Newly Found Fault Could Cause US Quake
This is a Mississippi River
island about 15 miles southeast of Marianna, Ark.,
where a scientists said he has discovered a fault that could produce a magnitude 7 earthquake
NEW MADRID FAULT BEWARE
File-This undated photo provided by the U.S. Geological Survey shows a landslide trench
and ridge east of Reelfoot Lake in Obion County, Tenn., made by the New Madrid
earthquakes in the early 1800s. U.S. Geological Survey scientists reported
Thursday Jan. 23, 2014 that the New Madrid fault zone is still active and could
unleash future powerful
The zone in the U.S. Midwest produced three strong quakes in 1811 and 1812.
(AP Photo/U.S. Geological Survey,File)
LOS ANGELES (AP) - The New Madrid fault zone in the nation's midsection is active and could spawn future large earthquakes, scientists reported Thursday.
It's "not dead yet," said U.S. Geological Survey seismologist Susan Hough, who was part of the study published online by the journal Science.
Researchers have long debated just how much of a hazard New Madrid (MAD'-rihd) poses. The zone stretches 150 miles, crossing parts of Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri and Tennessee.
In 1811 and 1812, it unleashed a trio of powerful jolts - measuring magnitudes 7.5 to 7.7 - that rattled the central Mississippi River valley. Chimneys fell and boats capsized. Farmland sank and turned into swamps. The death toll is unknown, but experts don't believe there were mass casualties because the region was sparsely populated then.
Unlike California's San Andreas and other faults that occur along boundaries of shifting tectonic plates, New Madrid is less understood since it's in the middle of the continent, far from plate boundaries.
Previous studies have suggested that it may be shutting down, based on GPS readings that showed little strain accumulation at the surface. Other research came to the same conclusion by blaming ongoing quake activity on aftershocks from the 1800s, which would essentially relieve strain on the fault.
The latest study suggests otherwise. Hough and USGS geophysicist Morgan Page in Pasadena, Calif., analyzed past quakes in the New Madrid region and used computer modeling to determine that the continuing tremors are not related to the big quakes two centuries ago.
"Our new results tell us that something is going on there, and therefore a repeat of the 1811-1812 sequence is possible," Hough said.
The USGS estimates there's a 7 to 10 percent chance of that happening in the next 50 years.
Arthur Frankel, a seismologist with the USGS in Seattle who had no role in the study, said the latest results seem plausible. His recent field work using GPS shows significant movement of land along the fault in the past decade, indicating a buildup of strain that could lead to potentially dangerous quakes.
Others said this won't end the debate about the hazards on the New Madrid seismic zone.
Andrew Newman, a geophysicist at the Georgia Institute of Technology, said the method used in the study works well for faults along plate boundaries, but he's unsure if it applies to enigmatic faults like New Madrid.
THIS IS THE DREAM OF THE NEW MADRID
BY PASTOR JOHN KILPATRICK FROM 2008
THIS MATCHES MY OWN DREAMS AND MAPS FROM BELOW
There have been many reports of booming sounds all around the country
and people are correlating those booming sounds with earthquakes.
According to the reports - this is the 4th largest quake in Kentucky history.
Experts are relating it to the New Madrid fault, though it seems
quite far east.
In one of the dream featured below, the map shown to me by the old
woman showed cracks deep under the earth that relate to this type
of event however, though it's been quite awhile since I had that
particular dream, there have been a lot of quakes that could
related to that dream.
EARTHQUAKE MAP FROM ED DAMES
PREDICTED FOR THE FUTURE
2-16-11 - DREAM - I was on my computer in
Wisconsin somewhere. I had three IM's going because of a huge
earthquake that shook a largee area in the midwest - probably the
We didn't lose electricity, which was a good thing, and I could communicate with other people who had experienced the same thing I just had - and we found out that the United States was completelhy severed in half at the Mississippi River.
When daylight came, I went outside to find out what things looked like and went to the Mississippi River divide and to my shock, the river was actually at least 1,000 feet lower from where I stood and looked very small at the bottom of the cliff that now divided Wisconsin from Minnesota. I was stunned to see this because I've been to that spot before, and Wisconsin and Minnesota were divided by the Missippi at that point but had been equal in altitude before.
I couldn't believe what I was seeing. There would be no way to get from one side of the river to the other now except to fly or take a fast boat if one still existed at the bottom of the cliff.
I saw no people, just lots of trees. The trees on the ot her side of the river looked very tiny in comparison to those on my side of the river because they were so far down now.
here is the current earthquake map.
link to maps: http://folkworm.ceri.memphis.edu/recenteqs/
A noted geologist from the University of Missouri-Columbia says his research of earthquakes in China may hold clues as to where the next big earthquake will hit in the Midwest.
This year marks the bicentennial of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812, which are the biggest earthquakes known to have occurred in the central U.S.
But if Mian Liu, professor of geological sciences at the University of Missouri is correct, the next big quake will occur someplace other than the New Madrid fault system.
Professor Liu examined records from China, where earthquakes have been recorded and described for the past 2,000 years. Surprisingly, Liu discovered that during that time period, big earthquakes have never occurred twice in the same place.
"In north China, where large earthquakes occur relatively frequently, not a single one repeated on the same fault segment in the past 2,000 years," Liu said. "So we need to look at the big picture of interacting faults, rather than focusing on the faults where large earthquakes have occurred in the recent past."
Liu and fellow researchers Seth Stein, a professor of earth and planetary sciences at Northwestern University, and Hui Wang, a Chinese Earthquake Administration researcher, believe the New Madrid quake may have loaded increasing stresses on the Wabash Valley Seismic fault system. It extends through the lower Wabash Valley, near the borders of Southern Illinois and Southwestern Indiana.
"The two areas seem likely to be mechanically coupled in that stress transfer following large earthquakes in one could affect earthquake occurrence in the other," Liu wrote. "Numerical modeling indicates that stress transfer following the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes may be loading faults in the Wabash Zone."
The last major quake to occur along the Wabash Seismic Zone was on April 18, 2008, when a magnitude 5.2 quake centered near Belmont, Ill., was felt across a wide area of the Tri-State.
Researchers are now using GPS to test their theory.
"GPS measurements in the past two decades have found no significant strain in the New Madrid area," Liu said.
© 2011 Evansville Courier & Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
Report FROM New Madrid Fault area: The surface
rupture of the roads and highways is out of control.
Sent: Thursday, July 01, 2010 11:19 AM
Subject: New Madrid quake is next
One of my psychic friends says the New Madrid area is the next event that will happen. And if it does, then all
that oily Gulf mess will pour into the hole it leaves when the land sinks. This country deserves it...
Is anyone following the tectonic pressure ....
I live on the New Madrid fault. And I can tell you this. The surface rupture of the roads and highways is out of control. Also, everyday of
the week, the structure of my moms home is "cracking" and shifting. You can hear the walls and the surface crack.
Nearby is a dollar general store. In that parking lot there are 3 flagpoles that "vibrate" violently. (not shaking from wind) Each and
everyday, the roads "blow" up potholes. U.S. 41 is ruptured severely.
Interstate 65 is also badly damaged. They keep trying to repave them but it doesn't work. The Cline Ave bridge at points is closing. This bridge
and off ramps leads right into Inland steel and LTV steel and BP Amoco. So far, I believe 5-7 bridges have been shut down or are scheduled for
closing because they are unsafe.
I monitor the earthquakes daily. And as you know there are far too many happening too quickly.
I believe the general public has been misled. In my opinion, the 2012 shift is happening now, but everyone has been conditioned to believe
that they still have time to prepare for the main event. Thats b.s. It doesn't happen all at once.
In Momence Illinois, some of the buildings are beginning to "sink". In Cedar Lake Indiana, the same is happening.
The bottom line is this; Buildings are cracking, parking lots can't be fixed, roads and bridges are closing every week, sidewalks are sinking
and sinkholes are opening everywhere. At time day or night, you can literally feel the earth "vibrate" below your feet.
I'm in Northwest Indiana, and I believe we are about to get hit with a earthquake of biblical proportions. We are surrounded by propane,
natural gas and BP Amoco refineries.
And, I'm more than concerned what will happen when the new madrid erupts.
Newly Found Fault Could Cause US Quake
By JON GAMBRELL,
LITTLE ROCK, Ark. (Jan. 23, 2009) - A previously unknown fault in eastern Arkansas could trigger a magnitude 7 earthquake with an epicenter near a major natural gas pipeline, a scientist said Wednesday.
Haydar Al-Shukri, the director of the Arkansas Earthquake Center at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, said the fault is separate from the New Madrid fault responsible for a series of quakes in 1811-12 that caused the Mississippi River to flow backward.
This is a Mississippi River
island about 15 miles southeast of Marianna, Ark.,
Acres of cotton fields cover the fault west of Marianna, about 100 miles east of Little Rock, but stretches of fine sand mixed with fertile soil gave away the fault's location, Al-Shukri said. Liquefied sand bubbled up through cracks in the earth, while ground radar and digs showed vents that let the sand reach the surface, he said.
The fault, likely created in the last 5,000 years, sparked at least one magnitude 7 earthquake in its history. Such temblors cause massive destruction in their wake.
"This is a very, very dangerous (area) at risk of earthquake," Al-Shukri said. "When you talk about (magnitude) 7 and plus, this is going to be a major disaster."
Al-Shukri did not identify a time frame for the potential earthquake
Scientists have pinpointed a set of faults in the Midwest
Arkansas Quakes Could Offer Warning
By JON GAMBRELL,
filed under: National News, Natural Disasters News, Science News
LITTLE ROCK, Ark. (Nov. 28, 2008) - A series of small earthquakes that rattled central Arkansas in recent weeks could be a sign of something much bigger to come.
By this weekend, seismologists hope to install three measurement devices to gather data about future temblors in the area. That information could show whether the rumbles come from heat-related geological changes or from an undiscovered fault — which could mean a risk of substantial earthquakes in the future.
“The potential for generating a high-magnitude earthquake is real," said Haydar Al-Shukri, director of the Arkansas Earthquake Center at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock.
Five earthquakes ranging in magnitude from 2.2 to 2.7 have hit central Arkansas this month. Quakes with a magnitude of 2.5 to 3 are typically the smallest felt by people.
While hundreds of earthquakes occur each year, including several in Arkansas, the location of the recent ones give Al-Shukri pause. Arkansas quakes generally occur in the state's northeast corner, part of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, where three temblors with magnitudes of around 8 struck during the winter of 1812 and smaller ones continue today.
But central Arkansas does not have any seismic history, Al-Shukri said.
"It is abnormal. It is significant," he said. "We need to carefully watch this activity."
The area does not have any permanent seismograph, so researchers asked the University of Memphis in Tennessee if they could use its portable equipment. The nearest seismographs aren't close enough to provide the detailed readings scientists need to determine what could be causing the tremors or properly locate their origin, said Scott Ausbrooks, the geohazard supervisor for the Arkansas Geological Survey.
"I don't know if you've looked at a map of where these events are located, but they've got a scatter on them," he said. "We're thinking this is probably the inherited error built in when you try to locate events of this small a magnitude from that far away."
Ausbrooks said officials would install the three seismographs around Magnet Cove, a Hot Spring County community near where a magnitude-2.7 earthquake hit on Nov. 1. Residents told police dispatchers they heard what sounded like an explosion.
One possible culprit could be a hydrothermal quake, caused by extremely hot fluid pushing into rocks under the surface. The hot fluid percolates into the cracks of the rocks and causes movement, Al-Shukri said.
That theory matches the geologic history of the area. Central Arkansas is home to Hot Springs, a city that grew up around its namesake spas. The springs have 143-degree waters rushing to the surface continuously.
If that's the case, the earthquakes likely wouldn't pose a drastic danger to the area, Al-Shukri said. At their strongest, such quakes reach only a magnitude of 5, the U.S. Geological Survey's threshold for "moderate."
However, if the earthquakes are caused by a previously unknown fault, that could mean a much more powerful temblor in the future. A recently discovered fault in eastern Arkansas near Marianna caused an earthquake with a magnitude of between 7.2 and 7.5 in the past 5,000 years, Al-Shukri said. That could cause widespread, heavy damage.
"Now, it's not active, but in geologist time, that's yesterday," he said.
Ausbrooks wouldn't speculate on what could be causing the earthquakes, saying he wanted to see what data the seismographs capture. However, he acknowledged an unknown fault could be running through the area.
"There are numerous faults across the state, both known and unknown," Ausbrooks said. "This area has got a lot of faults associated with it from the mountain building of the Ouachitas, but they're considered inactive."
Copyright 2008 The Associated Press.
Location with respect to nearby cities:
12 km (7 miles) E (90
degrees) of West Salem, IL
Earthquake rattles Illinois4-18-08
(CNN) -- A magnitude-5.2 earthquake, centered 131 miles east of St. Louis, Missouri, shook southern Illinois early Friday, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.
There were few reports of damage immediately after the predawn quake, which struck at 4:36 a.m. (5:36 a.m. ET), but CNN affiliate WHAS-TV in Louisville, Kentucky, showed footage of rubble left in a street after a cornice fell off a brick building there.
The epicenter of the earthquake was about three miles below ground, six miles northwest of Mount Carmel, Illinois, and 38 miles north-northwest of Evansville, Indiana, according to the USGS.
People as far north as southern Michigan and as far west as Des Moines, Iowa, reported feeling the quake, according to The Associated Press.
Air traffic was halted for an hour at Indianapolis International Airport while the control tower was evacuated, CNN affiliate WRTV-TV in the Indiana city reported.
At least 30 people reported feeling the quake in Clarksville, Tennessee -- 227 miles south of the epicenter -- according to the USGS Web site.
Buildings swayed in Chicago's Loop and people were shaken awake in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the AP reported.
People as far away as southwest Michigan and northeast Georgia e-mailed CNN to say they felt the tremor.
"It shook our house where it woke me up," David Behm of Philo, Illinois, told the AP. "Windows were rattling, and you could hear it. The house was shaking inches. For people in central Illinois, this is a big deal. It's not like California."
Radio talk-show host George Noory said he felt the quake in his St. Louis home.
"Everything shook," Noory said. "I thought the building was going to collapse."
Bonnie Lucas, who hosts a morning show at WHO-AM in Des Moines, told the AP she felt her chair move for five seconds.
The USGS said the largest historical earthquake in the region -- magnitude 5.4 -- shook southern Illinois in 1968.
Copyright 2008 CNN. All rights reserved.
All About Earthquakes
Earthquake shakes central
A 5.4 magnitude earthquake that appeared to rival the strongest recorded in the region rocked people up to 450 miles away early Friday, surprising residents unaccustomed to such a powerful Midwest temblor.
The quake just before 4:37 a.m. was centered six miles from West Salem, Ill., and 66 miles from Evansville, Ind. It was felt in such distant cities as Chicago, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and Des Moines, Iowa, 450 miles northwest of the epicenter, but there were no early reports of injuries or significant damage.
“It shook our house where it woke me up,” said David Behm of Philo, 10 miles south of Champaign. “Windows were rattling, and you could hear it. The house was shaking inches. For people in central Illinois, this is a big deal. It’s not like California.”
Bonnie Lucas, a morning co-host at WHO-AM in Des Moines, said she was sitting in her office when she felt her chair move. She grabbed her desk, and then heard the ceiling panels start to creak. The shaking lasted about 5 seconds, she said.
The quake shook skyscrapers in Chicago’s Loop, 240 miles north of the epicenter, and in downtown Indianapolis, about 160 miles northeast of it.
Irvetta McMurtry of Cincinnati said she felt the rattling for up to 20 seconds.
“All of a sudden, I was awakened by this rumbling shaking,” said McMurtry, 43. “My bed is an older wood frame bed, so the bed started to creak and shake, and it was almost like somebody was taking my mattress and moving it back and forth.”
Lucas Griswold, a dispatcher in West Salem, said the Edwards County sheriff’s department received reports of minor damage and no injuries.
“Oh, yeah, I felt it. It was interesting,” Griswold said. “A lot of shaking.”
Indiana State Police spokesman Sgt. Todd Ringle in Evansville said there were no immediate reports of damage.
The quake occurred in the Illinois basin-Ozark dome region that covers parts of Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas and stretches from Indianapolis and St. Louis to Memphis, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.
The organization’s Web site said earthquakes occur irregularly in the area, and that the largest historical earthquake in the region — also a magnitude 5.4 — caused damage in southern Illinois in 1968.
"Just hang tight and let us find out what is going on, but get educated and learn what to do when there is an earthquake," said Pam Bright, director of public information and outreach for the Indiana Department of Homeland Security.
She said that information is available at the department's Web site at www.in.gov/dhs.
Earthquake felt in northern Indiana
Posted: April 18, 2008 02:21 AM PST
FORT WAYNE, Ind. (WANE) - A moderate
earthquake shook many residents in their
beds this morning in northeastern
Links with more information:
United States Educational Seismology Network
The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
Yet Another EQ - 3 Miles From New Madrid
[link to earthquake.usgs.gov]
Date-Time Sunday, January 20, 2008 at 09:13:54 UTC
Sunday, January 20, 2008 at 03:13:54 AM at epicenter
Location 36.630°N, 89.560°W
Depth 9.9 km (6.2 miles)
Region SOUTHEASTERN MISSOURI
Distances 5 km (3 miles) NNW (335°) from New Madrid, MO
6 km (4 miles) ENE (59°) from North Lilbourn, MO
6 km (4 miles) NE (47°) from Lilbourn, MO
172 km (107 miles) NNE (12°) from Memphis, TN
230 km (143 miles) SSE (165°) from St. Louis, MO
Location Uncertainty horizontal +/- 0.3 km (0.2 miles); depth +/- 0.6 km (0.4 miles)
Parameters Nst= 35, Nph= 47, Dmin=4.4 km, Rmss=0.08 sec, Gp= 40°,
M-type=duration magnitude (Md), Version=A
Source Cooperative New Madrid Seismic Network
Event ID nmhwb0120a
The New Madrid fault
May 2, 2007) - Scientists have finally figured out what might have caused a series of devastating earthquakes that struck the Midwest nearly 200 years ago at a set of faults that has confused geologists for a long time.
And the results suggest the region, still seismically active today, is going to keep shaking for a long time, and another big one will hit on the same 500-year cycle that has rocked the Heartland for as far back as records, legends and memory serve.
The largest of three or four big seismic events that stretched from December 1811 to February 1812 is called the New Madrid Earthquake and had an estimated 8.0 magnitude, strong enough to cause the nearby Mississippi River to temporarily flow backward. Its epicenter was in the town of New Madrid in southeast Missouri, near the Kentucky and Tennessee state lines. Hundreds of aftershocks followed for several years.
The damage from the New Madrid quake was bad enough in the early 19th century—half of the town was destroyed, but with many more people and buildings now in the area, a similar event in the region today would be devastating, seismologists and engineers agree.
More to Come
The seismic zone today generates about 200 tiny quakes annually, but it also let loose a magnitude 4.1 quake in February 2005 and a magnitude 4.0 quake in June 2005. The U.S. Geological Survey says there is a 9-in-10 chance of a magnitude 6 or 7 temblor occurring in this area within the next 50 years.
These mid-continent temblors have long fascinated seismologists because of the mysterious origin of earthquakes that occur not at the edges but in the center of tectonic plates such as the North American Plate that underlies the continent.
One team of seismologists had thought that high density pillow lavas in the lower crust beneath the New Madrid region could have pulled the crust downward and thereby generated surface stresses that triggered the quakes.
Now, Allessandro Forte of the Université du Québec à Montréal and his colleagues have arrived at a more dramatic mechanism—an ancient, giant slab of Earth called the Farallon slab that started its descent under the West Coast 70 million years ago and now is causing mayhem and deep mantle flow 360 miles beneath the Mississippi Valley where it effectively pulls the crust down an entire kilometer (.62 miles).
"This remarkable localization of flow in the mantle below New Madrid, originating so deep below the surface, was completely unrecognized prior to our work," Forte told LiveScience.
Slabs like this that sink oceanic crust are called subduction zones, and those adjacent to Japan produce intense and damaging seismic activity.
"We have discovered an analogous subduction zone, deep inside the Earth below the central Mississippi River Valley," Forte said.
Forte and his colleagues at the University of Toronto and the University of Texas based their findings on high-resolution seismic tomography images that were used to predict the topography and viscous flow of the mantle under and around North America. They used the model to focus on the New Madrid seismic zone and propose that the descending slab and associated mantle flow directly below the New Madrid seismic zone strains the overlying crust, causing seismic ruptures.
The results were published in a recent issue of Geophysical Research Letters.
The Farallon plate will continue to descend into the deep mantle and thus to cause mantle downwelling in the New Madrid region for a long time.
"[This] suggests that the seismic risk in the New Madrid region will not fade with time," Forte said.
The fault structure under the New Madrid region is a "failed rift" created by the opening of the ocean that later became the Atlantic Ocean 650 to 600 million years ago, Forte said.
That activity also caused rifts in the St. Lawrence, Saguenay and Ottawa river valleys in Canada, where there is similar mid-continental quaking, he said. Another set of faults far from the boundaries of the North American Plate are associated with the Keweenawan Rift, a 1240-mile-long rift in the area surrounding Lake Superior.
(c) 1999-2007 Imaginova Corp. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
April 6, 2007 Thursday 2.5 EQ
Location: 35.320N, 90.510W
4 Miles NE from Parkin, Arkansas
4 Miles NW from Earle, Arkansas
12 Miles NNW from Jennette, Arkansas
34 Miles WNW from Memphis, Tennessee
229 Miles S from St. Louis, Missouri
[7.9 Miles Deep]
April 6, 2007 Friday 2.7 EQ
Location: 36.090N, 89.410W
4 Miles NNW from Dyersburg, Tennessee
8 Miles WSW from Newbern, Tennessee
13 Miles SSE from Ridgely, Tennessee
74 Miles NNE from Memphis, Tennessee
181 Miles SSE from St. Louis, Missouri
[6.6 Miles Deep]
Editors note: The following article mentions one quake, but personal reports from the area report multiple quakes in the last 20 days. Animals in that area are very distressed.
Small Earthquake Shakes Western Kentucky
A small earthquake along the New Madrid Fault shook two towns in far western Kentucky, but no injuries or damages were reported.
The magnitude 2.9 quake, centered 3 miles northwest of Bardwell, was recorded at 5:47 p.m. CST last Wednesday, according to the Center for Earthquake Research and Information in Memphis, Tenn.
Several people in Bardwell and Wickliffe called to report the temblor, National Weather Service meteorologist Jonathan Garner said.
The New Madrid fault runs through several states, including Missouri.
Copyright 2007 Associated Press. All rights reserved
Expert Warns of Earthquake in New Madrid Zone
June 18, 2006
BLYTHEVILLE, Ark. - An earthquake expert with the U.S. Geological Survey says many residents and officials in northeast Arkansas are setting themselves and their neighbors up for a worse disaster by underestimating the results of a quake in the region.
"This is a different kind of earthquake," said Gary Patterson of the United States Geological Survey Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis in Memphis, Tenn.
"This is not a California earthquake," Patterson said last week at a meeting of the Arkansas Gov.'s Earthquake Advisory Council. "There are some basic differences here that drive the hazard level up."
Patterson, who serves as information director and geologist for the Memphis center, said that, unlike faults in California, the New Madrid Seismic Zone contains three to five major fault segments lying over the top of each other in a relatively small area.
3-18-02 - I had a waking vision that an earthquake was going to occur along the Mississippi River that was so large, that it created an island to form all the way from St. Louis to the Minnesota border.
After that, I saw a man standing at a podium in Congress, named McMullen who was asking for resources. He did this twice.
There are McMullens in several states, so this would be probable.
NOTE: Research does not show any likelihood that this could occur, but that would make it all the more devastating if it did occur without warning.
Illinois, other states feel 3.9 earthquake
Items compiled from Tribune news services
Published June 21, 2005
CLINTON, KENTUCKY -- A small earthquake centered in western Kentucky rattled residents across parts of Illinois, Kentucky and three other states Monday morning. No damage was reported.
The 3.9 magnitude quake centered near Clinton hit at 7:21 a.m. and was felt in southern Illinois, western Kentucky, southeast Missouri, northwest Tennessee and eastern Arkansas, said Diane Noserale, spokeswoman for the U.S. Geological Survey in Reston, Va.
It was the second quake to hit the area in a matter of hours along the New Madrid Fault System, Noserale said. A 2.7 magnitude quake Sunday in the same area was felt in southern Illinois and Kentucky.
Magnitude 3.7 EASTERN KENTUCKY
Preliminary Earthquake Report
September 17, 2004 at 15:21:43 (UTC) - Coordinated Universal Time
Friday, September 17, 2004 at 11:21:43 AM local time at epicenter
Time of Earthquake in other Time Zones
|Reference||45 km (25 miles) NW of Middlesboro,
55 km (35 miles) ESE of Somerset, Kentucky
80 km (50 miles) WSW of Hazard, Kentucky
160 km (100 miles) SSE of FRANKFORT, Kentucky
|Remarks||mbLg 3.7 (GS). Felt (V) at Gray; (IV) at Barbourville, Corbin, London and Rockholds; (III) at Manchester and Williamsburg.|
A minor earthquake jostled Central Indiana awake Sunday, shaking some buildings but causing no damage or injuries.
The 3.6 magnitude earthquake was recorded at 8:05 a.m., and was the state's first in more than two years. Its epicenter was located about seven miles north of Shelbyville, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.
Scientists who study the earth said the incident was not tied to any major fault lines and did not signal more temblors to come.
Hoosiers as far north as Noblesville, as far west as Martinsville and Brownsburg and as far east as Rushville found themselves asking, "Was that what I think it was?"
"It didn't last long, but it sure did wake us up," said Julie Jones, a dispatcher at the Shelby County Sheriff's Department. "Our consoles were shaking and as soon as it stopped all the lines lit up."
Tim Cooney, a mortgage banker who lives about two miles north of Shelbyville, thought it was another of the many National Guard helicopters that fly over his house.
The Shelbyville Armory next to the Shelbyville Airport is home to an aviation support facility.
Perhaps there was a crash, he thought.
"My wife felt the bed swaying, and she knew right away it was an earthquake," Cooney said. "I thought my wife was off her rocker."
Jason Adams, an advertising manager who lives in an apartment complex on the Northeastside, thinks his dogs Jake and Mazzy felt the quake coming. They woke up and started barking about 7:55 a.m.
"They just wouldn't stop," he said. "And the next thing I knew, there was a shock wave that went through the building. I could feel the whole building move."
Gary Pavlis, a professor of geological sciences at Indiana University, said the state experiences minor quakes every few years.
Sunday's earthquake occurred about six miles deep, he said, in an area of structures geologists don't understand well. He said the shaking likely was set off when a rock roughly the size of a good-sized building -- say, six or seven stories tall -- shifted.
According to the US Geological Survey, about 130,000 earthquakes with a magnitude of 3 to 3.9 occur every year.
In 2003, there were 1,300 earthquakes in that magnitude range in the United States, according to statistics compiled by the geological survey.
The most recent earthquake in the region occurred June 28, near Troy Grove, Ill. That temblor had a magnitude of 4.2, according to the geological survey's Web site.
The last recorded earthquake in Indiana occurred on June 18, 2002. The temblor registered a magnitude of 5.0 and was centered near Darmstadt, about 10 miles north of Evansville. It caused little damage.
While there have been major earthquakes in Indiana territory over the past 20,000 years, Pavlis said, the chances of experiencing "the big one" are far less likely than in California.
"That's the perspective that people have to keep in mind," Pavlis said. "This is one of those small events that just pop off now and again that can't be related to any specific geological structures or faults."
Star reporter John Strauss contributed this story.
Call Star reporter Stuart Hirsch at (317) 444-2805.
Location - 38.07N 87.68W
Depth - 5.0 kilometers
Magnitude - 5.0
Region - SOUTHERN INDIANA
Reference - 10 miles (15 km) NW of Evansville, Indiana
Source - USGS NEIC
The following is a release by the United States Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center: A moderate earthquake occurred IN SOUTHERN INDIANA about 10 miles northwest of Evansville at 11:37 AM MDT, Jun 18, 2002 (12:37 PM CDT in Indiana). The magnitude and location may be revised when additional data and further analysis results are available. The earthquake was felt in parts of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio and West Virginia. No reports of damage or casualties have been received at this time.
Quake hits Indiana along New Madrid Faults
The earthquake occurred in one of the more seismically active portions of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. A large area covering southern Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and parts of western Kentucky and southeastern Missouri has earthquakes rather frequently, by eastern U.S. standards. Most years, this area has a few earthquakes large enough to be felt, but, on average, damaging earthquakes occur about once a decade. The largest earthquakes from this region in the twentieth century were the magnitude 5.5 southern Illinois earthquake of November 1968 and the magnitude 5.2 southern Illinois earthquake of June 1987. The magnitude 3.9 southern Indiana earthquake of December 7, 2000 had an epicenter very near that of today's shock. This seismicity is north and northeast of the well-known New Madrid seismic zone, which is in the bootheel of southeastern Missouri and adjacent Arkansas and western Tennessee. The earthquake occurred within the generally stable interior of the North American plate, far from currently active plate boundaries. The modern earthquakes in this part of the U.S. are thought to result from the reactivation of ancient faults, which are being squeezed by stresses from the modern motion of tectonic plates. Previous earthquakes in this area have not been associated with movement on specific geologically mapped faults.
In the past 10 years, geologists working in the area have found evidence of prehistoric earthquakes in the Wabash River Valley that were probably much larger than any historical earthquakes. Geologic evidence indicates that these prehistoric earthquakes occurred several thousand years ago.
The Mississippi Valley -
The New Madrid Fault System extends 120 Miles southward from the area of Charleston, Missouri, and Cairo, Illinois, through New Madrid and Caruthersville, following Interstate 55 to Blytheville and on down to Marked Tree, Arkansas. It crosses five state lines and cuts across the Mississippi River in three places and the Ohio River in two places. The Fault is Active, averaging more than 200 measured events per year (1.0 or more on the Richter scale), about 20 per month. Tremors large enough to be felt (2.5-3.0 on the Richter scale) are noted annually. Every 18 months the fault releases a shock of 4.0 or more, capable of local minor damage. Magnitudes of 5.0 or greater occur about once per decade, can do significant damage and be felt in several states.
The highest earthquake risk in the United States outside the West Coast is along the New Madrid Fault. Damaging temblors are not as frequent as in California, but when they do occur, the destruction covers over more than 20 times the area because of underlying geology.
A damaging earthquake in this area (6.0 or greater) occurs about every 80 years (the last one in 1895). There is a 50% chance of such a quake by the year 2000. The results would be serious damage to schools and masonry buildings from Memphis to St. Louis.
SEMA - MISSOURI STATE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION
MISSOURI - SEISMIC SAFETY COMMISSION
The English Hills faults are located on the southeast flank of the Benton Hills in Scott County, Missouri. Originally described by geologists in the 1930s, the faults had been ignored for decades: their very existence had even been challenged.
First the material displaced by faulting in the trenches is quite young geologically. It appears that, while 8 to 12 feet of vertical displacement has occurred at the trench site, most of the displacement is horizontal---how much horizontal displacement is not yet known. Modern soil profiles, which are usually less than 10,000 years old, have apparently been displaced by large earthquakes along the English Hills faults. Faulting within the past 10,000 years is considered "active." It must be assumed that active faulting will continue in the future.
THE COMMERCE FAULT OF ILLINOIS
QUAKE EXPECTATIONS IN ILLINOIS
A REBIRTH OF THE ILLINOIS BASIN
NORTHERN ILLINOIS EARTHQUAKES - TEXT
NORTHERN ILLINOIS EARTHQUAKES - PDF - WITH MAPS
RECENT HELICORDER SIESMOGRAPHS
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE INFORMATION CENTER
World Data Center for Seismology, Denver
The following is from the United States Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center: Preliminary hypocenter for earthquake of 2001 Jan 26, OHIO, about 10 miles (10 km) NNW of Ashtabula, Ohio:
latitude 42.0 degrees north, longitude 80.8 degrees west, origin time 03
03 19.2 utc, depth shallow, magnitude 4.2 mbLg.
The earthquake was felt in northeastern Ohio, the Erie, Pennsylvania area and at Toronto, Canada.
Friday January 26, 2001 - 01:01 PM EST
Earthquake Hits Northeast Ohio
Vibrations Felt In Pittsburgh
A 4.2-magnitude earthquake hit northeast Ohio at about 10 p.m. Thursday.
No one was hurt, but damage was done to homes and businesses. The earthquake was centered in Lake Erie near the town of Ashtabula. A smaller quake was reported in the same area last Friday. Officials at the Carnegie Science Center in Pittsburgh said that the quake showed up on their seismograph.
A Dream From a Reader - Texas Quake
I had another very lucid dream last night. My kids and I were on a drive to St. Louis, MO from Southern California. The route we took was very simple, but I will list it just the same for those who've never taken it. It is: I-10 west to I-15 north, to I-40 east, then to I-45 north.
My kids, Bobby and Faye, were of elementary school age in the dream. I was driving an old Pontiac. We had reached Amarillo, TX, to stop for gas and food and to rest for the day (too hot to drive across the desert in the Texas panhandle). We went to a newly built shopping mall that was built entirely from unreinforced masonry and glass -- red brick with gray mortar. Beautiful to look at but deadly in an earthquake. It had a gray concrete multi-level parking structure, which we did not use. We chose to park in an open area that was still somewhat protected from the burning sun.
While in one of those high-end designer clothing stores, I found a blank, crumpled-up piece of white paper on the floor, so I thought I'd be courteous, pick it up and throw it into the trash. The kids and I looked all around the beautifully arranged store, but couldn't find a trash can anywhere until I reached what looked like the customer service desk, where there stood a black plastic trash can that was half full. I went to deposit the ball of paper when a woman with long brown hair and wearing a simple dress (light-colored), with a burgundy, gold and white designer scarf around her neck approached me and scolded me for wanting to trash that ball of paper.
I thought she had taken leave of her senses, so I went ahead and trashed the paper, then turned to exit the store with the kids. The woman yelled a threat after us, "You'll never make it out of this mall alive!! Even if you do, the desert heat will kill you."
We went looking for a pay phone to call the police and report the threat when the mall started falling apart. Brick, mortar and glass were all falling to the floor everywhere we looked. Emergency doors everywhere in the mall started to close, but the kids and I got out with no problem. Then we looked around to find every building in the area totally destroyed and the freeway we had just exited (I-40 east) collapsed at a nearby bridge. I asked God what had happened (lucid -- I chose to ask). He answered, "Loma Prieta." For those who don't remember, the 7+ (or was it 8+) earthquake that collapsed the section of I-80 that goes through Oakland, CA, along with almost every building in the Marina District of San Francisco, was centered in the nearby town of Loma Prieta, CA a few years ago. I had decided to return to the car and drive back to CA. We were on our way back to the car with buildings collapsing all around us (no cars were damaged) when the dream ended.
END OF DREAM
Report: Mississippi Valley at risk of big quake
November 4, 1999
WASHINGTON (Reuters) -- Mississippi River Valley cities such as St. Louis and Memphis are in grave danger of being hit by a severe earthquake, geologists said Thursday.
They found faults, similar to those responsible for the 1994 Northridge quake that badly damaged the Los Angeles area, all along the New Madrid fault region that extends through Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Illinois and Tennessee.
That region was hit by three big quakes with magnitudes greater than 7.0 on the open-ended Richter scale in 1811 and 1812 -- quakes so strong they reportedly caused church bells to ring all the way to Boston.
Writing in the journal Science, a team at the University of Colorado at Boulder and the University of Arkansas said they had found evidence that explains just why the quake threat there is so serious.
"Our evidence shows the New Madrid seismic zone is indeed a threat, which contradicts a recent study of the seismic hazard of the region taken with satellite data," Karl Mueller, who led the study, said in a statement.
"For the first time we can see how fast the earthquake engine is running and how long it takes to build up energy for a quake."
Not only would any quake be strong, but because the valley is made up of layers of silt, the shaking would turn much of the land to jelly in a process known as liquefaction.
"New Madrid is the world's most spectacular example of liquefaction," Mueller said in a telephone interview. "When you take a fine-grained, saturated sediment like mud or silt and you shake it during an earthquake, it turns to the consistency of jello."
"If you have a building that is sitting on top of jello, the building falls down. The scary part about New Madrid is that ... we see liquefaction all over the place there."
And people in Memphis, for example, would be caught unprepared. "They really don't think that (quakes) are a threat because they haven't happened in a lifetime," Mueller said.
Mueller said he thinks his team's data is reliable because they did so many different measurements of the faults.
They hired backhoe operators to dig long, deep, trenches along the Mississippi floodplain in the Reelfoot Lake region of Tennessee to expose recent deformations of the sediments.
Geologists have recently been studying "blind-thrust" faults that cannot be easily seen or mapped. Such a hidden thrust-fault was responsible for the 1994 Northridge quake, which measured 6.7 on the Richter scale, killed 57 people and caused more than $40 billion in damage.
One signature of blind-thrust faults is the folding of rocks or sediments beneath the surface as they absorb the upward motion of the energy released by the faults.
They found a pattern of faults linked into a forked, lightning-bolt shape. "If you know the shape of the fault, then you know where the seismic gun is pointed," Mueller said.
Mueller said there is no telling just when a quake will hit, but it was likely a quake of magnitude 7.2, enough to cause serious damage to buildings, would strike within 500 years of the 1812 quake.
He said right now, about three feet of "elastic energy" is stored in the fault system. "If it popped off now, that would be a Northridge-sized event," he said. "That's something in the mid-to-high 6's."
Copyright 1999 Reuters
Midwest debate over earthquakes growing in magnitude - May
99/10/13 15:58:59 35.69N 90.27W 8.6 2.4 B 21.9 km east of Trumann, AR (C)
99/10/20 09:00:03 34.77N 91.30W 11.3 2.5 D 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Clarendon AR (C)
99/10/21 08:18:00 36.49N 91.02W 19.3 3.9Lg C 6 km north of Pocahontas, AR (C)
99/10/21 08:49:49 36.51N 91.05W 11.7 2.7 D 9 km north of Pocahontas, AR (C)
99/10/21 latitude 36.7 degrees north, longitude 91.1 degrees west, origin time 08 17 56.4 utc, depth shallow, magnitude 3.9 mbLg. The earthquake was felt in the Jonesboro, Arkansas area. There have been no reports of damage.
9-2-99 - Physicist on Art Bell show states that his prediction for BIG earthquakes will be September 7 through the 11th, based on scientific principles he's been studying a long time.
|RECENT QUAKE CHART PAGE|
|Most recent significant event for this region|
10 miles SSE of Dixon, Illinois
SEP 2 1999
DIXON, Ill. (AP) - An earthquake rippled through northern Illinois today, shaking pictures off walls and causing some buildings to wobble. Authorities said there were no immediate reports of damage or injuries from the quake, which occurred at 11:17 a.m. and had a preliminary magnitude of 3.5, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. The epicenter was 10 miles south-southeast of Dixon, about 90 miles west of Chicago.
Some thought the vibration was due to passing trucks. Jane Lovgren, a clerk at the Amboy Pharmacy, also said she didn't feel a thing.
``They're tearing the heck out of the bank next store. They're using a jackhammer, so that's probably why we missed it,'' Lovgren said.
Seth Stein, a professor of geological sciences at Northwestern University, said a light quake occurs about once a year somewhere in the Midwest.
IS THIS A PRECURSOR?
Minor earthquake shakes western Tennessee
August 23, 1999
Web posted at: 1:11 PM EDT (1711 GMT)
MEMPHIS, Tennessee (Reuters) -- An earthquake with a magnitude of 3.1 -- strong enough to be felt but not powerful enough to cause damage -- was recorded in northwest Tennessee Monday, the University of Memphis Center for Earthquake Research and Information said.
"We've had reports of minor shaking, furniture moving," said Gary Patterson, a seismologist at the center. He said the earthquake was centered southwest of Ridgely, a village along the Mississippi river, and recorded at 8:12 a.m. EDT.
The area is on the New Madrid fault. Patterson said there were 15 quakes of roughly the same strength along that fault in 1998, but Monday's was the first recorded since July 15 of that year.
The area was rocked by major earthquakes in 1811 and 1812, one of which changed the course of the Mississippi.
Copyright 1999 Reuters
2.9 QUAKE HITS MISSISSIPPI
Hopefully this is not just a precursor to something bigger!
8 TO 9 QUAKE IMMINENT
QUAKE OF 1812
|Roman numerals indicate estimated
Modified Mercalli intensities for a
6.5 magnitude earthquake.
NEW MADRID SEISMOGRAPH CENTERS
NEW MADRID SEISMOGRAPH LISTINGS
|MAP OF QUAKES FROM 1800 TO 1983
All red dots are quakes able to be felt by people above ground
|MAP OF QUAKES FROM 1975 TO 1995
All red dots are quakes able to be felt by people above ground
Light Beings are attempting to stop an imminent quake on the New Madrid Fault. If they cannot do this, it is going to be between an 8 and 9. I have been told by the lightbeings that 4 lightworkers live in the major danger zone and they have been told to move and they have not. I was also told that they get four warnings and that is all. If anyone has received this message personally, it's time to get out NOW!
Subj: Re: CRITICAL EQ WINDOWS-RS ALERT
Date: 01/29/1999 6:23:16 PM Central Standard Time
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (D. POPE)
> Hi: Last night I had a unique experience. I was already laying comfortably in bed when suddenly I got an electrical jolt going from my left kidney, up through my neck into my head, ending in my left ear with a loud buzz. I practically flew out of bed from it.
I have had jabs to my left kidney area this week, but they stay right there until gone.
> I was laying there, thinking about what it might be. First I thought Mexico...nothing...then I thought Mississippi River...New Madrid Fault, and a bright light flashed in my upper right forehead area inside my head like it was confirming that thought as being correct.
This is set for March...if it is to be and I have this gut feeling, the Bible belt is going to be purged.
> As an addition to that, a friend of mine has been watching radar pictures of that area, and there have been red flashes in that same area where no storms are located.
This really caught me attention. For the first time, I saw red flashes or dots on my S. Cal. weather map and wondered at them. This morning the news said, "no rain until Sunday" and that was ify. But now there is rain showing in Ventura/Oxnard and a long line of storm clouds coming up from the south and heading right at me.
> We have been watching radar pictures for many months and frequently red flashes are seen on radar followed by earthquakes in the same spot. We're keeping an eye on that.
I do believe we have the finger of God at work here.
For quake history and definitions see:
HISTORICAL FACTS ON THIS FAULT SYSTEM
VISIONS FROM THE PAST ABOUT THE NEW MADRID PREDICTION OF 1990
RESPONSES TO IBEN BROWNING'S 1990 PREDICTION OF QUAKE
THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT NEW MADRID FAULT
THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY - A WHOLE LOT OF SHAKIN' GOING ON
PHOTOS OF THE NEW MADRID FAULT TAKEN IN 1904
NEW MADRID - 1811-1812
THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY EARTHQUAKES OF 1811-1812
THE NEW MADRID FAULT SYSTEM
DEFORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH THE 1812 QUAKE
EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT OF 1812 QUAKE
EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT FROM 1811
EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT FROM DEC. 6, 1811
TECUMSEH'S ACCOUNT OF THE QUAKE BY DAVID YARROW
SHALLOW STRUCTURE IN THE BOOTHEEL REGION - GREAT MAP
ST CHARLES COUNTY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY
QUAKE DAMAGE POSSIBILITIES
RELOCATION OF NEW MADRID SEISMIC ZONE EVENTS
2-6-99 - DREAM - I was sitting out in the yard writing in a book. When I had written all I had to say, I went upstairs into the house.
I walked into the livingroom. My children were all sitting there. They were so quiet, I knew something had to be going on, so I stopped and looked around me. The boys had painted the livingroom. but they hadn't painted the whole livingroom, they had painted only a wide strip around all the doors and windows so wide expanses of old wood and darker painted all still showed. My son Michael pointed out a spot along the baseboard. He said, "My Father accused me of dribbling paint on the floor, so I proved to him that I didn't." He pulled up on the wall several feet, showing a striated bare piece of wood about a foot and a half high, and then about an inch of the 'bedrock' below it. I was rather shocked that the wall had raised up so far.
We all then went upstairs to the bedrooms. My intention was to put my book away and to either sew or knit something in the Master bedroom. My son Michael carried my girl child into the children's bedroom and I walked into the Master bedroom. By having both doors open, a great wind blew through the house and slammed the Master bedroom shut behind me.
I sat down on the edge of the bed and told my son Ken who was sitting at the sewing machine that I needed needle and thread. He handed me a round woven basket in which I saw some pins in the center and a spool of thread on which there several colors of thread around it.
In order to sew anything, I had to have a single piece of thread and a needle, however when I pulled on the colored thread on the spool, I pulled a tremendous amount of blue rubber band that was wound around like a hank of yarn. It was followed by a smaller piece of red rubber band which I decided to wind around the blue rubber band. There was a shorter amount of red rubber band but as I wound the red rubber band around the blue rubber band, white yarn, black yarn, and green yarn appeared and this yarn lead to entire ...almost completed sweaters and afghans which I rolled up like paper toweling. I had 3 colors of yarn coming down from the roll to the spool below so it looked like :
(Look on the map of the U.S. Mississippi River Tributaries
Drainage Map of the Mississippi River, Ohio River, Arkansas River, Tennessee River, Missouri River, and Tributaries
Just the Missouri, Mississippi, and Ohio were in the dream. as the yarn coming down. (That's the direction of the three strands of yarn.
I got it that far and I said to my son Ken,"I still can't find a needle and shook the basket, trying to find one. I could still only see pins in the basket. If there was a needle there, it was still hidden by the part of the reed of the basket that went in the bottom circle inside of it.
Like I said, this might be a little far fetched, but when I saw the three strands of yarn coming down in the shape of the 3 rivers, plus the wall being pulled up to show the 'bedrock' and the basket shaking, and the great wind blowing, it all rather fit.
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