slavery ends in the British Empire.

1837 The first women's only college opened in the US: Mount Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts.
1839 - July. The slaves on the Spanish ship Amistad take over the vessel and sail it to Montauk, Long Island. They eventually win their freedom in a case taken to the Supreme Court. 1839 - Susan Paul, of Boston, daughter of Rev. Thomas Paul, served as a vice president of the Second Annual Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women in Philadelphia.
Lucy Stone - 1818 - 1893
First white woman to get a college degree in 1843. Lucy Stone started out as an advocate for the abolition of slavery and became a lecturer for the American Anti-Slavery Society.
The American Missionary Society, formed in 1846, as an anti-slavery missionary body, stood ready equipped to go into the field and aid and supplement the course of Northern benevolence. All denominations availed themselves of its patronage, which was entirely unsectarian. As the work broadened and increased, however, each denomination had its separate society, carried on in its own special way.

1846 Sarah Bagley- First woman telegrapher.

1848 - Slavery abolished in all French territories.

The road to women’s suffrage, which began at the Seneca Falls Convention in New York in 1848, was a much longer trek. Believing that “it was the duty of the women of this country to secure to themselves their sacred right to the elective franchise,” reformers staged public demonstrations throughout the late 1800s.

1849 - July. Harriet Tubman - (1821-1913) - Abolitionist -  escapes from slavery.  She became the leader of the Underground Railroad, and put her own life in grave danger repeatedly as she returned to the South at least 20 times, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom. 1849 Elizabeth Blackwell- (1821-1910) first US woman to earn her medical degree. English/American physician and the first U.S. woman doctor, 1849, who co-established the first U.S. hospital staffed by female physicians, 1857
1850 The first woman's medical school opened- the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania.

The Compromise of 1850 admitted California into the Union as a free state, abolished the slave trade in Washington, D.C., and put into effect a stringent Fugitive Slave Law.

Mary Ann (Shadd) Carey was born on October 9, 1823, into a prominent black family, in Wilmington, Delaware. Early in her life she became dedicated to the promotion of self-reliance and independence among black Canadians. She helped found The PROVINCIAL FREEMAN and became the first black North American female editor and publisher, with the purpose of transforming black refugees into model citizens.
1851 - Sojourner Truth addresses the first Black Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio.
1852 - Uncle Tom's Cabin, a popular anti-slavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, was published.
1854 - Kansas admitted as a Territory. History of the Indians and Slavery in Kansas

Frances E.W. Harper, poet (1825-1911 )- Ms. Harper published her first volume of poems while still in her teens, earning commercial success in 1854.

1854 - The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened those areas to settlement on the basis of popular sovereignty. Fighting followed between free-soilers and pro-slavery forces.
1857 - The U.S. Supreme Court announced the Dred Scott decision. This stated that congress had no right to make a law depriving citizens of their property rights in the U.S. territories. Dred Scott, a slave, was not free, even though his owner had brought him into a territory in which slavery had been forbidden. This nullified the Missouri Compromise.
1859 - John Brown led a raid into Harper's Ferry, Virginia to free and arm slaves. He failed, was captured, and executed.
Not long after the end of slavery and the Civil War, African-Americans sought their chance to cast a ballot. The 14th Amendment that granted citizenship to the former slaves also authorized that the basis of representation be reduced in states that denied voting rights to any male over the age of 21. Many states, however, chose to accept the penalty rather than grant voting rights to African-Americans, and so the 15th Amendment was drafted and ratified to prohibit state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote based upon race, color or previous condition of servitude. 1861 - Abraham Lincoln reads the first draft of the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet.

The War Between the States (Blacks in The Civil War) began after southern states seceded from the Union. The Secretary of Navy authorized enlistment of slaves as Union sailors.

1861 Sally Tompkins-- Only commissioned female officer in the Confederate Army.

Alice Cunningham Fletcher - 1838 - 1923 -Cunningham Fletcher helped found the Association for the Advancement of Women (1873).
Madam C. J. Walker - 1869 - 1919 - America's first female self-made millionaire. MORE - MORE-with photo Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott - Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) - Suffragist, abolitionist, chief political strategist and theoretician of the women's rights movement for over fifty years, and author of the feminist work, The Woman's Bible. She organized the first convention on women's rights to be held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 and 20, 1848. As was the case for many early feminists, these two women became involved in the struggle for women's rights because their gender had limited their participation in other causes. MORE Elizabeth Cady Stanton -- a well-to-do white woman who had been refused seating at an international anti-slavery convention in London because of her sex -- called for a "public meeting for protest and discussion" July 19-20, 1848, at the Wesleyan Chapel in her hometown of Seneca Falls.

Harriet Tubman- escaped from slavery in Maryland. - 1849
Sojourner Truth- (1797-1883) 1806 - bought at auction for $100 by John Neely, near Kingston, NY . 1826 - Isabella escapes to freedom with infant daughter, Sophia. As a former slave, she was an outstanding orator for freedom. She was not only an abolitionist but a staunch supporter of women's rights and voiced her concern for prison reform, labor reform and temperance. At the Women's Rights Convention in Ohio, gave her "Ain't I a Woman" speech. - 1851
1857 - March 6. The Dred Scott decision of the Supreme Court denies blacks U.S. citizenship and denies the power of Congress to restrict slavery in any federal territory.
1862 - July 17. Congress allows the enlistment of blacks in the Union Army. More than 186,000 serve in the army during the Civil War; 38,000 die in service.
1863 - January 1. The Emancipation Proclamation frees the slaves in the states rebelling against the Union.
1864 - Congress ruled that Black soldiers must receive equal pay.
1865 - December 18. The 13th Amendment, which outlaws slavery in the U.S., is ratified.

1865, one year after visiting President Abraham Lincoln in the White House, Sojourner Truth worked to desegregate the horse car system in Washington, D.C.

1865 - Civil War ended in a northern victory. Abraham Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. Andrew Johnson became the 17th President of the United States and served out Lincoln's term. On December 18, 1865, Congress passed 13th Amendment abolishing slavery.

1865 - Dr. Mary E Walker  -1861; Chattanooga, Tenn., following Battle of Chickomauga, September 1863; Prisoner of War, April 10, 1864-August 12, 1864, Richmond, Va.; Battle of Atlanta, September 1864 Whereas it appears from official reports that Dr. Mary E. Walker, a graduate of medicine, "has rendered valuable service to the Government, and her efforts have been earnest and untiring in a variety of ways. - Awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1866 Lucy Hobbs- First woman to graduate from dental school.

1866 - First civil rights act passed. It was later found unconstitutional, creating the need for the 14th Amendment.

Believe it or not, people really were able to vote "early and often" before the advent of voter registration laws. People voted under several assumed names, and there were even recorded instances of deceased persons casting ballots. The first voter registration procedures in Missouri date back to 1866, and voter registration became mandatory in 1974.

1867 Emily Green Balch- First woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize.
1868 - July 6. The South Carolina House becomes the first and only legislature to boast a black majority, having 87 black legislators and 40 whites. A white majority is reestablished in 1874.

1868 - July 28. The 14th Amendment, validating citizenship rights for all persons or naturalized in the U.S., is ratified.

Mary Edwards Walker (1832-1919) - American physician and feminist who was commissioned as an assistant surgeon in the Union army, making her the first woman to receive such a commission. She once gave a speech objecting to the title "Mrs." for married women, asking why a woman's marital status should be at issue, and suggested that married men be called "Misterer." for purposes of consistency, 1869.

1869 Elizabeth Cady Stanton- First woman to testify before Congress.

1869 Wyoming was the first state to grant women the right to vote.

1869 The American Women Suffrage Association was organized in Cleveland.

1869 Amy Bradley- First woman to supervise a public school system.

1870 - March 30. The ratification of the 15th Amendment secures voting rights for all male U.S. citizens.

1870 The Young Women's Christian Association was founded.

1871 - Segregated street cars integrated in Louisville, Ky. following sit-in staged by a black teenager.
Charlotte E. Ray (1850-1911) Received her degree from Howard University in 1872. She was the first Black woman lawyer in the United States, and also the first Black woman to argue before the District Supreme Court in Washington, D.C. 1872 Victoria Woodhull- first woman nominated to be president by the National Equal Rights party.

1872 Susan B. Anthony- was fined $100 for trying to vote in a presidential election. A teacher, who grew up believing all people were created equal, Ms. Anthony was also an abolitionist who spoke out against slavery. She broke the law by voting as a woman in 1872 and was arrested and fined $100. She spend her life working to change the laws so women could vote. Her birthday is celebrated February 15. "There never will be complete equality until women themselves help to make laws and elect lawmakers."

Though qualified for the bar, Myra Bradwell was denied admission because she was a woman. Illinois overturned that rule in 1872. Bradwell was also editor/ publisher of The Chicago Legal News. Her daughter followed in her footsteps.

1873 First women's prison run by women was opened at the Indiana Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls.

1875 Edna Kanouse- gave birth to the first quintuplets in America. Sadly, all five boys died shortly after.
Francis Willard -   In 1875, Frances E. Willard (a women's suffrage leader) became the first alumna initiate of Alpha Phi.  She was the first woman recognized by Congress in 1905
1879 Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood- First woman lawyer admitted to appear before the US Supreme Court.
1881 Clara Barton- Founded the American Red Cross.
Belva Lockwood (1830-1917) - First U.S. woman lawyer, and U.S. Presidential candidate, 1884

1885 Mary Gartside- First person to undergo a successful appendectomy.
The first American woman to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics was Winifred Edgerton Merrill (Columbia U. 1886).
1887 Susanna Medora Salter- First woman to be elected mayor of a US city (Argonia, Kansas).

1888 Edith Eleanor McLean- First baby placed in an incubator.
1889 Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane)- went around the world in 72 days, 6 hours and 11 minutes.

Jane Addams founds Hull House - 1889
After witnessing how match-girl strikers were helped in London by a settlement house, founded the first settlement house in the United States. She helped start the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and the ACLU. Ms. Addams received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.

1890 Alice Sanger- First female White House Staffer.
DR. ANNA JULIA COOPER (1858-1964): At age 11, Dr. Cooper was acting as a student-teacher at St. Augustine Normal School in Raleigh, N.C. After graduation in 1885, she taught modern languages and science at Wilberforce. In 1892, she published a well-received book on the racial problem. At the age of 65, she received a Ph. D. from the Sorbonne in Paris, and later served as president of Felinghuysen University, a school for unemployed blacks which she ran in her own home in Washington, D.C. Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) - One of the leading theorists of the U.S. women's movement, economist, feminist, magazine publisher, and author of such works as the autobiographical, The Yellow Wallpaper, 1892
1895 - First National Convention of Black Women held in Boston. 1895: First U.S. women's amateur golf championship at the Meadow Brook Club in Westbury is won by Mrs. Charles B. Brown with an 18-hole total of 132 over 12 other participants.
1896 - National Association of Colored Women founded by Mary Church Terrell in Washington, D.C.
1896 Martha Hughes Cannon- first female senator (Utah)
Elizabeth Wright, Sarah L. Wright, Emma Reichert, Mr. & Mrs. T.W. Barhydt, Mr. & Mrs. J.O. Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs. Waginals, and James Dishon.  - First Church of Christ, Scientist - The First Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1898 by The Christian Science Society, as the church was known in 1898
1900 Carry Nation- Smashed her first bar.
1901 Anna Taylor- first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel and live.
1902 Martha Washington- First woman to appear on a US stamp.

Oct. 11, 1902: Laurie Auchterlonie wins the U.S. Open at the Garden City Golf Club with a  307 total.

1904 A woman was arrested for smoking a cigarette.
1905 - July 11-13. The Niagara Movement (the forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)), is established. Among its leaders are W.E.B. Dubois and William Monroe Trotter. Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) - American Impressionist painter and printmaker, famous for her painting, Mother and Child, 1905, and considered the foremost U.S. painter of her generation

1908 The First Mother's Day was observed.
1909 The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) was formed.

Anita Bush, singer/actress, with Williams and Walker Company 1903-1909, organized the Anita Bush Stock Company in 1909.

1910 Alice Stebbins Wells-- World's first woman police officer was appointed to the Los Angeles Police Department.

1910 Mabel Bacon- First woman to take place in a power boat race.
1911 Marie Curie- Won her second Nobel Prize for her work with radioactive elements.

Harriet Quimby -  Became the first woman to be a licensed pilot in 1911

Other women firsts in aviation

Julia Lippitt Mauran, known as "Kitty," was a woman ahead of her time. A teacher, farmer and craftswoman, she was also the first woman licensed to drive a car in Rhode Island. It was a 1910 Ford and she drove it until she was 87.
1912 Harriet Quimby- First woman to fly a plane across the English Channel.

1912 Juliette Gordon Low- Founded the Girl Guides (later the Girl Scouts) in Savannah, Georgia.
1913 - Ida B. Wells-Barnett founded the first black woman’s suffrage association in Illinois. She pressed for integration of her group with the National American Women Suffrage Association.  She also wrote and spoke out against lynchings. 1913 Mary Phelps Jacob- patented the first modern elastic bra.

1913 Rose O'Neill- Became a millionaire for designing the Kewpie Doll.

1913 The National Women's Party was formed.

1916 Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic.

Katherine Dexter McCormick (1875-1967) - U.S. philanthropist who financed the development of the birth control pill, helped Margaret Sanger smuggle diaphragms into the country in the 1920s, and left 5 million to Planned Parenthood upon her death

1916 Jeannette Rankin - (1880-1973) (Montana)- First woman member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the only Congressperson to have voted against both World War I, and World War II

JULIETTE DERRICOTTE (1897-1931): Raised in Athens, GA., Ms. Derricotte was educated in the public schools and at Talladega College. She was the first woman trustee of the College (appointed 1918). Ms. Derricotte was a renowned speaker, traveling across the U.S. in support of black colleges and education. She was a delegate at the convention of the World's Student Christian Federation in 1924 and 1928, where she represented all American college students. She served the YWCA as the National Student Secretary, resigning in 1929 to become Dean Of Women at Fisk University.

Georgia Douglas Johnsom became the first Black woman poet since Frances Harper. In 1918, her Heart of a Woman was published, followed in 1922 by Bronze. In 1928, she published An Autumn Love Cycle.

Frieda Mae Greene Hardin was one of 12,500 women to enlist in the Navy in World War I, entering as a Yeoman First Class.
1919, Mary Pickford formed United Artists with Chaplin, Griffith and her second husband-to-be, Douglas Fairbanks. As star, director, executive producer and studio owner, she had now achieved total control over her pictures.  - Mary Pickford became the first millionaire actor in history.
Madeline Bernard, the first black woman graduate of Tufts University - 1920 1920 The League of Women Voters was created.

Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) - Leading suffragist, social reformer, and leader of the women's rights movement. Due to her tremendous contribution to women's suffrage, many often refer to the 19th Amendment of 1920, which finally granted women the vote, as the Anthony Amendment.

Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) - Led U.S. suffrage movement to victory in 1920, and began the League of Women Voters

Bessie Coleman -  became the first black woman to become a licensed pilot - 1921 -
Bessie Coleman- First American woman to earn her international pilot's license. - 1921
A sixteen-year-old Margaret Gorman from Washington D.C. was chosen as the first Miss America. - 1921

1921 The American Birth Control League was formed. It was comprised of the National Birth Control League and the Voluntary Parenthood League.

Aug. 20, 1921: The first U.S. Lawn Tennis  Association women's singles championships played at Forest Hills is won by  Molla Bjurstedt Mallory.

Lottie Holman O'Neil first woman elected to Illinois General Assembly - 1922
1924 Nellie Taylor Ross- first female governor (Wyoming).
Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) - Prominent English author and feminist who experimented with stream of consciousness writing and varied point of view perspective, best known for her pioneering feminist literary essay, A Room of One's Own, 1929
LOIS MAILOU JONES, a design instructor who joined the faculty of Howard University in 1930. Ms. Jones' work as a landscape painter has been recognized by the most critical judges. Her exhibits have won numerous prizes and awards, including the Robert Woods, BLiss Award in 1941. 1930 Ruth Nichols- First woman pilot of a transcontinental flight.

1931 Jane Addams- (1860-1935) - U.S. social and welfare activist and suffragist, and the founder of Hull House –the first settlement house in the U.S.-, the National League for Peace and Freedom, and the co-founder of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). First U.S. woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize, 1931.

1931 Jackie Mitchell- First woman to sign with a pro-baseball club, struck out both Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in one game.

Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986) - 20th century American artist and one of the founders of Modernism, best known for her Black Iris, 1926, and Cow's Skull, 1931

1932 Hattie W. Carraway- First woman elected to the US Senate.

1932 Amelia Earhart- Flies across the Atlantic Ocean alone. Amelia Earhart (1898-1937) - American aviator who became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, setting a new world record of 13 hr 30 min in 1932, and the first woman to fly across the Pacific ocean, in 1935 (Her disappearance in a flight across the Pacific ocean is one of the biggest mysteries and controversies of all time. Her plane or body were never found)

1933 - Caterina Jarboro becomes the first Black prima donna of an United States opera company. The singer performs "Aida" with the Chicago Opera Company at the Hippodrome in New York City. 1933 Minnie D. Craig- First woman elected to be the speaker for a state house of representatives.
Mary McLeod Bethune, 1875 - 1955 - noted Black educator. With the support of Eleanor Roosevelt, she became the first Black woman to receive a major appointment from the federal government and officially advise a U.S. President. Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed her Negro Affairs Director of the National Youth Administration 1939. She was the founder-president of Bethune-Cookman College in Daytona, Beach, Florida. She held the post until January 1, 1944. She founded the National Council of Negro Women, and began a Florida girls school with five pupils and $1.50 in cash
1935 Karoline Mikkelson- First woman to set foot on Antarctica.

Margaret Mead (1901-1978) - U.S. anthropologist renowned for her studies on gender and culture, and author of, Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies, a work that continues to challenge Western assumptions about masculinity and femininity, 1935

1936 Barbara Hanley- First female mayor of Webbwood, Ontario (Canada).
HATTIE McDANIEL (Mammy of Gone With the Wind) began her career in the entertainment industry as a big-band singer at the age of 15 and became the first black woman to sing on American radio. Women Engineers and Inventors
Katherine Dexter McCormick - The second woman to receive a college degree, she invented the birth control pill after her husband died.
Zora Neale Hurston (1901-1960) - U.S. anthropologist, author, and the first African American graduate from Barnard, famous for, Mules and Men, 1935, and Their Eyes Were Watching God, 1937 Ellen Church (1904-1965) First Airline Stewardess  -was a nurse and former hospital administrator of Terre Haute's Union Hospital during the 1950s-60s. Her national claim to fame is that she was the world's first airline stewardess, making her maiden flight with Boeing Air Transport (now United Airlines) on May 15, 1930. Church revolutionized commercial air travel by convincing Boeing that nurses could care for passengers better than the mail pilots who flew the commercial planes. First stewardesses Ellen Church, Alva Johnson, Margaret Arnott, Inez Keller, Cornelia Peterman, Harriet Fry, Jessie Carter, and Ellis Crawford

1938 Pearl Buck- First American woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1939 - Jane Matilda Bolin is appointed to the New York City Court of Domestic Relations by Mayor Fiorello Laguardia, becoming the first Black woman judge.
Lillian Evans Evanti (1890-1967) She was the first African American to sing opera with an organized company in Europe. In 1941 she founded the National Negro Opera.
Bess Myerson was the first Jewish woman to be crowned Miss America . - 1942

1942 WACS (Women's Auxiliary Army Corps) was instituted.

1942 Leah Fox- First woman to receive the Purple Heart.

MADELINE ROBINSON MORGAN, of Chicago, in 1943, worked out a curriculum to improve race relations which was integrated into the Chicago grade school system. 1943 The Women's Marine Corp was created.
Black women were allowed by the US Navy to join the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service- WAVES. - 1944

Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962) - Peace and social welfare activist and "First Lady of the World," who served as the first U.S. delegate to the United Nations, 1945-1952, and helped to draft the UN Declaration of Human Rights
DR. FRANCES JONES BONNER, Greensboro, N,C., was the first winner of the Helen Putnam Fellowship for advanced research in genetics at Ratcliffe College (1946). She became a neuropathology research associate at Boston City Hospital and assistant laboratory instructor at Harvard University. DR. JEANNE NOBLE, educator and guidance expert, was appointed by President Ford to the National Advisory Council of Professional Development. The product of a poverty-stricken environment in Albany, GA., she graduated from Howard University and earned two post-graduate degrees.

THOMASINA W. JOHNSON, named in 1946 as Chief, Minority Groups Section, U.S, Employment Service.

SADIE T. M. ALEXANDER, a Philadelphia lawyer, named in 1946 by President Truman to the President's Committee on Civil Rights.

ALICE OUNNIGAN, Associated Negro Press Washington correspondent was admitted to three important sources of news as early as 1947: the Capitol Press Gallery; the State Department, and the White House. She was the first black to be admitted to all three and the first black woman to be admitted to any.

VENICE TIPTON SPRAGGS, chief of the Chicago Defender's Washington Bureau, in 1947, was initiated into Theta Sigma Phi, the national professional and honorary fraternity for women in journalism, the first black member in the 37-year history of the organization.

Colonel Margaret E. Bailey, who served in Germany and France, was the first Black woman to be Chief Nurse at an integrated hospital and first Black nurse to be promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and later to Colonel, in the Army Nurse Corps. 1948 Margaret Chase Smith- Was elected to Senate becoming the first woman to serve in both houses of Congress.
Gwendolyn Brooks won first black woman in history in Pulitzer Prize - 1949

Evelyn Boyd Granville - In the early half of the twentieth century many Black women obtained a Masters Degree in Mathematics however, it was not until 1949, 25 years after the first African American earned a Ph.D. in mathematics that a Black woman reached that level.

Other black women who earned degrees in the mathematical sciences

1949 Eugenie Anderson- first female US Ambassador. She became ambassador to Denmark.

1949 Conchita Cintron- First American woman to become a bullfighter in Spain.
In 1950, Elizabeth Simpson Drewry became the first African- American woman elected to the West Virginia Legislature.
Realizing that they could be drafted to fight for their country at the age of 18 but could not vote in
most states, young people began demanding enfranchisement in the 1940s. A constitutional amendment was drafted during the Korean conflict in the early 1950s but was not supported by the necessary two-thirds majority of states. Georgia and Kentucky had lowered the voting age to 18 by 1955, but not until the Vietnam era was the 26th Amendment ratified. Forty-eight percent of the 18-21 year old population cast their first presidential ballot in 1972.
1951 Ethel Rosenberg- and her husband were convicted of spying. They were sentenced to death.
1952 - After keeping statistics for 71 years, Tuskegee Institute reports that this is the first year with no lynchings.

CHARLOTTA A. BASS, chosen unanimously by the Progressive Party Convention in 1952 to run for the nation's second-highest political office - Vice President of the United States.

Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992) - U.S naval officer, mathematician, and computer pioneer, who wrote the first computer compiler in 1952. She was also one of the first computer programmers in the world, and worked on the early Mark I and UNIVAC computers, and on the language COBOL.

In 1952, the first "Miss USA" pageant is held. The title was won by New York's Jackie Lougherty.

1952 Christine Jorgenson- First person to have a sex-change operation.

Lucille Ball (1911-1989) - U.S. comic actress and star of the widely popular TV comedy I Love Lucy, 1951, who incorporated her real-life pregnancy into the show, setting history as the first time a pregnancy was depicted on television; though she was forbidden to use the words pregnancy and pregnant, so as not to disturb the delicate sensibilities of her audience, 1952

1952 The first human birth was televised in Denver, Colorado.

1953 Jacqueline Cochran- First woman to break the sound barrier.
1954 - May 17. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Supreme Court rules unanimously that racial segregation in public school is unconstitutional, overruling Plessy v. Ferguson.
Rosa Parks- Refuses to give up her seat to a white person on a Montgomery, Alabama bus. -1955

December 1. Rosa Parks refuses to change seats on a Montgomery, Alabama, bus. On December 5, blacks begin a boycott of the bus system, which continues until shortly after December 13, 1956, when the U.S. Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation in the city.

1-23-55 -Women were accepted, by vote, as ministers in the U.S. Presbyterian Church.

08/02/55 -Mrs. Sheldon Rubbins became the first female cantor in the history of Judaism.

1956 Josephine Bay- First woman to head a firm that was part of the New York Stock Exchange.

Tenley Albright and Carol Heiss (American Olympic gold medalists in women's figure skating in 1956 and 1960)

Gloria Ford Gilmer - is the first african american woman to publish a non-Ph.D.-thesis mathematics research paper.
Virginia Jenckes (1877 -1975)  - First Indiana Woman Elected to Congress. A native of Terre Haute, she began her political career at the age of 55 when she was elected to the House of Representatives in 1932.
1957 - February 14. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is formed with Martin Luther King, Jr. as president.

1957 -August 29. Congress passes the Voting Rights Bill of 1957, the first major civil rights legislation in more than 75 years.

1957: Althea Gibson becomes the first  African-American woman to play tennis at the U.S. grass court championships and to win the U.S. Open, defeating Louise Brough,  6-3, 6-2, at Forest Hills. Althea Gibson becomes first black woman to win Wimbledon in England Her autobiography is entitled, "I Always Wanted To Be Somebody."

Kathleen Kennedy Shriver - was the first woman to run the foundation for disabled Olympics. - 1957
In 1958, the first "America's Junior Miss Pageant" is held. It was a scholarship program to recognize outstanding achievement by high school seniors. They were judged on talent, poise community service, and school grades. Phyllis Whitenack, of West Virginia won the first title.
In 1959, Lorraine Vivian Hansberry, b. Chicago, May 19, 1930, d. Jan. 12, 1965, became the first black woman to have a play produced on Broadway with A Raisin in the Sun. Her play, "A Raisin in the Sun," earned her the distinction of being the first black woman playwright. He suffered premature death at thirty-four.  
In 1960, Corrine Huff wins the Miss Iowa and the Miss USA title and becomes the first black woman to win a state title and compete in a major national pageant.
Joy Adamson (1910-1980)- Austrian conservationist, and trainer of Elsa the Lioness of Born Free, 1960, who established the World Wildlife Fund, 1961
Edith Spurlock Sampson- Sworn in as the first female Black American judge. - 1962

Mildred Mitchell-Bateman was the first African-American woman to be named to a high-ranking office in West Virginia state government. In 1962, she became director of the Department of Mental Health and served in that capacity for fifteen years.

Rachel Carson (1907-1964) - U.S. ecologist and author of Silent Spring; a critical analysis of the detrimental environmental impact of pesticides, which rejuvenated the ecology movement, and drew public attention to environmental issues, 1962

Barbara Tuchman (1912-1989) - Pulitzer prize-winning historian, and author of Guns of August, 1962

In 1962, Diane Sawyer who was chosen as "America's Junior Miss" letter attends Wellesley College, works as a press aide to President Nixon, and becomes anchor of Prime Time Live and one of the highest paid female anchors in television history.

Betty Friedan (1921) - Author of The Feminine Mystique, 1963, and founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW)
Marian Wright Edelman - a graduate of Spelman College and Yale Law School, began her career in the mid-60s when, as the first black woman admitted to the Mississippi Bar, she directed the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund office in Jackson, Mississippi.

GERALDINE McCULLOUGH, sculptor Ms. McCullough's steel and copper abstraction, "Phoenix", won the George D. Widener Gold Medal at the 1964 exhibition of the PA Academy of Fine Arts.

1964 Jerrie Mock- First woman to fly solo around the world.

1964 - January 23. The 24th Amendment forbids the use of the poll tax to prevent voting.

1965 - Mary Kate Fishe Bell became first black woman to run for public office in the history of Sumter County
1966 - Constance Baker Motley - becomes the first Black woman to be appointed to a federal judgeship

Born on February 21, 1936 in Houston, Texas, Barbara Jordan became the first black woman in Texas Legislation. From 1966-1972. Ms. Jordan was the first black woman in the Texas Senate. She helped in campaigning for John F. Kennedy. Twice, she ran for Texas House of Representative and was defeated. The third time she ran, she won. MORE

Carole Simpson  - An anchor of "World News Sunday" and an Emmy Award winning senior correspondent for ABC News. In 1966, Simpson became the first black woman to broadcast in Chicago after waiting for nearly 12 hours by the elevator of the hotel where Martin Luther King Jr. was staying to obtain an interview.

Karen Parker, who left the Greensboro  Journal after her internship, became the first black woman undergraduate at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1967 Muriel Siebert- First woman to own a seat on the New York Stock Exchange.
Shirley Chisholm- first black woman elected to the US House of Representatives. - 1968 - and U.S. Presidential candidate (Democrat Party)

In 1968, The first "Miss Black America Pageant" is held in Atlantic City as a protest against the absence of black women in the "Miss America Pageant".  

In an important racial milestone, Cheryl Browne, win the Miss Iowa title and becomes the first African-American woman to compete in the "Miss America Pageant".

1968 Peggy Fleming- First American woman to win an Olympic Gold Medal in women's figure skating broadcast on television.

1969 Grace Brewster Murray Hopper- First person to receive the Man of the Year Award from the Data Processing Management Association.
Dolores Huerta (b.1930) - Crusader for the rights of Mexican-Americans, farm workers, and women worldwide, and co-founder, with Cesar Chavez, of the United Farm Workers This remarkable woman began organizing farm workers in New Mexico in 1955. In 1965, Cesar and Helen Chavez and Dolores Huerta led an historic march of thousands of farmworkers from Delano to Sacramento, Calif.  In 1966, aware of the uneasy race relations within the civil rights movement she wrote an article titled "Neither Black or White." She moved to Delano, California, where she negotiated a contact with the Delano Grape Growers in 1970 and was elected vice president of the United Farm Workers. While struggling on behalf of farm laborers she raised ten children. (Listen to Real Audio)  Dolores Huerta tells a story about César Chávez' 1968 fast (in English)

Maya Angelou (b.1928) - Poet-Laureate of the U.S., autobiographer, playwright, and author of such works as, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, 1970

In 1971, the "Miss National Teen-Ager" Pageant is founded in Atlanta as a scholarship pageant for girls.

1971 Fran Phipps- First woman to reach the North Pole.

1971 Lucinda Franks- First woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for national reporting.

1972 - The rules committee of the Democratic National Convention approves the nomination of Yvonne Brathwaite Burke as co-chairperson of the convention. She becomes the first Black woman to serve in that position in any major political party in the United States.

1972 - Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm begins her campaign for President of the United States. Although she was ultimately  unsuccessful, she made known the concerns of Blacks across the country.

Rosemary Brown, former B.C. Canada politician - first Black woman elected to a provincial legislature (1972)

Gloria Steinem (b.1934)- U.S. feminist, activist, author, and co-founder of Ms. magazine, 1972

Patricia Schroeder (b.1940) - Nine-term, longest-serving woman U.S. Congressperson (1972-1996), leader and prime strategist of women's rights legislation

April 17, 1972: Nina Kuscsik of  Huntington, LI, NY is the first official woman  finisher at the Boston Marathon in  3:08:58.

Not to leave out Native Americans - Annie Dodge Wauneka, daughter of Henry Chee Dodge, was the first woman elected to the Navajo Tribal Council. She held the post until 1973. 1973 US Supreme Court Roe v. Wade decision. There have been profound changes since the decision granting the right to have an abortion to all women in the US.  

Sarah Weddington - Women's rights activist and lawyer who won the right to abortion for American women through Roe v. Wade, 1973  

In 1973, "The Miss Universe Pageant" is broadcast live worldwide for the first time.

March 1, 1973: American Robyn Smith becomes the first woman jockey  to win a stakes race, riding North Sea to victory in the Paumonok Handicap at Aqueduct.

Mary Daly - U.S. feminist theologian and author of 'Beyond God the Father', 1973

1974, Alice M. Henderson of Atlanta, Georgia, became a chaplain to the U.S. Army, a first for Blacks and women. In 1974, the feminists return to Atlantic City where they stage a feminist conference and protest the "Miss America Pageants".

The Women's Sports Foundation, founded in 1974 to  promote women in sports, chooses Nassau County, NY over Dallas for its  permanent headquarters in 1994

1974 Golda Meir- (she was born in Milwaukee, WI) Resigned as Prime Minister of Israel.

1975, the U.S. Navy appointed its first Black woman physician. 1975 The US Coast Guard Academy first allowed women to enroll.
1976 Sarah Caldwell- (b.1928)First woman to conduct at New York's Metropolitan Opera House invited to the position after Beverly Sills refused to sing there unless Caldwell was allowed to conduct

1976 The Episcopalian Church in the US approved the ordination of female priests and bishops.

In 1976, the "Miss United Teenager Pageant" is started.

The "Cinderella Pageant" begins and it quickly becomes a leading children's scholarship pageant.

Gwen B. Giles, the first black person and first woman to serve as city assessor in St. Luis, Missouri. In 1977, she was the first black woman elected to the state Senate. She resigned her Senate seat representing the 4th District in 1981 when Mayor Vincent C. Schoemehl Jr. appointed her Assessor.

Jannelle Penny Commession became the first Black to win the "Miss Universe" title in 1977.

Janet Guthrie - The first woman ever to compete in the Indianapolis 500 (1977)

1977 Mary Shane- First female play-by-play baseball announcer on TV.

In 1977, the "Miss Teen All America Pageant" is started.

A man saved the defunct "Mrs. America Pageant" which was a cooking and sewing contest for homemakers and changed it into a glamorous televised beauty pageant for married women.

Bette Davis (1908-1989) - Prominent U.S. actress, and the first woman to win the American Film Institute's Life Achievement Award, 1977

Harriet Tubman- Became the first African American woman on a US stamp. - 1978 The Susan B. Anthony dollar was first stamped by the Philadelphia Mint. She is the first woman on a US coin. - 1978

1978 Naomi Uemura- First person to reach the North Pole alone (over land).

1978 Dianne Feinstein- First female mayor of San Francisco, California.

1978 Mary Clarke- First female major general in the US Air Force.
Inferior intelligence notions were slammed when Karen Stevenson became the first Black American woman to win a Rhodes Scholarship in 1979.

Tai Babilonia is a pairs figure skater. She may have been the first black woman to compete in figure skating at the Winter Olympics. She and her partner, Randy Gardner, were World Champions in 1979.  Babilonia & Gardner were the first American pair to win the World Championship in their sport since 1961 and are the last Americans to accomplish this feat.

1979 Jane M. Byrne- First woman elected mayor of Chicago.
Lenola Sullivan, Miss Arkansas, is the first African-American woman to make the top five at the Miss America Pageant. She also wins the swimsuit competition.  - 1980 1980 Elenor Conn- First person to fly in a hot air balloon over the North Pole.

In 1980, "The Miss T.E.E.N. Pageant", a program honoring teen excellence, is founded. Susan McDonald wins the first title.

1981 Sandra Day O'Connor- was sworn in as the first female Supreme Court Justice.
Alice Walker (b.1944) - U.S. writer, womanist, activist, and author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning, The Color Purple, 1982, renowned for her efforts to raise awareness about female genital mutilation
1983 Vanessa Williams- Became the first black Miss America.

She resigned during a nationally televised press conference after reporters revealed she had posed nude for Penthouse magazine.

William's first runner-up, Suzette Charles, becomes the second African-American woman to hold the title. She later gained her popularity as a recording artist (The Right Stuff), film star (Under The Gun, Eraser), and Broadway star (Kiss of the Spider Woman).

Barbara McClintock (b.1902) - Renowned U.S. geneticist and physician who won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for her groundbreaking discovery that genes can "jump" between cells. Although she made the discovery in 1951, the scientific community treated her largely with belittlement and neglect, until finally recognizing her achievement and awarding her accordingly with the Nobel in 1983.

1983 Samantha Smith- was invited to the USSR by leader Yuri Andropov. He invited her after he received her letter about her fear of nuclear war.

1983 Tamara McKinney- First American woman skier to win the World Cup overall championship.

1983 Elizabeth H. Dole- Sworn in as the first female Secretary of Transportation.

Sally Ride - American physicist who became the first U.S. woman in space aboard Challenger, 1983 (The Challenger exploded on takeoff, killing everyone aboard, one of the most shocking television events of the last half of the Century)

1984 Dr. Kathy Sullivan- First American woman to walk in space.

Geraldine Ferraro, who in 1984 became the first woman nominated for vice-president by a major party

In 1985, a naturalized Mexican-American, Laura Martinez-Herring is named Miss USA making her the first Hispanic to win a major USA pageant title.

1985 Mary Lund- First woman to have the Jarvick VII artificial heart implanted.

In 1985 "The Mother/Daughter Pageant" is started.
1986: At Nassau Coliseum,  Debi Thomas becomes the first black  woman to win a women's title at the U.S. figure skating championships. 1986 Davina Thompson- had the first heart, lung, liver transplant.

In 1986, The first beauty contest television series, "Dream Girl USA Pageant " is started. It lasts one season before being canceled.

"The Mrs. United States Pageant" is founded.

Christa McAuliffe - The first teacher to travel into space, her brief voyage ended in the explosion of the Challenger, January 28, 1986. This dynamic woman planned to broadcast space lessons via satellite to schools across the country. Her T-shirt said, "I touched the future. I teach."

Wilma Mankiller- (b.1945) - The first woman Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, 1987

Aretha Franklin- First female artist inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 1987

Dr. Mae Jemison - The first Black female astronaut. - She was the first African American woman in real space.1987

Lenora Fulani - ran for the President of the United States as an independent and became the first woman and the first African American to ever appear on the ballot in all 50 states - 1988

Debi Thomas became the first black woman to win a medal in Olympic figure skating in 1988.

1989 - January 29. Barbara Harris is elected the first woman bishop of the Anglican Episcopal Church.

Maya Lin - U.S. architect, designer of the Civil Rights Memorial in Montgomery, Alabama, 1989, and the Vietnam War Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Uta Ranke-Heinemann - First Catholic woman theologian, and author of 'Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven': Women, Sexuality, and the Catholic Church; a critical examination of the misogynistic elements of Christian theology, 1990
Oprah Winfrey -- The Queen of Daytime TV. She was the first black woman to have her own national show. She is the first African-American and the third woman in history, behind Mary Pickford and Lucille Ball, to own her own studio, HARPO Studios ("Oprah" spelled backwards). She is the world's highest paid entertainer.

Anita Hill - Lawyer, educator, and activist against sexual harassment, whose testimony before the Senate -against Supreme Court appointee, Clarence Thomas- generated outrage, awareness, and increased political activity around the issue of sexual harassment, 1991

1991 Grace Brewster Murray Hopper- First individual to receive the US Medal of Technology.

Susan Faludi - Pulitzer Prize winning journalist, feminist writer, and author of the bestseller, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Woman, 1991

1991 Nadine Strossen- Elected first female president of the ACLU.

Peg Yorkin (b.1927) - Feminist philanthropist and co-founder of the Feminist Majority, who in 1991 gave the Feminist Majority Foundation $10 million dollars, the largest single contribution for women's rights

Carol Moseley Braun- First Black female senator (Illinois). 1992

See note at bottom of page.

1992 - August 3. Jackie Joyner-Kersee is the first woman to repeat as Olympic heptathlon champion.

CYNTHIA TUCKER, in 1992, became the first black woman to edit a major daily newspaper, the Atlanta Constitution.

In 1992, "The Miss Teen of America Pageant" is founded.
1992 - Janet Reno,  first female Atty. General
1993 - September 7. M. Jocelyn Elders becomes the first black and first woman U.S. surgeon general.

October 7. Toni Morrison becomes the first black woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Ruth Bader Ginsburg - First tenured woman professor at Colombia Law School, and the second woman U.S. Supreme Court Justice, 1993

Gerda Lerner - Feminist historian, author of The Creation of the Patriarchy: Women and History, 1986, and The Creation of Feminist Consciousness: From the Middle Ages to 1870, 1993

Sharon Sayles-Belton - First Black and first female Mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Elected to office in 1994. Former Minneapolis City Council President. 1994 Shannon Faulkner- First woman to attend The Citadel, an all-male military school in South Carolina.

1994 Heather Whitestone- Became first Miss America with a disability. She is deaf.
Marion Hammer - NRA Women's  Policies Committee named the Women's Freedom Award in Sybil Ludington's honor and in 1995, unanimously selected Marion Hammer to be its first recipient.

1995 Eileen Collins- First woman to fly a space shuttle. She piloted the Discovery.

1995 The America 3 was the first all female crew to win an America's Cup race.

Former U.S. Surgeon General Dr. M. Joycelyn Elders. Elders was the country's first black surgeon general - 1996? MORE

Dominique Dawes became the first African-American woman to win a gold medal in gymnastics in 1996.

1996 Karrie Webb- won the LPGA Championship and earned more than $1 million that season.

Madeleine Albright -   First woman Secretary of State - 1997

1997 Susie Maroney- First woman to swim from Cuba to Florida in 24 and a half hours.

Jody Williams - Recipient of the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize for her work as the American coordinator of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, (ICBL)

The voters of tiny Guyana elected Janet Jagan, widow of longtime President Cheddi Jagan, in 1997.

Claudia Kennedy  - 1948 - ...   Army's First Female Three-Star General - 1997
Charlene Marshall - Morgantown's mayor, the first black woman to hold that post, said the city's vitality was not dependent on West Virginia University. Charlene Marshall, will step down as mayor this month to run for the state House of Delegates - 1998
1998 Women's Ice Hockey is first played as an Olympic sport.

In 1998, Virginia's Nicole Johnson who was a diabetic who wears an insulin pump on her hips, becomes the first women with a long term physical illness to win the Miss America title.

1998 Karla Fate Tucker- First woman to be executed in Texas since 1863.
1998 - Lieutenant Colonel Eileen Collins, a US Air Force pilot with over 4700 hours on 30 different aircraft, has been an astronaut since 1990 and veteran of two space flights. With more that 419 hours in space, she is the first woman to pilot the Space Shuttle.
2004 - Condaleeza Rice - First black woman to be nominated to Secretary of State. Confirmed January, 2005. 
2005 - Rosa Parks - First woman ever to lie in state in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol building upon her death on October 28th, 2005. Rosa Parks was the seamstress who refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in 1955 sparked a movement for black civil rights. 2005 - Nov. 22, 2005 - After a vote of parliament on Tuesday, Angela Merkel of the conservative Christian Democratic Union is formally elected as Germany's eighth leader since World War II and its first female chancellor. German Chancellor Angela Merkel affirmed the importance of economic ties between Russia and Germany during her first official visit to Moscow, though she voiced concern at the state of Russian democracy.
2006 - Liberia's President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf in Monrovia, Liberia, Monday, Jan. 16, 2006.  She is the first black woman President in the world. 2006 - SANTIAGO, Chile, Jan 16. 2006 - Chile president-  Michelle Bachelet, a Socialist who will be the country's first female leader.A former political prisoner who was once granted asylum in Australia has become Chile's first female president. She also speaks five languages and has studied in the US and Germany.. She was imprisoned and tortured during the early years of Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship and lived in exile in the late 1970s.
  2006 - California - Nancy Pelosi takes over as speaker of the House of Representatives.  The first woman ever in this position.
..... 2008 - Sarah Palin - Governor of Alaska, nominated to run for Vice President - alongside Senator John McCain of Arizona

She thanked Geraldine Ferraro (1984) and Hillary Clinton who was 'first lady' with President Bill Clinton.  Hillary Clinton ran a powerful campaign to be President of the United States against many other candidates - but against the first black man Barack Obama to run for President.

2009 - Sonia Sotomayor - b: June 25, 1954 - though not black, is the first Puerto Rican to be nonminated for the position of Supreme Court Justice.  She is to undergo heavy questioning before being approved by the Senate before October, 2009  
2013 - Danica Patrick - age 30 - first woman to win the Pole position in the Daytona 500 car race, and the first woman to lead at least 1 lap in the Daytone 500 car race.
race was held - Feb. 24, 2013. She was in 8th place at the end of the race, but was in 3rd place most of the race.
2013 - October 9,  Janet Yellen was nominated to become the Head Chairman of US Federal Reseve Bank - the first woman ever to be nominated.  She has been the Vice Chair for a number of years, and held other offices in the Bank for more years.  She is well qualified.

Willa Brown (1902-1992) She was the first Black woman to hold a commercial pilot's license and to gain officer rank in the Civil Air Patrol Squadron.

1933 - Dramatic soprano Matilda Sissieretta Jones dies of cancer in Providence, Rhode Island. Called the "the first Negro prima donna," Jones toured with the Tennessee Jubilee Singers and performed at Carnegie Hall, Madison Square Garden and at the White House in 1892. She will be dubbed "Black Patti," a name she reportedly disliked for its allusion to white contemporary, Adelina Patti.

Marian Anderson - The first Black woman to sing at the Metropolitan Opera.

Angie Brookes - The first female president of the United Nations.

Rosalyn Yalow - Researcher and winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine for her invention of Radioimmunoassay (RIA); an invention which has revolutionized medical diagnosis, used to analyze hormones, vitamins, and enzymes, and to diagnose diabetes, thyroid disease, hypertension, infertility, cancer, and hepatitis

Marva Collins -- Founder of her own private school on Chicago's west side.

Yvonne Braithwaite-Burke - Former Congresswoman from California and first woman to chair the Democratic National Convention.

Bella Abzug (b.1920) - Former NY Congresswoman, peace and advocacy leader, and founder of the "Women's Environment and Development Organization" (WEDO), a global advocacy network

Paula Coughlin - Former Navy helicopter pilot who was awarded a five million dollar court settlement after breaking the Tailhook scandal, and drawing public attention to the historically-silenced, rampant incidence of sexual harassment within the U.S. military
Dr. Marilyn Gatson - Assistant Surgeon General.

Jewell Jackson McCabe - President of the National Coalition of 100 Black Women.

Clara Barton (1821-1912)- American humanitarian, battlefield nurse, and founder and leader of the American Red Cross

Angela Davis (b.1944) - U.S. academic, radical, communist, and women's and civil rights leader

Eleanor Smeal (b.1939) - Political scientist who first discovered the "Gender Gap," women's rights advocate, three-term President of the National Organization for Women (NOW), co-founder and President of the Feminist Majority and the Feminist Majority Foundation, and leader of the campaign to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), (1975-1982)

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) - English nurse, reformer, and author who successfully fought to make nursing a respectable profession for women

Coretta Scott King - Director of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Social Change and Civil Rights Activism.

Ella Fitzgerald (1924-1996) Known as the "First Lady of Jazz," Fitzgerald was one of the most celebrated singers in the country. She was also the first African American to win a Grammy music award.

Hazel O'Leary - Secretary for the Department of Energy.

Sharon Pratt Kelly - The first woman to serve as mayor of Washington, D. C.

1985 - Patricia Roberts Harris, Cabinet Member, ambassador and first Black woman to head a law school, dies in Washington, DC.

C. Delores Tucker - National Chairman of the National Political Congress of Black Women.

Bessie Smith (1897-1937) - U.S. blues singer nicknamed "The Empress of the Blues," whose first album, Downhearted Blues, sold 2 million copies

Diane Watson - The first Black woman to preside over the California State Senate.

Helen Adams Keller (1880-1968) - American author, lecturer, and pacifist who overcame tremendous physical disabilities to become an inspiration to the world

Elizabeth Koontz, first black president of the NEA

Versia Lindsay, first woman to graduate from the School of Sciences at Atlanta University

Anita Turpeau Anderson, first woman on the debate team at Howard

Addie Aylestock: first Black woman ordained in the British Methodist Episcopal Church in Canada

Myrtice Taylor, first black superintendent for curriculum and instruction in the Atlanta Public Schools

Violette Anderson, first African-American to try a case before the U.S. Supreme Court

Edythe White, first woman to serve on the Jackson, Alabama City Council

Judge Bernice Donald, first black woman elected to the Tennessee Judiciary

Katherine Graham (b.1917) - Chairperson of the Washington Post Company Executive Committee -a publishing empire including "The Washington Post" and "Newsweek"- renowned as one of the wealthiest, most influential women in the world

Jane Goodall (b.1934) - English zoologist, anthropologist, conservationist, and the world's foremost authority on chimpanzees

Lullelia Harrison, first executive secretary of any of the greek lettered organizations

Freddye Henderson, first black owner of a travel agency in the U.S.

Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, the first female member of the U.S. Supreme Court.

Emma Goldman (1869-1940) - U.S. anarchist and contraception advocate

Alice Paul (1885-1977) - Militant U.S. suffragist who led the final fight to win woman the vote, and founder of the National Woman's Party. Introduced the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the U.S. Constitution, which though not yet ratified in the U.S., has become a model for such amendments of gender equality worldwide and has passed in sixteen states of the U.S.

Frances Perkins (1880-1965) - First woman U.S. Secretary of Labor and first woman in the U.S. Cabinet. Principal architect of the Social Security system and contributing writer of the National Labor Relations Act and the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Sheryl Swoops - Olympic gold medalist and pioneer member of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)

Shelia Williams, first black female news and public affairs director for two radio stations simultaneously

Sacajawea - A Native-American, this young women became interpreter and wilderness guide to explorers Lewis and Clark at the age of 16. She carried her infant son enroute and as the only woman on the expedition into the Northwest Territory she also prepared the food, nursed the sick and mended the clothes. At the end of the journey she received no pay and her name was almost forgotten.

Clara McLaughlin, first black woman to own and operate a tv station

Dr. Alyce Gullantee, first black psychiatrist to receive an Emmy

Wilma Rudolph was the first American woman to win three gold medals in track and field at a single Olympiad. Before she died, she served as Track Director and Special Consultant on Minority Affairs at DePauw University.

Niara Sudarkasa made history by becoming the first woman president of Lincoln University, America's oldest black college. Prior to he appointment at Lincoln, she made history by becoming the first black woman to receive tenure at the University of Michigan.

Helen Keller -   Her triumphs over her own disabilities led Ms. Keller to world fame as a speaker and advocate for the rights of all disabled people. Although deaf and blind, she learned to read Braille, to write and to speak with the help of her dedicated teacher, Anne Sullivan.

Emma Lazarus - A poet and essayist, she worked to help American immigrants and devoted her life to the defense of the Jewish people and American ideals. Her poem "The New Colossus" is inscribed on the Statue of Liberty.

Elizabeth Harden Gilmore House, Charleston - The Elizabeth Harden Gilmore House, located on Broad Street in downtown Charleston, served as a private residence and home of Harden and Harden Funeral Home. Elizabeth Harden Gilmore was the first woman to be licensed as a funeral director in Kanawha County. She has been described as a pioneer of the civil rights movement in West Virginia, working with the Girl Scouts, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and leading the first sit-in against a local store in an effort to open lunch counters to blacks

Sylvia Pankhurst (1882-1960) - The most radical of the Pankhursts; a suffragist who was arrested 13 times and forcibly fed after staging hunger strikes

Barbara Walters (b.1931) - Pioneering TV journalist, first woman anchor on a commercial network

Patricia Roberts Harris, Edward W. Brooke, and Hugh H. and Mabel M. Smythe also illustrate the efforts of African Americans to move into the center of the political arena. Harris, the first black woman to hold a Cabinet position, served as secretary of housing and urban development and secretary of health, education, and welfare (later called health and human services) under President Jimmy Carter. Brooke was the third black United States senator in the nation's history and the only one elected in this century until Carol Moseley Braun's recent victory. The Smythes were two of the first African Americans to break the racial barrier in the State Department's diplomatic corps.

Clara Adams-Ender - The highest-ranking woman on active duty in the U.S. Army. Brigadier General Clara L. Adams-Ender is the commanding general of Fort Belvioir, Virginia and deputy commanding general of the Military District of Washington.


Sunday, January 16, 2000


As the country prepares to observe the annual celebration of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday tomorrow, the holiday has become a time of reflection about not only the life of the slain civil rights leader, but also of the state of racial equality.

When King spelled out his dreams for equality in his 1963 speech at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom — popularly known as his "I Have A Dream" speech — he set forth, in his powerful and poetic language, a useful set of criteria by which to measure society's performance.

Are the chains of discrimination — which King said cripple the life of the black American — gone?

How close we have come as a nation to King's dream is a question that blacks and whites often answer differently, said William Strickland, a professor in the W.E.B. DuBois Department of African American Studies at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

"All the studies show there are tremendous gaps in black and white perception of racial reality," he said. "If you ask blacks, the overwhelming majority say a major cause of lack of advancement is discrimination. If you ask whites about 20 percent say it's discrimination while the rest say it's because of black behaviors."

But the facts show some realities that can't be disputed.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the 1998 poverty rate for blacks — 26.1 percent — remained statistically unchanged from 1997. Poverty rates for whites decreased significantly to 8.2 percent.

The median family income for black families in 1997 was $28,602 while for white families it was $46,754.

Census figures show that in 1998, 72.6 percent of whites owned their own homes. That figure for blacks was 45.6 percent. And while 83.7 percent of whites completed high school, only 76 percent of blacks did.

The question for a nation pledging a commitment to equality is why statistics show a lack of parity between the races and what can be done to correct that.

In "The State of Black America 1999," the annual report prepared by the National Urban League, William Darity Jr. wrote an essay about history, discrimination and racial inequality.

In an interview from North Carolina, where he is a research professor of public policy at Duke University, Darity expanded on his findings that discrimination prevents parity in this country.

"Many white Americans view the legislation passed in the '60s as essentially having solved the problems. They have a perception that 'a lot has been done for blacks,'" he said.

Darity defines discrimination as exclusion and differential treatment because of group affiliation, not because of the capacity to perform. He believes that it affects blacks adversely at all stages of employment — the interview, the job offer and wage and promotion opportunities.

He cites audit studies, which are tests of labor market discrimination conducted with trained actors who are sent out in teams to pursue advertised job opportunities. The studies provide the most incontrovertible evidence of current job discrimination, he said.

According to Darity, the sharpest economic gap between blacks and whites in the United States involves wealth. Unlike income, wealth is a measure of individual property, such as ownership of a home or other types of real estate or financial assets, like equities. The Survey of Consumer Finances estimated average black wealth in 1990 at $41,616 and average white wealth at $247,248.

That difference affects options with respect to higher education, the ability to adapt to major emergencies, the pursuit of self-employment and the capacity to leave bequests to offspring, Darity said.

He talks of the lower levels of home ownership among blacks as the product of the historical legacy of residential segregation, redlining and policies by government agencies and discrimination in real estate and lending markets.

According to Darity, affirmative action is not the only answer, but in the absence of a better one, it seems one way to "reconstruct opportunity."

"I'm somewhat pessimistic at the moment," Darity said. "I don't see any major change because the momentum seems to be against affirmative action."

An updated statistical look at the black community locally — via the 2000 federal census — is eagerly awaited by many. Local data is only available from the 1990 federal census, and most agree it is too old to be a useful reflection of current conditions.

But there are local statistics available that show a wide gap between the races in several public health categories in Springfield.

According to Springfield's Health and Human Services Department, blacks make up 35 percent of the city's residents diagnosed with AIDS while they make up 18 percent of the city's population.

The city's black residents are also more adversely affected by low birth weights for infants and lack of adequate prenatal care.

Neighborhoods with higher rates of adequate prenatal care had lower numbers of children living in poverty, according to the department.

"If we were able to give people access to resources, if people had living wage jobs, jobs that afforded them health care, income that affords them quality of life and dignity we would immediately see health indices impacted positively," said Helen R. Caulton-Harris, director of Springfield's Health and Human Services Department.

Frank P. Robinson, executive director of Partners for a Healthier Community, said that infant mortality, teen-age pregnancy and chronic diseases such as heart disease, asthma, diabetes and hypertension are indicators of where there has been persistent lack of parity between the black and general population.

Partners is a private, non-profit agency based at Baystate Medical Center that obtains grants for community health programs.

"In some instances, where there has been improvement in areas amongst the total population you find there is a still- widening gap between African Americans and whites," Robinson said.

Although socioeconomic variables account for some disparity in health indicators between blacks and whites, Robinson said there is another element.

"For communities of color there are issues that are less measurable — hope, happiness, those spiritual elements that come out of the quality of life and contribute to health. Racism and conditions of oppression that people are subjected to, that's where you encounter hopelessness and despair," he said.

Robinson cited a recent study that looked at how heart-related procedures are delivered to blacks and whites.

"An African American male like myself, relatively middle-class, professional, highly educated, even controlling for other variables is less likely to get the same preventative procedures as white males of comparable status," he said.

"As a country we just happen to be hung up on color," Robinson said.

There may be a more productive way to create parity in health indices, but it would take a major societal restructuring, he said. That more productive way would be to take all the resources going to health initiatives and focus them on children from birth to three years old.

"Give them nourishment, safe families and spend the leftover resources changing community conditions such as housing and employment — eliminate the root causes — that is probably the best investment long term in public health," Robinson said.

UMass professor Strickland, who was northeast coordinator for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee as well as an adviser to Jesse Jackson, sees public participation in the political process as one way to seek change, but he understands that not all people believe that is a place to put their energies.

King spoke of the vote in his 1963 speech: "We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote."

The latter feeling may still be true in many black communities, Strickland said.

Russell E. Williams, an economist and research assistant at the William Monroe Trotter Institute on the campus of the University of Massachusetts at Boston, said, "One of the prime things is people not believing that their vote counts."

The Trotter Institute was created by the state Legislature and conducts research on issues affecting African Americans.

"A number of people believe that there are no candidates who reflect their interests," Williams said. When black communities see the success of their vote, for instance in the election of Harold Washington as the first black mayor in Chicago and Wilson Goode as the first black mayor of Philadelphia, it becomes a meaningful experience that shows blacks they can have political influence, he said.

In Springfield, Carol Lewis- Caulton became the first black woman on the Springfield City Council earlier this month.

Caulton said she believes that young black people in some ways face the same barriers they faced 20 years ago, except "it's not overt any more."

But there are more opportunities now, some doors that weren't open before that are now, she said.

"The major barrier is that you can legislate in certain areas, but the things of the heart you can't legislate," she said.

Mass Live - Union News - Sunday Republican January 16, 2000

Race-based elections headed for oblivion - 1996


NOTE: Chicago: Reuters on January 19, 1999 reported that a Chicago woman who legally changed her name to Carol Moseley-Braun, the same as the former U.S. senator, was tossed off the ballot by election officials on Tuesday and accused of misleading the public. Lauryn Kaye Valentine, 21, officially changed her name to Carol Moseley-Braun last September, claiming she wanted to honor one of her heroes, the first black woman to be elected to the Senate. But Moseley-Braun, formerly Valentine, then decided to run for one of Chicago's 50 aldermanic posts. The original Carol Moseley-Braun, who lost her reelection bid in November, accused her namesake of "identity theft." Her prospective opponent, 37th Ward Alderman Percy Giles, accused the new Moseley-Braun of "name trickery."

Other African American History Timeline
not related to slavery or individual women

1875 - March 1. Congress passes a civil rights bill that bans discrimination in places of public accommodation. The Supreme Court overturned the bill in 1883.

1896 - May 18. The Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson affirms the concept of "separate but equal" public facilities.

1960 - February 1. Sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina, initiate a wave of similar protests throughout the South.

April 15-17. The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is founded in Raleigh, North Carolina.

1963 - August 28. The March on Washington is the largest civil rights demonstration to date. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers a speech entitled "I Have a Dream."

July 18-August 30. Beginning in Harlem, serious racial disturbances occur in more than six major cities.

1965 - January 2. The SCLC launches a voter drive in Selma, Alabama, which escalates into a nationwide protest movement.

February 21. Malcolm X is assassinated, 11 months after his split with Elijah Mohammed's Nation of Islam.

1966 - July 1-9. CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) endorses the concept "Black Power." SNCC also adopts it. SCLC does not, and NAACP emphatically does not.

October. The Black Panther Party is founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California.

1967 - May 1-October 1. In the worst summer for racial disturbances in U.S. history, more than 40 riots and 100 other disturbances occur,

1968 - April 4. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. In the following week riots occur in at least 125 places throughout the country.

1969 - October 29. The Supreme Court rules that school districts must end racial segregation at once, and must operate only unitary school systems.

July 1. Kenneth Gibson becomes the first black mayor of a large Eastern city-Newark, New Jersey.

1970 - August 7. Implicated in shoot-out during an attempted escape in a San Rafael, California, courthouse, Angela Davis goes into hiding to avoid arrest. Davis is acquitted of all charges on June 4, 1972.

1973 - May 29. Thomas Bradley is elected the first black mayor of Los Angeles. On October 16, Maynard H. Jackson is elected the first black mayor of Atlanta. On November 6, Coleman A. Young is elected the first black mayor of Detroit.

1980 - May 18. Racial disturbances beginning on May 17 result in 15 deaths in Miami, Florida.

1982 - May 23. Lee P. Brown is named the first black police commissioner of Houston, Texas.

1983 - April 12. Harold Washington is elected the first black mayor of Chicago. June 22. The state legislature of Louisiana repeals the last racial classification law in the U.S. the criterion for being classified as black was having 1/32nd Negro blood.

1986 - January 16. A bronze bust of Martin Luther King, Jr. is the first of any black American place in the Capitol. The first national Martin Luther King, Jr. holiday is celebrated on January 20.

1988 - July 20. Jesse L. Jackson receives 1,215.5 delegate votes at the Democratic National Convention. The number need for the nomination, which goes to Michael Dukkakis, was 2,082.

August 10. General Colin L. Powell is named chair of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff.

November 7. David Dinkins is elected the first black mayor of New York, and Douglas Wilder, the first black governor of Virginia.

1990 - May 13. George Augustus Stallings becomes the first bishop of the African-American Catholic Church, a breakaway group from the Roman Catholic Church.

1991 - January 15. Roland Harris becomes the first black attorney general of Illinois.





The Adverse Impacts of Immigration on Minorities

A Woman Warrior Recalls the Birth of a Movement - by an Oaxacan woman



African-American History and Culture


Dates or further information on the women listed above would be much appreciated.