Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20, 2011

today's date September 20, 2013


page 562




9-20-13 - DREAM - We had a very large family with many children.  We were going to take a plane trip somewhere, and we wanted everyone to have the same identical accommodations, and seating, and even life insurance.  Everyone should be the same, no matter how old they were or their size. Everyone should be the same.


Once we arranged the plane ride accommodations, then we went out into a garden that we grew ourselves - and there too we wanted everything to be identical - the bushes should be cut to the exact height, width, length, etc. 


And even when it snowed later, even the snow had to be at the same height throughout the garden - even when it fell in the garden.  Everything should be the same - everywhere.


The moment I woke up - the word "zer anpin" came into my head, and won't leave me alone  -  I can't stop thinking about it and I don't know what it means, though I've heard Joe say it a few times recently.










FROM 2006: 

9-2-06 - I had a dream this morning in which the man in my dream world who represents IEOSOUS (Jesus in Greek) gave me a gift of combat boots with military blue socks in them and on each sock was a large picture of Abraham Lincoln. I was told that when I wore those boots with the socks, the photos of Abraham Lincoln had to show while I worked.


That dream gives a lot of responsibility to go with whatever I write about Abraham Lincoln because whatever I say points to him and his ideas which changed our country. I have a feeling that something is happening or going to happen with regard to Civil Rights that we have to look to Abraham Lincoln for guidance.


On the internet, there are over 3,000,000 sites dealing with Abraham Lincoln and Civil Rights, so what can I possibly say that will improve on what has already been said - not just add to the number of pages already there.






                    In his "I have a dream" speech, Martin Luther King rightly invoked Abraham Lincoln and quoted the Declaration of Independence,
                    predicating his powerful call for equal treatment under law on "the true meaning of America's creed: 'We hold these truths to be
                    self-evident: that all men are created equal.'" The promise of equal treatment without regard to race was one that that lay deep
                    in the grain of the American creed and the civil rights tradition.


                    Equal treatment without regard to race remains the enduring promise of the American creed. As Abraham Lincoln wrote in 1864
                    in response to prominent Democrats who urged him to rescind the Emancipation Proclamation: "The promise, being made, must
                    be kept."




The Catholic church councils, the good, the bad, and the ugly  -


To build a vibrant church in the new millennium, we need to listen once again to Jesus and his first disciples who preached the equality of all persons   (Matt. 23; 11-12; Luke 22: 24-26; Gal. 3:28).



International Movement We Are Church (IMWAC) 
A Pope for the Time to Come:
Bishop of Rome and Universal Pastor
Preface: Now is the Time 

"Now is the acceptable time" (2 Cor. 6) for Catholics throughout the whole world to reflect on what type of leadership, indeed what model of church, we need for the new millennium. 

The Second Vatican Council (1962-65) invited all of us to read the signs of the times in the light of the gospel. It called our faith community to perpetual renewal.  We have tried to be faithful to that call as we examine the life of our church and our need for a Bishop of Rome who can lead our faith community in a "universal agapé," or assembly of charity. 


The millennium now passing away has been an age of division among Christians. It is our hope that the third millennium will become an age of reconciliation and unity. 

In this spirit, Pope John Paul II invited all Christians to reflect on the future of the Papacy "…that we may seek - together, of course - the forms in which this ministry [of Peter] may accomplish a service of love recognized by all concerned…to find a way of exercising the primacy which, while in no way renouncing what is essential to its mission, is nonetheless open to a new situation." (Ut Unum Sint, No.95). 

At the same time, voices within the World Council of Churches are calling all Christian churches to commit themselves in the year 2000 to begin preparation for a Universal Christian Council. 


We join our voices with these calls, and declare our readiness to renew our faith community in light of the signs of our times, and to dialogue and work with other churches on the basis of equality. 


To realize these dreams, we offer our reflections on the qualities needed by our age in the next Bishop of Rome.   We share our thoughts in the spirit of the woman in the gospel who mixed yeast with flour so that her bread might expand and nourish a community.  This is our "yeast."


A Model of Church for our Times: Ever Ancient, Ever New 

  • To build a vibrant church in the new millennium, we need to listen once again to Jesus and his first disciples who preached the equality of all persons (Matt. 23; 11-12; Luke 22: 24-26; Gal. 3:28).


  • We need to build structures in our church which reflect that equality so that we may live, pray and minister to one another as a "discipleship of equals."  Only then will we follow the example of Jesus who sends the Spirit, not to a small group, but to the whole community of faith.  Only then will we live out the teaching of Vatican II which recognizes us all as the People of God, co-responsible for decision-making in the life of our church. 


  • We need to restore a church that values dialogue and justice in its internal life as well as its approach to the world. 

  • We need to reestablish a church that respects and celebrates our worldwide diversity, a church in which there is freedom to live our faith in different ways in different cultures. 

  • We need to resurrect a church that recognizes the importance of local churches where the Word is preached in ways that local cultures can hear it.  The building of this restored church is the work of the whole People of God, not only the Bishop of Rome, other bishops and the clergy. 


  • We begin by urging that we restore the practice of the early church and develop structures that permit the People of God to participate in a prominent way in the election of all church leaders.  This would include the election of the Pope, the Bishop of Rome.  This renewal of an ancient tradition will acknowledge the action of the Spirit in community of the faithful. 


The Next Bishop of Rome 

We would be greatly helped in renewing our church by a leader who reads the "signs of the times" in concert with the people, a collaborative Bishop of Rome who can listen as well as preach, and dialogue as well as teach.  We need a leader who truly embraces and consults the sensus fidelium (sense of the faithful). 

We especially need a leader who recognizes the awakening of women's consciousness as a significant "sign of our times."  Women, more than half of our church, have grown conscious of their dignity and equality with men.  They are calling our faith community to respect and implement that equality in its own life. 


We need a Bishop of Rome who respects the differences among us as well as challenges us to live the gospel. 


We need a Pope who distinguishes between his pastoral ministry as the Bishop of Rome, and the ministry of Peter in which he is in dialogue with the universal church.  As Bishop of Rome, he serves the faithful of Rome as any bishop serves a diocese.   He would retire at the age established for all bishops.  As president of the worldwide agapé, he would act as a brother bishop who invites the world's bishops to share leadership with him and with other members of the People of God who are called forth by the faithful.  In that spirit, he would reform the Curia (papal cabinet) so that it might serve, rather than dominate, other bishops and the church universal. 


But most of all, we need a Bishop of Rome and a Universal Pastor who is: 


  • a visionary leader who promotes a profound discernment on church ministry by all the People of God and calls them to consider the possibility of welcoming into ministry all those qualified whatever their gender, marital status or sexual orientation; 


  • a respecter of the consciences of Catholics who calls forth a genuine public dialogue on the theologies, moral teaching and policies in the church so that our faith community might share experiences, begin to heal its alienation and resurrect a sense of unity and enthusiasm for the faith; 


  • a pastor who encourages academic freedom for theologians and other scholars in order to foster a healthy diversity of opinions in the church; 


  • a reconciler who welcomes "liberals" and "conservatives" to share the same church; 

  • a leader who recognizes the cultural pluralism of the church and celebrates the diversity that flowers in different parts of our world; 


  • a collaborator with a sense of history who is willing to restore the tradition of full participation of the people in church and who invites all Catholics to share governance and decision-making, including the election of church leaders; 


  • a pioneer who encourages initiative and experimentation and calls Catholics to develop an adult sense of responsibility for their faith community; 


  •  an ecumenist who engages in serious dialogue with Christians of the Reformation and Orthodox traditions in an effort to bring about the dream of Christian unity; 


  • a brother to the Jewish people who will work to dismantle any vestiges of anti-Semitism and build strong bonds of spiritual kinship that recognize our common heritage flowing from Abraham and Sarah; 


  • a student of religious traditions other than Christianity and Judaism who welcomes interfaith dialogue, and seeks to learn from the rich diversity of insights in these traditions; 


  • a lover whose arms embrace the world and whose policies express a special solidarity with the poor and oppressed; 


  • a prophet who is tireless in promoting justice, equality, peace and nonviolence in our world and in our church; 

  • a lover of the earth who recognizes and promotes the integrity of all creation; 


  • a gentle soul with a sense of humor; and 


  • a Brother Bishop who can happily shed the trappings of the powerful of this world (Luke 22: 25-26) and walk with us as we together re-create our community of faith to make the Spirit of Jesus come alive in the third millennium. 

What we need in the new millennium

is a Bishop of Rome who is a Universal Pastor



Baha'ists also believe in the equality of men and women, universal education, world peace, and the creation of a world federal system of government. ...







The Bridegroom - Zer Anpin


Another idea came about the ball in cup symbolism. It may be related to Zer Anpin, the Bridegroom, within the Tree of Life -- here shown color coded within the Flower of Life pattern --


Zer Anpin in the Tree of Life within the Seed of Life



Six spheres of the Tree of Life are associated with the Bridegroom, Zer Anpin. Five of those spheres (4, 5, 7, 8, 9) are depicted in red, above. The sixth is sphere 6 (Tipharet), depicted in green. Note how the arrangement is like a green ball in a red cup.


According to the great scholar and interpreter, Thomas Jude Germinario, Zer Anpin is the Son, the Supernal Man of the Kabbalah, the Messiah of the Jews, and the Christ of the Gentiles. His Bride, and the Queen of His Kingdom, is Malkut, sphere 10, at the bottom of the Tree of Life. This relates to the Shechinah, God’s feminine Presence in the material World. The Shechinah is associated with the Holy Spirit. Her symbols include cloud and fire. For example, in Exodus 13:21, She appears as a pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night, to lead the people. An aspect of Shechinah is the feminine Neshamah, a collective Soul. Malkut is the Womb within which individual Souls are incrementally assembled to constitute the universal Soul -- She who is to be, at the end of Time, the Bride of Zer Anpin, the Supernal Man.


The Divine Image of Zer Anpin is to be transmitted to the Body of Man, so that it may become the Similitude of the Supernal Man. The mystical Body of Man compares to a Temple, with the Soul centrally located, and the “Holy of Holies” as its innermost Heart. In this way, one has direct contact with the Essence of God.


Thomas writes that the Son subdues Death by hanging from the Tree in the Garden. "By virtue of the Son’s Self-sacrifice, the Tree of Death becomes the Tree of Life." I recall that Joseph Campbell said that the Fruit of the Tree of Life is Jesus. I found an illustration of the idea here.


According to Thomas, the mystic visionary, William Blake, identifies the dominance of the spectral ego-persona as the eclipsing of Vision and Imagination by Reason and Moral Virtue. This imbalance has the effect of deforming both the collective Body of Man and the Tree of Life.


In his brilliant article analyzing prophecies concerning the Popes, Thomas explains Nostradamus Quatrain C5, Q92 --


Nostradamus Quatrain C3, Q65 quote


Pope Pius XI 17 years quote



The Covenant of Circumcision


Some nine days after the arrival of the White Sheet Hill formation in June, 2010, a phallic type crop formation appeared nearby on 4 July 2010. It was presumed to be a hoax, and was mostly ignored. However, hoax or not, such symbolism is quite important in Kabbalistic circles. It is also quite germane to the concept of Zer Anpin. Thomas writes extensively about the Covenant of Circumcision.


The phallic crop formation was composed of two circles from which a long pathway extended to a third circle at the end. It was pointed directly at the June White Sheet Hill crop formation.


In Kabbalism, there is a symbolic phallus within the Tree of Life -- sphere 9, Yesod. It extends to sphere 10, Malkut/Earth, via the Middle Pillar pathway connecting them. Remember that sphere 9 is one of the six Sephirot composing Zer Anpin. This phallus is the symbolic procreative organ of the Supernal Man, Zer Anpin, which implants the soul seeds into the womb -- Malkut/Earth, sphere 10. The 2006 Fife, Scotland, crop formation, illustrated above, fits this symbolism especially well. The three circles above the womb, sperm, and ball in cup glyphs, compare with the spheres above Malkut (10) on the Middle Pillar - Yesod (9), Tiphareth (6),  and Keter (1), or alternately, the hidden sphere of Daat.


Kabbalistic tradition teaches that a difficulty happened in the creation process which caused the Shevirah -- the Shattering of the Vessels (Sephirot-spheres). This caused many problems, one of which is the Qliphoth (or Qlippot) - where our perception of the upper source Worlds of the Olam became opaque, obstructing our view. Our perceptions are thus limited to the "phallic" area of Yesod until the Tikkun Olam -- the repair of the Tree of Life and the World.


Circumcision symbolizes removing the opaque obstruction to our perceptions, so that our view becomes clear. We can then perceive up into the timeless spiritual realms above. The Divine Light from above is no longer obstructed, removing the impediment to its flow into our World through the incarnation of living Souls.


The process is to lift Malkut up to the level of Binah. The effect brings the attribute of Mercy to the Feminine in our world, which mitigates the harsh judgmental tendency. The Shechinah then returns from her Exile in this World.


The Biblical Covenant of Circumcision involves the story of Abram and his wife, Sarai (or Sara), having their names changed to Abraham and Sarah. The letter "H" (Heh) was added to each of their names. The reference is to the two Hehs in the Tetragrammaton, the four letters of the Divine Name, YHVH (or YHWH). The four letters relate to male and female spheres of the Tree of Life. The first letter, Y (Yod), represents the first male emanation, Chochmah/Wisdom, the supernal Father -- sphere 2 of the Tree of Life. The first Heh represents Binah/Understanding, the first Female aspect of the Godhead -- sphere 3. The V (Vau) connotes the “Body” of six Sephirot which together comprise the Son, Zer Anpin. The final Heh signifies Malkut/Shechinah, the Bride of Binah’s Son, Zer Anpin -- sphere 10.


The four sets of Sephirot comprising the Tetragrammaton define the five levels of the universal Soul (or Pleroma). The letter Heh, and therefore the the two Feminine aspects, associate with the number five.


The symbolic purpose is to restore to Man the one component of his eternal Symmetry that was lost in the Fall -- Equilibrium, represented by the Heh in Abraham’s rectified name.


Thomas writes in detail about Zer Anpin and the Covenant of Circumcision in these articles --


Fearful Symmetry


Back to the Garden

A Season in Hell

The Hidden Time


Zeir Anpin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ze`ir Anpin (Aramaic: זְעֵיר אַנפִּין meaning "Lesser Countenance/Small Face", called Microprosopus in the Kabbala Denudata) is a revealed aspect of God in Kabbalah, comprising the emotional sephirot attributes: Chesed, Gevurah, Tiphereth, Netzach, Hod and Yesod.

The Zohar's imagery expoundes its role in Creation, where it is the microscopic equivalent of Arich Anpin (Macroprosopus) in the Sephirotic tree of life. The Siphra Dtzenioutha portrays it as the revealed face of God, and the Idra Rabba elaborates on the Kabbalistic significance of its several attributes. Its Tetragrammaton is IHVH (יהוה), the traditional name of God in Judaism. In 16th century Lurianic doctrine it becomes systemised as one of the 6 Primary Partzufim Divine Personae, as part of the cosmic process of Tikkun Rectification.

Uniting Zeir Anpin-Short Face with Nukvah-Female

Zeir Anpin, the emotional sephirot centred around Tiferet (Beauty), is the transcendent revelation of God to Creation ("The Holy One Blessed Be He"), a perceptible manifestation of the essential Divine infinity (the Tetragrammaton name of God). Nukvah ("Female" of Zeir Anpin) is the indwelling immanent Shekhinah (Feminine Divine Presence) within Creation, the concealed Divine finitude (the name Elokim). In Medieval Kabbalah, the sin of Adam, as well as later sin, introduces apparent separation (perceived from Creation) between the two, bringing exile and constriction on High. The task of man is restoring union (Yichud) to the Male and Female Divine manifestations. This is the origin of the Kabbalistic prayer formula recited before performing a Jewish observance. Within the tetragrammaton, the first two letters signify the Concealed World/Upper Unity with God, and the latter two signify the Created World/Lower Unity:


"For the sake of the union of the Holy One Blessed be He, and His Shekhinah, to unite the name Y-H with V-H in a perfect union, in the name of all Israel"


In Lurianic Kabbalah, the origin of disharmony in the Sephirot is located earlier, in the primordial Realm of Tohu before the creation of Man, though later sin brings further exile. The task of man, while also affecting Male-Female union on High, involves Messianic redemption of the exiled "Sparks of Holiness" (Birur) from Tohu that are scattered within Physical existence. Birur becomes the inner dimension of Yichud. Each indwelling spark is relatively female in relation to the person who redeems it from captivity. The collectivity of all sparks, similar to the collective People of Israel, also comprises the exiled Shekhinah, awaiting raising up to God.

See also


External links



While all 32 paths originate in Keter, they cannot be comprehended on that inscrutable plane. Instead, the Soul dimension enables the paths to be experienced by replicating all 32 of them within Malkut, which is the plane of manifestation.

 The Tree of Life can only direct the development of the material Universe by virtue of its fruit. That fruit, we know, consists of the Souls which “hang” from the Tree. These Souls are conceived by the Male-Female intercourse at the level of the Father and Mother, who are the Personifications of Chochmah/Wisdom and Binah/Understanding. The Kabbalah calls this level of the Soul Neshamah, which means “breath”. Below this plane, the intercourse of the Son and his Bride impart motion to the Soul at the level of Ruach, the Spirit Wind. We recall that the Son, Zer Anpin, is a composite Body consisting of Six Sephira: Chesed/Mercy, Gevurah/Judgment, Tipheret/Beauty, Netzach/Victory, Hod/Splendor, and Yesod/Foundation. Finally, the Bride herself personifies Malkut, the Womb wherein the Soul comes to rest at the level Nephesh.

The eighth Edomite King is meant to be a prototype of the Messiah. His name, Hadar, meaning “Beauty”, identifies him with the Sephirah Tipheret, which is the Heart of the supernal Body of Man, Zer Anpin. While no queens are mentioned in connection with his seven defunct predecessors, Hadar is accounted as having a wife named Mehetabel, signifying one “rectified by God”. Rectification, of course, points us back in the direction of the Covenant of Circumcision, the ritual excision of the false covering that obscures the Divine Image in Man. The rite of Circumcision was given to Abraham in order to remove the obstruction, created by the Sin of our First Parents, to the River carrying the “gold” of Righteous Souls into Malkut’s Garden of incarnation. This explains the name of Queen Mehetabel’s grandmother, Mey Zahab — literally, the “Waters of Gold”.




The Sephirot in Jewish Kabbalah


Tiferet ("Adornment", Hebrew: תפארת [tiˈfeʔʁeθ]) alternately Tifaret, Tifereth, Tyfereth or Tiphereth, is the sixth sefira in the kabbalistic Tree of Life. It has the common association of "Spirituality", "Balance", "Integration", "Beauty", "Miracles", and "Compassion".



In the Bahir it states: "Sixth is the adorned, glorious, delightful throne of glory, the house of the world to come. Its place is engraved in wisdom as it says 'God said: Let there be light, and there was light.'"


Tiferet is the force that integrates the Sefira of Chesed ("compassion") and Gevurah ("Strength, or Judgement (din)"). These two forces are, respectively, expansive (giving) and restrictive (receiving). Either of them without the other could not manifest the flow of Divine energy; they must be balanced in perfect proportion by balancing compassion with discipline. This balance can be seen in the role of Tiferet, wherein the conflicting forces are harmonized, and creation flowers forth. Tiferet also balances Netzach and Hod in a similar manner. In that case Hod can be seen as the intellect where Netzach is seen as emotion.


Tiferet also occupies a place on the middle pillar, and can be seen as a lower reflection of Kether, as well as a higher reflection of Yesod and Malkuth. Tiferet relates to the sun, and as such, it takes a central place in the lower face of the Tree of Life, much in the same manner that the sun is at the center of the solar system. It is not the center of the universe, as one could perhaps argue Kether to be, but rather it is the center of our local astronomical system. Nonetheless, it is the sun that gives light and life, even though it did not create itself. Tiferet can be seen as a metaphor for these same attributes.


Tiferet is unique amongst the Sephirot as it is connected to all the other Sephirot (except Malkuth) via the subjective paths of the unconscious. Its position down the center between Keter and Yesod indicates to many Kabbalists that it is somewhat of a "converting" Sephirot between form (Yesod) and force (Keter). In other words, all crossing over the middle path via Tiferet results in a reversed polarity. The law of conservation of energy and mass tends to corroborate this – in all cases of energy transmutation, a sacrifice is necessary so a new form may be born.


Tiferet is the middle of the tree. Five Sefirot surround it: above are Chesed at the right (south) and Gevurah at the left (north), and below are Netzach at the right, Hod at the left, and Yesod directly below. Together these six are a single entity, Zer Anpin, which is the masculine counterpart of the feminine sefira Malkuth. In certain contexts, Tiferet alone represents all the sefirot of Zer Anpin, so that the entire tree appears with only five sefirot: Keter, Chochmah, Binah, Tiferet, and Malkhut.


In the standard tree, Tiferet has eight paths, leading (counterclockwise) to Keter (through Daat), Binah, Gevurah, Hod, Yesod, Netsach, Chesed, and Chokmah.


Tiferet can be also a variation of the word "Tifarah" and in Modern Hebrew used in Israel is translated as "Glory" (from God – "Elohim, Adonay)

Non-Jewish associations


In Christian Cabala, Tiphereth is especially associated with Jesus Christ, 'God the Son' (as opposed to Kether, which is God the father, and Yesod, the Holy Spirit). This is because this is the Sephirah in which the divine force 'sacrifices' itself, transmutating into the forces of energy and matter, in order that creation might come to be. It is the sephirah in which 'God becomes a mortal man'. Illustrative of the process of Tipharet is Jesus' teaching in the Book of John, "No one comes to the Father except through me". Kether is raw energy as the Godhead and is as such unknowable by the conscious mind; Tiphareth (the son) balances the force and form of Kether and Yesod respectively allowing Kether to assume a knowable form. A Christian mystic, in relating to Jesus, repeats the process in the other direction, by transmutating that which is lower, in order to achieve the divine. In terms of the Kabbalah, Tipharet encompasses not only "God the Son" but also the related myths of Osiris and other sacrificial gods.


The archangel of this sphere is Raphael, and the Malachim is the Angelic order. The astrological correspondence is again the sun, and the zodiac associated with Tiferet is Leo.


Christianity primarily focuses on Tipharet as a driving spiritual force, emphasising the points of love, beauty, self sacrifice and service in its greater aspect. Particularly the Osirian sect and other derivations of pantheistic religions, with their personification of gods, emphasise the unknowable from the standpoint of Yesod. The eastern religions, particularly Taoism and Buddhism are more closely related to Kether, with their focus on unity and the indefinable aspect of the Divine.


Tiphereth is associated with divine love, with healing, balance and harmony. In comparing with Eastern traditions, Tiphereth is usually associated with the central Anahata chakra in tantric tradition, which contains many of the same archetypal ideas.


777 attributes Tiphereth as the four sixes of the tarot as well as the Princes and Emperors cards, Ra, Rama, Buddha, Apollo, Adonis, God the Son (Jesus), Phoenix, Lion, Bay, Laurel, Topaz, Lamen of he Rosy Cross, Abrahadabra, Coffee, and Alcohol.


The pre-coronation name of Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie the First was "Tafari Makonnen". This name Tafari (or Teferi) is the Ethiopic form of Tiferet.


 Arthur Green. A guide to the Zohar



Retrieved from ""



Star of David

This article is about the use of the hexagram as a Jewish symbol. For the Star of David in Christianity and Islam, see Star of David in the Abrahamic religions. For other uses, see Hexagram.

"Jewish Star" redirects here. For the newspaper, see The Jewish Star.

"Magen David" redirects here. For the commentator, see David HaLevi Segal.

The Star of David, known in Hebrew as the Shield of David or Magen David (Hebrew מָגֵן דָּוִד; Biblical Hebrew Māḡēn Dāwīḏ [maːˈɣeːn daːˈwiːð], Tiberian [mɔˈɣen dɔˈvið], Modern Hebrew [maˈɡen daˈvid], Ashkenazi Hebrew and Yiddish Mogein Dovid [ˈmɔɡeɪn ˈdɔvid] or Mogen Dovid), is a generally recognized symbol of Jewish identity and Judaism.  Its shape is that of a hexagram, the compound of two equilateral triangles. The hexagram has been in use as a symbol of Judaism since the 17th century, with precedents in the 14th to 16th centuries in Central Europe, where the Shield of David was partly used in conjunction with the Seal of Solomon (the hexagram) on Jewish flags. Its use probably derives from medieval (11th to 13th century) Jewish protective amulets (segulot).


The term "Shield of David" is also used in the Siddur (Jewish prayer book) as a title of the God of Israel.



The Jewish Encyclopedia cites a 12th-century Karaite document as the earliest Jewish literary source to mention the symbol. Its use as a symbol of the Jewish community dates to the 17th century. Pentagrams are also known to have been used as the Star of David dating from the Second Temple period. The Hebrew term for Shield of David (Magen) may be found in Psalm 3:3.

Early use as an ornament


The Star of David in the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text, the Leningrad Codex, dated 1008.

The hexagram does appear occasionally in Jewish contexts since antiquity, apparently as a decorative motif. For example, in Israel, there is a stone bearing a hexagram from the arch of a 3rd–4th century synagogue in the Galilee. Originally, the hexagram may have been employed as an architectural ornament on synagogues, as it is, for example, on the cathedrals of Brandenburg and Stendal, and on the Marktkirche at Hanover. A pentagram in this form is found on the ancient synagogue at Tell Hum. In the synagogues, perhaps, it was associated with the mezuzah.


The use of the hexagram in a Jewish context as a possibly meaningful symbol may occur as early as the 11th century, in the decoration of the carpet page of the famous Tanakh manuscript, the Leningrad Codex dated 1008. Similarly, the symbol illuminates a medieval Tanakh manuscript dated 1307 belonging to Rabbi Yosef bar Yehuda ben Marvas from Toledo, Spain. A Siddur dated 1512 from Prague displays a large hexagram on the cover with the phrase, "He will merit to bestow a bountiful gift on anyone who grasps the Shield of David."

Origin of the name

Star on a window

The name 'Shield of David' was used by at least the 11th century as a title of the God of Israel, independent of the use of the symbol. The phrase occurs independently as a Divine title in the Siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer book, where it poetically refers to the Divine protection of ancient King David and the anticipated restoration of his dynastic house, perhaps based on Psalm 18, which is attributed to David, and in which God is compared to a shield (v. 31 and v. 36). The term occurs at the end of the "Samkhaynu/Gladden us" blessing, which is recited after the reading of the Haftara portion on Saturday and holidays.


The earliest known text related to Judaism which mentions a sign called the "Shield of David" is Eshkol Ha-Kofer by the Karaite Judah Hadassi, in the mid-12th century CE:


Seven names of angels precede the mezuzah: Michael, Gabriel, etc. …Tetragrammaton protect you! And likewise the sign, called the "Shield of David", is placed beside the name of each angel.


This book is of Karaite, and not of Rabbinic Jewish origin, and it does not describe the shape of the sign in any way.

Kabbalistic use

Page of segulot in a mediaeval Kabbalistic grimoire (Sefer Raziel HaMalakh, 13th century)

A Shield of David has been noted on a Jewish tombstone in Taranto, Apulia in Southern Italy, which may date as early as the third century CE. The Jews of Apulia were noted for their scholarship in Kabbalah, which has been connected to the use of the Star of David.


Medieval Kabbalistic grimoires show hexagrams among the tables of segulot, but without identifying them as "Shield of David".

In the Renaissance Period, in the 16th-century Land of Israel, the book Ets Khayim conveys the Kabbalah of Ha-Ari (Rabbi Isaac Luria) who arranges the traditional items on the seder plate for Passover into two triangles, where they explicitly correspond to Jewish mystical concepts. The six sfirot of the masculine Zer Anpin correspond to the six items on the seder plate, while the seventh sfira being the feminine Malkhut corresponds to the plate itself.


However, these seder-plate triangles are parallel, one above the other, and do not actually form a hexagram,.

According to G.S. Oegema (1996)


Isaac Luria provided the Shield of David with a further mystical meaning. In his book Etz Chayim he teaches that the elements of the plate for the Seder evening have to be placed in the order of the hexagram: above the three sefirot "Crown", "Wisdom", and "Insight", below the other seven.


Similarly, M. Costa wrote that M. Gudemann and other researchers in the 1920s claimed that Isaac Luria was influential in turning the Star of David into a national Jewish emblem by teaching that the elements of the plate for the Seder evening have to be placed in the order of the hexagram Gershom Scholem (1990) disagrees with this view, arguing that Isaac Luria talked about parallel triangles one beneath the other and not about the hexagram.


The Star of David at least since the 20th century remains associated with the number seven and thus with the Menorah, and popular accounts associate it with the six directions of space plus the center (under the influence of the description of space found in the Sefer Yetsira: Up, Down, East, West, South, North, and Center), or the Six Sefirot of the Male (Zeir Anpin) united with the Seventh Sefirot of the Female (Nukva). Some say that one triangle represents the ruling tribe of Judah and the other the former ruling tribe of Benjamin. It is also seen as a dalet and yud, the two letters assigned to Judah. There are 12 Vav, or "men," representing the 12 tribes or patriarchs of Israel.

Jewish flags


In 1354, King of Bohemia Charles IV prescribed for the Jews of Prague a red flag with both David's shield and Solomon's seal, while the red flag with which the Jews met King Matthias of Hungary in the 15th century showed two pentagrams with two golden stars.


In 1460, the Jews of Ofen (Budapest, Hungary) received King Matthias Corvinus with a red flag on which were two Shields of David and two stars. In the first Hebrew prayer book, printed in Prague in 1512, a large Shield of David appears on the cover. In the colophon is written: "Each man beneath his flag according to the house of their fathers…and he will merit to bestow a bountiful gift on anyone who grasps the Shield of David." In 1592, Mordechai Maizel was allowed to affix "a flag of King David, similar to that located on the Main Synagogue" on his synagogue in Prague. In 1648, the Jews of Prague were again allowed a flag, in acknowledgment of their part in defending the city against the Swedes in the Battle of Prague (1648). On a red background was a yellow Shield of David, in the center of which was a Swedish star.

As a symbol of Judaism


In the 17th century, the Shield of David as the hexagram began to represent the Jewish community generally, when the Jewish quarter of Vienna was formally distinguished from the rest of the city by a boundary stone having the hexagram on one side and the Christian cross on the other. By the 18th century, the Shield appeared to represent the Jewish people in both secular (politics) and religious (synagogue) contexts. The Star of David can be found on the tombstones of religious Jews in Europe since the 18th century.

Hexagram at Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, India, completed in 1572 AD

Following Jewish emancipation after the French revolution, Jewish communities chose the Star of David to represent themselves, comparable to the cross used by most Christians. Then in the 19th century, it began to signify the Jewish people internationally, when the early Zionist movement adopted it as the symbol of the Jewish people, after the Dreyfus affair in France in the 19th century. From here, other Jewish community organizations adopted it too.

The Holocaust


Main article: Yellow badge

A Star of David, often yellow-colored, was used by the Nazis during the Holocaust as a method of identifying Jews. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939 there were initially different local decrees forcing Jews to wear a distinct sign – in the General Government e.g. a white armband with a blue Star of David on it, in the Warthegau a yellow badge in the form of a Star of David on the left side of the breast and on the back. If a Jew was found without wearing the star in public, they could be subjected to severe punishment. The requirement to wear the Star of David with the word Jude (German for Jew) inscribed was then extended to all Jews over the age of six in the Reich and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (by a decree issued on September 1, 1941 signed by Reinhard Heydrich ) and was gradually introduced in other German-occupied areas.


Modern use

The flag of Israel, depicting a blue Star of David on a white background, between two horizontal blue stripes was adopted on October 28, 1948, five months after the country's establishment. The origins of the flag's design date from the First Zionist Congress in 1897; the flag has subsequently been known as the "flag of Zion".

Contemporary use

Some Orthodox Jewish groups reject the use of the Jewish Star of David because of its association with magic. Neturei Karta and Satmar reject it because they associate it with Zionism.


Many Modern Orthodox synagogues, and many synagogues of other Jewish movements, however, have the Israeli flag with the Star of David prominently displayed at the front of the synagogues near the Ark containing the Torah scrolls.


Magen David Adom (MDA) (Red Star of David or, translated literally, Red Shield of David) is Israel's only official emergency medical, disaster, ambulance service. It is an official member of the International Committee of the Red Cross since June 2006.


According to the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Magen David Adom was boycotted by the International Committee of the Red Cross, which refused to grant the organization membership because "it was…argued that having an emblem used by only one country was contrary to the principles of universality."[21] Other commentators said the ICRC did not recognize the medical and humanitarian use of this Jewish symbol, a Red Shield, alongside the Christian cross and the Muslim crescent.




Jewish major league baseball player Gabe Kapler had a Star of David tattooed on his left calf in 2000, with the words "strong-willed" and "strong-minded", major leaguer Mike "SuperJew" Epstein drew a Star of David on his baseball glove, and major leaguer Ron Blomberg had a Star of David emblazoned in the knob of his bat which is on display at the Baseball Hall of Fame.


 NBA basketball star Amar'e Stoudemire, who says he is spiritually and culturally Jewish, had a Star of David tattoo put on his left hand in 2010.


NFL football defensive end Igor Olshansky has Star of David tattoos on each side of his neck, near his shoulders.


Israeli golfer Laetitia Beck displays a blue-and-white magen david symbol on her golf apparel.


Jewish world light heavyweight world champion boxer Mike "The Jewish Bomber" Rossman fought with a Star of David embroidered on his boxing trunks, and also has a blue Star of David tattoo on the outside of his right calf.


 World heavyweight boxing champion Max Baer fought with a Star of David on his trunks as well, notably, for the first time as he knocked out Nazi Germany hero Max Schmeling in 1933; Hitler never permitted Schmeling to fight a Jew again.


 Other boxers who fought with Stars of David embroidered on their trunks to reflect their ethno-religious pride included world lightweight champion Benny "the Ghetto Wizard" Leonard (who said he felt as though he was fighting for all Jews), world light heavyweight boxing champion Battling Levinsky, Barney Ross (world champion as a lightweight, as a junior welterweight, and as a welterweight), world flyweight boxing champion Victor "Young" Peres ("Young"), and more recently World Boxing Association super welterweight champion Yuri Foreman and light middleweight Boyd Melson.


 Welterweight Dmitriy Salita even boxes under the nickname "Star of David".



Hakoah Vienna was a Jewish sports club founded in Vienna, Austria, in 1909 whose teams competed with the Star of David on the chest of their uniforms, and won the 1925 Austrian League soccer championship.


Similarly, The Philadelphia Sphas basketball team in Philadelphia (whose name was an acronym of its founding South Philadelphia Hebrew Association) wore a large Star of David on their jerseys to proudly proclaim their Jewish identity, as they competed in the first half of the 20th century.


Maccabi clubs still use the Star of David in their emblems.

As a gang symbol


Some criminal gangs, including the Gangster Disciples and those affiliated with the Folk Nation, use the Star of David as their symbol. In the case of the Gangster Disciples this is a reference to the group's founder, David Barksdale.




See also


  1. Judaism A-Z Yacov Newman, Gavriel Sivan
  2. "Magen Dawid", Jewish Encyclopida .
  3. Encyclopaedia Judaica, Star of David.
  4.  "King Solomon's Seal", MFA, King Solomon-s Seal.
  5.  Ulmann.
  6.  A similar term, "Shield of Abraham" appears in the first blessing of the "Amidah" prayer, which was written in early Rabbinic times (around year 1, a millennium before the first documentation of the term in reference to a six-point star). That term is probably based on Genesis 15:1, where God promises to shield Abraham.
  7.  Eshkol Ha-Kofer by Judah Hadassi, 12th century CE
  8. Herbert M. Adler, JQR, vol. 14:111. Cited in "Magen David", Jewish Encyclopedia.
  10.  Rabbi Blumenkrantz, "The Seder", The Laws of Pesach: A Digest 2010: Chap. 9.
  11.  "Magen David", Ask the Rabbi
  12.  Simon Jacobson, op. ed., "Tzav-Passover: The Seder Plate", A Meaningful Life.
  13. Gershom Scholem shows conclusively they do not form a hexagram. See, Hatakh ha-Zahav, Hotam Shelomoh u-Magen-David (Poalim, Hebrew) 1990:156.
  14. G.S. Oegema, Realms of Judaism. The history of the Shield of David, the birth of a symbol (Peter Lang, Germany, 1996) ISBN 3-631-30192-8
  15.  Hatakh ha-Zahav, Hotam Shelomoh u-Magen-David (Poalim, 1990, Hebrew) p.156
  16. What is the Mystical Significance of the Star of David? By Rabbi Naftali Silberberg
  17. Schwandtner, Scriptores Rerum Hungaricarum, ii. 148. Facsimile in M. Friedmann, Seder Eliyahu Rabbah ve-Seder Eliyahu Ztṭa, Vienna, 1901
  18. The National Flag at MFA
  19.  Polizeiverordnung über die Kennzeichnung der Juden (came into force September 19, 1941)
  20. Geneva Vote Paves the Way for MDA Red Cross Membership, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 8-Dec-2005
  21. Magen David: Shield or Star? On Language, by Philologos, The Jewish Daily Forward June 30, 2006
  22. Paul Lukas (April 2, 2007). "Uni Watch: Passover edition – Page 2". ESPN.  
  23. Beggy, Carol; Shanahan, Mark (September 24, 2004). "Sox pair weigh holiday play; councilor swept up". The Boston Globe.  
  24. "Jewish Stars". Cleveland Jewish News. April 16, 2010. 
  25. Ain, Stewart (September 8, 2006). "Fast Balls Keep Flying At Mel". The Jewish Week.  
  26.  "It started as a great idea, then fate stepped in". Jewish Tribune. September 29, 2005.  
  27. Salkin, Allen. "Where have you gone, Sandy Koufax?".  
  28.  "Amar'e Stoudemire's Quest to Israel", The New York Times, August 3, 2010
  29. Klopman, Michael (August 2, 2010). "Is Amare Stoudemire Jewish? Knick Shows Star Of David Tattoo, Wears Yarmulke (VIDEO)". Huffington Post.  
  30.  "Knicks star Amar'e Stoudemire keeps things kosher". The New York Post. August 20, 2010. 
  31. "Are you ready for some football? » Kaplan's Korner on Jews and Sports". New Jersey Jewish News. September 14, 2009.  
  32. Whisler, John (August 1, 2009). "Cowboys add muscle on defense with Olshanksy". Houston Chronicle.
  33.  "Tenacious D – by Nisha Gopalan". Tablet Magazine. November 14, 2008.  
  34.  "Yom Kippur a No Go for Young Golfer Laetitia Beck". Algemeiner Journal. October 7, 2011 
  35.  Cite error: The named reference ynetnews1 was invoked but never defined.
  36.  The Big Book of Jewish Sports Heroes: An Illustrated Compendium of Sports History and The 150 Greatest Jewish Sports Stars. SP Books. 2007. 
  37.  "Dodger-Giant Rivalry Downright Nostalgic", The Spokesman-Review, September 24, 1978
  38.  "Volume 39". New York. 2006. . 
  39. Pat Putnam (December 18, 1978). "Mom is Jewish, Dad is Italian, and Mike Rossman—the Star". Sports Illustrated. 
  40.  The 1930s. Weigl Educational Publishers. 2000  
  41.  Triumph: the untold story of Jesse Owens and Hitler's Olympics. 2007. . 
  42.  Ellis Island to Ebbets Field: Sport and the American Jewish Experience. Oxford University Press. 1993.
  43.  Realism for the masses: aesthetics, popular front pluralism, and U.S. culture, 1935–1947. 2009.  
  44.  Sport in America eBook, Volume II. . 
  45.  A Voice Called: Stories of Jewish Heroism. 2010. . 
  46.  Isaac Barrio (July 19, 2006). "Dmitriy "STAR OF DAVID" Salita in Main Event".
  47.  Emancipation through muscles: Jews and sports in Europe. 2006. . 
  48.  Encyclopedia of American Jewish history. ABC-CLIO,. 2007. 
  49.  Outside the box: a memoir. Rodale. 2006.  
  50.  Philadelphia Jewish life, 1940–2000. Temple University Press. 2006.  
  51. Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States. 2000.  
  52. Football: a sociology of the global game. Wiley-Blackwell. 1999.  

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