Dee Finney's blog
start date July 20, 2011
today's date  August 10, 2012
page 269



8-9-12  DREAM    My friend Bonnie died in the ambulance on the way to the hospital.  I was looking out the window and empty sky blue ambulance.  Then another sky blue ambulance came and took Bonnie to the hospital. 

I went across the street to the ice cream parlor where Bonnie had been and everyone was upset.  I asked what happened and the female owner said, "Bonnie died on the way to the hospital."  and I responded,  I was with her for a week and she never coughed once."   I was really shocked.

The name Bonnie means  'famous - bright - pretty - attractive'


GOD FORCE YHVH EL-OH-AH V'DAH-AHT (God of Knowledge and wisdom)
ARCHANGEL RAPHAEL (Divine Physician)
SOUL RUACH (Intellect)

The Tree of Life sphere Tiphareth contains beauty and harmony. It is the realm of the Christ energy and of universal love. It is also the center of the Tree of Life and thus the energy from this sphere feeds all the other spheres, not unlike the how the heart charka is the center of the human system and feeds all the other charka.

Tiphareth is a beautiful place. This beauty helps to awaken the inner quality that everything contains beauty in some way, as long as you look for it. It is another lesson that is handy to take back with you in the physical realm: find the good and the beautiful in everyone and everything you meet. When you can do this, you unlock all that is good within that person or thing and you too get to experience this goodness.

In Tiphareth you will find vast teaching facilities and many of the highest masters will be in this realm as well. You may find yourself sitting in a classroom or in a field listening to a teacher. These kinds of activities are often associated with Tiphareth. Don't dispel an old school-dream too quickly. It is possible you were visiting this sphere in a dream state and sitting in on a lecture. Often your mind will try to make sense of these experiences in familiar ways, and pulling your old schooling day's energy patterns is often the way these experiences show themselves in your memory.

The energy in Tiphareth is one of devotion and dedication to service. Without either of these qualities you would not be able to learn anything. To learn you must be devoted to the learning. Then to cement that learning takes dedication in the form of service to others. So a big lesson here in Tiphareth is one of learning and then of being of service to others. Knowledge becomes wisdom once you apply it, and this is the message that is transmitted here.

The feelings that you come away with from interacting with this sphere are one of achievement and obtainment. Almost always you will come away from this realm with some kind of new skill or energy or learning. It is important not to let these new skills or achievements lead to pride or false power over others. As your skill grows so should your ability to be humble. The learning here in Tiphareth is meant to make you feel good about yourself but not to the point that you look down on others. If you do find yourself becoming prideful because of being exposed to the energy in Tiphareth, it would be a good idea to embark on a visit to the sphere of Binah, where that pride can be tempered and replaced with a more suitable energy.

The nonphysical healing centers are also located here in this realm, so a great deal of information about healing can be acquired from Tiphareth. These healing centers are very large pyramid shaped structures that touch the sky. If you happen to remember standing by a very large pyramid and your intention was to go to Tiphareth, rest assured you made it. The Egyptian pyramids pale in comparison to these nonphysical structures.

Tiphareth is also the level of miracles as the Angelic Kings (or Virtues) operate here and their main duty is to bestow grace onto mankind and sometimes that grace creates miracles. Not that you should seek Tiphareth for a miracle but rather your visit to Tiphareth will not go unnoticed by these Angelic Kings and, well, that makes anything possible.



Tiferet (beauty) is the Sephira that sits in the middle of the Tree of Life. It is connected to almost all the Sephirot, and could be said to tie the Tree together. ‘Tiferet’ is usually translated as beauty, and it is a fairly literal translation.

In Western, and especially American, culture today, beauty is a confusing and often simplistic concept. We are taught that beauty is only skin deep, that how something looks is of no importance. We are surrounded by media which extolls and exalts beautiful people, and teaches us that beautiful people are richer, happier, and altogether better, and we can be too if only we can be as beautiful as they are. Whether dismissed or held up as the end-all, be-all of life; beauty in the West is very one dimensional.

Tiferet is not about anyone being beautiful, or anything being beautiful. Tiferet is about how beauty is created.

Beauty is created by variety, by things combining to create a greater whole. There is beauty in the sunlight sparkling on the waves at the beach – the sun and waves together create beauty. There is beauty in a picture – in the variety of colors interacting to create a scene.

There can be beauty in a relationship, in two or more people coming together to interact and be a part of each other. There can be beauty in a marriage, in two lives coming together.

There can be beauty in each of us, when we have found a way to make the different aspects of ourselves – mother, daughter, boss, employee, friend, spouse, optimist, believe, truth seeker – join together without conflict into a beautiful whole.

There is beauty in our awareness, when we are can be in nefesh, ruach and neshama awareness, ‘seeing’ on so many levels at once.

All things have their place in existence. All aspects of us have their place in our life. To find tiferet we must not compromise, must not give up parts of ourselves, of our relationships, or the world around us. Instead we must find an arrangement where everything fits in harmony. In the way, we create beauty.

Tiferet connects with Yesod (Foundation), Netzach (Victory) and Hod (Majesty) below, and Gevurah (Strength), Chesed (Kindness), Binah (Understanding), Chochma (Wisdom) and Keter (Crown) above.


In the second dream, a woman was serving two colors of ice cream.  Supposedly it was colors other than chocolate and vanilla  (black and white).  Each person got two scoops and it melted quite quickly.


In the third dream I saw a heavily forested old town. The sky looked like heavy clouds. The sun was not shining.    

I was with a  lion faced cowboy man wearing boots/  He had thick bushy curly hair like namale lioon would have and he was serving ice cream

The numbers  13 and 18 were used in the dream, but I can't remember how.

I find it interesting that I could easily remember all of the first two dreams, but not all of this one.  That to mean something - like the symbolism is all that matters here.

There was ice cream served in all three dreams, and it had to be eaten quickly because it melted easily.

They symbolism of ice cream is unusual. 

Here is one examplle written by Joe Mason some time ago.

The black and white seem to represent duality, among other things. Sometimes "black" seem to indicate "invisible," indicating the spiritual realm or beings, rather than anything negative. This may also suggest tolerance and unity in the future, or perhaps tolerance of all those who are "different" from us in appearance or viewpoint. I believe this is expressed in Revelation, as Babylon being thrown down by violence.

I believe most Christian people want this balance and harmony too, but perhaps they need to be more tolerant of other views. I found a part of the Bible that may suggest this also, in Isaiah 65:17-25:


17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.

18 But be ye glad and rejoice for ever in that which I create: for, behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy.

19 And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people: and the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying.

20 There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man that hath not filled his days: for the child shall die an hundred years old; but the sinner being an hundred years old shall be accursed.

21 And they shall build houses, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them.

22 They shall not build, and another inhabit; they shall not plant, and another eat: for as the days of a tree are the days of my people, and mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands.

23 They shall not labour in vain, nor bring forth for trouble; for they are the seed of the blessed of the LORD, and their offspring with them.

24 And it shall come to pass, that before they call, I will answer; and while they are yet speaking, I will hear.

25 The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock: and dust shall be the serpent's meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the LORD.

Revelation 13:18

King James Version (KJV)

18 Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six"



GOD FORCE YAH (Divine, Ideal Wisdom)
SOUL HAI-YAH (Life Force)

Knowledge must become wisdom for it to be useful and put to good use in harmony with the universe. So here in Chokmah you learn how to turn knowledge into wisdom. For this process to sauce you must put into practice what you have learned, for it is the application of knowledge that forges it into wisdom. To ensure that knowledge is applied correctly the energy in Chokmah is very spiritual. This energy naturally pulls you toward spirit like a magnet pulls metal to it. This action helps to ensure that you apply what you have learned in a harmonious manner with all that is.

Chokmah is also very close to the Abyss (a dark place where the demon Khronozon lurks to detract you from your task). You could say that on one side of Chokmah is Atmic plane of spirit and on the other the pull of the Abyss. Which way you go is ultimately up to you. However if knowledge is to become wisdom you will have to let go of your lower urges and passions for the higher more lofty ideals of spirit. You see! If the energy of spirit is not strong enough within you then Khronozon will be successful in turning your knowledge against you and that knowledge will remain in its unpure state. So here in Chokmah you absorb spiritual energy so you can overcome the lower pull to misuse this knowledge, as is so prevalent on the earth plane.

If you are successful in Chokmah you should sense only pure spiritual energy, harmony, and song. If not you will find your lower passions quickly erupting and then you will be thrown out of Chokmah. You can only stay in Chokmah for as long as you can keep focused on your higher spiritual self. This action makes Chokmah a great place to go when you want to test how strong spirit flows through you. Also how you fall out of Chokmah is a good clue as to what you need to work on to perfect yourself further, because if Khronozon was able to use this against you, then it needs to be worked on.

So seek Chokmah out when you feel you need a dose of spiritual energy, or if you want learn what keeps you from walking in the light of spirit and turning your knowledge into wisdom.

One final thing, it is said that in Chokmah you get to see God in Kether you get to meet God. In this way, Chokmah acts like a magnet pulling your upward and transforming your human self into the divine.










The number that this papyrus assigns to the Beast: 616, rather than the usual 666
. (665 is also found.) We knew that this variant existed: Irenaeus cites (and ... - 87k - Similar pages

According to translator's comments in the New English Translation (NET) Bible[1],
some maintain that recent discoveries show that 616 could possibly be the ...

This and the other references in Proverbs PRomans 11:30; Proverbs 13:12; Proverbs 15:4 are the only allusions in any book of the Old Testament, after Genesis, to the "tree" itself, or to its spiritual significance. Further, there is the tendency to a half-allegorizing application of that history. "The tree of life" which Adam was not to taste lies open to his children. Wisdom is the "tree of life," giving a true immortality. The symbol entered largely into the religious imagery. of Assyria, Egypt, and Persia. Philo, going a step further, found in the two trees the ideal representatives of speculative knowledge and moral wisdom; and the same image subserves a higher purpose in the promises and the visions of Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2.

Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

She is a tree of life - עץ חיים ets chaiyim, "the tree of lives," alluding most manifestly to the tree so called which God in the beginning planted in the garden of Paradise, by eating the fruit of which all the wastes of nature might have been continually repaired, so as to prevent death for ever. This is an opinion which appears probable enough. The blessings which wisdom - true religion - gives to men, preserve them in life, comfort them through life, cause them to triumph in death, and ensure them a glorious immortality.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

She is a tree of life,.... Or "lives" (b); so Christ is called, Revelation 2:7; in allusion to the tree of life in the garden of Eden, Genesis 2:9; he being the author of life, natural, spiritual, and eternal; which souls may come at, and pluck and eat of the fruit which is upon him in great plenty and variety, even all the blessings of grace and glory;




Binah is the sphere that harbors understanding -- though, at first, visits to this sphere will not reveal this meaning. Binah is a center of subterfuge and of hidden meanings and of secret things. Because of the obscurity of the inner meaning of Binah, it often is associated with beginnings and endings, birth and death, which are what results from the energy present in this sphere. However, the birth and death cycle is usually the end result of the much deeper and wondrous things going on here.

The energies present in Binah are linked to the Saturn-like influences in astrology. This Saturian energy often invokes understanding, but only an understanding through patience and time of the hidden and unknown. Saturn's energy is demanding in what it asks of the individual, but it never asks for less than the individual is capable of giving. For this reason, Binah is often perceived as dark and black because all colors are hidden within black. The color black veils the divine glory until time and understanding reveal it. This sphere is the place to seek the understanding of situations that have been difficult and obscure. It is a place of answers, but not until the time is right.

Tzaphkiel is the Archangel here. He is the Prince of Spiritual Strife against evil and, as such, makes a formidable ally against those that would do you harm. He can be frightening to those that are not ready for him but that is merely because of what he represents: the intense spiritual journey ahead that demands no less than perfection from all those that seek it. As such, those not seeking this kind of experience will seem to vanish from your life, as the energy of Tzaphkiel's presence will instill fear in those that are not prepared for such an encounter. It is said that only the weak and unprepared turn and run. This cliché can be very true when you walk with Tzaphkiel. However, through Tzaphkiel's assistance you can understand those things which confront you in life and learn to overcome them in the most effective, spiritual manner possible. The Archangel Tzaphkiel is also the keeper of the Akashic records, which, as you will see, can be revealed to you in time and with an increase in understanding.

The God-Force operating here is Jehovah Eloheem. This energy is responsible for the cultivation of perfection, which explains this Sephira's intolerant nature. However, for those that heed the lesson of time and patience, the rewards are great because Tzaphkiel will reveal (to those so deserving) the answers to all of their questions and put the knowledge of the Akashic records at the adept's disposal. Tzaphkiel also is responsible for bestowing upon you the gift of the black outline in your aura [The Theoricus / also the level BAG in the Aethyrs] and later transforms that black outline up to its highest vibration and majestic state, the velvet-black Ring of Solomon [The Magus or Ipissimus / also the level ZAX in the Aethyrs]. This black outline, in the early stages of spiritual development, is very important because it too hides the divine glory within the individual until the time is right. That time becomes right when Tzaphkiel transforms that simple black outline into its full stature and glory: the Ring of Solomon. At this point the individual is ready for true understanding and wisdom and can now use the full power of Binah as a positive force in the Universe. Prior to this point, the power of Binah remains dormant and inaccessible from the student because this energy is capable of much destructive power without the wisdom that must come with yielding such force.

The ARALEEM are the Angels working under Tzaphkiel. They are known as the "Strong and Mighty Ones," which is appropriate because they are often needed to help sustain you long enough through strife, to achieve the necessary understanding of this sphere. They are also called the Thrones, and have been appointed to watch over the grass, trees, fruit, grain -- in essence, all of Mother Earth. The ARALEEM can help you to understand the intimate relationship you have with all of the Earth and help you to understand that everything that is done to the Earth will ultimately affect everyone, even yourself. As such, this nurturing energy in Binah is feminine, though often this energy is mistaken as masculine because of its demanding and unyielding nature. However, it is that maternal insistence that nurtures and kindles the young, with love and care, and which enables them to grow up into strong adults.

The virtue awakened in this sphere is that of silence. This is appropriate in that silence is necessary to hear, and through hearing comes understanding. Also, silence is the only way to defeat the archdemon Khoronzon and cross the Abyss that guards the spiritual realms. Here, in Binah, is where this lesson becomes forged, and it is here that you learn that silence is often a powerful weapon.

Now, entering Binah in an unbalanced state is not advisable and often will result in avarice -- the clutching on to of everything and everyone for your own use, rather than understanding that nothing in the Universe is separate and everything, no matter what, is forever a part of the soul. A greedy person entering Binah will experience no less than a living nightmare, for Binah is often a barren place and to be here is to be stripped of everything that you have, but yourself. Many people, especially the materially minded, can not identify with themselves without their possessions and this often makes Binah a truly frightful, but no less sobering, place for those of that mindset.

In Binah you come to understand that true understanding stems from knowing what you must struggle through and what you must let go of to grow. It is here that you learn the whys of the necessity of restrictions, of forms, and of limitations operating within your life. It is here that you touch and understand the mysteries of birth and death for what they really are, the transition of the immortal soul to a higher plane, purpose, and being.



Job 28:20 - Whence then cometh wisdom? and where is the place of understanding?



Proverbs 2:10-11 for wisdom will come into your heart, and knowledge will be pleasant to your soul; discretion will watch over you, understanding will guard you,

Proverbs 1:7 The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge; fools despise wisdom and instruction.

Job 28:28 And he said to man,’Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom, and to turn away from evil is understanding

James 1:5 If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God,who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him.

1 Kings 3:5-12 At Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream by night, and God said, “Ask what I shall give you.” And Solomon said, “You have shown great and steadfast love to your servant David my father, because he walked before you in faithfulness, in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart toward you. And you have kept for him this great and steadfast love and have given him a son to sit on his throne this day. And now, O LORD my God, you have made your servant king in place of David my father, although I am but a little child. I do not know how to go out or come in. And your servant is in the midst of your people whom you have chosen, a great people, too many to be numbered or counted for multitude. Give your servant therefore an understanding mind to govern your people, that I may discern between good and evil, for who is able to govern this your great people?” It pleased the Lord that Solomon had asked this. And God said to him, “Because you have asked this, and have not asked for yourself long life or riches or the life of your enemies, but have asked for yourself understanding to discern what is right, behold, I now do according to your word. Behold, I give you a wise and discerning mind, so that none like you has been before you and none like you shall arise after you.ernment

Daniel 2:21 He changes times and seasons; he removes kings and sets up kings;he gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who have understanding;

Psalm 119:66 Teach me good judgment and knowledge, for I believe in your commandments.

Proverbs 16:22 Good sense is a fountain of life to him who has it, but the instruction of fools is folly.

Proverbs 1:5 Let the wise hear and increase in learning, and the one who understands obtain guidance,

Ecclesiastes 7:12 For the protection of wisdom is like the protection of money, and the advantage of knowledge is that wisdom preserves the life of him who has it.

I pray that these knowledge Bible verses were helpful to you today. Please add any of your favorite Bible verses on this topic to the comments so this may become a better resource for those that find it.


Proverbs 9

New International Version (NIV)

Invitations of Wisdom and Folly

9 Wisdom has built her house;
she has set up[
a] its seven pillars.
2 She has prepared her meat and mixed her wine;
she has also set her table.
3 She has sent out her servants, and she calls
from the highest point of the city,
4 “Let all who are simple come to my house!”
To those who have no sense she says,
5 “Come, eat my food
and drink the wine I have mixed.
6 Leave your simple ways and you will live;
walk in the way of insight.”

7 Whoever corrects a mocker invites insults;
whoever rebukes the wicked incurs abuse.
8 Do not rebuke mockers or they will hate you;
rebuke the wise and they will love you.
9 Instruct the wise and they will be wiser still;
teach the righteous and they will add to their learning.

10 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom,
and knowledge of the Holy One is understanding.
11 For through wisdom[b] your days will be many,
and years will be added to your life.
12 If you are wise, your wisdom will reward you;
if you are a mocker, you alone will suffer.

13 Folly is an unruly woman;
she is simple and knows nothing.
14 She sits at the door of her house,
on a seat at the highest point of the city,
15 calling out to those who pass by,
who go straight on their way,
16 “Let all who are simple come to my house!”
To those who have no sense she says,
17 “Stolen water is sweet;
food eaten in secret is delicious!
18 But little do they know that the dead are there,
that her guests are deep in the realm of the dead.




The Book of Revelation is the final book of the New Testament. The title came into usage from the first word of the book in Koine Greek: apokalypsis, meaning "unveiling" or "revelation" (the author himself not having provided a title). It is also known as the Book of the Revelation of Saint John the Divine or the Apocalypse of John, (both in reference to its author) or the Book of the Revelation of Jesus Christ (in reference to its opening line) or simply Revelation, (often dubbed "Revelations" in contrast to the singular in the original Koine) or the Apocalypse. The word "apocalypse" is also used for other works of a similar nature in the literary genre of apocalyptic literature. Such literature is "marked by distinctive literary features, particularly prediction of future events and accounts of visionary experiences or journeys to heaven, often involving vivid symbolism."[1] The Book of Revelation is the only apocalyptic document in the New Testament canon, though there are short apocalyptic passages in various places in the Gospels and the Epistles.[2]

The author of Revelation identifies himself several times as "John."[3] The author also states that he was on Patmos when he received his first vision.[4] As a result, the author of Revelation is sometimes referred to as John of Patmos.

[edit] Early theories

Justin Martyr (c. 100–165 AD) who was acquainted with Polycarp, who had been mentored by John, makes a possible allusion to this book, and credits John as the source.[5] Irenaeus (c. 115–202) assumes it as a conceded point. At the end of the 2nd century, it is accepted at Antioch by Theophilus (died c. 183), and in Africa by Tertullian (c. 160–220). At the beginning of the 3rd century, it is adopted by Clement of Alexandria and by Origen of Alexandria, later by Methodius, Cyprian, Lactantius,[citation needed] Dionysius of Alexandria,[6] and in the 5th century by Quodvultdeus.[7] Eusebius (c. 263–339) was inclined to class the Apocalypse with the accepted books but also listed it in the Antilegomena, with his own reservation for identification of John of Patmos with John the Apostle, pointing out there were large differences in Greek skill and styles between the Gospel of John, which he attributed to John the Apostle, and the Revelation.[8] Jerome (347–420) relegated it to second class.[9] Most canons included it, but some in the Eastern Church rejected it. It is not included in the Peshitta (an early New Testament in Aramaic).[10]

[edit] Traditional theory

The traditional theory holds that John the Apostle—considered to have written the Gospel and the epistles of John—was exiled on Patmos in the Aegean archipelago during the reign of Domitian, and there wrote Revelation. However, other ancient witnesses (such as the Old Syriac Version, 2nd century) put John's time on Patmos during the reign of Nero. Those in favor of apostolic authorship point to the testimony of the early church fathers (see "Early Theories" above) and similarities between the Gospel of John and Revelation. For example, both works are soteriological and possess a high Christology, stressing Jesus' divine nature as opposed to the human nature stressed by the Synoptic Gospels. In the Gospel of John and in Revelation, Jesus is referred to as "the Word of God" (Ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ), although the context in Revelation is very different from John. The Word in Rev 19:13 is involved in judgment but in John 1:1 the image is used to speak of a role in creation and redemption.[11]

Charles Erdman (1866–1960) advocated apostolic authorship and wrote that only the Apostle John fits the image of the author derived from the text.[12]

[edit] Modern theories

More recent methods of scholarship, such as textual criticism, have been influential in suggesting that John the Apostle, John the Evangelist and John of Patmos were three separate individuals. Differences in style, theological content, and familiarity with Greek between the Gospel of John, the epistles of John, and the Revelation are seen by some scholars as indicating three separate authors.[13] The English Biblical scholar Robert Henry Charles (1855–1931) reasoned on internal textual grounds that the book was edited by someone who spoke no Hebrew and who wished to promote a different theology to John's. As a result, everything after 20:3, he claims, has been left in a haphazard state with no attempt to structure it logically. Furthermore, he says, the story of the defeat of the ten kingdoms has been deleted and replaced by 19:9-10.[14] John's theology of chastity has been replaced by the editor's theology of outright celibacy, which makes little sense when John's true church is symbolised as a bride of the Lamb. Most importantly, the editor has completely rewritten John's theology of the Millennium which is "emptied of all significance."[15]

John Robinson in "Redating the New Testament" (1976) has heavily criticised Charles' position and accepted apostolic authorship, dating John's Gospel before the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD. He also argues that John's "poor" Greek is a literary device since Galileans were known to have excellent Greek.[16] He says: "The Greek of the Apocalypse is not that of a beginner whose grammar and vocabulary might improve and mature into those of the evangelist. It is the pidgin Greek of someone who appears to know exactly what he is about[.]"[17]

It has also been contended that the core verses of the book, in general chapters 4 through 22, are surviving records of the prophecies of John the Baptist.[18] In this view, the Lamb of God references and other hallmarks of Revelation are linked to what is known of John the Baptist, though it must be confessed that little information about him is known.

[edit] Dating

According to early tradition, this book was composed near the end of Domitian's reign, around the year 95 AD. Others contend for an earlier date, 68 or 69 AD, in the reign of Nero or shortly thereafter.[19] The majority of modern scholars accept one of these two dates, with most accepting the Domitianic one.[20]

Those who favour the later date appeal to the earliest external testimony, that of the Christian father Irenaeus (c. 150-202),[21] who wrote that he received his information from people who knew John personally. Domitian, according to Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 263–339), started the persecution referred to in the book. While some recent scholars have questioned the existence of a large-scale Domitian persecution,[22] others believe that Domitian's insistence on being treated as a god may have been a source of friction between the Church and Rome.[23]

The earlier date, first proposed in modern times by John Robinson in a closely argued chapter of "Redating the New Testament" (1976), relies on the book's internal evidence, given that no external testimony exists earlier than that of Irenaeus, noted above, and the earliest extant manuscript evidence of Revelation (P98) is likewise dated no earlier than the late 2nd century. This early dating is centered on the preterist interpretation of chapter 17, where the seven heads of the "beast" are regarded as the succession of Roman emperors up to the time of the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD,[24] Caligula through Vespasian.

Some interpreters attempt to reconcile the two dates by placing the visions themselves at the earlier date (during the 60s) and the publication of Revelation under Domitian, who reigned in the 90s when Irenaeus says the book was written.[25]

[edit] Canonical history

According to Denzinger, Revelation was accepted into the canon at the Council of Carthage of 397 AD[26]; according to McDonald & Sanders it was added at the later 419 council.[27] Revelation's place in the canon was not guaranteed, however, with doubts raised as far back as the 2nd century about its character, symbolism, and apostolic authorship.[28]

Second century Christians in Syria rejected it because Montanism, a sect which was deemed to be heretical by the mainstream church, relied heavily on it.[29] In the 4th century, Gregory of Nazianzus and other bishops argued against including Revelation because of the difficulties of interpreting it and the risk of abuse. In the 16th century, Martin Luther initially considered it to be "neither apostolic nor prophetic" and stated that "Christ is neither taught nor known in it,"[30] and placed it in his Antilegomena, i.e. his list of questionable documents, though he did retract this view in later life. In the same century, John Calvin believed the book to be canonical, yet it was the only New Testament book on which he did not write a commentary.[31] It remains the only book of the New Testament that is not read within the Divine Liturgy of the Eastern Orthodox Church, though it is included in Catholic and Protestant liturgies.

According to Merrill Unger and Gary N. Larson, in spite of the objections that have been raised over the years, Revelation provides a logical conclusion, not just to the New Testament, but to the Christian Bible as a whole, and there is a continuous tradition dating back to the 2nd century which supports the authenticity of the document, and which indicates that it was generally included within the, as yet unformalized, canon of the early church.[32]

The Angel Appears to John. The book of Revelation. 13th century manuscript. British Library, London.

Revelation spans three literary genres: epistolary, apocalyptic, and prophetic.[33]

The epistolary aspect is characteristic of the beginning part of the book, from 1:4 to the end of chapter 3. In 1:4-9, John addresses the reader directly, whereas in chapters 2-3, John addresses each of the seven Anatolian churches as if he were their bishop.[34]

In terms of being apocalyptic, there is no clear evidence that the author drew from noncanonical Jewish apocalyptic literature,[35] even though Revelation has been compared with other non-biblical Jewish writings from 200 BC to AD 200.[36] Revelation makes use of symbolism and visions, mentions angelic mediators, has bizarre imagery, declares divine judgment, emphasizes the Kingdom of God, prophesies a new heaven and a new earth, and consists of a dualism of ages, in other words a present world and a World to Come.[36]

In terms of being prophetic, the author of Revelation uses the words: prophecy, prophesy, prophesying, prophet, and prophets twenty-one times in these various forms throughout the text. No other New Testament book uses these terms to this extent.[37]

Using the Greek Septuagint, John makes 348 allusions, or indirect quotes, from 24 canonized books of the Hebrew Bible, predominantly from Isaiah, Ezekiel, Daniel and Psalms.[38] The narrative of the terrifying and boastful beast that rises out of the ocean, has many horns which represent kings, and which is thrown into the fire, derives from Daniel 7. The beast from the Book of Revelation combines body traits from all four beasts mentioned in Daniel 7. The description of the angel who gives the revelation derives from Daniel 10:5-6; the four horsemen derive from Zechariah (Zechariah 6:1-8); the lampstands and the two olive trees that represent two men derive from Zechariah 4:1-14; the four living beings derive from Ezekiel 1 and Ezekiel 10; the edible scroll that tastes as sweet as honey derives from Ezekiel 2:8-3:2; the marking of people on the forehead to determine who will be harmed and who will be spared derives from Ezekiel 9:3-6; and the locusts that look like horses and have teeth like those of lions derive from the book of Joel. Text reconstruction

There are approximately 230 Greek manuscripts available for the reconstructing of the original reading of the Apocalypse. Major texts used are: the uncial scripts - Codex Sinaiticus (4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (5th century), and Codex Ephraemi (5th century); the papyri, especially that of p47 (3rd century); the minuscule (8th to 10th century); the church father quotations (2nd to 5th centuries); and the Greek commentary on Revelation by Andreas (6th century). [33]

Some have argued that the author originally wrote Apocalypse in Aramaic and was later translated into common Koine Greek. However, due to evidence of semitic words and phrases used throughout the book, it stands to reason that Revelation is good “Jewish Greek” used in 1st century Palestine. Though not proven, it may explain the numerous grammatical imperfections of the text.[39]

Literary structure

In terms of literary structure, Revelation consists of four visions, each involving John “seeing” the

 plan of God unveiled,[1:9; 4:1, 17:1, 21:9] with an epilogue that concludes the book.[22:6-21] [33]

In terms of content, the structure of Revelation is built around four successive groups of seven: the messages to the seven churches, the seven seals, the seven trumpets, and finally, the

seven bowl judgments.[33] The repeated occurrence of the number seven contributes to the overal

l unity of Revelation. While several numbers stand out: 3, 4, 7, 10, 12, 24, 144, 1000, the number seven appears to have a special significance. In fact, there are twenty-four distinct occurrences of

 the use of "seven."[40] Seven is considered the number of perfection in Christianity.[41]

One half of seven, 3½, is also a conspicuous number in Revelation: two witnesses are given power

 to prophesy 1,260 days, or exactly 3½ years, according to the Hebrew year of 360 days;[11:3] the

witnesses are then killed, and their dead bodies lie in the streets of Jerusalem for 3½ days;[11:9] the

 "woman clothed with the sun" is protected in the wilderness for 1,260 days, or 3½ years;[12:6]

 Gentiles tread the holy city underfoot for 42 months, or 3½ years;[11:2] and the beast is given

 authority to continue for 42 months, or 3½ years.[13:5]

 Narrative criticism

Details surrounding the narrator of Revelation lead the reader to view him as a Jewish Christian. Thus, the story must be related to this point of view of the author-in-text. The main plot of Revelation is the battle between good and evil, God and Satan.[42]

The story starts with the introduction of the main character, John of Patmos, followed by a series of events that lead to the resolution of the main problem, which is the defeat of evil and the establishment of a New Jerusalem. The hero, or protagonist, is Jesus. Satan is the antagonist, the ultimate adversary.[43]

The setting presents elements that are external to the main character, conveying messages through archetypal imagery and symbolism.[44]

Figures in Revelation

In order of appearance:

  1. John of Patmos
  2. The angel who reveals the Revelation of Jesus Christ
  3. The One who sits on the Throne
  4. Twenty-four crowned elders
  5. Four living creatures
  6. The Lion of Judah who is the seven horned Lamb with seven eyes
  7. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
  8. Four angels holding the four winds of the Earth
  9. The seal-bearer angel
  10. Seven angelic trumpeters
  11. The star called Wormwood
  12. Angel of Woe
  13. Scorpion-tailed Locusts
  14. Four angels bound to the great river Euphrates
  15. Two hundred million lion-headed cavalry
  16. The mighty angel of Seven thunders
  17. The Two witnesses
  18. Beast of the Sea having seven heads and ten horns
  19. The woman and her child
  20. The Dragon, fiery red with seven heads
  21. Michael the Archangel
  22. Lamb-horned Beast of the Earth
  23. Image of the Beast of the sea
  24. The False Prophet
  25. Whore of Babylon
  26. Death and Hades


An 1880 Baxter process colour plate illustrating Revelation 22:17 by Joseph Martin Kronheim

  1. The Revelation of Jesus Christ
    1. The Revelation of Jesus Christ is communicated to John of Patmos through prophetic visions. (1:1-9)
    2. John is instructed by the "one like a son of man" to write all that he hears and sees, from the prophetic visions, to Seven churches of Asia. (1:10-13)
    3. The appearance of the "one like a son of man" is given, and he reveals what the seven stars and seven lampstands represent. (1:14-20)
  2. Messages for seven churches of Asia
    1. Ephesus: From this church, those "who overcome are granted to eat from the tree of life, which is in the midst of the Paradise of God." (2:1-7)
      1. Praised for not bearing those who are evil, testing those who say they are apostles and are not, and finding them to be liars; hating the deeds of the Nicolaitans; having persevered and possessing patience.
      2. Admonished to "do the first works" and to repent for having left their "first love."
    2. Smyrna: From this church, those who are faithful until death, will be given "the crown of life." Those who overcome shall not be hurt by the second death. (2:8-11)
      1. Praised for being "rich" while impoverished and in tribulation.
      2. Admonished not to fear the "synagogue of Satan," nor fear a ten-day tribulation of being thrown into prison.
    3. Pergamon: From this church, those who overcome will be given the hidden manna to eat and a white stone with a secret name on it." (2:12-17)
      1. Praised for holding "fast to My name," not denying "My faith" even in the days of Antipas, "My faithful martyr."
      2. Admonished to repent for having held the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the children of Israel; eating things sacrificed to idols, committing sexual immorality, and holding the "doctrine of the Nicolaitans."
    4. Thyatira: From this church, those who overcome until the end, will be given power over the nations in order to dash them to pieces with the rule of a rod of iron; they will also be given the "morning star." (2:18-29)
      1. Praised for their works, love, service, faith, and patience.
      2. Admonished to repent for allowing a "prophetess" to promote sexual immorality and to eat things sacrificed to idols.
    5. Sardis: From this church, those who overcome will be clothed in white garments, and their names will not be blotted out from the Book of Life; their names will also be confessed before the Father and His angels. (3:1-6)
      1. Admonished to be watchful and to strengthen since their works haven't been perfect before God.
    6. Philadelphia: From this church, those who overcome will be made a pillar in the temple of God having the name of God, the name of the city of God, "New Jerusalem," and the Son of God's new name. (3:7-13)
      1. Praised for having some strength, keeping "My word," and having not denied "My name."
      2. Admonished to hold fast what they have, that no one may take their crown.
    7. Laodicea: From this church, those who overcome will be granted the opportunity to sit with the Son of God on His throne. (3:14-22)
      1. Admonished to be zealous and repent from being "lukewarm"; they are instructed to buy the "gold refined in the fire," that they may be rich; to buy "white garments," that they may be clothed, so that the shame of their nakedness would not be revealed; to anoint their eyes with eye salve, that they may see.
  3. Before the Throne of God
    1. The Throne of God appears, surrounded by twenty four thrones with Twenty-four elders seated in them. (4:1-5)
    2. The Four Living Creatures are introduced. (4:6-11)
    3. A scroll, with seven seals, is presented and it is declared that the Lion of the tribe of Judah, from the "Root of David," is the only one worthy to open this scroll. (5:1-5)
    4. When the "Lamb having seven horns and seven eyes" took the scroll, the creatures of heaven fell down before the Lamb to give him praise, joined by myriads of angels and the creatures of the earth. (5:6-14)
  4. Seven Seals are broken off
    1. First Seal: A white horse appears, whose crowned rider has a bow with which to conquer. (6:1-2)
    2. Second Seal: A red horse appears, whose rider is granted a "great sword" to take peace from the earth. (6:3-4)
    3. Third Seal: A black horse appears, whose rider has "a pair of balances in his hand," where a voice then says, "A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and [see] thou hurt not the oil and the wine." (6:5-6)
    4. Fourth Seal: A pale horse appears, whose rider is Death, and Hades follows him. Death was granted a fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, with hunger, with death, and with the beasts of the earth. (6:7-8)
    5. Fifth Seal: "Under the altar," appeared the souls of martyrs for the "word of God," who cry out for vengeance. They are given white robes and told to rest until the martyrdom of their brothers is completed. (6:9-11)
    6. Sixth Seal: (6:12-17)
      1. There occurs a great earthquake where "the sun becomes black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon like blood" (6:12).
      2. The stars of heaven fall to the earth and the sky recedes like a scroll being rolled up (6:13-14).
      3. Every mountain and island is moved out of place (6:14).
      4. The people of earth retreat to caves in the mountains (6:15).
      5. The survivors call upon the mountains and the rocks to fall on them, so as to hide them from the "wrath of the Lamb" (6:16).
    7. Interlude: The 144,000 Hebrews are sealed.
      1. 144,000, from the twelve "tribes of Israel," are sealed as servants of God on their foreheads. (7:1-8)
      2. A great multitude stand before the Throne of God, who come out of the Great Tribulation, clothed with robes made "white in the blood of the Lamb" and having palm branches in their hands. (7:9-17)
    8. Seventh Seal: Introduces the seven trumpets (8:1-5)
      1. "Silence in heaven for about half an hour" (8:1).
      2. Seven angels are each given trumpets (8:2).
      3. An eighth angel takes a "golden censer," filled with fire from the heavenly altar, and throws it to the earth (8:3-5). What follows are "peals of thunder, rumblings, flashes of lightning, and an earthquake" (8:5).
      4. After the eighth angel has devastated the earth, the seven angels introduced in verse 2 prepare to sound their trumpets (8:6).
  5. Seven trumpets are sounded (Seen in Chapters 8, 9, and 12).
    1. First Trumpet: Hail and fire, mingled with blood, are thrown to the earth burning up a third of the trees and green grass. (8:6-7)
    2. Second Trumpet: Something that resembles a great mountain, burning with fire, falls from the sky and lands in the ocean. It kills a third of the sea creatures and destroys a third of the ships at sea. (8:8-9)
    3. Third Trumpet: A great star, named Wormwood, falls from heaven and poisons a third of the rivers and springs of water. (8:10-11)
    4. Fourth Trumpet: A third of the sun, the moon, and the stars are darkened creating complete darkness for a third of the day and the night. (8:12-13)
    5. Fifth Trumpet: The First Woe (9:1-12)
      1. A "star" falls from the sky (9:1).
      2. This "star" is given "the key to the bottomless pit" (9:1).
      3. The "star" then opens the bottomless pit. When this happens, "smoke [rises] from [the Abyss] like smoke from a gigantic furnace. The sun and sky [are] darkened by the smoke form the Abyss" (9:2).
      4. From out of the smoke, locusts who are "given power like that of scorpions of the earth" (9:3), who are commanded not to harm anyone or anything except for people who were not given the seal on their foreheads (from chapter 7) (9:4).
      5. The "locusts" are described as having a human appearance (faces and hair) but with lion's teeth, and wearing "breastplates of iron"; the sound of their wings resembles "the thunderings of many horses and chariots rushing into battle" (9:7-9).
    6. Sixth Trumpet: The Second Woe (9:13-21)
      1. The four angels bound to the great river Euphrates are released to prepare two hundred million horsemen.
      2. These armies kill a third of mankind by use of three plagues: fire, smoke, and brimstone.
    7. Interlude: The little book. (10:1-11)
      1. An angel appears, with one foot on the sea and one foot on the land, having an opened little book in his hand.
      2. Upon the cry of the angel, seven thunders utter mysteries and secrets that are not to be written down by John.
      3. John is instructed to eat the little book that happens to be sweet in his mouth, but bitter in his stomach, and to prophesy.
      4. John is given a measuring rod to measure the temple of God, the altar, and those who worship there.
      5. Outside the temple, at the court of the holy city, it is treaded by the nations for forty-two months.
      6. Two witnesses prophesy for one thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth. (11:1-14)
    8. Seventh Trumpet: The Third Woe that leads into the Seven bowls (11:15-19)
      1. The temple of God opens in heaven, where the ark of His covenant can be seen. There are lightnings, noises, thunderings, an earthquake, and great hail.
  6. Events leading into the Second Woe
    1. A woman "clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a garland of twelve stars" is in labor with a male child. (12:1-2)
    2. A great, fiery red, seven-headed dragon drags a third of the stars of heaven with his tail, and throws them to the earth. (12:3-4)
    3. The dragon waits for the birth of the child. However, when born, it is caught up to God's throne while the woman flees into the wilderness for one thousand two hundred and sixty days. (12:5-6)
    4. War breaks out in heaven between Michael and the Dragon, identified as the Devil, Satan.(12:9) After a great fight, the Dragon and his angels are cast out of heaven for good, followed by praises of victory for God's kingdom. (12:7-12)
    5. The Dragon engages to persecute the Woman, but she is given aid to evade him. Her evasiveness enrages the Dragon, prompting him to wage war against the rest of her offspring, who keep the commandments of God and have the testimony of Jesus Christ. (12:13-17)
    6. A seven-headed leopard-like beast emerges from the sea, having one mortally wounded head that is then healed. By the Dragon, he is granted power and authority for forty-two months. (13:1-5)
    7. The Beast of the sea blasphemes God's name, wages war against the Saints, and overcomes them. (13:6-10)
    8. Another beast appears, but from the earth, having two horns like a lamb and speaking like a dragon. He directs people to make an image of the beast, breathing life into it, and forcing all people to bear "the mark of the Beast," "666" or in one source "616." (Rev 13:11-18)
  7. Events leading into the Third Woe
    1. The Lamb stands on Mount Zion with the 144,000 "firstfruits" who are redeemed from earth. (14:1-5)
    2. The proclamations of three angels. (14:6-13)
    3. One like the Son of Man reaps the earth. (14:14-16)
    4. A second angel reaps "the vine of the earth" and throws it into "the great winepress of the wrath of God... and blood came out of the winepress... up to one thousand six hundred furlongs." (14:17-20)
    5. The temple of the tabernacle, in heaven, is opened. (15:1-5)
    6. Seven angels are given a golden bowl, from the Four Living Creatures, that contains the wrath of God. (15:6-8)
    7. Seven bowls are poured onto Earth:
      1. First Bowl: A "foul and loathsome sore" afflicts the followers of the beast. (16:1-2)
      2. Second Bowl: The sea turns to blood and everything within it dies. (16:3)
      3. Third Bowl: All fresh water turns to blood. (16:4-7)
      4. Fourth Bowl: The sun scorches the Earth with intense heat. (16:8-9)
      5. Fifth Bowl: There is total darkness and great pain in the Beast's kingdom. (16:10-11)
      6. Sixth Bowl: Preparations are made for the final battle between the forces of good and evil. (16:12-16)
      7. Seventh Bowl: A great earthquake: "every island fled away and the mountains were not found." (16:17-21)
  8. Aftermath of Babylon the Great
    1. The great harlot who sits on many waters: Babylon the Great. (17:1-18)
    2. Babylon is destroyed. (18:1-8)
    3. The people of the earth mourn Babylon's destruction. (18:9-19)
    4. The permanence of Babylon's destruction. (18:20-24)
  9. The Marriage Supper of the Lamb
    1. A great multitude praises God. (19:1-6)
    2. The marriage supper of the Lamb. (19:7-10)
  10. The Millennium
    1. The beast and the false prophet are cast into the lake of fire. (19:11-21)
    2. Satan is imprisoned in the bottomless pit for a thousand years. (20:1-3)
    3. The resurrected martyrs live and reign with Christ for a thousand years. (20:4-6)
  11. After the Thousand Years
    1. Satan is released and makes war against the people of God, but is defeated. (20:7-9)
    2. Satan is cast into the lake of burning sulfur. (20:10)
    3. The Last Judgment: the wicked, along with death and Hades, are cast into the lake of fire. (20:11-15)
  12. The New Heaven and Earth
    1. A new heaven and new earth replace the old. There is no more suffering or death. (21:1-8)
    2. God comes to dwell with humanity in the New Jerusalem. (21:2-8)
    3. Description of the New Jerusalem. (21:9-27)
    4. The river and tree of life appear for the healing of the nations. The curse is ended. (22:1-5)
  13. Conclusion
    1. Christ's reassurance that his coming is imminent. Final admonitions. (22:6-21)

[edit] Interpretations

Christian eschatology
Eschatology views
[show]Contrasting beliefs
• Preterism
• Idealism
• Historicism
• Futurism
[show]The Millennium
• Amillennialism
• Postmillennialism
[show]• Premillenialism
• Prewrath Rapture
• Posttribulation Rapture
[show]Biblical texts
• The Olivet Discourse
• The Sheep and the Goats
• The Book of Revelation
[show]• The Book of Daniel
Seventy Weeks
[show] Apocrypha
2 Esdras
[show]Key terms
• Abomination of Desolation
• Armageddon
• Four Horsemen
• New Jerusalem
• Rapture
• Second Coming
• May 2011 Prediction
• Seven Seals
• Tribulation
• Two Witnesses
[show]• Antichrist
• Son of Perdition
[show]• The Beast
• in Preterism
[show]Israel and the Church
• Supersessionism
• Covenant Theology
• New Covenant Theology
• Dispensationalism
• Dual Covenant Theology
Christianity portal

Revelation has a wide variety of interpretations, ranging from the simple message that we should have faith that God will prevail (symbolic interpretation), to complex end time scenarios (futurist interpretation),[45][46] to the views of critics who deny any spiritual value to Revelation at all.[47]

In the early Christian era,[citation needed] Christians generally understood the book to predict future events, especially an upcoming millennium of paradise on earth. In the late classical and medieval eras, the Church disavowed the millennium as a literal thousand-year kingdom. With the Protestant Reformation, opponents of Roman Catholicism adopted a historicist interpretation, in which the predicted apocalypse is believed to be playing out in church history. A Jesuit scholar countered with preterism, the belief that Revelation predicted events that actually occurred as predicted in the 1st century. In the 19th century, futurism (belief that the predictions refer to future events) largely replaced historicism among conservative Protestants.

[edit] Religious interpretations

Most of the interpretations fall into one or more of the following categories:

Historicist, which sees in Revelation a broad view of history;
Preterist, in which Revelation mostly refers to the events of the apostolic era (1st century), or--at the latest--the fall of the Roman Empire;
Futurist, which believes that Revelation describes future events; and
Idealist, or Symbolic, which holds that Revelation does not refer to actual people or events, but is an allegory of the spiritual path and the ongoing struggle between good and evil.

Other interpretations are as follows:

Eastern Orthodox interpretation

Eastern Orthodoxy treats the text as simultaneously describing contemporaneous events (events occurring at the same time) and as prophecy of events to come, for which the contemporaneous events were a form of foreshadow. It rejects attempts to determine, before the fact, if the events of Revelation are occurring by mapping them onto present-day events, taking to heart the Scriptural warning against those who proclaim "He is here!" prematurely. Instead, the book is seen as a warning to be spiritually and morally ready for the end times, whenever they may come ("as a thief in the night"), but they will come at the time of God's choosing, not something that can be precipitated nor trivially deduced by mortals.[48] This view is also held by many Catholics, although there is a diversity of opinion about the nature of the Apocalypse within Catholicism.

Book of Revelation is the only book of the New Testament that is not read during services by the Eastern Orthodox Church. In the Coptic Orthodox Church (which is not in communion with the Eastern Orthodox church but is liturgically similar), the whole Book of Revelation is read during Apocalypse Night or Bright Saturday (6 days after Pascha).

[edit] Paschal liturgical interpretation

This interpretation, which has found expression among both Catholic and Protestant theologians, considers the liturgical worship, particularly the Easter rites, of early Christianity as background and context for understanding the Book of Revelation's structure and significance. This perspective is explained in The Paschal Liturgy and the Apocalypse (new edition, 2004) by Massey H. Shepherd, an Episcopal scholar, and in Scott Hahn's The Lamb's Supper: The Mass as Heaven on Earth (1999), in which he states that Revelation in form is structured after creation, fall, judgment and redemption. Those who hold this view say that the Temple's destruction (70 AD) had a profound effect on the Jewish people, not only in Jerusalem but among the Greek-speaking Jews of the Mediterranean.[49] They believe The Book of Revelation provides insight into the early Eucharist, saying that it is the new Temple worship in the New Heaven and Earth. The idea of the Eucharist as a foretaste of the heavenly banquet is also explored by British Methodist Geoffrey Wainwright in his book Eucharist and Eschatology (Oxford University Press, 1980). According to Pope Benedict XVI some of the images of Revelation should be understood in the context of the dramatic suffering and persecution of the churches of Asia in the 1st century. Accordingly, the Book of Revelation should not be read as an enigmatic warning, but as an encouraging vision of Christ's definitive victory over evil.[50]

[edit] Seventh-day Adventist interpretation

Adventists maintain a historicist interpretation of the Bible's predictions of the apocalypse.

he esoterist views Revelation as bearing multiple levels of meaning, the lowest being the literal or "dead-letter." Those who are instructed in esoteric knowledge enter gradually into more subtle levels of understanding of the text. They see the book as delivering both a series of warnings for humanity and a detailed account of internal, spiritual processes of the individual soul.

The Gnostic Kabbalist believes that Revelation (like Genesis) is a very profound book of Kabbalistic symbolism. This view is held by teachers such as H.P. Blavatsky, Eliphas Levi, Rudolf Steiner.

Christian Gnostics, however, are unlikely to be attracted to the teaching of Revelation because the doctrine of salvation through the sacrificed Lamb, which is central to Revelation, is repugnant to Gnostics. Christian Gnostics "believed in the Forgiveness of Sins, but in no vicarious sacrifice for sin ... they accepted Christ in the full realisation of the word; his life, not his death, was the keynote of their doctrine and their practice."[51]

James Morgan Pryse was an esoteric gnostic who saw Revelation as a western version of the Hindu theory of the Chakra. He began his work, "The purpose of this book is to show that the Apocalypse is a manual of spiritual development and not, as conventionally interpreted, a cryptic history or prophecy."[52] Such diverse theories have failed to command widespread acceptance. But Christopher Rowland argues: "there are always going to be loose threads which refuse to be woven into the fabric as a whole. The presence of the threads which stubbornly refuse to be incorporated into the neat tapestry of our world-view does not usually totally undermine that view."[53]Radical discipleship interpretation

The radical discipleship interpretation asserts that the Book of Revelation is best understood as a handbook for radical discipleship; i.e., how to remain faithful to the spirit and teachings of Jesus and avoid simply assimilating to surrounding society. In this interpretation, the primary agenda of the book is to expose as impostors the worldly powers that seek to oppose the ways of God and God's Kingdom. The chief temptation for Christians in the 1st century, and today, is to fail to hold fast to the non-violent teachings and example of Jesus and instead be lured into unquestioning adoption and assimilation of worldly, national or cultural values - imperialism, nationalism, and civil religion being the most dangerous and insidious. This perspective (closely related to liberation theology) draws on the approach of Bible scholars such as Ched Myers, William Stringfellow, Richard Horsley, Daniel Berrigan, Wes Howard-Brook,[54] and Joerg Rieger.[55] Various Christian anarchists, such as Jacques Ellul, have identified the State and political power as the Beast.[56]

[edit] Paschal spiritual interpretation

There is also a perspective that holds that the book of Revelation describes a spiritual battle that took place while Jesus was on the cross and in the grave. Some Primitive Baptists believe this to be the intended meaning.[citation needed]

[edit] Aesthetic and literary interpretations

Many literary writers and theorists have contributed to a wide range of theories about the origins and purpose of the Book of Revelation. Some of these writers have no connection with established Christian faiths but, nevertheless, found in Revelation a source of inspiration. Revelation has been approached from Hindu philosophy and Jewish Midrash. Others have pointed to aspects of composition which have been ignored such as the similarities of prophetic inspiration to modern poetic inspiration, or the parallels with Greek drama. In recent years theories have arisen which concentrate upon how readers and texts interact to create meaning and are less interested in what the original author intended.

Charles Cutler Torrey taught Semitic languages at Yale. His lasting contribution has been to show how much more meaningful prophets, such as the scribe of Revelation, are when treated as poets first and foremost. He thought this was a point often lost sight of because most English bibles render everything in prose.[57] Poetry was also the reason John never directly quoted the older prophets. Had he done so, he would have had to use their (Hebrew) poetry whereas he wanted to write his own. Torrey insisted Revelation had originally been written in Aramaic.[58] This was why the surviving Greek translation was written in such a strange idiom. It was a literal translation that had to comply with the warning at Revelation 22:18 that the text must not be corrupted in any way. According to Torrey, the story is that "The Fourth Gospel was brought to Ephesus by a Christian fugitive from Palestine soon after the middle of the first century. It was written in Aramaic." Later, the Ephesians claimed this fugitive had actually been the beloved disciple himself. Subsequently, this John was banished by Nero and died on Patmos after writing Revelation. Torrey argued that until 80 AD, when Christians were expelled from the synagogues,[59] the Christian message was always first heard in the synagogue and, for cultural reasons, the evangelist would have spoken in Aramaic, else "he would have had no hearing."[60] Torrey showed how the three major songs in Revelation (the new song, the song of Moses and the Lamb and the chorus at 19: 6-8) each fall naturally into four regular metrical lines plus a coda.[61] Other dramatic moments in Revelation, such as 6: 16 where the terrified people cry out to be hidden, behave in a similar way.[62]

Christina Rossetti was a Victorian poet who believed the sensual excitement of the natural world found its meaningful purpose in death and in God.[63] Her The Face of the Deep is a meditation upon the Apocalypse. In her view, what Revelation has to teach is patience.[64] Patience is the closest to perfection the human condition allows.[65] Her book, which is largely written in prose, frequently breaks into poetry or jubilation, much like Revelation itself. The relevance of John's visions[66] belongs to Christians of all times as a continuous present meditation. Such matters are eternal and outside of normal human reckoning. "That winter which will be the death of Time has no promise of termination. Winter that returns not to spring ... - who can bear it?"[67] She dealt deftly with the vengeful aspects of John's message. "A few are charged to do judgment; everyone without exception is charged to show mercy."[68] Her conclusion is that Christians should see John as "representative of all his brethren" so they should "hope as he hoped, love as he loved."[69]

Recently, aesthetic and literary modes of interpretation have developed, which focus on Revelation as a work of art and imagination, viewing the imagery as symbolic depictions of timeless truths and the victory of good over evil. Elisabeth Schuessler Fiorenza wrote Revelation: Vision of a just world from the viewpoint of rhetoric.[70] Accordingly, Revelation's meaning is partially determined by the way John goes about saying things, partially by the context in which readers receive the message and partially by its appeal to something beyond logic. Professor Schuessler Fiorenza believes that Revelation has particular relevance today as a liberating message to disadvantaged groups. John's book is a vision of a just world, not a vengeful threat of world-destruction. Her view that Revelation's message is not gender-based has caused dissent. She says we are to look behind the symbols rather than make a fetish out of them. In contrast, Tina Pippin states that John writes "horror literature" and "the misogyny which underlies the narrative is extreme."[71] Professor Schuessler Fiorenza would seem to be saying John's book is more like science fiction; it does not foretell the future but uses present-day concepts to show how contemporary reality could be very different.

D. H. Lawrence took an opposing, pessimistic view of Revelation in the final book he wrote, Apocalypse.[72] He saw the language which Revelation used as being bleak and destructive; a 'death-product'. Instead, he wanted to champion a public-spirited individualism (which he identified with the historical Jesus supplemented by an ill-defined cosmic consciousness) against its two natural enemies. One of these he called "the sovereignty of the intellect"[73] which he saw in a technology-based totalitarian society. The other enemy he styled "vulgarity"[74] and that was what he found in Revelation. "It is very nice if you are poor and not humble ... to bring your enemies down to utter destruction, while you yourself rise up to grandeur. And nowhere does this happen so splendiferously than in Revelation."[75] His specific aesthetic objections to Revelation were that its imagery was unnatural and that phrases like "the wrath of the Lamb" were "ridiculous." He saw Revelation as comprising two discordant halves. In the first, there was a scheme of cosmic renewal "great Chaldean sky-spaces" which he quite liked. Then the book hinged around the birth of the baby messiah. After that, "flamboyant hate and simple lust ... for the end of the world." Lawrence coined the term "Patmossers" to describe those Christians who could only be happy in paradise if they knew their enemies were suffering hell.

[edit] Academic interpretations

Modern biblical scholarship attempts to understand Revelation in its 1st century historical context within the genre of Jewish and Christian apocalyptic literature. This approach considers the text as an address to seven historical communities in Asia Minor. Under this interpretation, assertions that "the time is near" are to be taken literally by those communities. Consequently the work is viewed as a warning not to conform to contemporary Greco-Roman society which John "unveils" as beastly, demonic and subject to divine judgment. There is further information on these topics in the entries on higher criticism and apocalyptic literature.

The acceptance of Revelation into the canon is itself the result of a historical process, essentially no different from the career of other texts. The eventual exclusion of other contemporary apocalyptic literature from the canon may throw light on the unfolding historical processes of what was officially considered orthodox, what was heterodox, what was even heretical. Interpretation of meanings and imagery are anchored in what the historical author intended and what his contemporary audience inferred; a message to Christians not to assimilate into the Roman imperial culture was John's central message. Thus, his letter (written in the apocalyptic genre) is pastoral in nature, and the symbolism of Revelation is to be understood entirely within its historical, literary and social context. Critics study the conventions of apocalyptic literature and events of the 1st century to make sense of what the author may have intended.

During a discussion about Revelation on 23 August 2006, Pope Benedict XVI remarked: "The seer of Patmos, identified with the apostle, is granted a series of visions meant to reassure the Christians of Asia amid the persecutions and trials of the end of the first century."[76]

[edit] Criticism

Nineteenth-century agnostic Robert G. Ingersoll called Revelation "the insanest of all books."[77] Thomas Jefferson omitted it, along with most of the Biblical canon, from the Jefferson Bible, and wrote that at one time he considered it as "merely the ravings of a maniac, no more worthy nor capable of explanation than the incoherences of our own nightly dreams."[78] Friedrich Engels claimed that the Book of Revelation was primarily a political and anti-Roman work.[79] George Bernard Shaw described it as "a peculiar record of the visions of a drug addict."[80]

Martin Luther changed his perspective on Revelation over time. In the preface to the German translation of Revelation that he composed in 1522, he said that he did not consider the book prophetic or apostolic, since "Christ is neither taught nor known in it." But in the completely new preface that he composed in 1530, he reversed his position and concluded that Christ was central to the book. He concluded, "As we see here in this book, that through and beyond all plagues, beasts, and evil angels, Christ is nonetheless with the saints and wins the final victory."[81]

G. K. Chesterton commented, "And though St. John the Evangelist saw many strange monsters in his vision, he saw no creature so wild as one of his own commentators."[82]

[edit] Old Testament origins

There is much in Revelation which uses ancient sources. Although the Old Testament provides the largest reservoir for such sources, it is not the only one. For example, Howard-Brook and Gwyther[83] regard the Book of Enoch (1 Enoch) as an equally significant but contextually different source. "Enoch's journey has no close parallel in the Hebrew scriptures."

Until recently, academics showed little interest in this topic.[84] But this was not the case with popular writers from non-conforming backgrounds. They liked to intersperse their text of Revelation with the prophecy they thought was being promised fulfilment. For example, an anonymous Scottish commentary of 1871[85] prefaces Revelation 4 with the Little Apocalypse of Mark 13, places Malachi 4:5 (Behold I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord) within Revelation 11, and writes Revelation 12:7 side-by-side with the role of 'the satan' in the Book of Job. The message is that everything in Revelation will happen in its previously appointed time.

Steve Moyise[86] uses the index of the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament to show that "Revelation contains more Old Testament allusions than any other New Testament book, but it does not record a single quotation." Perhaps significantly, Revelation chooses different sources than other New Testament books. Revelation concentrates on Isaiah, the Psalms and Ezekiel and neglects, comparatively speaking, the books of the Pentateuch which are the dominant sources for other New Testament writers. Methodological objections have been made to this way of proceeding. Each allusion may not have an equal significance. To counter this, G. K. Beale sought to develop a system that distinguished 'clear', 'probable' and 'possible' allusions. A clear allusion is one with almost the same wording as its source, the same general meaning and which could not reasonably have been drawn from elsewhere. A probable allusion contains an idea which is uniquely traceable to its source. Possible allusions are described as mere echoes of their putative sources.

Yet, with Revelation, the problems might be judged more fundamental than this. John seems to be using his sources in a completely different way to the originals. For example, John borrows the 'new temple' imagery of Ezekiel 40 to 48 but uses it to describe a New Jerusalem which, quite pointedly, no longer needs any temple at all because the new city is now God's own dwelling-place. Ian Boxall[87] writes that Revelation "is no montage of biblical quotations (that is not John's way) but a wealth of allusions and evocations rewoven into something new and creative." In trying to identify this something new, he argues that Ezekiel provides the 'backbone' for Revelation. He sets out a comparative table listing the chapters of Revelation in sequence then identifying against most of them the structurally corresponding chapter in Ezekiel. The interesting point is that the order is not the same. John, on this theory, rearranges Ezekiel to suit his own purposes.

Some commentators argue that it is these purposes - and not the structure - that really matters. G. K. Beale believes that, however much John makes use of Ezekiel, his ultimate purpose is to present Revelation as a fulfilment of Daniel 7.[88]

 See also


  1. ^ Walter A. Elwell, ed. "Apocalyptic." Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1996. Page 28.
  2. ^ Other apocalypses popular in the early Christian era did not achieve canonical status, except 2 Esdras (also known as the Apocalypse of Ezra), which is recognized as canonical in the Ethiopian Orthodox Churches.
  3. ^ Rev. 1:1, 4, 9; 22:8
  4. ^ Rev 1:9; 4:1-2
  5. ^ St. Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho Chapter lxxxi.
  6. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History Book vii. Chapter xxv.
  7. ^ St. Quodvultdeus, On the Symbol, 3.1–6
  8. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History Book iii. Chapter xxv.
  9. ^ Jerome's Homily on Psalm 149
  10. ^ "Apocalypse," Encyclopedia Biblica
  11. ^ Revelation By Ben Witherington III, p. 32
  12. ^ "The author calls himself John, both in the opening and the closing verses of the book. He states that because of his Christian faith he has been banished to the isle of Patmos. He addresses the churches of Asia with a consciousness of unquestioned authority. Of no other person in the first century could these statements be made." Charles R. Erdman. Revelation of John: An Exposition. Westminster, 1936.
  13. ^ Ehrman 2004, p. 467ff
  14. ^ Charles Revelation p. xxviii
  15. ^ Charles Revelation p. liv
  16. ^ J.N.Sevenster, Do you know Greek?, 1968.
  17. ^ J.N.Sevenster, Do you know Greek?, 1968. ch. 9
  18. ^ Ford, p. 30.
  19. ^ Kenneth Gentry. Before Jerusalem Fell, ISBN 0-930464-20-6. Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 1989.
  20. ^ Robert Mounce. The Book of Revelation, pg. 15-16. Cambridge: Eerdman's.
  21. ^ St. Irenaeus, Against Heresies, Book 5 Chapter 30 Section 3.
  22. ^ Brown 1997, pp. 806–809
  23. ^ Cary, E. (trans.) "Dio Cassius' Roman History, Epitome of Book LXI-LXX." Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, 1995. p.349.
  24. ^ Mounce, pg.19-21
  25. ^ cf. Paul Touilleux, Albert Gelin, André Feuillet
  26. ^ Denzinger 186 in the new numbering, 92 in the old
  27. ^ McDonald & Sanders' The Canon Debate, Appendix D-2, note 19: "Revelation was added later in 419 at the subsequent synod of Carthage."
  28. ^ Stephen Pattemore, "The People of God in the Apocalypse," (Cambridge University Press, 2004), p.1
  29. ^ see N. B. Stonehouse, Apocalypse in the Ancient Church, (c. 1929), pp. 139–142, esp. p. 138
  30. ^ Luther's Treatment of the 'Disputed Books' of the New Testament
  31. ^ Anthony A. Hoekema, The Bible and the future, P.297. ISBN 0-8028-3516-3 ISBN 978-0-8028-3516-1, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1979.
  32. ^ Merrill Unger and Gary Larson. "Revelation." The New Unger's Bible Handbook. Chicago: Moody, 2005.
  33. ^ a b c d C. Marvin Plate. Four Views on the Book of Revelation, 2010 (ISBN 0310872391, ISBN 978-0-310-87239-9)
  34. ^ [1]
  35. ^ Henry Barclay Swete. Commentary on Revelation (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1977)
  36. ^ a b Alan F. Johnson. Revelation, in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed.
  37. ^ Mal Couch. A Bible Handbook to Revelation, 2001, (ISBN 0825423589, ISBN 978-0-8254-2358-1), p.81
  38. ^ Merrill C. Tenney. Interpreting Revelation (Grand Rapids: Eermans, 1959), 101, 104
  39. ^ Mal Couch. A Bible Handbook to Revelation, 2001, (ISBN 0825423589, ISBN 978-0-8254-2358-1), p.73
  40. ^ Morris. The Revelation of St. John
  41. ^ Senior, Donald; Mary Ann Getty, Carroll Stuhlmueller (1990). The Catholic Study Bible. New York City: Oxford University Press. pp. 398, 399. ISBN 10: 0195283910.
  42. ^ Gilbert Desrosiers. An introduction to Revelation, 2000,(ISBN 0826450024, ISBN 978-0-8264-5002-9), p. 71-73
  43. ^ Gilbert Desrosiers, 2000, p. 73
  44. ^ Gilbert Desrosiers, 2000, p. 73, 74
  45. ^ Robert J. Karris (ed.) The Collegeville Bible Commentary Liturgical Press, 1992 p. 1296.
  46. ^ Ken Bowers, Hiding in plain sight, Cedar Fort, 2000 p. 175.
  47. ^ Carl Gustav Jung in his autobiography Memories Dream Reflections said "I will not discuss the transparent prophecies of the Book of Revelation because no one believes in them and the whole subject is felt to be an embarrassing one."
  48. ^ Averky (Taushev), Archbishop (1996-Eng. tr. Fr. Seraphim Rose). The Apocalypse: In the Teachings of Ancient Christianity. Platina, California: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood. ISBN 978-0-938635-67-3
  49. ^ Scott Hahn, The Lamb's Supper: The Mass as Heaven on Earth, ISBN 0-385-49659-1. New York, New York: Doubleday, 1999.
  50. ^
  51. ^ R. Frances Swiney (Rosa Frances Emily Biggs) The Esoteric Teaching of the Gnostics London: Yellon, Williams & Co (1909) p.3 & 4
  52. ^ James M. Pryse Apocalypse unsealed London: Watkins (1910). The theory behind the book is given in Arthur Avalon (Sir John Woodroffe) The Serpent Power Madras (Chennai): Ganesh & Co (1913). One version of how these beliefs might have travelled from India to the Middle East, Greece and Rome is given in the opening chapters of Rudolf Otto The Kingdom of God and the Son of Man London: Lutterworth (1938)
  53. ^ Christopher Rowland Revelation London:Epworth (1993) p.5
  54. ^ Howard-Brook, Wes; Gwyther, Anthony (1999). Unveiling Empire: Reading Revelation Then and Now. Orbis Books. ISBN 978-1-57075-287-2.
  55. ^ Rieger, Joerg (2007). Christ & Empire: From Paul to Postcolonial Times. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-2038-7.
  56. ^ Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (2010). Christian Anarchism: A Political Commentary on the Gospel. Exeter: Imprint Academic. pp. 123–126. "Revelation"
  57. ^ Charles C. Torrey The Apocalypse of John New Haven: Yale University Press (1958). Christopher R. North in his The Second Isaiah London: OUP (1964) p. 23 says of Torrey's earlier Isaiah theory, "Few scholars of any standing have accepted his theory." This is the general view of Torrey's theories. However, Christopher North goes on to cite Torrey on 20 major occasions and many more minor ones in the course of his book. So, Torrey must have had some influence and poetry is the key.
  58. ^ Apocalypse of John p. 7
  59. ^ Apocalypse of John p. 37
  60. ^ Apocalypse of John p. 8
  61. ^ Apocalypse of John p. 137
  62. ^ Apocalypse of John p. 140
  63. ^ "Flowers preach to us if we will hear," begins her poem 'Consider the lilies of the field' Goblin Market London: Oxford University Press (1913) p. 87
  64. ^ Ms Rossetti remarks that patience is a word which does not occur in the Bible until the New Testament, as if the usage first came from Christ's own lips. Christina Rossetti The Face of the Deep London: SPCK (1892) p. 115
  65. ^ "Christians should resemble fire-flies, not glow-worms; their brightness drawing eyes upward, not downward." The Face of the Deep p. 26
  66. ^ 'vision' lends the wrong emphasis as Ms Rossetti sought to minimise the distinction between John's experience and that of others. She quoted 1 John 3:24 "He abideth in us, by the Spirit which he hath given us" to show that when John says, "I was in the Spirit" it is not exceptional.
  67. ^ The Face of the Deep p. 301
  68. ^ The Face of the Deep p. 292
  69. ^ The Face of the Deep p. 495
  70. ^ Elisabeth Schuessler Fiorenza Revelation: Vision of a just world Edinburgh: T&T Clark (1993). The book seems to have started life as Invitation to the Book of Revelation Garden City: Doubleday (1981)
  71. ^ Tina Pippin Death & Desire: The rhetoric of gender in the Apocalypse of John Louisville: Westminster-John Knox (1993) p. 105
  72. ^ D. H. Lawrence Apocalypse London: Martin Secker (1932) published posthumously with an introduction (p. v - xli) by Richard Aldington which is an integral part of the text.
  73. ^ Apocalypse p. xxiii
  74. ^ Apocalypse p. 6
  75. ^ Apocalypse p. 11 Lawrence did not consider how these two types of Christianity (good and bad in his view) might be related other than as opposites. He noted the difference meant that the John who wrote a gospel could not be the same John that wrote Revelation.
  76. ^ Pope Benedict: Read Book of Revelation as Christ's victory over evil - Catholic Online
  77. ^ Robert Green Ingersoll. "The Devil". Retrieved 2007-11-30.
  78. ^ Bergh: Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. 16
  79. ^ "The Book of Revelation"
  80. ^ Keith Gilmour on Revelation
  81. ^ For the preface of 1522 see Luther's Works volume 35 pp. 398–399. For the quotation of the preface from 1530 see the same volume, p. 411.
  82. ^ Orthodoxy, page 10, 1908
  83. ^ Wes Howard-Brook & Anthony Gwyther Unveiling Empire New York: Orbis (1999) p. 76
  84. ^ S Moyise p.13 reports no work whatsoever done between 1912 and 1984
  85. ^ Anon An exposition of the Apocalypse on a new principle of literal interpretation Aberdeen: Brown (1871)
  86. ^ S. Moyise The Old Testament in the Book of Revelation Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press (1995) p. 31
  87. ^ Ian Boxall The Revelation of St John London: Continuum & Peabody MA: Hendrickson (2006) p. 254
  88. ^ G. K. Beale John's use of the Old Testament in Revelation Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press (1998) p. 109

[edit] References

  • Bass, Ralph E., Jr. (2004) Back to the Future: A Study in the Book of Revelation, Greenville, South Carolina: Living Hope Press, ISBN 0-9759547-0-9.
  • Beale G.K., The Book of Revelation, NIGTC, Grand Rapids – Cambridge 1999. ISBN 0-8028-2174-X
  • Bousset W., Die Offenbarung Johannis, Göttingen 18965, 19066.
  • Boxall, Ian, (2006) The Revelation of Saint John (Black's New Testament Commentary) London: Continuum, and Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson. ISBN 0-8264-7135-8 U.S. edition: ISBN 1-56563-202-8
  • Boxall, Ian (2002) Revelation: Vision and Insight - An Introduction to the Apocalypse, London: SPCK ISBN 0-281-05362-6
  • Brown, Raymond E. (1997-10-03). Introduction to the New Testament. Anchor Bible. ISBN 0-385-24767-2.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. (2004). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. New York: Oxford. ISBN 0-19-515462-2.
  • Ford, J. Massyngberde (1975) Revelation, The Anchor Bible, New York: Doubleday ISBN 0-385-00895-3.
  • Gentry, Kenneth L., Jr. (1998) Before Jerusalem Fell: Dating the Book of Revelation, Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, ISBN 0-915815-43-5.
  • Gentry, Kenneth L., Jr. (2002) The Beast of Revelation, Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, ISBN 0-915815-41-9.
  • Hahn, Scott (1999) The Lamb's Supper: Mass as Heaven on Earth, Darton, Longman, Todd, ISBN 0-232-52500-5
  • Hernández, Juan, Scribal habits and theological influences in the Apocalypse, Tübingen 2006
  • Hudson, Gary W. (2006) Revelation: Awakening The Christ Within, Vesica Press, ISBN 0-9778517-2-9
  • Kiddle M., The Revelation of St. John (The Moffat New Testament Commentary), New York – London 1941.
  • Kirsch, Thomas. A History of the End of the World: How the Most Controversial Book in the Bible Changed the Course of Western Civilization. New York: HarperOne, 2006.
  • Lohmeyer, Ernst, Die Offenbarung des Johannes, Tübingen 1953.
  • Muggleton, Lodowicke Works on the Book of Revelation London 2010 ISBN 978-1-907466-04-5
  • Müller U.B., Die Offenbarung des Johannes, Güttersloh 1995.
  • Prigent P., L’Apocalypse, Paris 1981.
  • Samael Aun Weor (2004) [1960]. The Aquarian Message: Gnostic Kabbalah and Tarot in the Apocalypse of St. John. Thelema Press. ISBN 0-9745916-5-3.
  • Roloff J., Die Offenbarung des Johannes, Zürich 19872.
  • Shepherd, Massey H. (2004) The Paschal Liturgy and the Apocalypse, James Clarke, ISBN 0-227-17005-9
  • Stonehouse, Ned B., (c. 1929) The Apocalypse in the Ancient Church. A Study in the History of the New Testament Canon, n.d., Goes: Oosterbaan & Le Cointre. [Major discussion of the controversy surrounding the acceptance/rejection of Revelation into the New Testament canon.]
  • Sweet, J. P. M., (1979, Updated 1990) Revelation, London: SCM Press, and Philadelphia: Trinity Press International. ISBN 0-334-02311-4.
  • Wikenhauser A., Offenbarung des Johannes, Regensburg 1947, 1959.
  • Witherington III, Ben, (2003) Revelation, The New Cambridge Bible Commentary, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-00068-0.
  • Zahn Th., Die Offenbarung des Johannes, t. 1-2, Leipzig 1924–1926.
  • Francesco Vitali, Piccolo Dizionario dell'Apocalisse, TAU Editrice, Todi 2008

External links


Exodus 28:3 - And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

Exodus 31:3 - And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship,

Exodus 31:6 - And I, behold, I have given with him Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan: and in the hearts of all that are wise hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee;

Exodus 35:26 - And all the women whose heart stirred them up in wisdom spun goats' hair.

Exodus 35:31 - And he hath filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship;

Exodus 35:35 - Them hath he filled with wisdom of heart, to work all manner of work, of the engraver, and of the cunning workman, and of the embroiderer, in blue, and in purple, in scarlet, and in fine linen, and of the weaver, even of them that do any work, and of those that devise cunning work.

Exodus 36:1 - Then wrought Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wise hearted man, in whom the LORD put wisdom and understanding to know how to work all manner of work for the service of the sanctuary, according to all that the LORD had commanded.

Exodus 36:2 - And Moses called Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wise hearted man, in whose heart the LORD had put wisdom, even every one whose heart stirred him up to come unto the work to do it:

Deuteronomy 4:6 - Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.

Deuteronomy 34:9 - And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him: and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the LORD commanded Moses.

2 Samuel 14:20 - To fetch about this form of speech hath thy servant Joab done this thing: and my lord is wise, according to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are in the earth.

2 Samuel 20:22 - Then the woman went unto all the people in her wisdom. And they cut off the head of Sheba the son of Bichri, and cast it out to Joab. And he blew a trumpet, and they retired from the city, every man to his tent. And Joab returned to Jerusalem unto the king.

1 Kings 2:6 - Do therefore according to thy wisdom, and let not his hoar head go down to the grave in peace.

1 Kings 3:28 - And all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged; and they feared the king: for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him, to do judgment.

1 Kings 4:29 - And God gave Solomon wisdom and understanding exceeding much, and largeness of heart, even as the sand that is on the sea shore.

1 Kings 4:30 - And Solomon's wisdom excelled the wisdom of all the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt.

1 Kings 4:34 - And there came of all people to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all kings of the earth, which had heard of his wisdom.

1 Kings 5:12 - And the LORD gave Solomon wisdom, as he promised him: and there was peace between Hiram and Solomon; and they two made a league together.

1 Kings 7:14 - He was a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in brass: and he was filled with wisdom, and understanding, and cunning to work all works in brass. And he came to king Solomon, and wrought all his work.

1 Kings 10:4 - And when the queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon's wisdom, and the house that he had built,

1 Kings 10:6 - And she said to the king, It was a true report that I heard in mine own land of thy acts and of thy wisdom.

1 Kings 10:7 - Howbeit I believed not the words, until I came, and mine eyes had seen it: and, behold, the half was not told me: thy wisdom and prosperity exceedeth the fame which I heard.

1 Kings 10:8 - Happy are thy men, happy are these thy servants, which stand continually before thee, and that hear thy wisdom.

1 Kings 10:23 - So king Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth for riches and for wisdom.

1 Kings 10:24 - And all the earth sought to Solomon, to hear his wisdom, which God had put in his heart.

1 Kings 11:41 - And the rest of the acts of Solomon, and all that he did, and his wisdom, are they not written in the book of the acts of Solomon?

1 Chronicles 22:12 - Only the LORD give thee wisdom and understanding, and give thee charge concerning Israel, that thou mayest keep the law of the LORD thy God.

2 Chronicles 1:10 - Give me now wisdom and knowledge, that I may go out and come in before this people: for who can judge this thy people, that is so great?

2 Chronicles 1:11 - And God said to Solomon, Because this was in thine heart, and thou hast not asked riches, wealth, or honour, nor the life of thine enemies, neither yet hast asked long life; but hast asked wisdom and knowledge for thyself, that thou mayest judge my people, over whom I have made thee king:

2 Chronicles 1:12 - Wisdom and knowledge is granted unto thee; and I will give thee riches, and wealth, and honour, such as none of the kings have had that have been before thee, neither shall there any after thee have the like.

2 Chronicles 9:3 - And when the queen of Sheba had seen the wisdom of Solomon, and the house that he had built,

2 Chronicles 9:5 - And she said to the king, It was a true report which I heard in mine own land of thine acts, and of thy wisdom:

2 Chronicles 9:6 - Howbeit I believed not their words, until I came, and mine eyes had seen it: and, behold, the one half of the greatness of thy wisdom was not told me: for thou exceedest the fame that I heard.

2 Chronicles 9:7 - Happy are thy men, and happy are these thy servants, which stand continually before thee, and hear thy wisdom.

2 Chronicles 9:22 - And king Solomon passed all the kings of the earth in riches and wisdom.

2 Chronicles 9:23 - And all the kings of the earth sought the presence of Solomon, to hear his wisdom, that God had put in his heart.

Ezra 7:25 - And thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy God, that is in thine hand, set magistrates and judges, which may judge all the people that are beyond the river, all such as know the laws of thy God; and teach ye them that know them not.

Job 4:21 - Doth not their excellency which is in them go away? they die, even without wisdom.

Job 6:13 - Is not my help in me? and is wisdom driven quite from me?

Job 11:6 - And that he would shew thee the secrets of wisdom, that they are double to that which is! Know therefore that God exacteth of thee less than thine iniquity deserveth.

Job 12:2 - No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.

Job 12:12 - With the ancient is wisdom; and in length of days understanding.

Job 12:13 - With him is wisdom and strength, he hath counsel and understanding.

Job 12:16 - With him is strength and wisdom: the deceived and the deceiver are his.

Job 13:5 - O that ye would altogether hold your peace! and it should be your wisdom.

Job 15:8 - Hast thou heard the secret of God? and dost thou restrain wisdom to thyself?

Job 26:3 - How hast thou counselled him that hath no wisdom? and how hast thou plentifully declared the thing as it is?

Job 28:12 - But where shall wisdom be found? and where is the place of understanding?

Job 28:18 - No mention shall be made of coral, or of pearls: for the price of wisdom is above rubies.

Job 28:20 - Whence then cometh wisdom? and where is the place of understanding?

Job 28:28 - And unto man he said, Behold, the fear of the LORD, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding.

Job 32:7 - I said, Days should speak, and multitude of years should teach wisdom.

Job 32:13 - Lest ye should say, We have found out wisdom: God thrusteth him down, not man.

Job 33:33 - If not, hearken unto me: hold thy peace, and I shall teach thee wisdom.

Job 34:35 - Job hath spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom.

Job 36:5 - Behold, God is mighty, and despiseth not any: he is mighty in strength and wisdom.

Job 38:36 - Who hath put wisdom in the inward parts? or who hath given understanding to the heart?

Job 38:37 - Who can number the clouds in wisdom? or who can stay the bottles of heaven,

Job 39:17 - Because God hath deprived her of wisdom, neither hath he imparted to her understanding.

Job 39:26 - Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?

Psalms 37:30 - The mouth of the righteous speaketh wisdom, and his tongue talketh of judgment.

Psalms 49:3 - My mouth shall speak of wisdom; and the meditation of my heart shall be of understanding.

Psalms 51:6 - Behold, thou desirest truth in the inward parts: and in the hidden part thou shalt make me to know wisdom.

Psalms 90:12 - So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.

Psalms 104:24 - O LORD, how manifold are thy works! in wisdom hast thou made them all: the earth is full of thy riches.

Psalms 105:22 - To bind his princes at his pleasure; and teach his senators wisdom.

Psalms 111:10 - The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: a good understanding have all they that do his commandments: his praise endureth for ever.

Psalms 136:5 - To him that by wisdom made the heavens: for his mercy endureth for ever.

Proverbs 1:2 - To know wisdom and instruction; to perceive the words of understanding;

Proverbs 1:3 - To receive the instruction of wisdom, justice, and judgment, and equity;

Proverbs 1:7 - The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge: but fools despise wisdom and instruction.

Proverbs 1:20 - Wisdom crieth without; she uttereth her voice in the streets:

Proverbs 2:2 - So that thou incline thine ear unto wisdom, and apply thine heart to understanding;

Proverbs 2:6 - For the LORD giveth wisdom: out of his mouth cometh knowledge and understanding.

Proverbs 2:7 - He layeth up sound wisdom for the righteous: he is a buckler to them that walk uprightly.

Proverbs 2:10 - When wisdom entereth into thine heart, and knowledge is pleasant unto thy soul;

Proverbs 3:13 - Happy is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding.

Proverbs 3:19 - The LORD by wisdom hath founded the earth; by understanding hath he established the heavens.

Proverbs 3:21 - My son, let not them depart from thine eyes: keep sound wisdom and discretion:

Proverbs 4:5 - Get wisdom, get understanding: forget it not; neither decline from the words of my mouth.

Proverbs 4:7 - Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get wisdom: and with all thy getting get understanding.

Proverbs 4:11 - I have taught thee in the way of wisdom; I have led thee in right paths.

Proverbs 5:1 - My son, attend unto my wisdom, and bow thine ear to my understanding:

Proverbs 7:4 - Say unto wisdom, Thou art my sister; and call understanding thy kinswoman:

Proverbs 8:1 - Doth not wisdom cry? and understanding put forth her voice?

Proverbs 8:5 - O ye simple, understand wisdom: and, ye fools, be ye of an understanding heart.

Proverbs 8:11 - For wisdom is better than rubies; and all the things that may be desired are not to be compared to it.

Proverbs 8:12 - I wisdom dwell with prudence, and find out knowledge of witty inventions.

Proverbs 8:14 - Counsel is mine, and sound wisdom: I am understanding; I have strength.

Proverbs 9:1 - Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars:

Proverbs 9:10 - The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of the holy is understanding.

Proverbs 10:13 - In the lips of him that hath understanding wisdom is found: but a rod is for the back of him that is void of understanding.

Proverbs 10:21 - The lips of the righteous feed many: but fools die for want of wisdom.

Proverbs 10:23 - It is as sport to a fool to do mischief: but a man of understanding hath wisdom.

Proverbs 10:31 - The mouth of the just bringeth forth wisdom: but the froward tongue shall be cut out.

Proverbs 11:2 - When pride cometh, then cometh shame: but with the lowly is wisdom.

Proverbs 11:12 - He that is void of wisdom despiseth his neighbour: but a man of understanding holdeth his peace.

Proverbs 12:8 - A man shall be commended according to his wisdom: but he that is of a perverse heart shall be despised.

Proverbs 13:10 - Only by pride cometh contention: but with the well advised is wisdom.

Proverbs 14:6 - A scorner seeketh wisdom, and findeth it not: but knowledge is easy unto him that understandeth.

Proverbs 14:8 - The wisdom of the prudent is to understand his way: but the folly of fools is deceit.

Proverbs 14:33 - Wisdom resteth in the heart of him that hath understanding: but that which is in the midst of fools is made known.

Proverbs 15:21 - Folly is joy to him that is destitute of wisdom: but a man of understanding walketh uprightly.

Proverbs 15:33 - The fear of the LORD is the instruction of wisdom; and before honour is humility.

Proverbs 16:16 - How much better is it to get wisdom than gold! and to get understanding rather to be chosen than silver!

Proverbs 17:16 - Wherefore is there a price in the hand of a fool to get wisdom, seeing he hath no heart to it?

Proverbs 17:24 - Wisdom is before him that hath understanding; but the eyes of a fool are in the ends of the earth.

Proverbs 18:1 - Through desire a man, having separated himself, seeketh and intermeddleth with all wisdom.

Proverbs 18:4 - The words of a man's mouth are as deep waters, and the wellspring of wisdom as a flowing brook.

Proverbs 19:8 - He that getteth wisdom loveth his own soul: he that keepeth understanding shall find good.

Proverbs 21:30 - There is no wisdom nor understanding nor counsel against the LORD.

Proverbs 23:4 - Labour not to be rich: cease from thine own wisdom.

Proverbs 23:9 - Speak not in the ears of a fool: for he will despise the wisdom of thy words.

Proverbs 23:23 - Buy the truth, and sell it not; also wisdom, and instruction, and understanding.

Proverbs 24:3 - Through wisdom is an house builded; and by understanding it is established:

Proverbs 24:7 - Wisdom is too high for a fool: he openeth not his mouth in the gate.

Proverbs 24:14 - So shall the knowledge of wisdom be unto thy soul: when thou hast found it, then there shall be a reward, and thy expectation shall not be cut off.

Proverbs 29:3 - Whoso loveth wisdom rejoiceth his father: but he that keepeth company with harlots spendeth his substance.

Proverbs 29:15 - The rod and reproof give wisdom: but a child left to himself bringeth his mother to shame.

Proverbs 30:3 - I neither learned wisdom, nor have the knowledge of the holy.

Proverbs 31:26 - She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kindness.

Ecclesiastes 1:13 - And I gave my heart to seek and search out by wisdom concerning all things that are done under heaven: this sore travail hath God given to the sons of man to be exercised therewith.

Ecclesiastes 1:16 - I communed with mine own heart, saying, Lo, I am come to great estate, and have gotten more wisdom than all they that have been before me in Jerusalem: yea, my heart had great experience of wisdom and knowledge.

Ecclesiastes 1:17 - And I gave my heart to know wisdom, and to know madness and folly: I perceived that this also is vexation of spirit.

Ecclesiastes 1:18 - For in much wisdom is much grief: and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow.

Ecclesiastes 2:3 - I sought in mine heart to give myself unto wine, yet acquainting mine heart with wisdom; and to lay hold on folly, till I might see what was that good for the sons of men, which they should do under the heaven all the days of their life.

Ecclesiastes 2:9 - So I was great, and increased more than all that were before me in Jerusalem: also my wisdom remained with me.

Ecclesiastes 2:12 - And I turned myself to behold wisdom, and madness, and folly: for what can the man do that cometh after the king? even that which hath been already done.

Ecclesiastes 2:13 - Then I saw that wisdom excelleth folly, as far as light excelleth darkness.

Ecclesiastes 2:21 - For there is a man whose labour is in wisdom, and in knowledge, and in equity; yet to a man that hath not laboured therein shall he leave it for his portion. This also is vanity and a great evil.

Ecclesiastes 2:26 - For God giveth to a man that is good in his sight wisdom, and knowledge, and joy: but to the sinner he giveth travail, to gather and to heap up, that he may give to him that is good before God. This also is vanity and vexation of spirit.

Ecclesiastes 7:11 - Wisdom is good with an inheritance: and by it there is profit to them that see the sun.

Ecclesiastes 7:12 - For wisdom is a defence, and money is a defence: but the excellency of knowledge is, that wisdom giveth life to them that have it.

Ecclesiastes 7:19 - Wisdom strengtheneth the wise more than ten mighty men which are in the city.

Ecclesiastes 7:23 - All this have I proved by wisdom: I said, I will be wise; but it was far from me.

Ecclesiastes 7:25 - I applied mine heart to know, and to search, and to seek out wisdom, and the reason of things, and to know the wickedness of folly, even of foolishness and madness:

Ecclesiastes 8:1 - Who is as the wise man? and who knoweth the interpretation of a thing? a man's wisdom maketh his face to shine, and the boldness of his face shall be changed.

Ecclesiastes 8:16 - When I applied mine heart to know wisdom, and to see the business that is done upon the earth: (for also there is that neither day nor night seeth sleep with his eyes:)

Ecclesiastes 9:10 - Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave, whither thou goest.

Ecclesiastes 9:13 - This wisdom have I seen also under the sun, and it seemed great unto me:

Ecclesiastes 9:15 - Now there was found in it a poor wise man, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man remembered that same poor man.

Ecclesiastes 9:16 - Then said I, Wisdom is better than strength: nevertheless the poor man's wisdom is despised, and his words are not heard.

Ecclesiastes 9:18 - Wisdom is better than weapons of war: but one sinner destroyeth much good.

Ecclesiastes 10:1 - Dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to send forth a stinking savour: so doth a little folly him that is in reputation for wisdom and honour.

Ecclesiastes 10:3 - Yea also, when he that is a fool walketh by the way, his wisdom faileth him, and he saith to every one that he is a fool.

Ecclesiastes 10:10 - If the iron be blunt, and he do not whet the edge, then must he put to more strength: but wisdom is profitable to direct.

Isaiah 10:13 - For he saith, By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom; for I am prudent: and I have removed the bounds of the people, and have robbed their treasures, and I have put down the inhabitants like a valiant man:

Isaiah 11:2 - And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD;

Isaiah 29:14 - Therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvellous work among this people, even a marvellous work and a wonder: for the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid.

Isaiah 33:6 - And wisdom and knowledge shall be the stability of thy times, and strength of salvation: the fear of the LORD is his treasure.

Isaiah 47:10 - For thou hast trusted in thy wickedness: thou hast said, None seeth me. Thy wisdom and thy knowledge, it hath perverted thee; and thou hast said in thine heart, I am, and none else beside me.

Jeremiah 8:9 - The wise men are ashamed, they are dismayed and taken: lo, they have rejected the word of the LORD; and what wisdom is in them?

Jeremiah 9:23 - Thus saith the LORD, Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might, let not the rich man glory in his riches:

Jeremiah 10:12 - He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion.

Jeremiah 49:7 - Concerning Edom, thus saith the LORD of hosts; Is wisdom no more in Teman? is counsel perished from the prudent? is their wisdom vanished?

Jeremiah 51:15 - He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven by his understanding.

Ezekiel 28:4 - With thy wisdom and with thine understanding thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures:

Ezekiel 28:5 - By thy great wisdom and by thy traffick hast thou increased thy riches, and thine heart is lifted up because of thy riches:

Ezekiel 28:7 - Behold, therefore I will bring strangers upon thee, the terrible of the nations: and they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, and they shall defile thy brightness.

Ezekiel 28:12 - Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.

Ezekiel 28:17 - Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will cast thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee.

Daniel 1:4 - Children in whom was no blemish, but well favoured, and skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability in them to stand in the king's palace, and whom they might teach the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans.

Daniel 1:17 - As for these four children, God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom: and Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams.

Daniel 1:20 - And in all matters of wisdom and understanding, that the king enquired of them, he found them ten times better than all the magicians and astrologers that were in all his realm.

Daniel 2:14 - Then Daniel answered with counsel and wisdom to Arioch the captain of the king's guard, which was gone forth to slay the wise men of Babylon:

Daniel 2:20 - Daniel answered and said, Blessed be the name of God for ever and ever: for wisdom and might are his:

Daniel 2:21 - And he changeth the times and the seasons: he removeth kings, and setteth up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding:

Daniel 2:23 - I thank thee, and praise thee, O thou God of my fathers, who hast given me wisdom and might, and hast made known unto me now what we desired of thee: for thou hast now made known unto us the king's matter.

Daniel 2:30 - But as for me, this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have more than any living, but for their sakes that shall make known the interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart.

Daniel 5:11 - There is a man in thy kingdom, in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and in the days of thy father light and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him; whom the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, the king, I say, thy father, made master of the magicians, astrologers, Chaldeans, and soothsayers;

Daniel 5:14 - I have even heard of thee, that the spirit of the gods is in thee, and that light and understanding and excellent wisdom is found in thee.

Micah 6:9 - The LORD's voice crieth unto the city, and the man of wisdom shall see thy name: hear ye the rod, and who hath appointed it.

here are all the other 666 pages we've done
[Open in new window]

99.84.1 Thet-Unity Equations (Iuliano)

Page 84

Sections List- 99 Electrons and Mythologies
Impossible Correspondence Index

Subject: Thet-Unity Equations
Date: July 22, 2004

(Right here is proof that your religion is mathematically equivalent to all other religions. That means that your religion has the same root as all other religions. I have to delete most of the literal interpretations, in the Christian section and the unrelated section on silk worm history. MP)


Proof that all the major religions of the world are mathematically equivalent, deriving from... ALPHA...aem and ..BETA-CHRIST...(.37) ......references at the end of article.

THETA............1.6180339875.. Da-Vinci code
ALPHA..............aem = 1/137.03599970078 = fine-structure constant

LIGHT.................c = 299792458 meters/ second

( cos (( c * aem / .37 )) * 2 = theta = 1.61803.....


cos ( c * aem / ( .37 ^ 2 )) = unity = 1


HEBREW.............288...sparks from broken vessels (Kabbalic)

(( log (( aem ^ ( -1/2 )) * 666 )) + 288 ) * .37 = 107.999999879..

HEBREW............288 / = = 763.81

( cos ( 1 / aem ) * 100 ) ^ ( bl / ht ) = 288

BETA-CHRIST......(.37) / = 486.256004421 ; bl = 763.81

( log ( aem / ( .37 ^ 2 ))) / 2 = - ht / bl

BETA-CHRIST..... (37)

( log (( 666 ^ 2 ) / aem )) * 37 = 287.999975837

SUMERIAN..........36...unit circle
HEBREW.............32 paths of wisdom
LEAHY.................82944 ...triple logic cube......2304 * 36 = 82944

( log (( aem ^ ( -1/2 )) * 666 )) * 32 * 666 = 2303.9998067 * 36

ALPHA............... aem
PLATO................25920 years in cycle

( log (( aem ^ ( -1/2 )) * 666 ) * 6660 = 25919.99783...

R.TOMES...........3456 harmonic
CHRISTIAN.........888 (CHRIST).....666(BEAST)

( log (( aem ^ ( -1/2 )) * 666 )) * 888 = 3455.99971

ISLAM................570.....birth of Mohammed

KUNDALINI.........3.5.....3 -1/2 windings around the serpent

( aem ^ ( -1/2 )) * 66.6 / ( 3.4999902842 ^ ( 1/4 )) = 570


((cos( c*aem / .37 )) * 2) + (cos( c*aem / ( .37 ^ 2))) = ((cos( c*aem / .37 ))) * 2 ) ^ 2

THETA + ONE = THETA squared

...37 is mentioned in the book THEOMATICS by Jerry Lucas ( the NBA basketball star), a forty year old book about pre-genre bible codes. From a chapter in the book is the following, quoting from the book...........


At the beginning of this chapter we showed the many references to the birth of Christ were all structured on multiples of 111. The number 111, of course, speaks of Jesus. But there is another number which also speaks of Jesus. It is the number 37. Thirty-seven is a prime number, which means that it can only be divided by itself and one. It is also the base number on which all of the references to Christ are structured. If we were to divide 111 by 3, the result would be 37. In other words, 37 * 3 = 111. For this reason, many of the features to be presented in the remainder of this chapter will only be divisible by 37 and not by 111. However everything that is divisible by 111 is also divisible by 37.

An excellent example of a design using the number 37 is found in those verses that speak of the Messiah..........end quote....many examples are then given of theomatic values for Greek letters relating to a Messiah

The Messiah = 37 * 25
Jesus = 37 * 8 * 5
Jesus Christ = 37 * 8 * 8 .....etc. etc.

....quoting from the book, THEOMATICS, concerning 37's role in the biblical context of the collective unconscious.....

All of the earliest manuscripts of the New Testament were originally written on this form of material. Some of the documents from this period remain to this very day, and they are considered to be the most treasured and priceless artifacts in existence, for they are the earliest known copies of the New Testament

One such manuscript exists in Dublin, Ireland, in a collection of manuscripts owned by a man named Charles Beatty. It is unquestionably and by far the earliest known copy of the book of Revelation. The date of this papyrus has been placed in the third century, or somewhere between 200 and 300 AD.

The most amazing thing about this particular manuscript is the fact that it gives all the numbers in the book of Revelation with number or theomatic values. Every single number in the book of Revelation is shown with the letters of the Greek alphabet;for example 7 is referred to many times in Revelation, in the papyri this number would be expressed with the letter ( ) , which has a value of 7. The number 12 would be expresses by the two letters ( ) ( ) and so on.

Revelation 13:18 is, of course, the verse which describes the number of the beast ---666 = 37 * 18. If you look at the picture of the papyrus, you will notice on the left side the number 666 with a little arrow pointing to the right. Follow the arrow for for about an inch and a half, and you will see the following symbol with a line over it , this is the number 666 , given in theomatic values. The first letter has a value of 600, the second letter has a value of 60, and the last letter has a value of 6. When you add up all three of these numbers you have 666. Therefore in Revelation 13:18 , the verse states that the one having wisdom is to calculate the number of the beast, and it gives the number 666.

Verse 1 of chapter 14, which immediately follows, describes how the lamb stood on Mt. Zion, and with Him there were 144 thousands. If you look at the picture of the papyrus again, you will see beneath the 666 the number 144 with an arrow pointing to its right. Follow this arrow for about an inch and a half, and you will see the symbol---. This is the number 144 given with theomatic values. The first letter has a value of 100, the second letter has a value of 40, the last letter has a value of 4 all adding to 144............end of book quote

The strange thing about 37 that relates to the non-cosine form of fine structure is this ability to use the theomatic values, 144 and 666, to arrive at the fine-structure constant aem....37 is the key player here: 37*18 = 666 and in the collective unconscious ratio 144/37:

( 10 ^ ( 143.999987919 / 37 )) / 666 = sqrt 137.03599970078 = sqrt 1/aem

....and as previously shown the Cheops pyramid ratio height/base leg = 2/Pi, does the same function as the cosine forms:

( log ( aem / ( .37 ^ 2 ))) / 2 = -486.256004422 ht / 763.81 bl

( 10 ^ ( 486.256004422 * 2 / 763.81 )) / ( .37 ^ 2 ) = 1/ aem = 137.03599970078

...Churchward-Massey ( 1910 expedition ) give the values as 486.256 feet for height and 763.81 feet for base leg for the Cheops pyramid.

Petrie data:

Ht of Cheops=5776+-7.0 inches
Base leg Cheops=9068.8+-.5 inches

Using 9068.8 inches as base leg and 5773.370937 inches as ht then it can be shown:

( 10 ^ (5773.370934 / 9068.8 )) / .37 = 11.70623764 = sqrt137.03599970078

The following excerpt is reprinted from "Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man" by Albert Churchward, a student of the European Egyptologist Gerald Massey. According to John Henrik Clarke, in his introduction to the volume, "(Massey)" was an agnostic whose intention was to prove that the basis of European culture was created outside of Europe by people that some Europeans later characterized as savages without a history or culture. His search led him to Egypt where he found proof that Western culture was, in fact, African in origin, the larger portion of it coming from the Nile Valley. . ."

About the Pyramid of Giza, built by ancient Africans, Churchward writes:

The Great Pyramid, when understood, far surpasses and ellipses King Solomon's Temple as a building, or any other in the world. . . The base is a true square, and perfectly oriented, set due N.E.S.W., parallel with the equatorial line, absolutely no variation of points; its base on huge rock and that rock perfectly and truly hewn and leveled (sic) to the earth's curvature of 8 inches to the mile, the importance of which is evident-keeping it from convulsive damages as time goes on. The height of the pyramid is 486.256 feet, and each side is 763.81 feet. The height thus measures, with the radius of a circle whose circumference equals the four sides. . .showing that the circle could be squared by these ancient architects which has not been improved on since. Its base side length is 365.242 sacred cubits, showing the number of days and fractional part of a day in a year. . . Here, in the Great Pyramid, is the one material centre (sic) which gives the standard for those practical things-weights, measures, etc., and these were carried from land to lands, with .......

The EGYPTIAN Cheops pyramid formula as follows:

( 10 ^ ( 486.256004422 / 763.81 )) / .37 = 11.70623764 = sqrt 137.03599970078


...The Hindu Kali- Yuga number 108 is also connected to the integer 37 through the fine-structure constant:...288 sparks from broken vessels ...Kabbalic (Hebrew)

ALPHA....aem ; BETA-CHRIST...(.37) ; HINDU...108 ;
HEBREW...288 ; CHRISTIAN....666

(( log (( aem ^ ( -1/2 )) * 666 )) + 288 ) * .37 = 107.999999879

Why are there 108 beads on a mala?

Home Maranatha by Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati

On a mala, or set of mantra counting beads, there are generally 108 beads, or some fraction of that number.

The question often arises:

"Why are there 108 beads on a mala?"

Below are some of the many reasons that have been given, as well as a few other points of interest. None of these reasons are being promoted here as more or less true than the others. However, you may notice that 108 appears to be somewhat like a road map of reality in general, and the human in particular.

Regardless of the meaning of 108, it is important that if a mala is used to count mantras, the mantra be remembered with sincerity, devotion, feeling, and full attention.

9 times 12: Both of these numbers have been said to have spiritual significance in many traditions. 9 times 12 is 108. Also, 1 plus 8 equals 9. That 9 times 12 equals 108. Powers of 1, 2, and 3 in math: 1 to 1st power = 1; 2 to 2nd power = 4 (2x2); 3 to 3rd power = 27 (3x3x3). 1x4x27 = 108

Desires: There are said to be 108 earthly desires in mortals.

Lies: There are said to be 108 lies that humans tell.

Delusions: There are said to be 108 human delusions or forms of ignorance.

Heart Chakra: The chakras are the intersections of energy lines, and there are said to be a total of 108 energy lines converging to form the heart chakra.

One of them, sushumna leads to the crown chakra, and is said to be the path to Self-realization.

Sanskrit alphabet: There are 54 letters in the Sanskrit alphabet. Each has masculine and feminine, shiva and shakti. 54 times 2 is 108.

Pranayama: If one is able to be so calm in meditation as to have only 108 breaths in a day, enlightenment will come.

Upanishads: Some say there are 108 Upanishads, texts of the wisdom of the ancient sages.

Sri Yantra: On the Sri Yantra there are marmas where three lines intersect, and there are 54 such intersections. Each intersections has masculine and feminine, shiva and shakti qualities. 54 times 2 equals 108. Thus, there are 108 points that define the Sri Yantra as well as the human body.

Pentagon: The angle formed by two adjacent lines in a pentagon equals 108 degrees.

Marmas: Marmas or marmastanas are like energy intersections called chakras, except have fewer energy lines converging to form them. There are said to be 108 marmas in the subtle body.

Time: Some say there are 108 feelings, with 36 related to the past, 36 related to the present, and 36 related to the future.

8 extra beads: In doing a practice of counting the number of repetitions of the mala, 100 are counted as completed. The remaining are said to cover errors or omissions. The 8 are also said to be an offering to God and Guru.

Chemistry: Interestingly, there are about 115 elements known on the periodic table of the elements. Most of those, around or higher than the number 100 only exist in the laboratory, and some for only thousandths of a second. The number that naturally exist on Earth is around 100.

Astrology: There are 12 constellations, and 9 arc segments called namshas or chandrakalas. 9 times 12 equals 108. Chandra is moon, and kalas are the divisions within a whole.

River Ganga: The sacred River Ganga spans a longitude of 12 degrees (79 to 91), and a latitude of 9 degrees (22 to 31). 12 times 9 equals 108. Planets and Houses: In astrology, there are 12 houses and 9 planets. 12 times 9 equals 108.

Goddess names: There are said to be 108 Indian goddess names. Gopis of Krishna: In the Krishna tradition, there were said to be 108 gopis or maid servants of Krishna.

1, 0, and 8: Some say that 1 stands for God or higher Truth, 0 stands for emptiness or completeness in spiritual practice, and 8 stands for infinity or eternity.

Sun and Earth: The diameter of the Sun is 108 times the diameter of the Earth. The distance from the Sun to the Earth is 108 times the diameter of the Sun.

Moon and Earth: The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 108 times the diameter of the Moon.

Silver and the moon: In astrology, the metal silver is said to represent the moon. The atomic weight of silver is 108.

Numerical scale: The 1 of 108, and the 8 of 108, when added together equals 9, which is the number of the numerical scale, i.e. 1, 2, 3 ... 10, etc., where 0 is not a number.

Meditations: Some say there are 108 styles of meditation.

Breath: Tantra estimates the average number of breaths per day at 21,600, of which 10,800 are solar energy, and 10,800 are lunar energy. Multiplying 108 by 100 is 10,800. Multiplying 2 x 10,800 equals 21,600.

Paths to God: Some suggest that there are 108 paths to God. Smaller divisions: The number 108 is divided, such as in half, third, quarter, or twelfth, so that some malas have 54, 36, 27, or 9 beads.

Hinduism: 108 is said to refer to the number of Hindu deities. Some say that each of the deities has 108 names.

Islam: The number 108 is used in Islam to refer to God.

Jain: In the Jain religion, 108 are the combined virtues of five categories of holy ones, including 12, 8, 36, 25, and 27 virtues respectively.

Sikh: The Sikh tradition has a mala of 108 knots tied in a string of wool, rather than beads.

Buddhism: Some Buddhists carve 108 small Buddhas on a walnut for good luck. Some ring a bell 108 times to celebrate a new year.

Chinese: The Chinese Buddhists and Taoists use a 108 bead mala, which is called su-chu, and has three dividing beads, so the mala is divided into three parts of 36 each.

Stages of the soul: Said that Atman, the human soul or center goes through 108 stages on the journey.

Meru: This is a larger bead, not part of the 108. It is not tied in the sequence of the other beads. It is the quiding bead, the one that marks the beginning and end of the mala.

Dance: There are 108 forms of dance in the Indian traditions.

Praiseworthy souls: There are 108 qualities of praiseworthy souls.


....from a previous article

An interesting example of the "collective unconscious" constant...144/37 = 3.891891891... as previously demonstrated by Prof. Leahy's dream number ...2808..( 2808 / 37 = 75.891891891...), Plato's cyclic number...25920...( 25920 / 666 = 38.891891891...), the Hindu Kali-Yuga number ....108...( 108 / .37 = 291.891891891...), John of Patmos trance numbers, 144, 666 , 1260 , 9505..( 1260 / 666 = 1.891891...), ( 144 / 37 = 3.891891..) ( 9505 / 37 = 256.891891891...), R. Tomes master harmonic number 3456..(34560 / 666 = 51.891891 etc. all having decimal residues of .891891891.... I ran across this interesting article from the book, " THE NATURE OF MATHEMATICS " by Karl L. Smith , page 170...quoting from the book:

Man who wants to be a number... Minneapolis. At a time when many people complained of losing their identities to a long string of numbers, Michael Herbert Dengler is waging a fight for just that---he wants to be called 1069. Dengler, a teacher turned short order cook, is due in Hennepin County District Court Monday to resume the legal struggle he began four years ago.

The case at one point reached the North Dakota Supreme Court. In rejecting Dengler's plea the court said it was "without precedent in the entire experience of Anglo-American law". So Dengler, 32, who once taught social studies in a Fargo N.D. high school, moved to Minneapolis to renew the fight. And until the matter is settled, he's calling himself 1069, pronounced, " one zero six nine," he says.

Dengler says he wants his name changed for personal and philosophic reasons. He says his protracted court battle has resulted in embarrassment and some practical problems. Minnesota refused to issue a drivers license to 1069. And Dengler had trouble landing a job. One company that makes copying machines told him, " You come in here with a name. We'll give you a number".

Four years ago , Dengler circulated a memo among fellow teachers and administrators in Fargo, informing them that henceforth he was to be known as 1069. In the subsequent uproar, Dengler resigned. Dengler says that to understand fully the reasons he wants to change his name , a person must be on his wavelength. Few are, but friends and former colleagues insist he's sincere.

"He was bright, creative, and intelligent", said William Gulickson, principal at Franklin School in Fargo, where Dengler once taught." He's absolutely sincere about this. This is where he's coming from"......end of article.

1069 is a collective unconscious constant number;
1069 / 37 = 28.891891891...

...which can describe the fine-structure constant from physics...aem = 1 / 137.036

(( 10 ^ ( 1068.999988 / 37 ) - 25 )) / 666 ) ^ - 2 = 1 / 137.036

(( 10 ^ (( 2807.999988 / 37 ) - 72 )) / 666 ) ^ - 2 = 1 / 137.036

(( 10 ^ ( 2591.999783 / 666 )) / 666 ) ^ - 2 = 1 / 137.036

(( 10 ^ ( 143.9999879 / 37 )) / 666 ) ^ - 2 = 1 / 137.036
(( 10 ^ (( 1259.999783 / 666 ) + 2 )) / 666 ) ^ - 2 = 1/137.036
(( 10 ^ (( 9504.999988 / 37 ) - 253 )) / 666 ) ^ - 2 = 1/ 137.036

(( 10 ^ (( 107.999999 / .37 ) - 288 )) / 666 ) ^ - 2 = 1/137.036



(( 10 ^ ( 2591.999783 / 666 )) / 666 ) ^ - 2 = 1 / 137.036

as a result of the astronomical function known as the Precession of the Equinoxes, the Vernal Equinox or the First Point of Aries (Fravardin/Hormazd) moves around the Zodiac by a retrograde motion of 50" a year, i.e., one degree in 72 years and 30 degrees or a Sign in 2,160 years. To traverse the whole Zodiac it takes 25,920 years, which period is known as the "Plato's Year." When any such two Periods coalesce, a cuspal or Sandhi Period equal to half the number of years taken to traverse one Sign (i.e., 1,080 years) intervenes. In other words, the Plato's Year actually comes to 27,000 years (25,920 plus 1,080).

Three such Periods constitute one Zarvanay Daregho Khvadhata! The current ZDK began in or about 9,564 BC after the Great Deluge - "az Gayomard unda Sosiosh." The Arabs followed the above Zarathushtrian mode, but instead of 2,160 years they took 1,000 years per Sign, thereby arriving at 12,000 years for the whole Zodiacal Circle (the Hazara System). Later on, the Iranians also adopted this Tajik System (as recorded in the last chapter of the Bundaheshn) for calculating the World Periods. The Twelve Hazaras will end in or about 2,412 AD. For a fuller discussion and the Table of Hazara Periods, please refer to "IS-O-DiL," op. cit., pp. 432-33. By Behram D. Pithavala


HINDU YUGA NUMBER : 108 ...288 Stonehenge , blue circle diameter:
(( 10 ^ (( 107.999999 / .37 ) - 288 )) / 666 ) ^ - 2 = 1/137.036

About 1750 BC, Stonehenge II was constructed, apparently by a different race / tribe of people. They enlarged the entranceway with more banks, and they brought in the first circles of stone. They started to build a double circle about 70 feet in diameter, of 5-ton stones, with extra stones marking the entranceway. However, this was never completed. Hawkins speculates that there were to have been 37 pairs of stones in the circle and that it was to have been used like the Aubrey holes,with a marker moved annually. The blue circle is the Aubrey Circle, with a diameter of 288 feet. This diameter is exactly the intended, diagonal face length of the Menkaure Pyramid, from the base to the apex point. The distance (288 feet) is also of the 576 feet of diagonal face length from the base of the Great Pyramid to the height of the altar floor. The base perimeter of the Great Pyramid was exactly 288 reeds (of 10.5 feet each). The Giza Plateau was set out as a grid of 288 squares, each 189 feet X 189 feet (1/4th of the length of the Great Pyramid was 189 feet). The grid ran 18 squares east-west &16 squares north-south. In Numbers chapter 7 of the Bible, Moses is given a total of 288 gifts. The Bible is packed with astronomical codes, which aspect is, of times, the sole preoccupation of an entire Biblical passage. Herodotus, the father of profane history, left us solid clues that the Pyramid acre was 28800 square feet. The Geomancer's mile of Great Britain was 57600 feet (28800 X 2). The Waitapu standing stone circle site in New Zealand was a dual, overlapping circle observatory, wherein the north-south extremities of the site extended through 288 feet, geometrically.


ALPHA....aem ; AZTEC...2304 ; SUMERIAN...36 ; HEBREW...32 ; CHRISTIAN...666 ;
( log (( aem ^ ( -1/2 )) * 666 * 32 * 666 = 2303.9998067 * 36

1 : 89(kemi number series: 189, 378, 756)
2 : 88(maya long count series: 144, 288, 576, 1152, 2304) ...
5 : 85(Venus synodic fractal: 585) ...
10 : 80(kemi count: 27, 54, 108, 216, 432) ...
18 : 72(maya long count fractal: 1872000) ...
22: 68(Nineveh number: 2268) ...

From the very start, by listing the relationships of degrees of triangles on this particular table, one is able to observe relationships of degrees that produce numbers which resemble some historically significant numbers. These numbers/fractals coming out of the relationships of degrees in right triangles are based upon a 90-based system (0 : 90 : 90; or, a total of 180 degrees in a triangle). Many different aspects become available. Consider the sum of the first few numbers on the list:

189 + 288 + 387 = 864and864 / 2 = 432 (the Consecration)
189 + 288 + 387 + 486 + 585 + 684 + 783 =3402 (...108864 series)

Or, consider how if one adds all of the numbers from 189 until and including the 2268 number, the total is 27027; the mirrored kemi count (27c). By choosing the 2268 number, one could understand how the 27c could have been encoded into the ancient reckoning system. Therefore, by drawing attention to the 22:68 relation, the significance of the 27c is established.

From the above, one may observe how the naturally occurring numbers serve as the basis for some of the historically significant numbers. Obviously, one might constantly attribute such relationships to mere coincidence. But, the coincidences continue to increase. Consider the fact that a 3 : 4 : 5 right triangle, which has been cited as having been employed in the design of ancient artwork involves angles which reflect the maya long count numbers/fractals.

As we apply the mediatio/duplatio procedure to the 36.8699-degree angle, the following reveals itself:

.144023047(here, the maya fractals appear double with the sacred 9)

The previous series of numbers is characteristic of naturally occurring numbers regarding a 3 : 4 : 5 right triangle. The fact that the ancient maya chose a number system based on the series 36, 72, 144, 288, 576, 1152, 2304, and, the fact that these numbers appear within the angle of a 3:4:5 right triangle, plus the fact that the maya appear to have employed just such a triangle in the design of some of their ancient artwork, together would seem to be a product of a conscious design.

Further consider the fact that when one divides the angle, 36.8699 degrees, by the number three, instead of two, one may observe an apparent relationship with the maya companion number, 1366560.

36.8699 / 3=12.28996667
1.365551852 (now, take whole number/fractal)
1365550 - 1365560 = 1010

Just how significant may the 3:4:5 right triangle be for the ancient reckoning system may be understood when we assign the number 13c to its sides measurements:

3 x 13 = 394 x 13 = 525 x 13 = 65

Consider, then, 39 x 52 = 2028; whereby 2028 is a chosen number found in the total number of years for the Legend of Four Suns of ancient Mesoamerican cultures. But, not only that, in the 3:4:5 relation, one may symbolically and computationally comprehend the 39c constant number count of the ancient reckoning system, along with the 52c year cycle, and, the 65c year-cycle for Venus of ancient Mesoamerican systems. These three significant counts are then found together in the numbers of the 3:4:5 right triangle. One can imagine the ancients being concerned with right triangles that reflect whole numbers in their angles (eg., the 30:60:90-degree right triangle); or, whole numbers in their side measurements (eg., the 3:4:5 right triangle).

As of this particular knowledge, they most undoubtedly understood that no apparent triangle existed which could enjoy whole numbers in both aspects, in its angles and side measurements combined. They may have achieved this, however, through symbolic representation; hence, the significance of number series in the ancient reckoning systems of the world.

This could have been achieved through the remainder mathematics that seems to have characterized some of the ancient systems of reckoning. For example, instead of employing the .1732 decimal number for the 30:60:90 right triangle, they could have used the 1728 constant-number series, and added/subtracted corresponding sums as they moved up and down the series. The 30:60:90 right triangle is essentially a 1 : 2 : 3 side measurements triangle. In order to visualize this triangle symbolically as a 1:2:3 triangle, one could simply employ the 1728 constant-number series for the side that measures the number/fractal three, compensating with the corresponding addition and/or subtraction amount to reach 1732 (1732 - 1728 = 4). Let us illustrate this point with a 288c base number:

1 x 288 = 2882 x 288 = 5763 x 288 = 1728

In this manner, the 30:60:90 right triangle may visually represent a triangle with 1:2:3 side measurements, although, we know that this is not so in reality. One could then convert later to the exact corresponding measurement:

This triangle could thus serve as a teaching/learning tool for the numbers of the ancient reckoning system. The numbers become evidently significant when employed in the Pythagorean Theorem formula:

2882 + 17282 = 3068928

2737152 / 2 =1368576
- 1366560

The 1728c number becomes all important in some computations. Further consider the numbers/fractals cited here as of multiplication, and in relation to the ancient reckoning system number of Nineveh, (1959552c).


- 1959552

31104(China; Teotihuacan)

Then, other relations appear:
1728x567=979776 (kemi; 567)

1732x576=997632(maya; 576)
- 995328
2304(maya alautun)

1732x567=982044(kemi; 567)
- 979776
2268 (Nineveh)

The 3 : 4 : 5 right triangle reveals further significance for the maya long count system in that its numbers are more obvious:

The side measurements of the 3 : 4 : 5 right triangle immediately reflect the number series of the maya long count on two sides, while reflecting the number series of the sacred 432 consecration number. Observations In this essay, we have illustrated two aspects of the measurement of right triangles. Firstly, we have shown how the table of trigonometric ratios for the sides and angles of right triangles, which is commonly cited in the literature, may be viewed as of the possible relationships involved in such computations. Secondly, we have shown how some of the numbers/fractals associated with the table of trigonometric ratios reflect some of the historically significant numbers within the ancient reckoning systems. Time and again, we find that the historically significant numbers/fractals of the ancient reckoning systems share such common elements with the general traits of mathematics and geometry, that one can only conclude that much of ancient artwork may have been based on such knowledge.

The designs of ancient artwork appear to have a common cognitive base, founded upon the characteristics of geometry and mathematics, and in this case in particular, even within the field of trigonometry. The general table of trigonometric ratios has been expanded here to include all of the possible relations of right triangles in the measurement of their angles and sides. We have called this the Table of Trigono/metriX Ratios in order to distinguish this added knowledge from that generally presented on such tables.

Once again, as we observe ancient historically significant numbers, such as 1872 or 2268, we come to realize that possibly such numbers were read and treated in a manner distinct from which we have learned throughout the ages. The number 1872 and 2268 may not only represent day/year counts, but just possibly may reflect a reading that would suggest their representing the relations of degrees in a specific right triangle: 18:72:90, and, then, 22:68:90 degrees. When the ancients observed the number 2268, they may have also been viewing that number not only as 2268, but as 22 in relation to 68 [2268] (and, further in relation to 90 [226890]). Such a dynamic way of viewing and communicating numbers/fractals reaches beyond the more limited reading that we exercise today within mathematics and geometry.

©1998 Copyrighted by Charles William Johnson. All rights reserved.


(( 10 ^ (( 1259.99978285 / 666 ) + 2 )) / 666 ) ^ - 2 = 1 / 137.036
((( 3.4999902996 ^ ( 1/4 )) * 570 ) / 66.6 ) ^ - 2 = 1 / 137.036

Making Sense of 1260 Days, 42 Months and 3 1/2 times.

This is one of the most revealing riddles of Revelations!
By Michael O'Brien, Nov 2000. Last update, April 22, 2003

(Note: This so called riddle will be made plain after we apply the book, Quartum Organum, to it. We will use the esoteric interpretation and not the literal exoteric nor the mesoteric, such as would lead one to believe there really exists two human witnesses, a woman clothed in the sun and such literal error. The esoteric interpretation reveals the beginning Creation story...or Cosmology. MP)


These time periods (in Revelations and the book of Daniel) are all the same length, about 3 1/2 years, so why are they described in different ways? The answer, is both simple and ingenious...They are links, to help us see what events will occur in the same time period. For example, two events in Revelations described as taking 1260 days, are talking about exactly the same time period. One of them, the 3 1/2 times, also provides a very special link... One that reveals a major event at the start of the period that opens up a fantastic understanding of the sequence of end-time events.

The First Link, 1260 Days

"I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth." (Rev 11:3)

(Let's begin with Quartum Organum's esoteric definition of "two witnesses"- "Chpt: Revelation: Pg 391", Of the incalculable past.... "And I will give power to my "two witnesses" (genetic consciousness and energy) ....and they shall prophesy (dominate the cycle) a thousand two hundred and threescore days." Quartum Organum.)

"Then the woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, that they should feed her there 1260 days." (Rev 12:6) The meaning of the woman in the wilderness will be discussed later. Sufficient here to say that the two witnesses shall prophesy for the same 1260 days that the woman is in the wilderness.

(Quartum Organum's esoteric definition of "wilderness"- "Chpt: Exodus or Evolution: Pg 511", Of the incalculable past..... "The Red Sea is the red earth itself, that lithic ethmos, or sieve, through which the life force must pass from Involution (the Fall) to Evolution (the Rise). The wilderness is the savage lower planes in Evolution through which this life, once biologic, must struggle to reach its Promised Land, the humanized and spiritualized higher planes. This is OUR Promised Land- not a gift from God, but an achievement of man, and won by soul and not by gold." Quartum Organum.)

The Second Link, 1260 Days and 3 1/2 times

"Then the woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, that they should feed her there 1260 days." (Rev 12:6)

(Quartum Organum's esoteric definition of "1260 days"- "Chpt: Revelation, Pg 392", Of the incalculable past..... "We see then this city is the city of Man, the Life principle, and Man and the angel are one. And the angel is the creative power, thus John also makes Man and the Creator one. The number of cubits in this wall is the same as those who are saved, namely, 144, not the select and elect of Christians, but all (of humanity, eventually, 1+4+4=9). Numerologically, the number of the beast, 666 (6+6+6=1+8=9), the number of the temple and the "woman clothed with the sun", 1,260 (1+2+6+0=9), the number of this city, and of Adam, spelt in Hebrew Adm, are all the same. And all are the earth entity." Quartum Organum.)

"The woman was given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness to her place, where she is nourished for a time and times and half a time {3 1/2 times}, from the face of the serpent." (Rev 12:14) This link is very important, it shows that the 3 1/2 times is exactly the same period as the 1260 days. What makes this so significant, is that by definition, a "time" is one year {a prophetic year of 360 days} from an important feast. This feast is identified in the next link.

(Quartum Organum's esoteric definition of "1260 days", "thousand two hundred and threescore days" and "forty and two months"-Chpt: Revelation Pg 392, Of the incalculable past....."and both (all three) are numerical symbols of the planes and periods the material dominates, namely, the four lower kingdoms and cycles and a bit of the fifth..." This means that each Major Plane has septenate 7 sub-levels and when we reach the future fifth Major Plane there will be 1,2,3,4 sub-levels before experiencing the fifth sub of the fifth Major Plane. Quartum Organum.)

The Third Link, 3 1/2 times

"The woman was given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness to her place, where she is nourished for a time and times and half a time {3 1/2 times}, from the face of the serpent." (Rev 12:14)

(Quartum Organum's esoteric definition of "the woman", - Chpt: Revelation 12, Pg 392, Of the incalculable past....."This woman, symbol of matter, is not only "clothed with the sun", she is the sun, the great Earth mother of all mythologies; she is Isis, Innana, and Ishtar. Here in the sun period is conceived and carried the nacent earth itself, that is, the physical part, with the moon under this as we made it. This is the child the great dragon (Typhon) would destroy, and therefore has nothing whatever to do with the Christ of religion. Quartum Organum.)

"And he {the Antichrist} shall speak great words against the most high, and shall wear out the saints of the most high, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time {3 1/2 times}." (Dan 7:25)

(Quartum Organum's esoteric definition of "the Antichrist", -Chpt: Christianity- Its False Doctrine, Pg 728, Of the historic past..... "Speaking of Christ and his salvation, it (a certain newspaper) says, "It means simply that God comes down and does everything that needs to be done. He has to because we are helpless- because the very effort to save ourselves by our own 'good works' is blasphemy, idolatry, arrogance, presumption, the very essence of sin." If Christ taught such things, he was a saboteur of his Father's actual plan-- Evolution and human effort. And there's no "if" about it; he did teach it; we, the creators of reason, morality and someday divinity, can do nothing, and nothing is needed save "faith" and "divine grace." Thus he led the race from nature's order to human chaos, diverted the mind from Reality, and wasted two thousand years on a false salvation. If such a teacher actually lived and led the race so far astray, then Mani was right-- "he was a deamon"; he was, in fact, the Antichrist. To spare him this, we say, instead, he was the instrument of ecclesiasticism. It was this, and this alone, that needed the false philosophy and theology." Quartum Organum.)

"Then I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand to heaven, and swore by him who lives forever, that it shall be for a time, times, and half a time {3 1/2 times}; and when the power of the holy people has been completely shattered, all these things shall be finished." (Dan 12:7)

(The rest of this demonstration was deleted because the literal interpretation predicts future events surrounding these facts. Such events are completely out of place. MP)

ALPHA....aem ; ISLAM......570 ; CHRISTIAN....666 KUNDALINI....3.
( aem ^ ( -1/2 )) * 66.6 / ( 3.4999902842 ^ ( 1/4 )) = 570

A Silk Road Timeline
Updated 31 July 2000

(The first part of this demonstration was deleted because it described the whole history of silk production, which was not relevant to this following point, 570 A.D. In addition, there are many passages in the Koran that deals with the number 19. In time, I hope we can present a full exposition of this. 09/08/04 Refer to the link "The Quran and Number 19" at the end of this email. MP)

570 A.D.: Mohammad (the Prophet) is born in Mecca. While in his early 20s, he works with a camel caravan to transport frankincense and silk from Mecca north to Syria.

R.Tomes reference...considered the "genius of the southern hemisphere" ALPHA......aem ; R.TOMES....34560 ; CHRISTIAN....666...888
( log (( aem ^ ( -1/2 )) * 666 )) * 888 = 3455.99971

>From the article (of D.Wilcox?).......

"Every data point that we have gathered so far creates a compelling case. And in addition to the above facts, we must remember that we are dealing with a unified system of spherical vibrations (pulsations) that behave according to simple musical (harmonic) principles. Now, if we wanted to prove that such a model was indeed accurate, then we would need to find a harmonic unification that persisted throughout the Universe. If every object of matter-energy is being formed of fluidlike "aether" from a Great Central Oscillator, then there should be a single musical ratio that forms a "master link" for the entire known Universe, on all levels of size.

Controversial physicist Ray Tomes has given us a vital new model that indeed unifies this entire puzzle with the science of harmonics, or musical vibrations. The Great Central Sun continues its rhythmic movement, and intersecting wave-pulses are created which follow the laws of music and vibration, as we said.

Spherical-torus energy formations are produced of all different sizes in the Universe, such as moons, planets, the Sun, the galaxy and the Universe itself.

Miraculously, Tomes discovered that the average distances between all of these spherical energy formations at each size level in the Universe are precisely interconnected by a single musical ratio - 34560.

If we take the average distance between moons and multiply it by a factor of 34560, we get the average distance between planets. Take the average distance between planets, multiply it by a factor of 34560 and we get the average distance between stars.

Multiply the average distance between stars by a factor of 34560 and we get the average distance between galaxies.

Take the average distance between galaxies, multiply it by a factor of 34560 and we get the size of the known Universe. This suggests that there is a "fractal" organization to the Cosmos, meaning that we have what is referred to as "self-similarity on all levels." The geometric formations created by fractal mathematics can be magnified exponentially, and no matter how deeply you "zoom in" to the formation, you still see the same geometric structures. Many "Chaos" theorists have already discerned that the Universe itself appears to work according to such logic in many different and mysterious ways.

Surprisingly, as we can see from the next chart, this same exact harmonic ratio of 34560 for the Cosmos can be compressed as well as expanded:

Compress the average distance between moons by two factors of 34560, and we get the average distance between cells, either plant or animal.

Compress the average distance between cells by 34560 and we get the average distance between atoms.

Compress the average distance between atoms by 34560 and we get the average distance between nucleons, which are the smallest natural "particles" in the Universe. This next chart shows the master summary of all of these connections, strongly demonstrating that the entire Universe is interconnected according to one vast, unified plan:

Figure 7.5 - Ray Tomes' discovery of the unified ratio of 34560 in the Universe.

It is literally quite impossible that such a simple system could work so well from the quantum to the living cell to the super-galactic level, without requiring any elaborate fixes, shortcuts or math-a-magical hocus-pocus. (For an example of such a "fix," before Copernicus placed the Sun at the center of the Solar System, the geo-centric mainstream scientists had created elaborate "epicycles" to mathematically explain why the planets would occasionally appear to travel backwards (i.e. "retrograde") as they moved along their ecliptic plane in the night sky.) Each of the averaged distance figures cited by Tomes have emerged from mainstream scientific studies, so there is no validity to the argument of skeptics that Tomes had "cooked the books" in any way. Tomes was simply the first person to discover that each of these different classes of spherical energy forms were partitioned and interrelated by a single, master harmonic ratio. Once we integrate our new quantum physics findings, we can indeed see the completeness of the model as it now stands. Furthermore, the utility of the 34560 ratio does not end with the remarkable facts that we have just stated. Other forms of aether vibrations, such as difference between the speed of light and other basic speeds of vibration / pulsation, shows this master harmonic of 34560 as well. This evidence comes from the work of Dan Winter, who went further into exploring the connections discovered by Tomes. As one harmonic example from Winter's work, the speed of light in water is almost exactly of the speed of light in a vacuum, and is a standard musical relationship between two vibratory frequencies. Even more interestingly,

Compress the speed of light by a factor of 34560 and we get the speed of sound.

Compress the speed of sound by a factor of 34560 and we get the speed of heat.

This, of course, is our next exposure to a very simple concept: the speed of light is by no means the highest speed in the Universe - as we have already said, it simply represents the highest speed that energy can travel through the aether in our own area of density. Other areas of higher density would allow a greater speed of light to occur, as Kozyrev observed with his torsion-wave fields. In The Shift of the Ages we detailed evidence from Bruce Cathie that the speed of light is a perfect harmonic value. First, Cathie used what he called the "grid second" for time, a unit that is smaller than the second but closely related, built up from a system of 9 instead of a system of 8 (i.e. 8x3=24 hours, 9x3=27 "grid" hours.) Cathie showed how the Earth's harmonic measurements, such as the nautical mile of one minute of one degree at the Equator, represent a perfect harmonic yardstick for understanding and measuring universal energy. (Remember that the Earth must form according to harmonic principles, so this is no accident.) And, when Cathie calculated the speed of light by the number of nautical miles that it would pass through per grid second in a vacuum, he came up with exactly 144,000! 144 is the square of twelve and an essential number in the science of musical vibrations.

Furthermore, the work of Lambert Dolphin and Barry Setterfield proves conclusively that the measured speed of light has been steadily decreasing by a small amount since it was first calculated. This finding came from a meta-analysis of literally every study on the speed of light that had occurred in history prior to 1980. We believe that this measurable drop in light-speed is due to an energetic boundary strength that we are now encountering as we prepare to move into an area of higher aetheric density in the galaxy, which is the central thesis of this book. For now, we should simply remember that the speed of light is directly related to that of sound and heat by the same universal harmonic ratio of 34560. If we want to explore the possibility of finding the 34560 ratio when we are discussing the density of matter, then we would need to look at cubical harmonics, i.e., harmonics of 34560 to the power of 3, since we are dealing with three-dimensional structures instead of two-dimensional distances between structures. When we consider the densities of the matter in the Universe with this in mind, the following interesting relationships emerge:

Compress the density of ordinary matter by a factor of 34560^3, and we find the density of a neutron star, considered the densest object in the Universe. Relax the density of ordinary matter by a factor of (34560^3)^2, and we arrive at the density of the known Universe, which is predominantly what is now called "empty" space.

All of these observations from Tomes and Winter only reinforce the idea that a central oscillator is creating pulsations throughout all the aether in the Universal Sphere. All of these pulsations are precise harmonic multiples of the time interval of one second, either in larger or smaller time intervals, and their primary harmonic wavelengths are all factors of the ratio of 34560.

(The concept of a "central oscillator" is wrong. There is no center in universe and there is no central oscillator. All of universe is oscillating and the first wave structure was created by wave reflections off the interior of the ever expanding perfect-sphere, a product of the first-impulse. Subsequent sound and light angles of incidence and angles of reflection began to define edges and apexes of what is known as Platonic "solids", which solids, of course, do not actually exist nor can they be seen directly. However, scientific studies of large universal structures, have been found to generally define the sides of these invisible Platonic solids. MP)

Tomes demonstrated that other harmonic ratios besides 34560 can determine the spacings between the stars and planets, but the 34560 ratio is certainly the most predominant one. His studies include a complete determination that all of our nearby stars are in precise harmonic relationships to each other in terms of their relative distances."

(Note: Your beliefs were challenged in this email. Reality is a common thread in all religions and certain numbers and formulae show up in all major religions, to tie them together. Reality is far from some of your belief systems. The condition of our world is a result of your belief systems. There are multitudes of strange daily religious regimentations as a result of these beliefs. Millions of human beings are regarded as second and third class humans because of these belief systems. There are multitudes of phobias and taboo's of natural process because of these beliefs. There are multitudes of violence committed because of the ignorance of religious commonalities. If you are religious and do not understand the commonalities, you are the problem. If you are religious and support only one religion, you are still the problem. If you are religious and begin to study all religions, you are beginning to be part of the solution. If you become spiritual and begin to understand all religions, you are the solution. If you believe nothing except the power of your own spiritual psyche, through prayer, and simply understand all things, you have solved the problem. MP)

Join no religion that has
more than one member.

Page 84

The Quran and Number 19

Sections List- 99 Electrons and Mythologies
Impossible Correspondence Index

© Copyright. Robert Grace. 2004


The Da Vinci Code Crop Circle
Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper
by Joseph E. Mason

This article includes information about "religious" beliefs. It is my intent to investigate the subject without bias. I do not wish to promote a personal view, or take one side or the other. This is simply an investigation which raises serious questions.

The crop circle formation that appeared at West Kennett Long Barrow, near Avebury, Wiltshire, around 28 June 2007, is clearly related to Leonardo da Vinci's painting, "The Last Supper":

Image credit: Tommy Borms

Compare it to this diagram, based on the underlying geometry of the painting:

Image credit: Franz Gnaedinger

The formation, of course, is not exactly the same, but it is quite similar.

In April 2004 I wrote an article that included information about da Vinci's famous painting and various crop circle formations, along with certain numbers. Included is this graphic:

The yellow lines I drew over the image are intended to point out shapes that may have been intended symbols. The "V" shape between Jesus and the figure to his right, were major in the fictional book and movie, "The Da Vinci Code," by Dan Brown.

According to Dan and others, the figure to the right of Jesus is not the Apostle John, but rather, Mary Magdalene, the wife of Jesus. The "V" represents the Grail Cup as the womb that carries the Blood Royal. There is no cup on the table.

The inverted yellow "V" shape over Jesus in the above image is intended to show the male potency, that in legend, is said to be symbolized by the horn of the unicorn, related to Psalms 92:10. In some Bibles, it is the horn of the ox.

The checkerboard grid ceiling above the figures in the painting seems to be a 6 x 6 type, like the "Magic Square of the Sun":





































The numbers 1 through 36 are placed in the grid. Adding all the numbers results in 666. Adding a row, column, or diagonal results in 111. The corner diagonals add to 37 (1 + 36 and 6 + 31).

In Kabbalah, various spheres are given numbers and associated with the Magic Square of that number. In this case, it is sphere number six of the Tree of Life, called Tiphareth:

I believe that Tiphareth is often symbolized by various versions of the Seed of Life.

This is one of the most common types of crop circles, with many variations. The same image is associated with the story in John 21, of the 153 Fish in the Net.

Tiphareth is in the centre of the Tree, and corresponds to the heart chakra level. It is the green flower here:

Dreams and certain crop circles seem to indicate a potential or future change in the sixth sphere of the Tree. The Seed of Life flower will open like the aperture of a camera, giving a twelve fold flower or design, with a six fold figure in the centre, such as a Star of David. This is similar to the traditional symbol of the heart chakra. The change, therefore, seems to indicate the opening of the heart chakra.

The "Da Vinci Code" crop formation seems to have the checkerboard grid on the floor rather than on the ceiling. It appears to be a 7 x 7 grid, rather than the 6 x 6. In terms of the spheres of the Tree of Life, this would correspond to Venus and the Magic Square of Seven. In this case, there are 49 numbers, and the total is 1225. Each row, diagonal, and column adds to 175.

Perhaps this is suggestive of the feminine aspect and thereby corresponds to Mary Magdalene. There may be a duality indicated in the sense of "as above, so below" corresponding to the Sacred Marriage of the masculine Bridegroom and feminine Bride.

A seven Fold Koch Fractal appeared around 9 August 1998, at Tawsmead Copse, near West Stowell, Wiltshire. It had 175 little circles, perhaps suggesting the Magic Square of Venus.

Significantly, Venus is a primary factor in the Mayan Calendar, which ends on December 21, 2012, at 11:11 AM Universal time. Jesus and the Central American, Quetzalcoatl, are associated with the Morning Star, Venus.

I mentioned the Koch Fractal crop formation in my article about the 911 events, because Flight 175 hit one Tower and Flight 11 hit the other. The combined 175 + 11 = 186, is associated with an alchemical triangle, as is the mirror number 681:

6 squared + 8 squared = 10 squared
36 + 64 = 100
Sun + Mercury = Earth
0.6 squared + 0.8 squared = One

To a large degree, Dan Brown's book was based on another book that came out in 1982. It is "The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail," by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh, and Henry Lincoln.

The books have caused great controversy. It seems that many of the claims have been successfully debunked. However, there are many who believe that there is some truth to the ideas, and that the "Pauline Christianity" that came down to us via Saint Paul, Emperor Constantine, and others, may not be the "right" version.

Perhaps more than ever, people are questioning the source of the religions of the world. Many think there is a manipulation of some kind, possibly from extraterrestrial or extra-dimensional sources.

The great researcher, Jacques Vallee, has written about an unknown control system of some kind. Throughout history, people have been confronted by strange phenomena, which causes them to reevaluate their beliefs about the nature of reality. Such events are at the core of many if not all religions. Various prophets and religious leaders interpret the meanings, and they do not agree on all points.

Jacques and his associates have an article about "Incommensurability." I have linked it below in the Data Reference section.

Debunkers of crop circles and other strange phenomena seem to feel that all is explainable, and that there is no proof in terms of scientific evidence. My impression is that the debunkers want to halt investigations into crop circles, UFOs, and such. There techniques often leave an impression akin to a political "spin." The debunkers, of course, also cannot scientifically prove their own explanations. For the most part, we only have theories.

The primary question should not be, "Is it proven," but rather, "Is it worthy of further study."

One should keep in mind that the beliefs of people are important, even when they are not scientifically proven to be "true." The beliefs effect the reality created, true or not.

Most debunkers of crop circles, for the most part, feel they are all man made, or created by some natural source, such as a plasma vortex. They seem to feel that the phenomena is basically meaningless, and therefore a waste of time to study. There is, however, an alternative argument. This is an excerpt from the article, "Arguments Against the Hoax Theory of Crop Circles":

Presuming that all the crop circle formations are hoaxes created by humans, leads to a final few questions. Some estimated ten thousand crop circle formations have appeared all over the world in recent years. They are often considered to be "religious"

symbols, such as the 1993 Bythorn Mandala, the 1997 Tree of Life, and two 1999 formations - the Winged Disk God and the Biblical Menorah.

"The religious beliefs of many people are being changed in the process. If the phenomenon is a hoax, it is on a very grand scale, and must involve a great number of people and resources. Why is it, then, that the Discovery Channel and other media or government organizations are not calling for a full investigation of this very serious matter? Why do they heap ridicule on researchers who are trying to gather evidence and find the answers? Is it not a serious matter that religious beliefs are being manipulated by unknown sources? Should we not be concerned with their motives?

Now we have the Da Vinci Code Crop Circle. Is it a hoax? Should the governments, news services, and religious organizations investigate to find out who created the formation and why?

Whatever the case, I personally intend to keep an open mind and keep investigating.


This article originally appeared on the Crop Circle Connector Site

Reverence Data

The Da Vinci Code

The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail

Mary Magdalene

Pauline Christianity

Roman Emperor Constantine I

First Council of Nicaea - 325 CE


Magic square

Flower of Life and Seed of Life

153 Fish in the Net

Jacques Vallee's Incommensurability article



by Dee Finney & Joe Mason

Crop Circle Photographers

We thank the crop circle photographers and urge support for them.

Lucy Pringle

Busty Taylor

Stuart Dike

Freddy Silva

Ron Russell
Crop Circle Anomalies

Steve Alexander
and Karen Douglas

Peter Sorenson

Tommy Borms

A.J. Samuels

Andreas Müller

Colin Andrews

Jim Miller

Frank Laumen

Bert Janssen

Jan Schwochow

Clemens Richter

Doe Kelly and
Andrew Wheeler

Nick Nicholson

Rob Speight

Eva-Marie Brekkesto

Julian Gibsone

Graham Tucker

Werner Anderhub

Seiichi Nakazato

David Russell

Richard Wintle
Calyx Photo Services

Andrew King

Richard Harvey

Russell Stannard

Andrea Felliziani

Summer Garland

Patricia Murray.

If you have any questions about this article, contact Joe Mason at -

This article was last updated on July 8, 2007.

The URL of this ARTOC;E is:

Return to the Crop Circle Page

Return to Dreams of the Great Earth Changes