compiled by Dee Finney

From: http://www.dickshovel.com/lsa3.html

The founding fathers on that rock shared common characteristics. All four valued white supremacy and promoted the extirpation of Indian society. The United States' founding fathers were staunchly anti-Indian advocates in that at one time or another, all four provided for genocide against Indian peoples of this hemisphere.

George Washington...
In 1779, George Washington instructed Major General John Sullivan to attack Iroquois people. Washington stated, "lay waste all the settlements around...that the country may not be merely overrun, but destroyed". In the course of the carnage and annihilation of Indian people, Washington also instructed his general not "listen to any overture of peace before the total ruin of their settlements is effected". (Stannard, David E. AMERICAN HOLOCAUST. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. pp. 118-121.)

In 1783, Washington's anti-Indian sentiments were apparent in his comparisons of Indians with wolves: "Both being beast of prey, tho' they differ in shape", he said. George Washington's policies of extermination were realized in his troops behaviors following a defeat. Troops would skin the bodies of Iroquois "from the hips downward to make boot tops or leggings". Indians who survived the attacks later re-named the nation's first president as "Town Destroyer". Approximately 28 of 30 Seneca towns had been destroyed within a five year period. (Ibid)

Thomas Jefferson...
In 1807, Thomas Jefferson instructed his War Department that, should any Indians resist against America stealing Indian lands, the Indian resistance must be met with "the hatchet". Jefferson continued, "And...if ever we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe, " he wrote, "we will never lay it down till that tribe is exterminated, or is driven beyond the Mississippi." Jefferson, the slave owner, continued, "in war, they will kill some of us; we shall destroy all of them". (Ibid)

In 1812, Jefferson said that American was obliged to push the backward Indians "with the beasts of the forests into the Stony Mountains". One year later Jefferson continued anti-Indian statements by adding that America must "pursue [the Indians] to extermination, or drive them to new seats beyond our reach". (Ibid)

Abraham Lincoln...

In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln ordered the execution, by hanging, of 38 Dakota Sioux prisoners in Mankato, Minnesota. Most of those executed were holy men or political leaders of their camps. None of them were responsible for committing the crimes they were accused of. Coined as the Largest Mass Execution in U.S. History. (Brown, Dee. BURY MY HEART AT WOUNDED KNEE. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1970. pp. 59-61)

Theodore Roosevelt...
The fourth face you see on that "Stony Mountain" is America's first twentieth century president, alleged American hero, and Nobel peace prize recipient, Theodore Roosevelt. This Indian fighter firmly grasped the notion of Manifest Destiny saying that America's extermination of the Indians and thefts our their lands "was ultimately beneficial as it was inevitable". Roosevelt once said, "I don't go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth". (Stannard, Op.Cit.)

The apathy displayed by these founding fathers symbolize the demoralization related to racial superiority. Scholars point toward this racial polarization as evidence of the existence of Eugenics.

Eugenics is a new term for an old phenomena which asserts that Indian people should be exterminated because they are an inferior race of people. Jefferson's suggestion to pursue the Indians to extermination fits well into the eugenistic vision. In David Stannard's study American Holocaust, he writes: "had these same words been enunciated by a German leader in 1939, and directed at European Jews, they would be engraved in modern memory. Since they were uttered by one of America's founding fathers, however...they conveniently have become lost to most historians in their insistent celebration of Jefferson's wisdom and humanity." Roosevelt feared that American upper classes were being replaced by the "unrestricted breeding" of inferior racial stocks, the "utterly shiftless", and the "worthless" (Ibid)





Aboriginal Communities and Mining in Northern Canada
Special issue of this on-line magazine. (Northern Perspectives 23(3-4). Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, 1996).

Aboriginal Fishing Rights - Canada

Aboriginal Rights - Canada

Akwesasne Task Force on the Environment
"The Akwesasne Task Force on the Environment (ATFE), a community based, grass-roots organization, was formed in 1987 to address the environmental problems facing the Mohawk Nation community of Akwesasne. It is composed of members of the Mohawk community and staff of environmental agencies, Mohawk governments, and organizations within Akwesasne who share a common concern for the environment and the effects of various toxic substances on human and ecosystem health." (1997).

American Indian Ritual Object Repatriation Foundation

Animas-La Plata: The last big dam in the West

Basket Weavers Refuse to Cooperate in Pesticide Risk Assessment Study
Basketweavers object to the use of risk assessment procedures to determine their exposure to forestry pesticides as a result of their basket-making. Contr. Joanne Bigcrane. (Louis Martin, Coast News Service, January 17, 1996).

BC Natives Want Trees, Not Treaties

California's Lost Tribes

California's Lost Tribes

Cherokee Removal Forts

Cherokee Wrongs - Listen to the spoken message! It's powerful!

Chippewas vs U.S. - Fishing Rights on the Great Lakes

Chippewa Treaties

Circle Briefs

Claiming Tribal Rights

Collecting Taxes on Sales on Indian Land - (New York)

Delaware Tribe of Oklahoma vs New Jersey

Department Of The Interior, Office Indian Affairs, November 15, 1871

Earth Mother Becomes Real Estate

EA-392; Environmental Assessment and (FONSI) Yakima-Klickitat Production Project Office Of Power Sales Bonneville Power Administration

Environmental Review of Nuclear Dump Flawed
Reports on a resolution by the Lower Colorado River Indian Tribes in opposition to a proposed nuclear dump site at Ward Valley, California (Fort Mojave, Colorado River, Chemeheuvi, Fort Yuma-Quechan, and Cocopah Indian Tribes). (Marsha Shaiman, On Indian Land. Seattle: Support for Native Sovereignty. Archive: NAE, 1996).

Forgotten Tribes Search for a Place in History

Food Pollution Threatens Lives of Inuits in Arctic
(Leyla Alyanak, Earth Times News Service. Archive: World History Archive, 1997).

Gabrielino/Tongva      Saving the Sacred Site

Goldmine Threatens Quechan Sites

Hanford Department of Energy, Indian Nations Program
The DOE is responsible for the cleanup of the Hanford nuclear site in southeastern Washington state. Four tribes have cultural or treaty rights to the lands of Hanford, including the Nez Perce, the Umatilla, Yakima and Wanapum. This site describes the working relationships between Native Americans and the DOE. Some information about the environmental offices of these nations. (1997).

Havasupai Fight To Save Grand Canyon From Uranium Mining
Various posts about this campaign. (Native-L mailing list, 1992).

Happy Indigenous People's Day - Anti-Columbus Day

Haudenosaunee Environmental Action Plan

Indian Burial Grounds for Nuclear Waste
A very good article on the recent history of attempts to bury nuclear waste on reservations. (Randel D. Hanson, Multinational Monitor 16(9). Archive: Fourth World Documentation Project, 1995).

Indigenous Environmental Network

Indigenous Environmental Network: Ward Valley
Reports on the efforts of the Colorado River Native Nations Alliance to stop a nuclear dump in Ward Valley.

Indigenous Women's Environmental Network
An ad-hoc organization in Saskatchewan, which has focused its concern on the Meadow Lake Tribal Council's proposal to build a permanent high level nuclear waste repository in northern Saskatchewan. This reference dates from around 1995. (Archive: NAE).

Leavitt's Anti-Nuke Policy Will Strangle Tribe, Say Goshutes
Mike Leavitt is Utah's Governor. (William Claiborne, Salt Lake Tribune, March 11, 1999).

List of Non-Federally Recognized Tribes

Long Island Land Swindle


Memories Come to Us In the Rain and the Wind: Oral Histories and Photographs of Navajo Uranium Miners and Their Families
Excerpts from the book are available on-line. (Doug Brugge, Timothy Benally, Phil Harrison, Martha Austin-Garrison and Lydia Fasthorse-Begay, Boston, MA: Tufts University School of Medicine, 1997).


Menominee Nation Mining Impacts
Good and timely information on mining in Menominee country. (1997).

Messages from the Taïno Restoration and Truth Reclamation/ We Never Disappeared.

Midwestern Conquest Trails

More Than Half of Goshutes Sue Tribe Over Waste Plan
(Jim Woolf, Salt Lake Tribune, March 13, 1999).

National Environmental Coalition of Native Americans
This organization works to prevent nuclear waste dumps on native lands. Find related…

Native Americans and the Environment

Native Americans Bear the Nuclear Burden
About the Shoshone and the Paiute-Shoshone. Provides an overview of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) project of the Department of Energy. (Andreas Knudsen, Indigenous Affairs. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. Archive: NAE, 1996).

Natives Challenge the Borders

Navajo Dryland Environment Laboratory

Navajo Tribe Embarks on a Long-Term Cleanup
"The Navajo Nation tries to come to terms with a growing garbage problem that has led to numerous illegal dumps on the reservation." (Paul Natonobah, High Country News 29(15). August 18, 1997).

Navajo Uranium Miners Fight for Compensation
(Timothy Sr. Benally, Nic Paget-Clarke, interviewer. In Motion Magazine, 1998?).

Navajo Uranium Radiation Victims: The 4th Indigenous Uranium Forum
A report (with photographs) of a 1990 meeting organized by the Southwest Indigenous Uranium Forum in cooperation with the Navajo Uranium Radiation Victims Committee. (Kerry Richardson, 1991).

New Front In The Waste Wars—Part 2: The Poisoners Invade Indian Country
(Peter Montague, RACHEL's Environment and Health Weekly 239. Annapolis: Environmental Research Foundation, 1991).

Petitioners List for Federal Recognition As an "American Indian Tribe" - 1998

Poison Fire, Sacred Earth: Testimonies, Lectures Conclusions
Extensive excerpts from the testimony given in 1992 at the World Uranium Hearing in Salzburg, Austria. Many Native Americans spokespersons participated and this is an excellent on-line resource. (World Uranium Hearing, World Uranium Hearing, Salzburg, 1992., 1992).

Project Chariot: The Nuclear Legacy of Cape Thompson, Alaska
In 1957, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission selected a site approximately 30 miles southeast of the Inupiat Eskimo village of Point Hope to perform a number of "experiments," including the release of radioactive materials from a Nevada test site to analyze how such material would disperse through the area. The AEC's project involved the projected relocation of the Point Hope Inupiat.the relocation of the Katovik Inupiat. This article tells the history of these events. (Norman Chance, Artic Circle).

Protecting Sacred Ground - Gold Mines

Racial Politics of Ancestry

Red Cliff Chippewa File Law Suit Against the State - Wisconsin

Remaining Causes of Indian Discontent (John Okison, 1907)

Repatriation of Indian Remains

Residues of Forestry Herbicides in Plants of Interest to Native Americans: Phase One—Development of Methodologies and Pilot Sampling
This project is the first phase of a two-phase study to assess exposure of basketweavers to forestry herbicides. Full report of study available on-line. Contr. Joanne Bigcrane. (R. Segawa, A. Bradley, P. Lee, D. Tran, J. White, J. Hsu, and K. Goh, April. California Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Hazards Assessment Program, 1997)

Resolution on a Nuclear Free Zone in the Arctic
The nuclear free zone was re-declared, partly because of MX and cruise missile testing or concerns about it in the arctic region. No date. (Inuit Circumpolar Conference, Archive: Fourth World Documentation Project).

Save Ward Valley Coalition
One of the political coalitions fighting to stop a nuclear dump in Ward Valley; others include the Colorado River Native Nations Alliance. (1998).

Save Ward Valley Newsletter
The Colorado River Native Nations Alliance opposes a proposed nuclear dump in Ward Valley. (Earthrunnner, 1996-).

Serpent Mound - Newark Octagon State Memorial Threatened By Construction

Skull Valley Goshutes - Nuclear Waste

Skull Valley Goshutes
Devoted exclusively to the issue of storing spent nuclear fuel on the Skull Valley Reservation (this is one continuing development of the MRS program on Native American lands that was widely reported several years ago in environmental publications). The state of Uah and over half the tribe are suing to stop the plan.

Special Alert - Makah Whaling

Tanacross - Hunting Rights - Alaska

The Canadian Government and the Great White Lie

The Continuing Sordid History of the Treatment of the Esselen Indians

The Crimes of Christopher Columbus
   Examining the Reputation of Christopher Columbus
  16 January 1493 [Atlantic Slave Trade]
  An article which lays the origins of the slave trade in North America
  squarely at the feet of Christopher Columbus.

The Dispossessed Cowlitz

The Holocaust of the Native Americans

The Mojave Tribe After the White Man Came

The Ramapough Mountain Indians

The Thunderwater Movement

The Yakima or Yakama Indians

Uranium Industry and Indigenous Peoples of North America
(Four Directions Council, Submission to the United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. Archive: Fourth World Documentation Project, 1987).

Uranium Mining and the Church Rock Disaster
In 1979, a dam burst and released tons of radioactive mill wastes into the Rio Puerco River, a water source for Navajo families and their livestock. The long-term health disaster that has resulted is now one of the most well-known examples of the dangers that uranium mining poses to the Navajo and others in the Southwest. This is a very useful chapter-length history of these events. (Harvey Wasserman and Norman Solomon, Excerpt from Killing Our Own: The Disaster of America's Experience with Atomic Radiation, 1945-1982. New York: Delacorte Press, 1982).

Violence in Indian Country over Waste
An article about violent conflicts over toxic waste dumping on native lands. (Peter Montague, RACHEL's Environment and Health Weekly 404. Annapolis: Environmental Research Foundation, 1994).

Ward Valley
A proposed nuclear dump in Ward Valley, California, is opposed by the Mojave/Mohave and the Chemehuevi peoples. (Bay Area Nuclear Waste Coalition, 1997-).

Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report
For anyone with a desire to oversee bureaucratic justification, the EPA explains its progress on environmental justice for Native Americans. (Environmental Protection Agency, 1996).

Water Rights in the Southwest

Water Rights in California

Winds of Change

White Mesa Utes Beat Back Superfund Tailings
"White Mesa Utes defeat DOE's plans to dump hazardous waste on land surround their reservation." (Carol Sisco, High Country News 27(1), January 23, 1995).

Wovoka's Message: The Promise of the Ghost Dance

Yankton Sioux Oppose Reservation Waste Dump
The Yankton Sioux are going to receive a waste dump on their reservation, despite irregularities in the environmental review process and even though they are not members of the landfill district siting the dump. Article from Support for Native Sovereignty. (On Indian Land. Seattle: Support for Native Sovereignty. Archive: NAE, 1996).


Hi, All. Just a quick note to let you know that indeed, we have achieved a small victory for Truth.

That hate-filled website (http://sue3hawk.freeservers.com/web2/whitebuffalo.html) which condoned and implicitly encouraged genocide, violence, and atrocities against the Lakhota Sioux and all Traditional Native Americans has been shut down by its webserver, freeservers.com, as being in violation of the webserver's hate and harassment regulations.

Additionally, the egroups mailing list, WhiteBuffaloTalk, sponsored by the person on aol (NAIndian/CherokeeNeshoba) and which promoted that twisted sick website has also been removed.

Furthermore, several activist and hatewatch organizations have become involved and there are now lawsuits pending for violation of United States Civil and Hate Crimes.

I truly thank each and every one of you who wrote to protest these horrific things. A real grassroots confrontation with hate, and it was phenomenal work! Fighting the proverbial good fight never ends but it sure looks like we won this battle. What each of us did truly affected us all.

Mitakuye oyasin.... we are all related. -steph


Flags of the Native Peoples of the US

All US Tribes Main Access Map Index

American Indian Reservation Summary

BIA Criteria for Acknowledgement as an Indian Tribe

Indian Identity: Who Is Drawing the Boundaries?

Indian Nations: The United States and Citizenship 1983

Map of Native American Tribes, Culture Areas, and Linguistic Stocks Smithsonian Institution

Native American Population Statistics US Census statitics for 1980 and 1990 compared for Native Americans

Native American Socio-Economic Characteristics Education, Occupation, Income

Native American Languages Spoken in the Home

The Indian Removal Act of 1830

The White Buffalo - This site contains the worst lies of all

Tribal Leaders Discuss the Importance of the April 1, 2000 U.S. Census

Tribal Leaders List and Agency Information Bureau of Indian Affairs

U.S. Census Bureau General Information

U.S. Federal and State Reservation Map

When is a Tribe a Tribe?


American Indian Law Scientist

Directory of Tribes - in the Lower 48

The Aboriginal Law and Legislation

The Indian Child Welfare Act Links

Senator Daniel K. Inouye Home Page

U.S. Department of Interior
U.S. Department of Interior - email addressesTreaty of Prairie du Chein
Treaty 7 Tribal Council
The Indian Defense League of America

International Indian Treaty Council

List of Federally Recognized Tribes

Native American Rights Fund

Legislation pertaining to American Indian languages

National Indian Justice Center (NIJC)

Native Political Action group
Native American Political Issues

Bureau of Indian Affairs  this page is not available as of 8-30-02 due to a law suit

BIA: Branch of Acknowledgement

Native Organizations and Urban Indian Centers

Listing of lands tribally owned.

Canada-Indian Treaties

Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act

Native American Prison Issues

New York Indian Law

Selected United States Supreme Court Native American Law Decisions

18 U.S.C., Chapter 35 (Indians)
Provides the full text and a keyword search.

28 U.S.C. § 1362 (Indian tribes)

42 U.S.C., Chapter 22 (Indian Hospitals and Health Facilities)
Provides the full text and a keyword search.

The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851

The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868

Tribal Sovereignity

Indian Tribes - Population Rankings
Native American Rights Fund (NARF)

U.S. Department of Interior (Responsible for the Bureau of Indian Affairs)
U.S. Department of Interior - email addresses
Bureau of Indian Affairs
U.S. Census Bureau

Iroquois Constitution

Laws and Treaties with the Cherokee, Choctaw,

Flags of the Native Peoples of the US

All US Tribes Main Access Map Index

American Indian Reservation Summary

BIA Criteria for Acknowledgement as an Indian Tribe

Indian Identity: Who Is Drawing the Boundaries?

Indian Nations: The United States and Citizenship 1983

Map of Native American Tribes, Culture Areas, and Linguistic Stocks Smithsonian Institution

Native American Population Statistics US Census statitics for 1980 and 1990 compared for Native Americans

Native American Socio-Economic Characteristics Education, Occupation, Income

Native American Languages Spoken in the Home

Tribal Leaders Discuss the Importance of the April 1, 2000 U.S. Census

Tribal Leaders List and Agency Information Bureau of Indian Affairs

U.S. Census Bureau General Information

U.S. Federal and State Reservation Map

When is a Tribe a Tribe?

Native American Documents Project Cal State at San Marcos: Professor E. Schwartz

Native American Constitution and Law Digitalization Project Tribal constitutions and codes are the heart of self-government for over 500 federally recognized tribes, and are the lifeblood of Indian sovereignty. The University of Oklahoma Law Center Library and the National Indian Law Library work with tribes whose government documents appear on this web site; these tribal documents are either placed online with the permission of the tribes, or they are U.S. Government documents, rightfully in the public domain.


Custers Last Stand

George Armstrong Custer

The Little Bighorn National Monument
Battle of the Little Big Horn
The Custer Battlefield National Monument 1986
The Little Big Horn Coverup
Notes from The North American Indian E.S. Curtis

The Battle of the Greasy Grass (c. 1898) by Mato Wanartaka (Lakota: 1846-1904). The Southwest Museum, Los Angeles

The Battle of the Little Bighorn: Two Perspectives

Indian Memorial at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument "If this memorial is to serve its total purpose, it must not only be a tribute to the dead, ; it must contain a mesage for the living...power through unity..." Enos Poor Bear, Sr. , Oglala Lakota Elder

Killing Custer A review of the book by Blackfeet-Gros Ventre author James Welch

Red Horse A Lakota account of the battle

Kate Bighead A Cheyenne's woman's account of the battle

Custer's Last Stand - The Finale

Biography George Armstrong Custer (1839 - 1876) by THE WEST TV Series
Biography George Crook (1828 - 1890) by THE WEST TV Series
Tom Custer Died Alongside Brother George

The Little Bighorn-Description of the events of "Custer's Last Stand" by ES Curtis.

The Army's greatest Indian fighter, George Crook, may have contributed to Custer's defeat at Little Bighorn. However, during his last years he campaigned vigorously on behalf of the Lakota Indians. Cheif Red Cloud once said: "Crook never lied to us. His words gave people hope".


Crazy Horse (1996 Col.) TV-film Michael Greyeyes.
Chief Crazy Horse (1955 Col.) PLOT Summary.
Crazy Horse (1943)
Crazy Horse and Custer - The Untold Story (1990)

Biography Marcus A. Reno (1834 - 1889) by THE WEST TV Series
Officer in charge of the only unit to survive the battle of the Little Bighorn.

Biography John Gibbon (1827 - 1896) by THE WEST TV Series
Infantry Commander with General Custer at the battle of Little Bighorn and commander at other battles.

Biography of Alfred H. Terry (1827 - 1890) by THE WEST TV Series A military commander under general Custer.
Biography Philip Sheridan (1831 - 1888) by THE WEST TV Series
A ruthless general during the wars against the plains Indians, with no concern for casualties among innocent non-warriors.

Little Bighorn Coverup



The Story of the Potawatami Death Trail



BY President Andrew Jackson - 1830

The Indian Removal Act, signed by President Andrew Jackson in 1830, required all tribes east of the Mississippi to cede their land to the U.S. government and migrate to the western plains. The journey west, called the "Trail of Tears," took its tool on the four southern nations (Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Cherokee) forced to move. Many Indians left behind comfortable homes and fertile farmlands, and one-third of the migrants perished in their new surroundings. This depiction of the Trail of Tears shows how little the Indians were able to take with them on their mandatory relocation.

The Indian Removal Act of 1830 - The Trail of Tears
Note: The Indian Removal Act empowered by president Andrew Jackson allowed the U.S. Government to move eastern Indians west of the Mississippi, mainly Cherokees. The purpose was to put pressure off arising conflicts since the flawed thinking was that the white settlements would never penetrate that part of the continent. The project was ill-conceived and culturally chauvinistic. Even the staunchest defenders of this act were admitting defeat at the time. In the spring and summer of 1838, more than 15,000 Cherokee were removed by the U.S. Army from their ancestral homelands in North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee and Alabama. They were held in concentration camps through the summer and fall then forced to travel nearly 1,000 miles during an extremely harsh winter to Indian Territory in Oklahoma.
It is estimated that almost 4,000 died of hunger, dysentery, exposure and other causes during the trek. Members of the tribe call the forced evacuation of their homelands and the horrendous journey "Nunahi-Duna-Dlo-Hilu-I", which translates to "Trail Where They Cried". The infamous removal concept was later refined into the reservation idea.

The Indian Removal Act of 1830

North American Indian Removal Policy
Andrew Jackson Addresses Congress.


Trail of Tears

The Trail Where They Cried
nu na hi du na tlo hi lu i

The Cherokee Trail of Tears - 1838/1839

The Cherokee Trial of Tears - Timeline

History of the Florida Indians

Isaac McCoy Papers

John G. Burnett's Story of the Removal of the Cherokee's

The Trail of Tears Across Missouri

The Trail of Tears, by Joan Gilbert
Accounts of the "Cherokee Trail of Tears"

Fighting For Our Lives

Indian Removal Policy

Black Seminoles

The Trail of Tears

The Trail of Tears

Andrew Jackson and Cherokee Removal

Quotations From The Trail Where They Cried

The Trail of Tears

The Removal

Historical Documents - The Trail of Tears

The Trail of Tears Association

Indian Territory in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the Federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to lands West of the Mississippi River. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 gave the President authority to designate specific lands for them, and in 1834 Congress formally approved the choice. The Indian Territory included present-day Oklahoma N and E of the Red River, as well as Kansas and Nebraska; the lands were delimited in 1854, however, by the creation of the Kansas and Nebraska territories. Tribes other than the original five also moved there, but each tribe maintained its own government. As white settlers continued to move westward, pressure to abolish the Indian Territory mounted. With the opening of W Oklahoma to whites in 1889 the way was prepared for the extinction of the territory, achieved in 1907 with the entrance of Oklahoma into the Union.



Treaty Between England and the Canadian Chippewas

Treaties by Nation Native American Web Services (Nawebs) has published nearly 400 downloadable full-length treaties. Excellent resource.

Fort laramie Treaty of 1868 with the Lakota and Dakota (Santee)
Lakota Treaty of 1825: Teton River
Lakota Treaty of 1825: Lookout River
Lakota Treaty of 1851: Fort Laramie
Agreement of 1882 with Lakota and Dakota People

Federal Treaties Made with Individual Native Nations Alphabetical Gopher Listing

U.S. Goverment Bills Concerning American Indians

Big White Lies



Wounded Knee (1890) Note: Wounded Knee Creek, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota December 29, 1890.
For the Plains Indians this was the last act of defiance ending in a massacre carried out by Colonel James Forsyth's Seventh Cavalry. There would be no more battles but this 100+ years old memory is still a wound in many hearts. Perhaps the most famous Indian-fighting general in the U.S. Army at the time, General Nelson A. Miles, accused Forsyth of "blind stupidity or criminal indifference" and relieved him of command. General Miles called this "a useless slaughter of Indian women and children". But the war department, determined to portray this finalconfrontation of the Indian wars in a heroic light, stopped any further investigation of the incident.

Wounded Knee:
Historical facts and information

- approved by traditional elders on the Pine Ridge and Cheyenne River reservations.

The Murder of the Wind of Peace

A Massacre Survivor Speaks...

Dr. Wagner's Wounded Knee Testimony

Bringing Lost Bird Home

Medals of Wounded Knee

Medals of dis-Honor

...more Medals of dis-Honor

Medals of dis-Honor Campaign
An email campaign has been initiated so as to force the U.S. Government to rescind the twenty medals of dis-Honor awarded participants in the Massacre at Wounded Knee. Your help is solicited...an input form is provided for your convenience

Lieutenant Bascom Gets His Due..

Rescindment Petition Comments

Senator McCain Responds to the Rescindment Petition

My Response to McCain

Wokiksuye Canpe Opi...a site dedicated to rescindment of the "medals of dis-Honor."

So proudly the Army displays it's flag with over 170 battle streamers at the Pentagon, White House, West Point Military Academy, museums and Army posts throughout the world. The Pine Ridge battle streamer has the highest number of Congressional Medals of (dis)Honor (20) of all the streamers...

Use of the Army Flag at EPA Events: The September 1999 directive from the EPA Office of Civil Rights, and the memorandum from The American Indian Advisory Committee.

Heroes of Wounded Knee Creek - 1890

Wounded Knee Survivors Association Testimony - Senate Hearing, September 1990

A Chronology of Events Leading Up to the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre

Note that the Massacre at Wounded Knee did not happen in a vacuum, it was not an unrelated incident. The fires of hatred and racism were fueled from many quarters and a volatility was building. Contributing a good deal of fuel were newspaper articles and editorials such as those mentioned below.

"The death of Sitting Bull removes one of the obstacles to civilization...He was a greasy savage..." So reads an article published on Wednesday, Dec. 17, 1890 in the St. Louis Republic, St. Louis, Missouri.

Writing in his newspaper the "The Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer", Aberdeen, South Dakota, L. Frank Baum opined with regard to the Indian Nations, that "We cannot honestly regret their extermination..."

Thus fueled was the murderous firestorm that was Wounded Knee.

A Tribal Park, A Farce...

Who Should We Believe?

Wounded Knee...Are We About To Do It Again?

Wounded Knee Landowners Reply to Wasichu...

Wasichu Sculptress Proposes Wounded Knee Memorial

Aberdeen Touts A Racist

Attack On An Attempt To Hold Baum Accountable For Genocidal Declarations

Twisted Footnotes to Wounded Knee

Commentary on Twisted Footnotes

Acknowledge L. Frank Baum's (author of The Wizard of Oz) Genocidal Declarations

Baum Petition Responses

Sitting Bull, In Memory

Black Hills Thievery Renewed

Wasichu's Continuing Gall...the Buffalo Nickle Act

Putting Enemy Heads On Pikes...
a response to the Buffalo Nickle Act

First Nations Site Index

American Indian Movement

Anna Mae Aquash Archive

BigFoot Speaks from the Grave

Wounded Knee Massacre
with photos

The Murder of the Wind of Peace

Wounded Knee
Are we about to do it again?

Black HIlls Thievery Attempt - Part I
Black HIlls Thievery Attempt - Part II

Sitting Bull

Crazy Horse

Chief Joseph

Red Cloud

Like Grass Before the Sickle

Turning Hawk and American Horse The Native account of the massacre

Wounded Knee South Dakota

Wovoka-The Messiah The Ghost Dance

Chief Bigfoot National Memorial Park

Assist the Elders

LYCOS Links to Wounded Knee