"D-Day" is forever synonymous with June 6, 1944."

compiled by Dee Finney

updated with news - 5-3-02

4-29-02 - DREAM - I was laying in bed early in the morning and my young daughter and several of her friends came into the room from outside. She wanted them to see our books.

She was showing them the bookcases in the bedroom and asked me how many books I had. The shelves in the bedroom had rather large books, many of which were history books, encyclopedia books, and biographies - I counted one shelf, which had 21 books. So I then estimated that in the bedroom we had about 100 books on the 10 shelves of books.

 I then said, "Look in the other room," where we have larger bookcases with books on aliens and UFOs, dreams, esoteric themes, Bibles and religious books, and ancient history, native Americans and other topics like space, gardening, The internet, finance and investing and real estate, healing, and the 'end of the world'.

I told her, "We probably have about 1,000 books - knowing it as probably more.

The kids went into the other room and looked at all the books with wide eyes, then they came back and sat on the light brown carpet around the bed and my daughter said to her friends, "Lets practice for 'D' Day!"

I thought to myself, "The kids think its like a game."

One of the other girls said, "I'd rather practice for California!" and another one said, "I'd rather practice for New York!"

After I woke up, I was thinking about that and a male voice in my head, which sounded like a radio announcer said, "History to them is like something they haven't done anything about yet!

From: http://normandy.eb.com/normandy/week2/invasion.html

An armada of 3,000 landing craft, 2,500 other ships, and 500 naval vessels -- escorts and bombardment ships--began to leave English ports. That night, 822 aircraft, carrying parachutists or towing gliders, roared overhead to the Normandy landing zones. They were a fraction of the air armada of 13,000 aircraft that would support D-Day.

The American 82nd and 101st airborne divisions, dropping into a deliberately inundated zone at the base of the Cotentin Peninsula, suffered many casualties by drowning but nevertheless secured their objective. The British 6th Airborne Division seized its unflooded objectives at the eastern end more easily, and its special task force also captured key bridges over the Caen Canal and Orne River.

When the seaborne units began to land about 6:30 AM on June 6, the British and Canadians on Gold, Juno, and Sword beaches overcame light opposition. So did the Americans at Utah. The American 1st Division at Omaha Beach, however, confronted the best of the German coast divisions, the 352nd, and was roughly handled. During the morning, its landing threatened to fail. Only dedicated local leadership eventually got the troops inland.

History Revisited - UK

History of WWII - D-Day, 1944

National D-Day Foundation Memorial

D-Day on the Web

In 1944, Bedford, VA had a population of 3,200. On the morning of June 6 of that year, 35 Bedford men in the Virginia National Guard's A Company, 116th Infantry Regiment of the 29th Division were among the first to hit the Normandy coast to begin the largest military invasion in history. At least 21 of them died, in the greatest per capita war loss of any town in America.

From: http://16thinfantry-regiment.org/History/WWII/wwii.html

The 16th Infantry's mission was "To assault Omaha Beach and reduce the beach defenses in its zone of action, and proceed with all possible speed to the D-Day Phase Line, and seize and secure it two hours before dark of D-Day." The assault of "Fortress Europa" began in the early hours of 6 July 1944 as the 16th Infantry Regiment moved toward the shore of Normandy. 600 yards offshore, the LCVP's encountered intense antitank and small arms fire, but continued to move forward without hesitation. As the first elements hit the beaches, it was apparent that many of the enemy's strong points had not been eliminated by the preinvasion bombardment. Those men who lived to get ashore immediately dug holes in the sand, but the waves washed them out as fast as they were scooped. To make matters worse, weapons became clogged with sand, and the enemy had reinforced with an added Infantry division, thus almost doubling his firepower. The survivors of the first wave built up a hasty firing line along a low pile of shale. As more men arrived, they found the troops pinned down congested, and trapped. Then Sergeant Phillip Streczyk managed to cross a minefield and make a breach in the enemy wire. Colonel George Taylor, Regimental Commander, jumped to his feet and said, "The only men who remain on this beach are the dead and those who are about to die! Let's get moving!" The 16th Infantry rallied, and soon, by vicious fighting, much of it hand-to-hand, was pushing toward Colleville-Sur-Mer. Early the following day, the 16th Infantry had seized the beach and an initial foothold that made the invasion a success. The evening of D-Day plus one found all of the regular units of the regiment ashore, many of them well inland. On 2 July 1944, General Eisenhower told the members of the 16th Infantry, "I'm not going to make a long speech, but this simple little ceremony gives me an opportunity to come over here, and through you, say thanks. You are the finest regiment in our army. I know your record from the day you landed in North Africa, and through Sicily. I am beginning to think that your Regiment is a sort of Praetorian Guard, which goes along with me and give me luck." The 16th Infantry soon became the division reserve, and after a brief rest, began moving inland.



Saddam Hussein profile

BBC News

Saddam Hussein insists that the Gulf War was a victory for Iraq

By Middle East analyst Gerald Butt

Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq for the past two decades, has the dubious distinction of being the world's best known and most hated Arab leader.

And in a region where despotic rule is the norm, he is more feared by his own people than any other head of state.

A former Iraqi diplomat living in exile summed up Saddam's rule in one sentence: "Saddam is a dictator who is ready to sacrifice his country, just so long as he can remain on his throne in Baghdad." Few Iraqis would disagree with this. Although none living in Iraq would dare to say so publicly.

The Iraqi people are forced to consume a daily diet of triumphalist slogans, fattened by fawning praise of the president. portrayed as a valiant knight leading the Arabs into battle against the infidel, or as an eighth-century caliph who founded the city of Baghdad. Evoking the glory of Arab history, Saddam claims to be leading his people to new glory.

The reality looks very different. Iraq is bankrupt, its economy and infrastructure shattered by years of economic sanctions imposed by the United Nations following the invasion of Kuwait.

Saddam Hussein remains largely isolated from his people, keeping the company of a diminishing circle of trusted advisers - largely drawn from his close family or from the extended clan based around the town of Takrit, north of Baghdad.

The path to power

The Iraqi president was born in a village just outside Takrit in April 1937. In his teenage years, he immersed himself in the anti-British and anti-Western atmosphere of the day. At college in Baghdad he joined the Baath party and in 1956 he took part in an abortive coup attempt.

After the overthrow of the monarchy two years later Saddam connived in a plot to kill the prime minister, Abdel-Karim Qassem. But the conspiracy was discovered, and Saddam fled the country.

In 1963, with the Baath party in control in Baghdad, Saddam Hussein returned home and began jostling for a position of influence. During this period he married his cousin Sajida. They later had two sons and three daughters.

But within months, the Baath party had been overthrown and he was jailed, remaining there until the party returned to power in a coup in July 1968. Showing ruthless determination that was to become a hallmark of his leadership, Saddam Hussein gained a position on the ruling Revolutionary Command Council.

For years he was the power behind the ailing figure of the president, Ahmed Hassan Bakr. In 1979, he achieved his ambition of becoming head of state. The new president started as he intended to go on - putting to death dozens of his rivals.

Holding together a disparate nation

President Saddam Hussein might defend his autocratic style of leadership by arguing that nothing else could have kept such a vast and diverse nation united.

And, for all that Saddam Hussein is criticised and reviled, his opponents have not been able to nominate anyone else who might hold Iraq together - with its Kurds in the north, Sunni Muslims in the centre and Shi'ia in the south. What the outside world calls terror, Saddam calls expediency. Some years ago a European interviewer nervously quoted reports that the Baghdad authorities might, on occasions, have tortured and perhaps even killed opponents of the regime.

Was this true? Saddam Hussein was not offended. Rather, he seemed surprised by the naivete of the question. "Of course," he replied. "What do you expect if they oppose the regime?"

But his tactic of imposing his authority by terror has gone far beyond the occasional arrest and execution of opponents. In attempts to suppress the Kurds, for example, he has systematically used chemical weapons. And in putting down a rebellion of Shi'ia in the south he has razed towns to the ground and drained marshland.

Not that you would recognise the figure of a tyrant in the portraits that adorn every building and street corner in Iraq.

Here you see Saddam, usually smiling benevolently, in a variety of guises and poses - in military uniform, say, or in traditional ethnic dress, or tweed cap and sports jacket; he might be surrounded by his family or be seen jiggling a young child on his knee - the would-be father-figure of the Iraqi nation.

A question of judgement

The fiction of Saddam Hussein as a benevolent ruler was exposed by two major and catastrophic miscalculations of foreign policy for which his country and his people have paid dearly.

In 1980, Saddam thought he saw an opportunity for glory - to put Iraq at the forefront of the Arab world. He ordered a surprise cross-border attack on Iran. This was meant to be a swift operation to capture the Shatt al-Arab waterway leading to the Gulf.

But Iranian resistance was far stronger than he had imagined. Eight years later, with hundreds of thousands of young people killed and the country deep in debt, he agreed on a ceasefire.

Still, with enormous oil reserves, Iraq seemed to have the potential to make a swift recovery. An increase in oil prices, Saddam Hussein surmised, would speed up the country's revival still more.

Frustrated by his failure to achieve agreement on a price rise by conventional means, the Iraqi president allowed his long-harboured resentment against Kuwait to get the better of him.

On 2 August 1990, he made another costly blunder by ordering his army into the neighbouring Gulf state.

Fighting qualities

In the months that led up to the war of 1991, Saddam Hussein displayed qualities that still make him both adored and hated in the Arab world.

On the streets of Arab cities he is admired as a leader who has dared to defy and challenge Israel and the West, a symbol of Arab steadfastness in the face of Western aggression.

At the same time, Saddam is feared as a vicious dictator who threatens the security of the Gulf region as a whole.

With his older and favourite son Uday crippled in an assassination attempt, his younger son Qusay now controls the elite Revolutionary Guards and the Special Forces which guarantee the president's grip on power.

Gulf states and Western countries alike have come to realise that his grip is stronger than it seems - and stronger by far than his grasp of reality often appears to be.

He insists that the 1991 Gulf War, which he famously described as the Mother-of-All-Battles, ended in victory for Iraq.

By the same token, Saddam boasts that Iraq can shrug off any Western military attack. The Iraqi people have no choice but to nod in agreement.

So it will go on until the moment comes for bombastic slogans to be replaced by a succinct epitaph to one of the most infamous dictators of the century. For the overwhelming majority of Iraqis, that moment can not come too soon.

From: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/03/30/attack/main505031.shtml

Iraq Attack Inching Closer?

WASHINGTON, March 30, 2002

"It is a major, major decision. We've got to prepare the American people for what the consequences would be”
Sen. Jmohn warner on a possible U.S. attack on Iraq

(CBS) The U.S. military presence in the Persian Gulf has increased substantially due to the war in Afghanistan, but there's little doubt the new troops and equipment could be turned on Iraq in a future offensive.

The number of U.S. military personnel in the Gulf region and Central Asia - from Saudi Arabia to Pakistan - has increased from fewer than 25,000 to nearly 80,000 since the Sept. 11 attacks.

An attack on Iraq would probably start with a fierce air bombardment, analysts say. Next, special forces could fan out to create "no-movement" zones and then search for biological and chemical weapons. Predator remote-controlled planes would patrol for Scud missiles on the ground.

In the end, however, it would take a much more massive military commitment than in Afghanistan if the United States were to attack Iraq.

In all, analysts say, 100,000 or more American troops might be needed against Saddam Hussein, who could shield his elite Republican Guard troops by placing them among Baghdad's civilians - and who might retaliate with chemical attacks.

"It is a major, major decision," Sen. John Warner warned the Bush administration last week. If the government is contemplating full-scale military action against Iraq, "We've got to prepare the American people for what the consequences would be," said Warner, of Mr. Bush's Republican party.

While about 7,000 are in Afghanistan, thousands more have been sent to the Gulf area to support the Afghan operation.

In Kuwait - at Iraq's door - the number of American troops has nearly doubled, from 5,500 to about 10,500, since Sept. 11, defense officials said. Most are support personnel who keep planes flying and food flowing to troops in the field.

But Gen. Tommy Franks, who commands U.S. forces in the region, said he's considering augmenting the ground combat force in Kuwait, which now numbers 3,500 to 4,000 troops.

In Saudi Arabia, weapons and other gear are being pulled out of long-term storage. Some computer and communications equipment is going to a previously secret base in Qatar, potentially giving U.S. forces a command center outside of Saudi Arabia, where there's little support for a new offensive against Iraq.

Senior U.S. defense officials insist the Gulf buildup is not a prelude to an invasion of Iraq, but they acknowledge it is serving as a warning to Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, and would be useful in a future conflict.

They provide both valuable training and “a hedge against miscalculation,” by Saddam, Franks told reporters at a Pentagon briefing.

He said he has received no order to plan for war with Iraq.

But the general made clear he's working to ensure the United States could run a war in the Gulf, even if allies such as Saudi Arabia refused to allow operations from its soil.

“Let me put it this way. We are increasing or improving our command and control capacity in all of my region,” Franks said.

The Bush administration accuses Iraq of developing weapons of mass destruction and sponsoring terrorists, and says options are being considered ranging from diplomatic efforts to push Saddam to readmit U.N. weapons inspectors to possible military action.

Saudi Arabia, a U.S. ally, has made clear that America should not invade Iraq, and that if Bush decides to go ahead, U.S. troops could not operate from Saudi soil - at least publicly.

In a rebuff to Bush's Iraq stance, Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah on Thursday embraced a top Iraqi official in front of other leaders at an Arab summit, signaling a reconciliation for the first time since the 1991 Gulf War.

Abdullah is to visit Bush at the president's Texas ranch next month.

The Arab countries also issued a statement saying that any attack on Iraq would be considered a threat to the security of all Arab countries. And Iraq made conciliatory gestures toward Kuwait, the southern neighbor it invaded in 1990 to trigger the Gulf War. The Kuwaiti government has reacted cautiously.

Sandy Berger, a national security adviser in the Clinton administration, said Bush has made it clear he is ready to take action against Iraq.

But, he said, “It's going to be difficult to do that with the Middle East in flames.”

Arab countries friendly to America apparently worry their governments would face widespread internal unrest if the United States attacked Iraq while the Israeli-Palestinian crisis raged.

“It shows (Iraq) cannot be Afghanistan II,” Robert Pelletreau, a former assistant secretary of state and ex-U.S. ambassador to Egypt, said of the show of Arab support for Iraq.

“It's going to be much more difficult to gather international support for an action against Iraq,” Pelletreau said. Yet, it's unlikely the administration will back off its Iraq policy, he said.

State Department spokesman Philip Reeker said Friday that Saddam is a “serious threat to the Iraqi people, to Iraq's neighbors,” and said the administration would keep all options open.

Franks said moving of equipment from Saudi Arabia began a year and a half ago.

Until Vice President Dick Cheney's recent visit to the Middle East, however, the United States had not even acknowledged the existence of the Qatar base in the desert outside the capital, Doha. The huge U.S. installation, which offers long runways, is marked only by a handwritten “Army Camp” sign.

© MMII, CBS Worldwide Inc. All Rights Reserved. 


From: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/03/27/attack/main504791.shtml

Congressman: U.S. Plans Iraq Attack

GREENVILLE, S.C. , March 27, 2002

Rep. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C. (AP)

"We're looking at going after Saddam Hussein, not to contain him, but to replace him."
Rep. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C.

(AP) The United States plans a major attack to overthrow Iraq's Saddam Hussein, U.S. Rep. Lindsey Graham said Wednesday as he arrived with President Bush for a meeting with South Carolina firefighters.

"I don't know when, but I know this president is not going to let Saddam Hussein stay in power," said Graham, R-S.C. "If you leave him in power it will just be a matter of time before he gets a hold of weapons of mass destruction."

"I don't know when it is going to be, that's up to the military planners. But I do know that it will be sooner rather than later," he said.

Graham, seeking the GOP nomination for the seat being vacated by Sen. Strom Thurmond, said after a speech here Tuesday night his information comes from intelligence briefings, contact with the Bush administration and Graham's attendance at a recent international conference in Germany.

White House spokeswoman Jeanie Mamo would not talk about Graham's statement, pointing to a March 20 statement by press secretary Ari Fleischer that the Bush administration has made no decisions "about that phase in the war on terror."

Mr. Bush attended a $1 million fund-raiser for Graham in Greenville on Wednesday.

Graham, a member of the House Armed Services Committee, took part in a discussion on terrorism and homeland security with other U.S. House members from South Carolina at a meeting sponsored by the South Carolina Chamber of Commerce.

"We're looking at going after Saddam Hussein, not to contain him, but to replace him," Graham said.

U.S. Rep. John Spratt, D-S.C., also a member of the House Armed Services Committee, was surprised by Graham's statement.

Spratt noted Vice President Dick Cheney did not receive support from Saudi Arabia on his recent visit. The United States would need land bases in the Middle East for such an assault, Spratt said.

"I'm not sure we want to launch off carrier decks," he said.

Spratt noted the Persian Gulf War came only after months of negotiations with countries in the region.

Graham said he thinks Turkey would provide the bases.

The United States doesn't need a large international alliance, just the support of key allies, Graham said.

"We will have those allies, they will be there with us," he said.

Spratt, who said he supports the overthrow of Hussein, said a United States attack against Iraq would be complicated by the continuing action in Afghanistan, the fighting between the Israelis and Palestinians, and the need to use heavy ground forces.

"I would be surprised if it was the next order of business with the Bush administration," Spratt said.
© MMII The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.


From: http://www.nando.net/world/story/348640p-2859606c.html

Hussein Vows to Repel U.S. Attack

By SAMEER S. YACOUB, Associated Press

BAGHDAD, Iraq (April 7, 2002 10:33 p.m. EDT) - The defiant Iraqi president pledged to defeat the United States if it attacks Iraq and to continue supplying the Palestinians "with every means by which they can defend themselves."

"We will fight (the Americans) with missiles, warplanes, marsh reeds and even stones and they will be defeated," Saddam Hussein was quoted as saying by state-run media during a Sunday meeting with top military commanders.

He rejected U.S. criticism over payments to families of Palestinian suicide bombers, saying: "If Iraq has the chance and the capability to supply the Palestinians with every means by which they can defend themselves in a better way, we will not hesitate to do so."

Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld last week accused Iran and Syria of smuggling arms to terrorists and criticized Iraq for offering payments of up to $25,000 to the families of Palestinian suicide bombers.

President Bush has said Saddam had to go, and did not rule out military action if Iraq continues to refuse the return of U.N. weapons inspectors to verify if Iraq has dismantled its weapons of mass destruction, as it claims to have done.

Meanwhile Sunday, Saddam's son, Qusai, commander of the elite Republican Guards, pledged allegiance to his father a day after Bush reaffirmed that the policy of his government "is the removal of Saddam."

"Your sons in the armed forces and the brave Republican Guards are swords ready to confront any evil external aggression against our beloved country," Qusai Hussein, 35, wrote in an open letter to his father in Al-Iraq newspaper.


You Can Believe What You Want, We Are Already Fighting In Iraq

From: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/4/22/150151.shtml

Iraq Increases Attacks on U.S. Planes
NewsMax.com Wires
Tuesday, April 23, 2002
WASHINGTON – The Iraqi military has moved more surface-to-air missiles into the northern and southern parts of the country in the last few days than it has for the last few years, and has used them to target American aircraft enforcing no-fly zones, Gen. Richard Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said Monday.

After nearly three months of quiet, Iraq fired on at least three U.S. aircraft in the space of five days: twice from surface-to-air missile sites in Mosul in the northern zone Friday, and once from near Talil in the southern zone April 15. The fighter planes responded with air strikes.

"It was just reported to me today that some of these movements of surface-to-air missile systems into regions where we enforce the no-fly zone, under the U.N. resolutions, are greater than they've been in a couple of years," said Myers at a Pentagon briefing.

"This is one of the things we have seen over time," he said. "There is just a little more activity in the last couple of days then the last couple of years."

The last time U.S. forces were targeted or fired on in northern Iraq was February; in southern Iraq the last time was January.

The United States has been enforcing the no-fly zones over Iraq for a decade with the assistance of Turkey and Great Britain.

The United States interpreted two United Nations resolutions calling for the protection of Kurdish and Shi'ite minorities as allowing the creation of no-fly zones.

Iraq rarely challenged U.S. aircraft enforcing the exclusion zones until December 1998, when the United States led a four-day assault on Baghdad in retaliation for Iraq's refusal to allow unfettered arms investigations by U.N. teams.

After that attack, known as Operation Desert Fox, Saddam Hussein offered rewards for any U.S. aircraft shot down and pilots killed or captured.

Iraq's quest to shoot down a manned aircraft has been futile despite more than 1,000 attempts over the least three and a half years, according to U.S. Central Command. However, Iraq has shot down at least three unmanned Predator reconnaissance aircraft.

Myers said the new missile activity was not particularly significant but part of a regular ebb-and-flow of forces seen in Iraq.

"Today I thought I'd just emphasize it, because we tend to forget that we have Americans being shot at on a fairly regular basis in other parts of the world besides Afghanistan, in a country where we're worried about their intentions," Myers said.

Copyright 2002 by United Press International.

All rights reserved

From: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/5/1/171643.shtml

U.S. Bombs Iraq to Retaliate
NewsMax.com Wires
Thursday, May 2, 2002
WASHINGTON – U.S. fighters bombed air defenses in northern Iraq near Saddam Dam after they targeted American planes Wednesday at 3:20 p.m. local time, U.S. European Command said.

All coalition aircraft landed safely.

Wednesday's strike continues a pattern that Gen. Richard Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, talked about 10 days ago: The Iraqi military has moved more surface-to-air missiles into the northern and southern parts of the country and is using them to target aircraft enforcing the two no-fly zones.

After nearly three months of quiet, this is at least the fourth time U.S. planes were targeted over Iraq since mid-April. Iraq fired on at least three U.S. aircraft in five days: twice from surface-to-air missile sites in Mosul in the northern zone on April 19, and once from near Talil in the southern zone on April 15. The fighter planes responded with air strikes.

The last time U.S. forces were targeted or fired on in northern Iraq was February. In southern Iraq the last time was January.

The United States has been enforcing the no-fly zones over Iraq for a decade with the assistance of Turkey and Britain. The United States interpreted two U.N. resolutions calling for the protection of Kurdish and Shiite minorities as allowing the creation of no-fly zones.

Iraq rarely challenged U.S. aircraft enforcing the exclusion zones until December 1998, when the United States led a four-day assault on Baghdad in retaliation for Iraq's refusal to allow unfettered arms investigations by U.N. teams.

After that attack, known as Operation Desert Fox, Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein offered rewards for any U.S. aircraft shot down and pilots killed or captured.

Iraq's quest to shoot down a manned aircraft has been futile despite more than 1,000 attempts over the past 3-1/2 years, U.S. Central Command said. Iraq has shot down at least three unmanned Predator reconnaissance aircraft.

Copyright 2002 by United Press International.

All rights reserved.


From: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/3/20/160814.shtml

Britain Ready to Nuke Rogue Nations That Attack

NewsMax.com Wires
Thursday, March 21, 2002
LONDON – Defense Secretary Geoff Hoon said Wednesday that Britain was ready to use nuclear weapons against any rogue nation that attacked Britain or its troops with weapons of mass destruction.

Hoon, testifying before a parliamentary defense committee, identified Iraq, Iran, North Korea and Libya as "states of concern" and warned that "they can be confident that in the right conditions, we would be willing to use our nuclear weapons" in Britain's defense.

President Bush created a furor among left-wing Europeans when he made similar remarks about defending America.

The defense secretary's comments as part of the committee's inquiry into U.S. plans to build a defense system against a ballistic missile attack came as Prime Minister Tony Blair's government prepared to face Parliament's first emergency debate in nine years, to defend its decision to send troops to fight in Afghanistan.

Some 1,700 British commandos were gearing up Wednesday to join U.S. forces in hunting down thousands of terrorist Osama bin Laden's al- Qaeda killers and the remnants of the Taliban regime still at large in Afghanistan.

A full debate on what shaped up as Britain's first major combat role since the Gulf war was ordered at the request of the opposition Conservative Party.

In his committee testimony, Hoon said while most states "would be deterred by the fact that the U.K. possesses nuclear weapons and has the willingness and ability to use them in appropriate circumstances," in the cases of the "states of concern, I would be much less confident about.

"What I cannot be absolutely confident about," Hoon said, "is whether or not that would be sufficient to deter them from using a weapon of mass destruction in the first place."

He cited Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, who "has demonstrated in the past his willingness to use chemical weapons against his own people."

In countries such as Iraq, he said, "we cannot rule out the possibility that [they] would be willing to sacrifice their own people to make such a gesture."

Hoon warned that though there was no "direct threat" yet that Britain could be the target of a missile attack involving weapons of mass destruction, the island nation could someday be hit by a ballistic missile fired from the turbulent Middle East.

For instance, he said, "I am sure Libya has an aspiration to develop a weapon of mass destruction and, equally, would like to purchase the necessary technology to deliver it."

Copyright 2002 by United Press International.

All rights reserved.


From: http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/3158424.htm It's too early to take military action against Iraq, Senate leaders say
Posted on Mon, Apr. 29, 2002

(AP) -- Senate leaders said Sunday there is broad support for overthrowing President Saddam Hussein of Iraq but that it is too early to take military action against him.

''We've got to win the war on terror, we've got to stabilize Afghanistan,'' Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle said. ``We have to do all that we can to ensure that we succeed there before we take on another mission.''

A senior Bush administration official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said any attack on Iraq probably would wait until next year, but that President Bush has yet to sign off on the time, scope or manner of such a campaign.

Daschle, a Democrat, said on ABC television that there is ''strong bipartisan support'' and ''probably world support'' for ousting Hussein.

Senate Minority Leader Trent Lott, a Republican, said that the United States needs to first bolster opposition to Hussein among Iraqis inside and outside that country. ''There's a lot more we could be doing,'' he said on Fox News Sunday.

The New York Times reported Sunday that the administration is developing plans for a major air and ground war that would involve 70,000 to 250,000 troops.

Private analysts have said that at least 100,000 troops might be needed to attack Hussein, who could shield his troops among civilians and retaliate against U.S. forces with chemical weapons.

The newspaper said the administration has decided that a coup probably would not succeed and that a proxy battle using local Iraqi forces -- which was the U.S. strategy in Afghanistan -- would not bring down Hussein.

The administration faces the question of where to base U.S. forces in the region for an attack on Iraq, given the likelihood that Saudi Arabia would deny the use of its territory.

The Saudi foreign minister, Prince Saud Faisal, said military action against Iraq would not be justified if Hussein allows U.N. weapons inspectors to return.

''The military operation, the reason for it, is to assure that Iraq doesn't have weapons of mass destruction. The best way to assure that is to have inspectors,'' he said on ABC.

Iraq claims it has dismantled all such weapons.

Meanwhile, Iraqis celebrated their president's 65th birthday Sunday with an annual display of government-sponsored loyalty whose theme this year was defiance in the face of U.S. determination to topple the Iraqi leader.

As tens of thousands of people marched in Baghdad, state-run Iraqi media said Hussein's birthday marked the birth of an Iraq ``which is free and victorious against U.S.-British-Zionist colonialism.''

At the biggest celebration, in Hussein's hometown of Tikrit 100 miles north of Baghdad, schoolgirls performed traditional Arab dances and waved Iraqi and Palestinian flags. Singers praised Hussein as the symbol of ''our dignity and pride.'' Marchers in Baghdad carried posters of Hussein and Iraqi flags and shouted, ``Saddam is our leader forever.''

  From: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A4023-2002Apr5.html

Bush Won't Be Pinned Down On Plans for Attack on Iraq

By Karen DeYoung
Washington Post Staff Writer
Saturday, April 6, 2002; Page A14

CRAWFORD, Tex., April 5 -- A British reporter tried valiantly, and failed spectacularly, to get President Bush to reveal his plans for Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.

"You're one of those clever reporters that keeps trying to put words in my mouth," Bush accused Trevor McDonald, whose interview with Bush was broadcast this evening in Britain as Prime Minister Tony Blair arrived here for a weekend at the presidential ranch. "Not from me, Mr. President," McDonald protested.

Bush had said that he and Blair would be discussing "all the options" to get rid of Hussein, a man who "has got a variety of weapons that can harm mankind, and he's not afraid to use them, even on his own people," although the United States had "no immediate plans to conduct military operations."

But had Bush made up his mind to attack Iraq at some point, McDonald asked?

"I made up my mind that Saddam needs to go," Bush responded. "That's about all I'm willing to share with you."

And was he therefore willing to take action to ensure that?

"That's what I just said," replied Bush. "The policy of my government is that he goes."

"So you're going to go after him?" asked McDonald.

"As I told you, the policy of my government is that Saddam Hussein not be in power."

"How do you plan to achieve this, Mr. President?"

"Just wait and see."

Asked whether he thought the international coalition assembled to fight terrorism in Afghanistan would support military action against Iraq, Bush said he believed the coalition would join to demand that Iraq readmit United Nations inspectors to search for biological, chemical and nuclear weapons.

"He's probably got something to hide, don't you think?" Bush asked. The United States is not going to let Hussein have weapons of mass destruction, Bush said, and he didn't think the rest of the free world would either.

So, Bush wanted Hussein to let the inspectors in? "Yeah, of course. That's what he said he would do."

And that would avoid an attack? "This is not an issue of inspectors," replied Bush. "This is an issue of him not upholding his word that he would not develop weapons of mass destruction."

So, McDonald concluded, "whether he allows the inspectors in or not, he is on the list to be attacked."

"See, you keep trying to put -- you're one of these clever reporters that keeps trying to put words in my mouth," said the president.

The Washington Post Company

  From  BBC NEWS
Thursday, 14 February, 2002, 14:14 GMT
US considers ousting Saddam

by Paul Reynolds
BBC World Affairs correspondent

Bush says Iraq is part of an "axis of evil"

The signs are that President Bush has taken a decision in principle to try to topple Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein - the man his father left in power at the end of the Gulf War. The means, and timing, are as yet unclear.

But the options run all the way to a full-scale invasion. However, options are not decisions.

Mr Bush's own words, decoded, suggest that removing Saddam Hussein is now an aim, not just a wish.

At the mimimum about 200,000 troops would be needed (for an invasion) - and aircraft by the hundred
"Make no mistake about it. If we need to, we will take necessary action to defend the American people," he said at the White House on 13 February.

The phrase "defend the American people" could really mean "attack Iraq".

US Secretary of State Colin Powell has been even more specific. He told a Congressional committee that Washington wanted a "regime change" in Baghdad.

This kind of talk shows that the Bush team has moved on from a decision it took at Camp David on the Sunday after 11 September.

The decision then was to put Iraq on hold for a Phase Two of the war. Afghanistan was Phase One. That has now been largely completed.

So Iraq's time has come.

'Defensive strikes'

The tripwire could come in May. That is when the Security Council is due to renew sanctions against Iraq and that is when the United States, probably supported by Britain, might issue an ultimatum to Iraq to allow UN weapons inspectors in again.

Air exclusion zones have been enforced over Iraq since 1991
If it does not, a reason to take action would then exist. The United States would argue that Saddam is developing weapons of mass destruction and that pre-emptive military strikes against him would therefore be defensive.

What are the options?

Diplomatic and economic measures will continue. But these methods have failed and the Iraqi leader is still there, even though Mr Bush senior departed long ago. The Iraqi people suffer from sanctions, but not, it seems, the Iraqi leadership. It is possible that Iraq might comply and allow inspectors in again, but not probable.

Indirect or covert action is likely - the so-called Northern Alliance approach after what happened in Afghanistan. The CIA is believed ot have been tasked with working up a plan to support opposition groups, although the main one - the Iraqi National Congress - is not regarded very highly by the Americans.

But events have a habit of developing a momentum and if the CIA did organise some low-level action, it could escalate into large-scale defections in the Iraqi armed forces. That would be the hope at least. It could be accompanied by bombing of key Iraqi targets. And maybe feelers would go out to Iraqi officers who might mount a coup.

There could be a bombing only strategy. The United States has developed such accurate weaponry that its planners have far more options than even in the Gulf War. Military targets like research institutions and military bases could be chosen, in order to degrade or destroy Saddam Hussein's arsenal.

Last resort?

But this might not topple him. Dictators under attack from outside have a habit of surviving.
Saddam Hussein remains in power despite military defeat in 1991

This leads inexorably, therefore, to the need for planning for the Big One - an invasion.

The numbers would be huge. At the mimimum about 200,000 troops would be needed - and aircraft by the hundred. And where would they launch from? The US Marine Corps could do it from the sea but on land Kuwait seems to be the only place if Saudi Arabia says no, as it well might.

It would be a vast undertaking and Saddam Hussein might act first, invading Kuwait again maybe and attacking Israel for certain.

It is likely that President Bush would want to exhaust all other options before deciding on an invasion.

But do not rule one out if all else fails.


Friday, May 3, 2002


Armies prep for U.S. Iraq attack

Each country moves troops in anticipation of offensive

Posted: May 3, 2002 1:00 a.m. Eastern

Editor's note: DEBKAfile's electronic news publication is a news-cum-analysis live wire, online round the clock seven days a week. A weekly edition,DEBKA-Net-Weekly, is now available through WorldNetDaily.com. Drawing on DEBKAfile's unique sources, analytical talents and
forward-looking insights, it is presented as a compact, intelligence-angled weekly package. It is available as a direct e-mail feed or via the Internet.

© 2002 WorldNetDaily.com

While no official word has been issued from any world capital concerning the imminence of a U.S. offensive against Baghdad, DEBKA-Net-Weekly's military experts report that the region's armies are all busy in one way or another getting ready for a surprise U.S. strike on Baghdad and its regional

Our sources this week followed the heightened movements of men, tanks, guns, missiles, warplanes and carriers: 


For most of the last month, Iraq has been massing troops in the west along the Jordanian and Syrian borders for fear of a surprise U.S. military assault on Baghdad by ground or airborne troops from bases in Jordan, Israel and the Sinai, or from aircraft carriers in the eastern Mediterranean, DEBKA
reports. Two mechanized divisions and the Republican Guard's Babylon armored division are deployed at the al-Baghdadi base near the town of Arbuta. Additional anti-aircraft units have reinforced this facility. Planes carrying chemical weapons have been spotted recently at several Iraq
airfields, mainly the al-Sharaa military airbase 270 miles north of Baghdad and west of the River Tigris.


In the last two weeks, according to DEBKA, Israel has stepped up preparations for standing up to a nuclear, biological and chemical attack. The Israel Defense Forces high command has ordered new units to be set up quickly for training in locating, identifying and neutralizing nuclear, biological and chemical substances. Thousands of officers and soldiers, including reservists, have been drawn from various branches of the military and attached to the new units. They are undergoing lightning two-week NBC courses, at the end of which they are assigned to permanent sectors.

One group has been based with commando forces as well as the armored, mechanized infantry, artillery and combat intelligence corps. A second group will be deployed at key points in Israeli cities, such as power stations and water pumping facilities, and distributed among street blocks.

Unit equipment and soldiers' personal gear are stored close to these sectors of operation, readily available in an emergency. These trainees, officers and men are told explicitly to prepare in the very short term for an Iraqi attack that will include missile and bomber strikes using nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

TV and radio stations were ordered to set up alternative studios and broadcasting facilities capable of functioning under Iraqi missile attack. DEBKA-Net-Weekly's military sources say Israel's high command has given the national home-front service until May 25 to complete the formation of the
new units as well as their training and equipment. The home-front command has received the rating of a combat post. Only the northern command in charge of Israel's volatile Syrian and Lebanese borders has been ranked higher.

DEBKA-Net-Weekly's military sources add that at the height of Operation Defensive Shield in the West Bank 10 days ago, Israel secretly began deploying large armored contingents on its border with Egypt in the wake of intelligence information on Sinai-related Egyptian military preparations.


Ten days ago, Egypt's Sinai Command was ordered to go on operational footing in the Suez Canal cities of Ismailia and Suez, DEBKA sources say. The Sinai Command goes on operational footing only when it prepares for war. The Second and Third Armies under this command have standing orders to meet an outbreak of full-scale hostilities by pushing into Sinai and taking up positions to defend the Suez Canal. The two armies have not as yet deviated from their regular routines, nor have they called up reserves.

DEBKA-Net-Weekly's military sources report that Israel quietly asked the United States to sound out Cairo on its military preparations and find out if there was any intention of moving units into the Sinai, where strict troop limitations have been in effect since Israel and Egypt signed a peace
treaty in 1979. Egypt replied that military preparations in the Middle East are advancing so rapidly that its high command decided to take minimal logistic steps to make sure it would not be caught off-guard.

Saudi Arabia

DEBKA-Net-Weekly's sources say Saudi Arabia has kept in place the troop concentrations massed two weeks ago along its border with Jordan - despite U.S. President George W. Bush's assurance to Saudi crown prince Abdullah in Crawford, Texas, that no final date had been set for a U.S. military
offensive against Iraq. The Saudi high command is taking no chances. Like other military commands around the Middle East, it is not ruling out a surprise U.S. attack being launched at any moment against Iraq. For his part, it appears that Abdullah wants to show Washington he was serious about
his proposal to involve Saudi Arabia militarily in the West Bank. According to DEBKA - Net - Weekly's military sources, more than half of the kingdom's combat units are now in a state of readiness on the Jordanian frontier.

They are the 14th armored brigade and the 8th and 20th mechanized brigades.

Saudi Arabia's paratroop brigade is on alert at the Tabuk base. The 12th armored brigade and 6th mechanized brigade have left Tabuk and moved northwest to a point across from the Israeli and Jordanian borders, says DEBKA.


Over the past week, Jordanian units continued moving east toward the Iraqi frontier. They positioned their 4th and 20th mechanized divisions across from Iraqi bases and the H-3 airfield, according to DEBKA sources. Elements of the divisions were deployed in the northeast, near the point where the
borders of Jordan, Iraq and Syria converge.

Following the recent massive Saudi military deployments along the kingdom's northern border with Jordan, the Jordanians moved their 3rd armored division south from the Iraqi frontier to the Saudi border.


The Syrian army has taken up defensive positions in four main areas: the Bekaa valley, Baalbek, the Beirut-Damascus highway and the Israeli-Syrian border in the northern Golan Heights, near Mount Hermon and Shebaa Farms.

DEBKA-Net-Weekly's military sources report a full combat alert declared this week for Syria's 1st armored regiment in the Damascus area and the 2nd regiment in western Syria and Lebanon.

The 10th mechanized division and elements of the 51st armored division, stationed until last winter in Beirut, have in the past few days relocated from western and central Lebanon to the Bekaa Valley on Lebanon's eastern border with Syria. Some have taken up defensive positions along the Beirut -Damascus highway, DEBKA reports.

The 1st regiment commands the defenses of Damascus and the Syrian-Israeli border on the Golan Heights.

The 2nd regiment secures Syria's eastern frontier and the Syrian expeditionary force in Lebanon.

The 27th and 82nd armored brigades of the 3rd division, and the 87th armored brigade of the 11th division are on the ground in Baalbek in eastern Lebanon, a Hezbollah political and logistic stronghold.

Syria's elite 14th division, comprised of special forces, has moved east, says DEBKA, meeting at the Syrian, Lebanese and Israeli borders in the northern Golan Heights, north of Shebaa Farms.

Damascus ordered these military steps after asking Iran to send new shipments of Fajar-5 surface - to-surface missiles to Hezbollah units in southern Lebanon. The missiles have a range of more than 30 miles and can hit the Israeli port city of Haifa and its military, electronic and oil industries, and essential utilities. Syria assured the Iranians, in response to a query, that Hezbollah positions would be authorized to fire the new missiles as of the first week in May.

According to DEBKA sources, this news sent U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell rushing over to Damascus in the middle of his Middle East mission to defuse the Israel-Palestinian crisis. He sternly warned Bashar Assad that Israel would lose no time in hitting vital Syrian military assets if the
Fajar missiles took to the air. Assad gave no sign of his intentions, DEBKA says.