Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20, 2011

today's date October 6, 2013


page 573






8-19-2001 - DREAM - I was working for some important people in a large factory. I was in the section where all the spare parts were kept in cabinets. There was some consideration being made about lack of space in the place.

I noted that one stack of shelves was held up by a set of 12" wheels, so I suggested that using 14" wheels instead would allow them to use the 12" wheels elsewhere where they were really needed.


They heard me, but didn't comment.  Suddenly then, a woman came in and showed me that they had actually ratcheted down the cabinet shelves and had deliberately done this so people didn't know the space was there, hidden from them.  A woman ratcheted them up two shelves while I stood there.


I then went into a small room where the electronics, alarms, and other warning devices were kept.  However, they hunted me down and demanded that I discuss a controversial topic with them.   They showed me that  bringing these controversial topics out into the open and discussing them actually ratcheted them around so they got opinions on them. That's why they hadn't brought them out into the open earlier.


I then discovered who the real boss was. It was Hilary Clinton. She was mad at me because I wouldn't discuss 'cloning' with her.  She showed me that cloning was a 'pink' topic and demanded that I come into the women's bathroom and discuss it with her and a couple other women.

I quipped back at her, "I don't want to clone myself, but now we should discuss cloning YOU????"


She laughed and walked into the women's bathroom, fully knowing I was following her to discuss this controversial issue.

NOTE: Later on, I was laying in bed and thinking about this subject and I saw the words, "There is no leadership in this discussion. "




US Patent granted on the design of human offspring



US company to offer methods for the selection blue eyes, longer life and athletic properties for offspring

Friday, 4. October 2013

The US company 23andMe has received a US patent for the selection of human sperm cells and oocytes (US8543339). Genetic data can be collected from which potential parents can choose donors according to criteria such as eye colour, longer life span and athletic properties.

“The genetic identity of humans never should be selected according to fashion, trends or even commercial interests. Eugenic selection governed by commercial interests is in fundamental conflict with human dignity”, Christoph Then says for Testbiotech. “Any business based on creation of designer babies should not be fostered by patent law.”

The patent was also filed in Europe and other regions (WO 2010/065139). However, it is not likely to be granted in Europe because there is a prohibition of patents that are against morality and public order. Further the patent can be classified as a business method which is - contrary to the US – regarded as not patentable in Europe. Meanwhile the application seems to have been withdrawn in Europe.

Nevertheless, the European Patent Office, EPO, has already granted several patents, which are problematic from this ethical point of view. For example, Ovasort received a patent in 2011 (EP1263521) on the selection of human sperm cells. In 2009, Merck Serono received a patent on the usage of human oocytes (EP1794287). In both cases Testbiotech has filed oppositions – however the EPO has not made any decisions yet.


Christoph Then, 004915154638040,


In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro. IVF is a major treatment for infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves monitoring a woman's ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. When a woman's natural cycle is monitored to collect a naturally selected ovum (egg) for fertilisation, it is known as natural cycle IVF. The fertilised egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient's uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy. The first successful birth of a "test tube baby", Louise Brown, occurred in 1978. Louise Brown was born as a result of natural cycle IVF. Robert G. Edwards, the physiologist who developed the treatment, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010.


The term in vitro, from the Latin meaning in glass, is used, because early biological experiments involving cultivation of tissues outside the living organism from which they came, were carried out in glass containers such as beakers, test tubes, or petri dishes. Today, the term in vitro is used to refer to any biological procedure that is performed outside the organism it would normally be occurring in, to distinguish it from an in vivo procedure, where the tissue remains inside the living organism within which it is normally found. A colloquial term for babies conceived as the result of IVF, "test tube babies", refers to the tube-shaped containers of glass or plastic resin, called test tubes, that are commonly used in chemistry labs and biology labs. However, in vitro fertilisation is usually performed in the shallower containers called Petri dishes. One IVF method, autologous endometrial coculture, is actually performed on organic material, but is still considered in vitro.


IVF may be used to overcome female infertility in the woman due to problems of the fallopian tube, making fertilisation in vivo difficult. It may also assist in male infertility, where there is a defect in sperm quality, and in such cases intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be used, where a sperm cell is injected directly into the egg cell. This is used when sperm have difficulty penetrating the egg, and in these cases the partner's or a donor's sperm may be used. ICSI is also used when sperm numbers are very low. When indicated, the use of ICSI has been found to increase the success rates of IVF.


According to NICE guidelines, IVF is indicated in unexplained infertility for women that have not conceived after 2 years of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.


For IVF to be successful it typically requires healthy ova, sperm that can fertilize, and a uterus that can maintain a pregnancy. Due to the costs of the procedure, IVF is generally attempted only after less expensive options have failed.


IVF is also indicated in cases where any of its expansions is of interest, that is, a procedure that is usually not necessary for the IVF procedure itself, but would be virtually impossible or technically difficult to perform without concomitantly performing methods of IVF. Such expansions include preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to rule out presence of genetic disorders, as well as egg donation or surrogacy where the woman providing the egg isn't the same who will carry the pregnancy to term. Further details in the Expansions-section below.


Theoretically, in vitro fertilization could be performed by collecting the contents from a woman's fallopian tubes or uterus after natural ovulation, mixing it with semen, and reinserting into the uterus. However, without additional techniques, the chances of pregnancy would be extremely small. Such additional techniques that are routinely used in IVF include ovarian hyperstimulation to retrieve multiple eggs, ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval directly from the ovaries, egg and sperm preparation, as well as culture and selection of resultant embryos before embryo transfer back into the uterus.


Ovarian hyperstimulation[edit]

There are two current main protocols for stimulating the ovaries for IVF treatment. The long protocol involves downregulation (suppression or exhaustion) of the pituitary ovarian axis by the prolonged use of a GnRH agonist. Subsequent ovarian hyperstimulation, typically using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), starts once the process of downregulation is complete, generally after 10 to 14 days. An IVF cycle using this protocol is known as conventional IVF.

The short protocol skips the downregulation part, and consists of a regimen of fertility medications to stimulate the development of multiple follicles of the ovaries. In most patients, injectable gonadotropins (usually FSH analogues) are used under close monitoring. Such monitoring frequently checks the estradiol level and, by means of gynecologic ultrasonography, follicular growth. Typically approximately 10 days of injections will be necessary.


 Spontaneous ovulation during the cycle is typically prevented by the use of GnRH antagonists that are used just during the last days of stimulation to block the natural surge of luteinising hormone (LH) and allow the physician to start the ovulation process by using medication, usually injectable human chorionic gonadotropins.


Ovarian stimulation carries the risk of excessive stimulation leading to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). This complication is life-threatening and ovarian stimulation using gonadotropins must only be carried out under strict medical supervision

Natural and mild IVF[edit]

IVF can be performed by collecting a naturally selected egg from woman’s natural menstrual cycle without the use of any drugs. It is known as natural cycle IVF. The first test tube baby Louise Brown was born following natural cycle IVF. This method can be successfully used when women want to avoid taking ovarian stimulating drugs with its associated side-effects. HFEA has estimated the live birth rate to be approximately 1.3% per natural cycle IVF for women aged between 40–42.


The next step-up method is called modified natural cycle IVF. In this method, medication is used for 2–4 days during woman’s natural cycle to avoid spontaneous ovulation and to make the treatment more successful. As the success rates are improved it is a widely used method of natural IVF. It is particularly beneficial in women with very low egg reserve and in those whose ovaries do not respond to drugs.


Mild IVF is a method where a small dose of ovarian stimulating drugs are used for a short duration during a woman’s natural cycle aimed at producing 2–7 eggs and creating healthy embryos. This method appears to be an advance in the field to reduce complications and side-effects for women and it is aimed at quality, and not quantity of eggs and embryos. One study comparing a mild treatment (mild ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist co-treatment combined with single embryo transfer) to a standard treatment (stimulation with a GnRH agonist long-protocol and transfer of two embryos) came to the result that the proportions of cumulative pregnancies that resulted in term live birth after 1 year were 43.4% with mild treatment and 44.7% with standard treatment.[5] Mild IVF can be cheaper than conventional IVF and with a significantly reduced risk of multiple gestation and OHSS.[6] There is also evidence that the birthweights of babies are higher in women treated by natural or mild IVF compared to conventional IVF.[citation needed]

Final maturation and egg retrieval[edit]

When the ovarian follicles have reached a certain degree of development, induction of final oocyte maturation is performed, generally by an injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Commonly, this is known as the "trigger shot." hCG acts as an analogue of luteinising hormone, and ovulation would occur between 38 and 40 hours after a single HCG injection, but the egg retrieval is performed at a time usually between 34 and 36 hours after hCG injection, that is, just prior to when the follicles would rupture. This avails for scheduling the egg retrieval procedure at a time where the eggs are fully mature. HCG injection confers a risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Using a GnRH agonist instead of hCG eliminates the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, but with a delivery rate of approximately 6% less than with hCG.


The eggs are retrieved from the patient using a transvaginal technique called transvaginal oocyte retrieval, involving an ultrasound-guided needle piercing the vaginal wall to reach the ovaries. Through this needle follicles can be aspirated, and the follicular fluid is passed to an embryologist to identify ova. It is common to remove between ten and thirty eggs. The retrieval procedure takes usually takes between 20 to 40 minutes, depending on the number of mature follicles, and is usually done under conscious sedation or general anaesthesia.

Egg and sperm preparation[edit]


In the laboratory, the identified eggs are stripped of surrounding cells and prepared for fertilisation. An oocyte selection may be performed prior to fertilisation to select eggs with optimal chances of successful pregnancy. In the meantime, semen is prepared for fertilisation by removing inactive cells and seminal fluid in a process called sperm washing. If semen is being provided by a sperm donor, it will usually have been prepared for treatment before being frozen and quarantined, and it will be thawed ready for use.


The sperm and the egg are incubated together at a ratio of about 75,000:1 in the culture media for about 18 hours. In most cases, the egg will be fertilised by that time and the fertilised egg will show two pronuclei. In certain situations, such as low sperm count or motility, a single sperm may be injected directly into the egg using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The fertilised egg is passed to a special growth medium and left for about 48 hours until the egg consists of six to eight cells.


In gamete intrafallopian transfer, eggs are removed from the woman and placed in one of the fallopian tubes, along with the man's sperm. This allows fertilisation to take place inside the woman's body. Therefore, this variation is actually an in vivo fertilisation, not an in vitro fertilisation.

Embryo culture[edit]

Typically, embryos are cultured until having reached the 6 to 8 cell stage three days after retrieval. In many Canadian, American and Australian programmes however, embryos are placed into an extended culture system with a transfer done at the blastocyst stage at around five days after retrieval, especially if many good-quality embryos are still available on day 3. Blastocyst stage transfers have been shown to result in higher pregnancy rates.


In Europe, transfers after 2 days are common.

Embryo selection[edit]

Laboratories have developed grading methods to judge oocyte and embryo quality. In order to optimise pregnancy rates, there is significant evidence that a morphological scoring system is the best strategy for the selection of embryos.

Embryo transfer[edit]

Embryos are failed by the embryologist based on the amount of cells, evenness of growth and degree of fragmentation. The number to be transferred depends on the number available, the age of the woman and other health and diagnostic factors. In countries such as Canada, the UK, Australia and New Zealand, a maximum of two embryos are transferred except in unusual circumstances. In the UK and according to HFEA regulations, a woman over 40 may have up to three embryos transferred, whereas in the USA, younger women may have many embryos transferred based on individual fertility diagnosis. Most clinics and country regulatory bodies seek to minimise the risk of pregnancies carrying multiples, as it is not uncommon for more implantations to take than desired. The embryos judged to be the "best" are transferred to the patient's uterus through a thin, plastic catheter, which goes through her vagina and cervix. Several embryos may be passed into the uterus to improve chances of implantation and pregnancy.

Success rates[edit]

IVF success rates are the percentage of all IVF procedures which result in a favorable outcome. Depending on the type of calculation used, this outcome may represent the number of confirmed pregnancies, called the pregnancy rate or number of live births, called the live birth rate.

Due to advancement in reproductive technology, the IVF success rates are substantially better today than they were just a few years ago. The most current data available in the United States a 2009 summary complied by the Society for Reproductive Medicine which reports the average national IVF success rates per age group using non-donor eggs (see table below).

<35 35-37 38-40 41-42
Pregnancy Rate 47.6 38.9 30.1 20.5
Live Birth Rate 41.4 31.7 22.3 12.6

The live birth rates using donor eggs are also given by the SART and include all age groups using either fresh or thawed eggs.[12]

Fresh donor egg embryos Thawed donor egg embryos
Live birth rate 55.1 33.8

In 2006, Canadian clinics reported an average pregnancy rate of 35%. A French study estimated that 66% of patients starting IVF treatment finally succeed in having a child (40% during the IVF treatment at the center and 26% after IVF discontinuation). Achievement of having a child after IVF discontinuation was mainly due to adoption (46%) or spontaneous pregnancy (42%).

Live birth rate[edit]


The live birth rate is the percentage of all IVF cycles that lead to a live birth. This rate does not include miscarriage or stillbirth and multiple-order births such as twins and triplets are counted as one pregnancy. In 2006, Canadian clinics reported a live birth rate of 27%. Birth rates in younger patients were slightly higher, with a success rate of 35.3% for those 21 and younger, the youngest group evaluated. Success rates for older patients were also lower and decrease with age, with 37-year-olds at 27.4% and no live births for those older than 48, the oldest group evaluated. Some clinics exceeded these rates, but it is impossible to determine if that is due to superior technique or patient selection, because it is possible to artificially increase success rates by refusing to accept the most difficult patients or by steering them into oocyte donation cycles (which are compiled separately). Further, pregnancy rates can be increased by the placement of several embryos at the risk of increasing the chance for multiples.


Because not each IVF cycle that is started will lead to oocyte retrieval or embryo transfer, reports of live birth rates need to specify the denominator, namely IVF cycles started, IVF retrievals, or embryo transfers. The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) summarised 2008-9 success rates for US clinics for fresh embryo cycles that did not involve donor eggs and gave live birth rates by the age of the prospective mother, with a peak at 41.3% per cycle started and 47.3% per embryo transfer for patients under 35 years of age.


IVF attempts in multiple cycles result in increased cumulative live birth rates. Depending on the demographic group, one study reported 45% to 53% for three attempts, and 51% to 71% to 80% for six attempts.

Pregnancy rate[edit]


Pregnancy rate may be defined in various ways. In the United States, the pregnancy rate used by the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology and the Centers for Disease Control (and appearing in the table in the Success Rates section above) are based on fetal heart motion observed in ultrasound examinations.

Success or failure factors[edit]

The main potential factors that influence pregnancy (and live birth) rates in IVF have been suggested to be maternal age, duration of infertility or subfertility, bFSH and number of oocytes, all reflecting ovarian function. Optimal woman’s age is 23–39 years at time of treatment.


In a 2005 Swedish study, 166 women were monitored starting one month before their IVF cycles, and the results showed no significant correlation between psychological stress and IVF outcome. The study concluded with the recommendation to clinics that it might be possible to reduce the stress experienced by IVF patients during the treatment procedure by informing them of those findings. While psychological stress experienced during a cycle might not influence an IVF outcome, it is possible that the experience of IVF can result in stress that leads to depression. The financial consequences alone of IVF can influence anxiety and become overwhelming. However, for many couples, the alternative is infertility, and the experience of infertility itself can also cause extreme stress and depression.


Biomarkers that affect the pregnancy chances of IVF include:

Other factors[edit]

Other determinants of outcome of IVF include:

Aspirin is sometimes prescribed to women for the purpose of increasing the chances of conception by IVF, but there is insufficient evidence to show that it actually works.

Complications of the IVF procedure[edit]

Multiple births[edit]

The major complication of IVF is the risk of multiple births. This is directly related to the practice of transferring multiple embryos at embryo transfer. Multiple births are related to increased risk of pregnancy loss, obstetrical complications, prematurity, and neonatal morbidity with the potential for long term damage. Strict limits on the number of embryos that may be transferred have been enacted in some countries (e.g. Britain, Belgium) to reduce the risk of high-order multiples (triplets or more), but are not universally followed or accepted. Spontaneous splitting of embryos in the womb after transfer can occur, but this is rare and would lead to identical twins. A double blind, randomised study followed IVF pregnancies that resulted in 73 infants (33 boys and 40 girls) and reported that 8.7% of singleton infants and 54.2% of twins had a birth weight of < 2,500 grams (5.5 lb).

Recent evidence also suggest that singleton offspring after IVF is at higher risk for lower birth weight for unknown reasons.

Spread of infectious disease[edit]

By sperm washing, the risk that a chronic disease in the male providing the sperm would infect the female or offspring can be brought to negligible levels.

In males with hepatitis B, The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine advises that sperm washing is not necessary in IVF to prevent transmission, unless the female partner has not been effectively vaccinated. In females with hepatitis B, the risk of vertical transmission during IVF is no different from the risk in spontaneous conception. However, there is not enough evidence to say that ICSI procedures are safe in females with hepatitis B in regard to vertical transmission to the offspring.


Regarding potential spread of HIV/AIDS, Japan's government prohibited the use of in vitro fertilisation procedures for couples in which both partners are infected with HIV. Despite the fact that the ethics committees previously allowed the Ogikubo, Tokyo Hospital, located in Tokyo, to use in vitro fertilisation for couples with HIV, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan decided to block the practice. Hideji Hanabusa, the vice president of the Ogikubo Hospital, states that together with his colleagues, he managed to develop a method through which scientists are able to remove HIV from sperm.

Other risks to the egg provider/retriever[edit]

A risk of ovarian stimulation is the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, particularly if hCG is used for inducing final oocyte maturation. This results in swollen, painful ovaries. It occurs in 30% of patients. Mild cases can be treated with over the counter medications and cases can be resolved in the absence of pregnancy. In moderate cases, ovaries swell and fluid accumulated in the abdominal cavities and may have symptoms of heartburn, gas, nausea or loss of appetite. In severe cases patients have sudden excess abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and will result in hospitalisation.

During egg retrieval, there’s a small chance of bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding structures like bowel and bladder (transvaginal ultrasound aspiration) as well as difficulty in breathing, chest infection, allergic reactions to meds, or nerve damage (laproscopy).


Ectopic pregnancy may also occur if a fertilised egg develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes and requires immediate destruction of the foetus.


IVF does not seem to be associated with an elevated risk of cervical cancer, nor with ovarian cancer or endometrial cancer when neutralizing the confounder of infertility itself.


A negative pregnancy test after IVF is associated with an increased risk for depression in women, but not with any increased risk of developing anxiety disorders. Pregnancy test results do not seem to be a risk factor for depression or anxiety among men.

Birth defects[edit]

A review in 2013 came to the result that infants resulting from IVF (with or without ICSI) have a relative risk of birth defects of 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.24–1.42) compared to naturally conceived infants. In 2008, an analysis of the data of the National Birth Defects Study in the US found that certain birth defects were significantly more common in infants conceived through IVF, notably septal heart defects, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, esophageal atresia, and anorectal atresia; the mechanism of causality is unclear. However, in a population-wide cohort study of 308,974 births (with 6163 using assisted reproductive technology and following children from birth to age five) researchers found: "The increased risk of birth defects associated with IVF was no longer significant after adjustment for parental factors."  Parental factors included known independent risks for birth defects such as maternal age, smoking status, etc. Multivariate correction did not remove the significance of the association of birth defects and ICSI (corrected odds ratio 1.57), although the authors speculate that underlying male infertility factors (which would be associated with the use of ICSI) may contribute to this observation and were not able to correct for these confounders. The authors also found that a history of infertility elevated risk itself in the absence of any treatment (odds ratio 1.29), consistent with a Danish national registry study  and "...implicates patient factors in this increased risk." The authors of the Danish national registry study speculate: "...our results suggest that the reported increased prevalence of congenital malformations seen in singletons born after assisted reproductive technology is partly due to the underlying infertility or its determinants."

Risk in singleton pregnancies resulting from IVF (with or without ICSI)
Condition Relative
95% confidence
congenital anomalies 1.67 1.33–2.09
ante-partum haemorrhage 2.49 2.30–2.69
hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 1.49 1.39–1.59
preterm rupture of membranes 1.16 1.07–1.26
Caesarean section 1.56 1.51–1.60
gestational diabetes 1.48 1.33–1.66
induction of labour 1.18 1.10–1.28
small for gestational age 1.39 1.27–1.53
preterm birth 1.54 1.47–1.62
low birthweight 1.65 1.56–1.75
perinatal mortality 1.87 1.48–2.37

Other risks to the offspring[edit]

If the underlying infertility is related to abnormalities in spermatogenesis, it is plausible, but too early to examine that male offspring is at higher risk for sperm abnormalities.

IVF does not seem to confer any risks regarding cognitive development, school performance, social functioning and behaviour.


Limited long-term follow-up data suggest that IVF may be associated with an increased incidence of hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, increase in total body fat composition, advancement of bone age, subclinical thyroid disorder, early adulthood clinical depression and binge drinking in the offspring.It is not known, however, whether these potential associations are caused by the IVF procedure in itself, by adverse obstetric outcomes associated with IVF, by the genetic origin of the children or by yet unknown IVF-associated causes.


An IVF-associated incidence of cerebral palsy and neurodevelopmental delay are believed to be related to the confounders of prematurity and low birthweight. Similarly, an IVF-associated incidence of autism and attention-deficit disorder are believed to be related to confounders of maternal and obstetric factors.


There are various expansions or additional techniques that can be applied in IVF, which are usually not necessary for the IVF procedure itself, but would be virtually impossible or technically difficult to perform without concomitantly performing methods of IVF.

Preimplantation genetic screening or diagnosis (PGS or PGD)[edit]

Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been suggested to be able to be used in IVF to select an embryo that appears to have the greatest chances for successful pregnancy. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing randomised controlled trials came to the result that there is no evidence of a beneficial effect of PGS as measured by live birth rate.On the contrary, for women of advanced maternal age, PGS significantly lowers the live birth rate. Technical drawbacks, such as the invasiveness of the biopsy, and non-representative samples because of mosaicism are the major underlying factors for inefficacy of PGS.


Still, as an expansion of IVF, patients who can benefit from PGS/PGD include:

PGS screens for numeral chromosomal abnormalities while PGD diagnosis the specific molecular defect of the inherited disease. In both PGS and PGD, individual cells from a pre-embryo are analysed during the IVF process. Before the transfer of a pre-embryo back to a woman's uterus, one or two cells are removed from the pre-embryos (8-cell stage). These cells are then evaluated for normality. Typically within one to two days, following completion of the evaluation, only the normal pre-embryos are transferred back to the woman's uterus. In addition, PGS can reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies because fewer embryos are needed for implantation.


Cryopreservation can be performed as oocyte cryopreservation before fertilisation, or as embryo cryopreservation after fertilisation.


The Rand Consulting Group has estimated there to be 400,000 frozen embryos in the United States.The advantage is that patients who fail to conceive may become pregnant using such embryos without having to go through a full IVF cycle. Or, if pregnancy occurred, they could return later for another pregnancy. Spare oocytes or embryos resulting from fertility treatments may be used for oocyte donation or embryo donation to another woman or couple, and embryos may be created, frozen and stored specifically for transfer and donation by using donor eggs and sperm. Also, oocyte cryopreservation can be used for women who are likely to lose their ovarian reserve due to undergoing chemotherapy.


The outcome from using cryopreserved embryos has uniformly been positive with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities.

Other expansions[edit]



Leftover embryos or eggs[edit]

There may be leftover embryos or eggs from IVF procedures if the woman for whom they were originally created has successfully carried one or more pregnancies to term. With the woman's or couple's permission, these may be donated to help other women or couples as a means of third party reproduction.

In embryo donation, these extra embryos are given to other couples or women for transfer with the goal of producing a successful pregnancy. The resulting child is considered the child of the woman who carries it and gives birth, and not the child of the donor, the same as occurs with egg donation or sperm donation.


Typically, genetic parents donate the eggs to a fertility clinic or embryo bank where they are preserved by oocyte cryopreservation or embryo cryopreservation until a carrier is found for them. Typically the process of matching the embryo(s) with the prospective parents is conducted by the agency itself, at which time the clinic transfers ownership of the embryos to the prospective parents.


In the United States, women seeking to be an embryo recipient undergo infectious disease screening required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and reproductive tests to determine the best placement location and cycle timing before the actual Embryo Transfer occurs. The amount of screening the embryo has already undergone is largely dependent on the genetic parents' own IVF clinic and process. The embryo recipient may elect to have her own embryologist conduct further testing.


Alternatives to donating unused embryos are destroying them (or having them implanted at a time where pregnancy is very unlikely), keeping them frozen indefinitely, or donating them for use in research (with results in their unviability). Individual moral views on disposing leftover embryos may depend on personal views on the beginning of human personhood and definition and/or value of potential future persons and on the value that is given to fundamental research questions. Some people believe donation of leftover embryos for research is a good alternative to discarding the embryos when patients receive proper, honest and clear information about the research project, the procedures and the scientific values).


There was a transient biochemical pregnancy reported by Australian Foxton School researchers in 1953. John Rock was the first to extract an intact fertilised egg. In 1959, Min Chueh Chang at the Worcester Foundation, proved fertilisation in vitro was capable of proceeding to a birth of a live rabbit. Chang's discovery was seminal, as it clearly demonstrated that oocytes fertilised in vitro were capable of developing, if transferred into the uterus and thereby produce live young.


 The first pregnancy achieved through in vitro human fertilisation of a human oocyte was reported in The Lancet from the Monash University team of Carl Woods, John Leeton and Alan Trounson[54] in 1973, although it lasted only a few days and would today be called a biochemical pregnancy. Landrum Shettles attempted to perform an IVF in 1973, but his departmental chairman interdicted the procedure at the last moment.


 There was also an ectopic pregnancy reported by Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards in 1976. In 1977, Steptoe and Edwards successfully carried out a pioneering conception which resulted in the birth of the world's first baby to be conceived by IVF, Louise Brown on 25 July 1978, in Oldham General Hospital, Greater Manchester, UK.


In October 1978, it was reported that Subash Mukhopadyay, a relatively unknown physician from Kolkata, India was performing experiments on his own with primitive instruments and a household refrigerator and this resulted in a test tube baby, later named as "Durga" (alias Kanupriya Agarwal) who was born on 3 October 1978.[60] However, state authorities prevented him from presenting his work at scientific conferences and, in the absence of scientific evidence, his work is not recognised by the international scientific community.


Steptoe and Edwards were responsible for the world’s first (confirmed) baby conceived by IVF, Alastair MacDonald born on 14 January 1979 in Glasgow.[62] A team led by Ian Johnston and Alex Lopata were responsible for Australia’s first baby conceived by IVF, Candice Reed born on 23 June 1980 in Melbourne.[63] It was the subsequent use of stimulated cycles with clomiphene citrate and the use of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to control and time oocyte maturation, thus controlling the time of collection, that converted IVF from a research tool to a clinical treatment.


This was followed by a total of 14 pregnancies resulting in nine births in 1981 with the Monash University team. The Jones team  at the Eastern Virginia Medical School in Norfolk, Virginia, further improved stimulated cycles by incorporating the use of a follicle-stimulating hormone (uHMG). This then became known as controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Another step forward was the use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHA), thus decreasing the need for monitoring by preventing premature ovulation, and more recently gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH Ant), which have a similar function. The additional use of the oral contraceptive pill has allowed the scheduling of IVF cycles, which has made the treatment far more convenient for both staff and patients.


The ability to freeze and subsequently thaw and transfer embryos has significantly improved the feasibility of IVF use. The other very significant milestone in IVF was the development of the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of single sperms by André van Steirteghem and Paul Devroey in Brussels (UZ Brussel), 1992. This has enabled men with minimal sperm production to achieve pregnancies. ICSI is sometimes used in conjunction with sperm recovery, using a testicular fine needle or open testicular biopsy. Using this method, some men with Klinefelter's syndrome, and so would be otherwise infertile, have occasionally been able to achieve pregnancy.[65][66] Thus, IVF has become the final solution for most fertility problems, moving from tubal disease to male factor, idiopathic subfertility, endometriosis, advanced maternal age, and anovulation not responding to ovulation induction.


Robert Edwards was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the development of in vitro fertilization".  Carl Wood was dubbed "the father of IVF (in vitro fertilisation)" for having pioneered the use of frozen embryos.


In the US, ART cycles started in 2006 resulted in 41,343 births (54,656 infants), which is slightly more than 1% of total US births.



In a few cases, laboratory mix-ups (misidentified gametes, transfer of wrong embryos) have occurred, leading to legal action against the IVF provider and complex paternity suits. An example is the case of a woman in California who received the embryo of another couple and was notified of this mistake after the birth of her son. This has led to many authorities and individual clinics implementing procedures to minimise the risk of such mix-ups. The HFEA, for example, requires clinics to use a double witnessing system, where the identity of specimens is checked by two people at each point at which specimens are transferred. Alternatively, technological solutions are gaining favour, to reduce the manpower cost of manual double witnessing, and to further reduce the risk of human error.


 Technological solutions typically involve tagging individual specimen containers with uniquely numbered RFID tags which can be identified by readers connected to a computer. The computer tracks specimens throughout the process and alerts the embryologist if non-matching specimens are identified. Although the use of RFID tracking has expanded in the USA, it is still not widely adopted.

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis or screening[edit]

Another concern is that people will screen in or out for particular traits, using preimplantation genetic diagnosis or preimplantation genetic screening. For example, a deaf British couple, Tom and Paula Lichy, have petitioned to create a deaf baby using IVF. Some medical ethicists have been very critical of this approach. Jacob M. Appel wrote that "intentionally culling out blind or deaf embryos might prevent considerable future suffering, while a policy that allowed deaf or blind parents to select for such traits intentionally would be far more troublesome."

Profit desire of the industry[edit]

Many people do not oppose the IVF practice itself (i.e. the creating of a pregnancy through "artificial" ways) but are highly critical of the current state of the present day industry. Such individuals argue that the industry has now become a multi-billion industry, which is widely unregulated and prone to serious abuses in the desire of practitioners to obtain profit. For instance, in 2008, a California physician transferred 12 embryos to a woman who gave birth to octuplets (see Suleman octuplets). This has made international news, and had led to accusations that many doctors are willing to seriously endanger the health and even life of women in order to gain money. Robert Winston, professor of fertility studies at Imperial College London, had called the industry "corrupt" and "greedy" saying that "One of the major problems facing us in healthcare is that IVF has become a massive commercial industry," and that "What has happened, of course, is that money is corrupting this whole technology", and accused authorities of failing to protect couples from exploitation "The regulatory authority has done a consistently bad job. It's not prevented the exploitation of women, it's not put out very good information to couples, it's not limited the number of unscientific treatments people have access to".


The industry has been accused of making unscientific claims, and distorting facts relating to infertility, in particular through widely exaggerated claims about how common infertility is in society, in an attempt to get as many couples as possible and as soon as possible to try treatments (rather than trying to conceive naturally for a longer time). Indeed, there are serious concerns about the overuse of treatments, for instance Dr. Sami David, a fertility specialist and one of the pioneers of the early days of the IVF treatments, has expressed disappointment over the current state of the industry, and said many procedures are unnecessary; he said: "It's being the first choice of treatment rather than the last choice. When it was first opening up in late 1970s, early 80s, it was meant to be the last resort. Now it's a first resort. I think that's an injustice to women. I also think it can harm women in the long run."

Pregnancy past menopause[edit]

Although menopause is a natural barrier to further conception, IVF has allowed women to be pregnant in their fifties and sixties. Women whose uterus has been appropriately prepared receive embryos that originated from an egg of an egg donor. Therefore, although these women do not have a genetic link with the child, they have an emotional link through pregnancy and childbirth. In many cases the genetic father of the child is the woman's partner. Even after menopause the uterus is fully capable of carrying out a pregnancy.

Same-sex couples, single and unmarried parents[edit]

A 2009 statement from the ASRM found no persuasive evidence that children are harmed or disadvantaged solely by being raised by single parents, unmarried parents, or homosexual parents. It did not support restricting access to assisted reproductive technologies on the basis of a prospective parent's marital status or sexual orientation.


Ethical concerns include reproductive rights, the welfare of offspring, nondiscrimination against unmarried individuals, homosexual, and professional autonomy.


A recent controversy in California focused on the question of whether physicians opposed to same-sex relationships should be required to perform IVF for a lesbian couple. Guadalupe T. Benitez, a medical assistant from San Diego, sued doctors Christine Brody and Douglas Fenton of the North Coast Women's Care Medical Group after Brody told her that she had "religious-based objections to treating homosexuals to help them conceive children by artificial insemination," and Fenton refused to authorise a refill of her prescription for the fertility drug Clomid on the same grounds.[78][79] The California Medical Association had initially sided with Brody and Fenton, but the case, North Coast Women's Care Medical Group v. Superior Court, was decided unanimously by the California State Supreme Court in favor of Benitez on 19 August 2008.


Nadya Suleman came to international attention after having twelve embryos implanted, eight of which survived, resulting in eight newborns being added to her existing six-child family. The Medical Board of California sought to have fertility doctor Michael Kamrava, who treated Suleman, stripped of his license. State officials allege that performing Suleman's procedure is evidence of unreasonable judgment, substandard care, and a lack of concern for the eight children she would conceive and the six she was already struggling to raise. On 1 June 2011 the Medical Board issued a ruling that Kamrava's medical license be revoked effective 1 July 2011.

Anonymous donors[edit]

Some children conceived by IVF using anonymous donors report being troubled over not knowing about their donor parent as well any genetic relatives they may have and their family history.


Alana Stewart, who was conceived using donor sperm, began an online forum for donor children called AnonymousUS in 2010. The forum welcomes the viewpoints of anyone involved in the IVF process. Olivia Pratten, a donor-conceived Canadian, sued the province of British Columbia for access to records on her donor father's identity in 2008. "I’m not a treatment, I’m a person, and those records belong to me,” Pratten said.  In May 2012, a court ruled in Pratten's favor, agreeing that the laws at the time discrimiated against donor children and making anonymous sperm and egg donation in British Columbia illegal.


In the U.K., Sweden, Norway, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, and some Australian states, donors are not paid and cannot be anonymous.

In 2000, a web site called Donor Sibling Registry was created to help biological children with a common donor connect with each other.


In 2012, a documentary called Anonymous Father's Day was released that focuses on donor-conceived children.

Discarding unwanted embryos[edit]

During the selection and transfer phases many embryos may be discarded in favour of others. This selection may be based on criteria such as handicaps, genetic disorders, or even simply gender. This becomes a question of ethics when one factors in the fact that scientists have not defined when life begins with any certainty. For those who believe life begins at conception, IVF becomes a moral question when multiple eggs are fertilised, begin development, and only a few are chosen for implantation.


If IVF were to involve the fertilisation of only a single egg, or at least only an amount that will be implanted, then this would not be an issue. However, this has the chance of increasing costs dramatically as only a few eggs can be attempted at a time.

Religious objections[edit]


The Roman Catholic Church opposes all kinds of assisted reproductive technology and artificial contraception, claiming they separate the procreative goal of marital sex from the goal of uniting married couples. The Roman Catholic Church permits the use of a small number of reproductive technologies and contraceptive methods like Natural family planning, which involves charting ovulation times. The church allows other forms of reproductive technologies that allow conception to take place from normative sexual intercourse, such as a fertility lubricant.


Pope Benedict XVI has publicly re-emphasized the Catholic Church's opposition to in vitro fertilization (IVF), claiming it replaces love between a husband and wife. The Catechism of the Catholic Church claims that Natural law teaches that reproduction has an "inseparable connection" to sexual union of married couples. In addition, the church opposes IVF because it might cause disposal of embryos; in Catholicism, an embryo is viewed as an individual with a soul that must be treated as a person. The Catholic Church maintains that it is not objectively evil to be infertile, and advocates adoption as an option for such couples who still wish to have children.


Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)  is not technically in vitro fertilisation because with GIFT, fertilisation takes place inside the body, not on a Petri dish. The Catholic Church nevertheless is concerned with it because "Some theologians consider this to be a replacement of the marital act, and therefore immoral."

Availability and utilisation[edit]

In the USA, overall availability of IVF in 2005 was 2.5 IVF physicians per 100,000 population, and utilisation was 236 IVF cycles per 100,000.[98] Utilisation highly increases with availability and IVF insurance coverage, and to a significant extent also with percentage of single persons and median income.


In the USA 126 procedures are performed per million people per year. In the USA an average cycle, from egg retrieval to embryo implantation, costs $12,400, and insurance companies that do cover treatment, even partially, usually cap the number of cycles they pay for.


The cost of IVF rather reflects the costliness of the underlying healthcare system than the regulatory or funding environment,] and ranges, on average for a standard IVF cycle and in 2006 United States dollars, between $12,500 in the United States to $4,000 in Japan.


 In Ireland, IVF costs around €4,000, with fertility drugs, if required, costing up to €3,000. The cost per live birth is highest in the United States ($41,000 and United Kingdom ($40,000) and lowest in Scandinavia and Japan (both around $24,500).



Many fertility clinics in the United States limit the upper age at which women are eligible for IVF to 50 or 55 years. These cut-offs make it difficult for women older than fifty-five to utilise the procedure.


In Australia, the average age of women undergoing ART treatment is 35.5 years among those using their own eggs (one in four being 40 or older) and 40.5 years among those using donated eggs.


Israel has the highest rate of IVF in the world, with 1657 procedures performed per million people per year. The second highest rate is in Iceland, with 899 procedures per million people per year. Israel provides unlimited free in vitro procedures for its citizens for up to two children per woman under 45 years of age. In other countries the coverage of such procedures is limited if it exists at all. The Israeli Health Ministry says it spends roughly $3450 per procedure.


These high costs keep IVF out of reach for many developing countries, but research by the Genk Institute for Fertility Technology, in Belgium, claim to have found a much lower cost methodology (about 90% reduction) with similar efficacy, which may be suitable for some fertility treatment.

Legal status[edit]

Government agencies in China passed bans on the use of IVF in 2003 by unmarried women or by couples with certain infectious diseases. Sunni Muslim nations generally allow IVF between married couples when conducted with their own respective sperm and eggs, but not with donor eggs from other couples. But Iran, which is Shi'a Muslim, has a more complex scheme. Iran bars sperm donation but allows donation of both fertilised and unfertilised eggs. Fertilised eggs are donated from married couples to other married couples, while unfertilised eggs are donated in the context of mut'ah or temporary marriage to the father.


The nation of Costa Rica has a complete ban on all IVF technology, it having been ruled unconstitutional by the nation's Supreme Court because it "violated life." Costa Rica is the only country in the western hemisphere that forbids this technique. A law project sent reluctantly by the government of Pres. Laura Chinchilla was rejected at the Costa Rican parliament. President Chinchilla, whose strong Catholic views have won her to be named officially as Preferred Daughter of the Virgin Mary has not publicly stated her position on the question of in vitro fertilisation. However, given the massive influence of the Catholic Church in her government any change in the status quo seems very unlikely.


] In spite of Costa Rican government and strong religious opposition, the Costa Rican ban on in-vitro fertilization has been struck down by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in a decision held on 20 December 2012. The court said in the ruling that a long-standing Costa Rican guarantee of protection for every human embryo violated the reproductive freedom of infertile couples because it prohibited them from using in-vitro fertilization, which often involves the disposal of embryos not implanted in a patient’s uterus.


 Federal regulations in the United States include screening requirements and restrictions on donations, but generally do not affect sexually intimate partners.[111] However, doctors may be required to provide treatments due to nondiscrimination laws, as for example in California.


All major restrictions on single but infertile women using IVF were lifted in Australia in 2002 after a final appeal to the Australian High Court was rejected on procedural grounds in the Leesa Meldrum case. A Victorian federal court had ruled in 2000 that the existing ban on all single women and lesbians using IVF constituted sex discrimination.[


Victoria's government announced changes to its IVF law in 2007 eliminating remaining restrictions on fertile single women and lesbians, leaving South Australia as the only state maintaining them.


The US state of Tennessee proposed a bill in 2009 that would have defined donor IVF as adoption. During the same session another bill proposed barring adoption from any unmarried and cohabitating couple, and activist groups stated that passing the first bill would effectively stop unmarried people from using IVF. Neither of these bills passed.

See also[edit]


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  79. Jump up ^ Dolan, M. (29 May 2008) "State high court may give gays another victory". Los Angeles Times.
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  83. Jump up ^ Breuer, Howard (22 October 2010). "Octomom's Doctor Tearfully Apologizes, Admits Mistake". People. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  84. Jump up ^ "Michael Kamrava’s medical license revoked". Los Angeles Times. 1 June 2011. 
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  90. Jump up ^ McManus, Mike (24 June 2012). "Anonymous Father's Day". Greenfield Daily Reporter. 
  91. Jump up ^ Pro-Life Concerns About IVF Include Abortion, Exploitation. (6 September 2011). Retrieved on 2013-08-03.
  92. Jump up ^ "Pope Benedict XVI Declares Embryos Developed For In Vitro Fertilization Have Right To Life", Medical news today .
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  94. Jump up ^ Reconciling religion and infertility By Alina Dain. July 30, 2009
  95. Jump up ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church. Section 2377". Rome: Vatican. 1993. Retrieved 25 November 2008. 
  96. Jump up ^ "Gamete". Sexuality. Loras. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  97. Jump up ^ Haas, John M. "Begotten Not Made: A Catholic View of Reproductive Technology". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 
  98. ^ Jump up to: a b Hammoud AO, Gibson M, Stanford J, White G, Carrell DT, Peterson M (2009). "In vitro fertilization availability and utilization in the United States: a study of demographic, social, and economic factors". Fertility and Sterility 91 (5): 1630–1635. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.10.038. PMID 18539275. 
  99. Jump up ^ Kraft, Dina (17 July 2011) "Where Families Are Prized, Help Is Free", The New York Times
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  101. Jump up ^ Call for infertility care awareness. RTÉ News. 23 September 2009.
  102. ^ Jump up to: a b Appel, J.M. (15 July 2009) Motherhood: Is It Ever Too Late? New York Times
  103. Jump up ^ "More IVF babies but less multiple births". The Australian. 24 September 2009
  104. Jump up ^ Gallagher, James. (8 July 2013) BBC News – IVF as cheap as £170, doctors claim. Retrieved on 2013-08-03.
  105. Jump up ^ "China Bars In-Vitro Fertilization for Pregnancy". 12 November 2003. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  106. Jump up ^ Inhorn, Marcia C. "Islam, IVF and Everyday Life in the Middle East". AIME: Anthropology of the Middle East 1 (1): 37–45. 
  107. Jump up ^ "IVF Prohibition In Costa Rica". Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  108. Jump up ^ Murillo, Álvaro (12 July 2011) La Costa Rica católica se atasca con la fertilización in vitro. El Pais.
  109. Jump up ^ CIDH Extends Deadline For Approval Of Law For In-Vitro Fertilization In Costa Rica. 24 February 2011.
  110. Jump up ^ Court strikes down Costa Rican ban on in-vitro fertilization. Associated Press via New York Times (22 December 2012)
  111. Jump up ^ "21 CFR 1271.90(a)(2)". US Food and Drug Administration. 
  112. Jump up ^ Australian court OKs fertility treatment for single women, lesbians by Peter O'Connor (AP, 18 April 2002)
  113. Jump up ^ Hoare, Daniel (15 December 2007) Lesbian community welcomes Vic IVF changes.
  114. Jump up ^ "Fiscal Note, HB 2159 – SB 2136" (PDF). Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  115. Jump up ^ "SB 0078 by Stanley, Bunch. (HB 0605 by DeBerry J, Hensley.)". Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  116. Jump up ^ "Tennessee Seeking To Ban IVF For Unmarried Individuals". 31 March 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  117. Jump up ^ Jones, Sam (1 November 2008). "Study shows barriers to same-sex adoption hurt children". 
  118. Jump up ^ "Legislative Update". Retrieved 22 May 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. The term also refers to the production of multiple copies of a product such as digital media or software.

The term clone is derived from the Ancient Greek word κλών (klōn, “twig”), referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. In horticulture, the spelling clon was used until the twentieth century; the final e came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead of a "short o".


Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively.


In botany, the term lusus was traditionally used.


In the United States, the human consumption of meat and other products from cloned animals was approved by the FDA on December 28, 2006, with no special labeling required because food from cloned organisms has been found to be identical to the organisms from which they were cloned. Such practice has met strong resistance in other regions due to misinformation, such as Europe, particularly over the labeling issue


Molecular cloning


Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. It is used in a wide array of biological experiments and practical applications ranging from genetic fingerprinting to large scale protein production.


 Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. In practice, localization of the gene to a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence. To amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism, that sequence must be linked to an origin of replication, which is a sequence of DNA capable of directing the propagation of itself and any linked sequence. However, a number of other features are needed and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein expression, tagging, single stranded RNA and DNA production and a host of other manipulations.

Cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves four steps


  1. fragmentation - breaking apart a strand of DNA
  2. ligation - gluing together pieces of DNA in a desired sequence
  3. transfection - inserting the newly formed pieces of DNA into cells
  4. screening/selection - selecting out the cells that were successfully transfected with the new DNA

Although these steps are invariable among cloning procedures a number of alternative routes can be selected, these are summarized as a 'cloning strategy'.


Initially, the DNA of interest needs to be isolated to provide a DNA segment of suitable size. Subsequently, a ligation procedure is used where the amplified fragment is inserted into a vector (piece of DNA). The vector (which is frequently circular) is linearised using restriction enzymes, and incubated with the fragment of interest under appropriate conditions with an enzyme called DNA ligase.


Following ligation the vector with the insert of interest is transfected into cells. A number of alternative techniques are available, such as chemical sensitivation of cells, electroporation, optical injection and biolistics. Finally, the transfected cells are cultured. As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. Nevertheless, these selection steps do not absolutely guarantee that the DNA insert is present in the cells obtained. Further investigation of the resulting colonies must be required to confirm that cloning was successful. This may be accomplished by means of PCR, restriction fragment analysis and/or DNA sequencing.


Cell cloning


Cloning unicellular organisms


Cloning cell-line colonies using cloning rings

Cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell. In the case of unicellular organisms such as bacteria and yeast, this process is remarkably simple and essentially only requires the inoculation of the appropriate medium. However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media.


A useful tissue culture technique used to clone distinct lineages of cell lines involves the use of cloning rings (cylinders).[4] According to this technique, a single-cell suspension of cells that have been exposed to a mutagenic agent or drug used to drive selection is plated at high dilution to create isolated colonies; each arising from a single and potentially clonal distinct cell. At an early growth stage when colonies consist of only a few of cells, sterile polystyrene rings (cloning rings), which have been dipped in grease are placed over an individual colony and a small amount of trypsin is added. Cloned cells are collected from inside the ring and transferred to a new vessel for further growth.


Cloning stem cells



Somatic-cell nuclear transfer, known as SCNT, can also be used to create embryos for research or therapeutic purposes. The most likely purpose for this is to produce embryos for use in stem cell research. This process is also called "research cloning" or "therapeutic cloning." The goal is not to create cloned human beings (called "reproductive cloning"), but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat disease. While a clonal human blastocyst has been created, stem cell lines are yet to be isolated from a clonal source.


Therapeutic cloning is achieved by creating embryonic stem cells in the hopes of treating diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer’s. The process begins by taking out the nucleus (containing the DNA) from an egg cell and putting in it a nucleus from the adult cell to be cloned.


In the case of someone with Alzheimer’s disease, the nucleus from a skin cell of that patient is placed into an empty egg. The reprogrammed cell begins to develop into an embryo because the egg reacts with the transferred nucleus. The embryo will become genetically identical to the patient.The embryo will then form a blastocyst which has the potential to form/become any cell in the body.


The reason why SCNT is used for cloning is because somatic cells can be easily acquired and cultured in the lab. This process can either add or delete specific genomes of farm animals. A key point to remember is that cloning is achieved when the oocyte maintains its normal functions and instead of using sperm and egg genomes to replicate, the oocyte is inserted into the donor’s somatic cell nucleus. The oocyte will react on the somatic cell nucleus, the same way it would on sperm cells.


The process of cloning a particular farm animal using SCNT is relatively the same for all animals. The first step is to collect the somatic cells from the animal that will be cloned. The somatic cells could be used immediately or stored in the laboratory for later use.


 The hardest part of SCNT is removing maternal DNA from an oocyte at metaphase II. Once this has been done, the somatic nucleus can be inserted into an egg cytoplasm.[9] This creates a one-cell embryo. The grouped somatic cell and egg cytoplasm are then introduced to an electrical current.


 This energy will hopefully allow the cloned embryo to begin development. The successfully developed embryos are then placed in surrogate recipients, such as a cow or sheep in the case of farm animals.


SCNT is seen as a good method for producing agriculture animals for food consumption. It successfully cloned sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs. Another benefit is SCNT is seen as a solution to clone endangered species that are on the verge of going extinct. However, stresses placed on both the egg cell and the introduced nucleus are enormous, leading to a high loss in resulting cells. For example, the cloned sheep Dolly was born after 277 eggs were used for SCNT, which created 29 viable embryos. Only three of these embryos survived until birth, and only one survived to adulthood.


 As the procedure currently cannot be automated, and has to be performed manually under a microscope, SCNT is very resource intensive. The biochemistry involved in reprogramming the differentiated somatic cell nucleus and activating the recipient egg is also far from being well-understood.


In SCNT, not all of the donor cell's genetic information is transferred, as the donor cell's mitochondria that contain their own mitochondrial DNA are left behind. The resulting hybrid cells retain those mitochondrial structures which originally belonged to the egg. As a consequence, clones such as Dolly that are born from SCNT are not perfect copies of the donor of the nucleus.

Organism cloning


Organism cloning (also called reproductive cloning) refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. In essence this form of cloning is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place. Asexual reproduction is a naturally occurring phenomenon in many species, including most plants (see vegetative reproduction) and some insects. Scientists have made some major achievements with cloning, including the asexual reproduction of sheep and cows. There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not cloning should be used. However, cloning, or asexual propagation, has been common practice in the horticultural world for 100 of years.



The term clone is used in horticulture to refer to descendants of a single plant which were produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis. Many horticultural plant cultivars are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction. As an example, some European cultivars of grapes represent clones that have been propagated for over two millennia. Other examples are potato and banana. Grafting can be regarded as cloning, since all the shoots and branches coming from the graft are genetically a clone of a single individual, but this particular kind of cloning has not come under ethical scrutiny and is generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation.

Many trees, shrubs, vines, ferns and other herbaceous perennials form clonal colonies naturally. Parts of an individual plant may become detached by fragmentation and grow on to become separate clonal individuals. A common example is in the vegetative reproduction of moss and liverwort gametophyte clones by means of gemmae. Some vascular plants e.g. dandelion and certain viviparous grasses also form seeds asexually, termed apomixis, resulting in clonal populations of genetically identical individuals.




Clonal derivation exists in nature in some animal species and is referred to as parthenogenesis (reproduction of an organism by itself without a mate). This is an asexual form of reproduction that is only found in females of some insects, crustaceans and lizards. The growth and development occurs without fertilization by a male. In plants, parthenogenesis means the development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell, and is a component process of apomixis. In species that use the XY sex-determination system, the offspring will always be female. An example is the "Little Fire Ant" (Wasmannia auropunctata), which is native to Central and South America but has spread throughout many tropical environments.

Artificial cloning of organisms


Artificial cloning of organisms may also be called reproductive cloning.


First moves

Hans Spemann, a German embryologist was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1935 for his discovery of the effect now known as embryonic induction, exercised by various parts of the embryo, that directs the development of groups of cells into particular tissues and organs. In 1928 he and his student, Hilde Mangold, were the first to perform somatic-cell nuclear transfer using amphibian embryos – one of the first moves towards cloning.




Reproductive cloning generally uses "somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT) to create animals that are genetically identical. This process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell (somatic cell) to an egg that has no nucleus. If the egg begins to divide normally it is transferred into the uterus of the surrogate mother. Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA. Additionally, the mitochondria in the cytoplasm also contains DNA and during SCNT this mitochondrial DNA is wholly from the cytoplasmic donor's egg, thus the mitochondrial genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced. This may have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death.


Artificial embryo splitting or embryo twinning may also be used as a method of cloning, where an embryo is split in the maturation before embryo transfer. It is optimally performed at the 6- to 8-cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of IVF to increase the number of available embryos. If both embryos are successful, it gives rise to monozygotic (identical) twins.


Obtaining blastocysts

A blastocyst is formed in the early stage of the development of an embryo. During cloning process, the blastocyst cells often are obtained by scientists 5 days after the egg has been divided.


Dolly the sheep

Dolly clone

Dolly, a Finn-Dorset ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. Dolly was formed by taking a cell from the udder of her biological mother. Her biological mother was 6 years old when the cells were taken from her udder. Dolly's embryo was created by taking the cell and inserting it into a sheep ovum. It took 434 attempts before an embryo was successful. The embryo was then placed inside a female sheep that went through a normal pregnancy. She was cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland and lived there from her birth in 1996 until her death in 2003 when she was six. She was born on July 5, 1996 but not announced to the world until February 22, 1997. Her stuffed remains were placed at Edinburgh's Royal Museum, part of the National Museums of Scotland.


Dolly was publicly significant because the effort showed that genetic material from a specific adult cell, programmed to express only a distinct subset of its genes, can be reprogrammed to grow an entirely new organism. Before this demonstration, it had been shown by John Gurdon that nuclei from differentiated cells could give rise to an entire organism after transplantation into an enucleated egg. However, this concept was not yet demonstrated in a mammalian system.


Cloning Dolly the sheep had a low success rate per fertilized egg; she was born after 277 eggs were used to create 29 embryos, which only produced three lambs at birth, only one of which lived. Seventy calves have been created and one third of them died young; Prometea took 814 attempts. Notably, although the first clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus donor cell.


There were early claims that Dolly the Sheep had pathologies resembling accelerated aging. Scientists speculated that Dolly's death in 2003 was related to the shortening of telomeres, DNA-protein complexes that protect the end of linear chromosomes. However, other researchers, including Ian Wilmut who led the team that successfully cloned Dolly, argue that Dolly's early death due to respiratory infection was unrelated to deficiencies with the cloning process.


Dolly was named after Dolly Parton because the cells cloned to make her were from an udder.


Species cloned

The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfer have been successfully performed on several species. Notable experiments include:


Human cloning

Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing or previously existing human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning; human clones in the form of identical twins are commonplace, with their cloning occurring during the natural process of reproduction. There are two commonly discussed types of human cloning: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning involves cloning adult cells for use in medicine and is an active area of research. Reproductive cloning would involve making cloned humans. A third type of cloning called replacement cloning is a theoretical possibility, and would be a combination of therapeutic and reproductive cloning. Replacement cloning would entail the replacement of an extensively damaged, failed, or failing body through cloning followed by whole or partial brain transplant.


The various forms of human cloning are controversial. There have been numerous demands for all progress in the human cloning field to be halted. Most scientific, governmental and religious organizations oppose reproductive cloning. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and other scientific organizations have made public statements suggesting that human reproductive cloning be banned until safety issues are resolved.


 Serious ethical concerns have been raised by the future possibility of harvesting organs from clones. 


 Some people have considered the idea of growing organs separately from a human organism - in doing this, a new organ supply could be established without the moral implications of harvesting them from humans. Research is also being done on the idea of growing organs that are biologically acceptable to the human body inside of other organisms, such as pigs or cows, then transplanting them to humans, a form of xenotransplantation.


The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technologies. It was created from a man's leg cell, and a cow's egg whose DNA was removed. It was destroyed after 12 days. Since a normal embryo implants at 14 days, Dr Robert Lanza, ACT's director of tissue engineering, told the Daily Mail newspaper that the embryo could not be seen as a person before 14 days. While making an embryo, which might have resulted in a complete human had it been allowed to come to term, according to ACT: "[ACT's] aim was 'therapeutic cloning' not 'reproductive cloning'"


On January, 2008, Wood and Andrew French, Stemagen's chief scientific officer in California, announced that they successfully created the first 5 mature human embryos using DNA from adult skin cells, aiming to provide a source of viable embryonic stem cells. Dr. Samuel Wood and a colleague donated skin cells, and DNA from those cells was transferred to human eggs. It is not clear if the embryos produced would have been capable of further development, but Dr. Wood stated that if that were possible, using the technology for reproductive cloning would be both unethical and illegal. The 5 cloned embryos, created in Stemagen Corporation lab, in La Jolla, were destroyed.


Ethical issues of cloning


Because of recent technological advancements, the cloning of animals (and potentially humans) has been an issue. Many religious organizations oppose all forms of cloning.


 Judaism does not equate life with conception and, though some question the wisdom of cloning, Orthodox Judaism rabbis generally find no firm reason in Jewish law and ethics to object to cloning.


 From the standpoint of classical liberalism, concerns also exist regarding the protection of the identity of the individual and the right to protect one's genetic identity.


Gregory Stock is a scientist and outspoken critic against restrictions on cloning research.


The social implications of an artificial human production scheme were famously explored in Aldous Huxley's novel Brave New World.


On December 28, 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the consumption of meat and other products from cloned animals.Cloned-animal products were said to be virtually indistinguishable from the non-cloned animals. Furthermore, companies would not be required to provide labels informing the consumer that the meat comes from a cloned animal.


Critics have raised objections to the FDA's approval of cloned-animal products for human consumption, arguing that the FDA's research was inadequate, inappropriately limited, and of questionable scientific validity.  Several consumer-advocate groups are working to encourage a tracking program that would allow consumers to become more aware of cloned-animal products within their food.


Joseph Mendelson, legal director of the Center for Food Safety, said that cloned food still should be labeled since safety and ethical issues about it remain questionable.


Carol Tucker Foreman, director of food policy at the Consumer Federation of America, stated that FDA does not consider the fact that the results of some studies revealed that cloned animals have increased rates of mortality and deformity at birth.


Another concern is that the biotechnologies used on animals may someday be used on humans. Some people may be more open to the idea of cloning of animals because most western countries have passed legislation against cloning humans, yet only a few countries passed legislation against cloning animals.


Possible Abnormalities due to Cloning


Researchers have found several abnormalities in cloned organisms, particularly in mice. The cloned organism may be born normal and resemble its non-cloned counterpart, but majority of the time will express changes in its genome later on in life. The concern with cloning humans is that the changes in genomes may not only result in changes in appearance, but in psychological and personality changes as well. The theory behind this is that the biological blueprint of the genes is the same in cloned animals as it is in normal ones, but they are read and expressed differently. DNA arrays were used to prove this claim in the research lab of Professor Rudolf Jaenisch. Jaenisch studied placentas from cloned mice and found that one in every 25 genes was expressed abnormally. Results of these abnormally expressed genes in the cloned mice were premature death, pneumonia, liver failure and obesity.


Cloning extinct and endangered species


Cloning, or more precisely, the reconstruction of functional DNA from extinct species has, for decades, been a dream of some scientists. The possible implications of this were dramatized in the best-selling novel by Michael Crichton and high budget Hollywood thriller Jurassic Park. In real life, one of the most anticipated targets for cloning was once the Woolly Mammoth, but attempts to extract DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful, though a joint Russo-Japanese team is currently working toward this goal. And in January 2011, it was reported by Yomiuri Shimbun that a team of scientists headed by Akira Iritani of Kyoto University had built upon research by Dr. Wakayama, saying that they will extract DNA from a mammoth carcass that had been preserved in a Russian laboratory and insert it into the egg cells of an African elephant in hopes of producing a mammoth embryo. The researchers said they hoped to produce a baby mammoth within six years.


In 2001, a cow named Bessie gave birth to a cloned Asian gaur, an endangered species, but the calf died after two days. In 2003, a banteng was successfully cloned, followed by three African wildcats from a thawed frozen embryo. These successes provided hope that similar techniques (using surrogate mothers of another species) might be used to clone extinct species. Anticipating this possibility, tissue samples from the last bucardo (Pyrenean Ibex) were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after it died in 2000. Researchers are also considering cloning endangered species such as the giant panda and cheetah. The "Frozen Zoo" at the San Diego Zoo now stores frozen tissue from the world's rarest and most endangered species.


In 2002, geneticists at the Australian Museum announced that they had replicated DNA of the Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger), at the time extinct for about 65 years, using polymerase chain reaction.


 However, on February 15, 2005 the museum announced that it was stopping the project after tests showed the specimens' DNA had been too badly degraded by the (ethanol) preservative. On 15 May 2005 it was announced that the Thylacine project would be revived, with new participation from researchers in New South Wales and Victoria.


In January 2009, for the first time, an extinct animal, the Pyrenean ibex mentioned above was cloned, at the Centre of Food Technology and Research of Aragon, using the preserved DNA of the skin samples from 2001 and domestic goat egg-cells. (The ibex died shortly after birth due to physical defects in its lungs.)


One of the continuing obstacles in the attempt to clone extinct species is the need for nearly perfect DNA. Cloning from a single specimen could not create a viable breeding population in sexually reproducing animals. Furthermore, even if males and females were to be cloned, the question would remain open whether they would be viable at all in the absence of parents that could teach or show them their natural behavior.


Cloning endangered species is a highly ideological issue. Many conservation biologists and environmentalists vehemently oppose cloning endangered species—mainly because they think it may deter donations to help preserve natural habitat and wild animal populations. The "rule-of-thumb" in animal conservation is that, if it is still feasible to conserve habitat and viable wild populations, breeding in captivity should not be undertaken in isolation.

In a 2006 review, David Ehrenfeld concluded that cloning in animal conservation is an experimental technology that, at its state in 2006, could not be expected to work except by pure chance and utterly failed a cost-benefit analysis. Furthermore, he said, it is likely to siphon funds from established and working projects and does not address any of the issues underlying animal extinction (such as habitat destruction, hunting or other overexploitation, and an impoverished gene pool). While cloning technologies are well-established and used on a regular basis in plant conservation, care must be taken to ensure genetic diversity.


He concluded:

Vertebrate cloning poses little risk to the environment, but it can consume scarce conservation resources, and its chances of success in preserving species seem poor. To date, the conservation benefits of transgenics and vertebrate cloning remain entirely theoretical, but many of the risks are known and documented. Conservation biologists should devote their research and energies to the established methods of conservation, none of which require transgenics or vertebrate cloning.

On the 7 December 2011 it was announced that a team from the Siberian mammoth museum and Japan's Kinki University plan to clone a woolly mammoth from a well preserved sample of bone marrow found in August 2011. The team claim that the cloning could be complete within the next five years. Others have expressed doubt about the feasibility of the experiment.


Scientists at the University of New South Wales announced in March 2013 that the very recently extinct gastric-brooding frog would be the subject of a cloning attempt to resurrect the species.


In science fiction


Science fiction has used cloning, most commonly and specifically human cloning, due to the fact that it brings up controversial questions of identity.[64] In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World (1932), human cloning is a major plot device that not only drives the story but also makes the reader think critically about what identity means; this concept was re-examined fifty years later in C. J. Cherryh’s novels Forty Thousand in Gehenna (1983) and Cyteen (1988). Kazuo Ishiguro's 2005 novel Never Let Me Go centres on human clones and considers the ethics of the practice. Another book that embodies the ideas of cloning is The House of the Scorpion which explores the rights of human clones and organ harvesting, set from the eyes of a clone. The short novel Containing God by Dr.S.M.Wasi Haider similarly deals with the ideas of cloning and the ethics, lust, and other issues revolving around the topic, emphasizing the idea that creating life gives people the false sense of divinity.

Star Wars portrays human cloning in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones and Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, in the form of the Grand Army of the Republic, an army of cloned soldiers. The Expanded Universe also has numerous examples of cloning, including the Thrawn trilogy, The Hand of Thrawn duology, and Clone Wars-era media.

Popular sci-fi movies that also feature cloning include Jurassic Park (film), The Island (2005 film), and Resident Evil (film series).

Cloning is also featured in the Halo franchise, particularly a technique known as "flash cloning" in which the unstable clone of an individual is created in an incredibly short span of time. Flash cloning is used by the UNSC to kidnap young children for induction into the SPARTAN-II military program, who are surreptitiously replaced by flash clones which die within a short span of time to ensure that no one looks for the children.

In the anime A Certain Scientific Railgun, Level 5 esper Mikoto Misaka was cloned commercially over 20000 times for the purposes of research into the possibility of a "Level 6" esper.

The book Cloud Atlas has science-fiction chapter in the style of an interview with a clone called Sonmi~451, who was born in a futuristic, dystopian Seoul. She is one of thousands of clones created for manual and emotional labor; Sonmi herself works as a server in a restaurant. She later discovers that the sole source of food for clones, called 'Soap', is manufactured from the clones themselves.

In 2012, a Japanese television show named "Bunshin" was created. The story's main character, Mariko, is a woman studying child welfare in Hokkaido. She grew up always doubtful about the love from her mother, who looked nothing like her and who died nine years before. One day, she finds some of her mother's belongings at a relative's house, and heads to Tokyo to seek out the truth behind her birth. She later discovered that she was a clone[65]

 In the 2013 television show Orphan Black,[66] cloning is used as a scientific double blind study on the behavioral adaptation of the clones.

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up ^ "Torrey Botanical Club: Volumes 42-45". Torreya, Volumes 42-45 (Torrey Botanical Club): 133. 1942 
  2. Jump up ^ American Association for the Advancement of Science (1903). Science. Moses King. pp. 502–. Retrieved 8 October 2010. 
  3. Jump up ^ de Candolle, A. (1868). Laws of Botanical Nomenclature adopted by the International Botanical Congress held at Paris in August 1867; together with an Historical Introduction and Commentary by Alphonse de Candolle, Translated from the French. translated by H.A. Weddell. London: L. Reeve and Co. 
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b Walker, S. C. (2007). "Comparison of meat composition from offspring of cloned and conventionally produced boars". Theriogenology 67 (1): 178–184. 
  5. Jump up ^ Peter J. Russel (2005). iGenetics: A Molecular Approach. San Francisco, California, United States of America: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-8053-4665-1. 
  6. Jump up ^ Gil, Gideon (2008-01-17). "California biotech says it cloned a human embryo, but no stem cells produced". Boston Globe. 
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b c d N. (2002, September). "Extensive new study shows abnormalities in cloned animals accessdate=October 2011". Massachusetts institute of technology. 
  8. Jump up ^ Plus, M. (2011). "Fetal development". Retrieved October 2011. 
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Latham, K. E. (2005). "Early and delayed aspects of nuclear reprogramming during cloning" (PDF). Biology of the Cell. pp. 97, 119–132. 
  10. Jump up ^ Campbell KH, McWhir J, Ritchie WA, Wilmut I (March 1996). "Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line". Nature 380 (6569): 64–6. doi:10.1038/380064a0. PMID 8598906. 
  11. Jump up ^ "Asexual Propagation". Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  12. Jump up ^ Explanation of the Spemann-Mangold experiment from a Nature Reviews article
  13. Jump up ^ Illmensee K, Levanduski M, Vidali A, Husami N, Goudas VT (February 2009). "Human embryo twinning with applications in reproductive medicine". Fertil. Steril. 93 (2): 423–7. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.12.098. PMID 19217091. 
  14. Jump up ^ "Cloning Fact Sheet". Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved 25 October 2011. 
  15. Jump up ^ Rantala, Milgram, M., Arthur (1999). Cloning: For and Against. Chicago, Illinois: Carus Publishing Company. p. 1. ISBN 0-8126-9375-2. 
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b Swedin, Eric. "Cloning". CredoReference. Retrieved 23 September 13. 
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b Lassen, J., Gjerris, M., & Sandøe, P. (2005). After Dolly—Ethical limits to the use of biotechnology on farm animals. Elsevier, 65, 992-1004.
  18. Jump up ^ TV documentary Visions Of The Future part 2 shows this process, explores the social implicatins of cloning and contains footage of monoculture in livestock
  19. Jump up ^ USA (2010-07-06). "PubMed home". Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  20. Jump up ^ "Dolly". Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase and Fable. Cassell & co. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  21. Jump up ^
  22. Jump up ^ "Robert W. Briggs". National Academies Press. Retrieved December 1, 2012. 
  23. Jump up ^ "Bloodlines timeline". 
  24. Jump up ^ "Кто изобрел клонирование?". Archived from the original on 2004-12-23.  (Russian)
  25. Jump up ^ "Gene Genie | BBC World Service". 2000-05-01. Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  26. Jump up ^ McLaren A (2000). "Cloning: pathways to a pluripotent future". Science 288 (5472): 1775–80. doi:10.1126/science.288.5472.1775. PMID 10877698. 
  27. Jump up ^ CNN. Researchers clone monkey by splitting embryo 2000-01-13. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
  28. Jump up ^ By Dean Irvine (2007-11-19). "You, again: Are we getting closer to cloning humans? -". Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  29. Jump up ^ "First cloned endangered species dies 2 days after birth". CNN. January 12, 2001. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  30. Jump up ^ Camacho, Keite. Embrapa clona raça de boi ameaçada de extinção. Agência Brasil. 2005-05-20. (Portuguese) Retrieved 2008-08-05
  31. Jump up ^ "Americas | Pet kitten cloned for Christmas". BBC News. 2004-12-23. Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  32. Jump up ^ "Rat called Ralph is latest clone". BBC News. September 25, 2003. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  33. Jump up ^ Associated Press August 25, 2009 (2009-08-25). "Gordon Woods dies at 57; Veterinary scientist helped create first cloned mule". Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  34. Jump up ^ "World's first cloned horse is born - 06 August 2003". New Scientist. Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  35. Jump up ^ "First Dog Clone". Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  36. Jump up ^ "World’s first cloned wolf dies". Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  37. Jump up ^ Kounteya Sinha, TNN, Feb 13, 2009, 12.33am IST (2009-02-13). "India clones world's first buffalo - India - The Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  38. Jump up ^ Extinct ibex is resurrected by cloning, The Daily Telegraph, January 31, 2009
  39. Jump up ^ Spencer, Richard (April 14, 2009). "World's first cloned camel unveiled in Dubai". London: Retrieved April 15, 2009. 
  40. Jump up ^ "India gets its second cloned animal Noorie, a pashmina goat". Kashmir, India: DNA. Mar 15, 2012. 
  41. Jump up ^ Pence, Gregory E. (1998). Who’s Afraid of Human Cloning?. Rowman & Littlefield. paperback ISBN 0-8476-8782-1 and hardcover ISBN 0-8476-8781-3. 
  42. Jump up ^ "AAAS Statement on Human Cloning". 
  43. Jump up ^ McGee, G. (October 2011). "Primer on Ethics and Human Cloning". American Institute of Biological Sciences. 
  44. Jump up ^ "Details of hybrid clone revealed". BBC News. June 18, 1999. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  45. Jump up ^ Mature Human Embryos Created From Adult Skin Cells
  46. ^ Jump up to: a b Farley, M. A. (2001). Chapter 10. In K. L. Suzanne Holland, The human embryonic stem cell debate: science, eithics, & public policy (pp. 90-91, & 115). Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  47. Jump up ^ Michael Brody "Cloning People and Jewish Law" . Avraham Steinberg. "Human Cloning: Scientific, Ethical and Jewish Perspectives" in Assia v.3, n.2 1998.
  48. Jump up ^ New Page 0"dead link"
  49. Jump up ^ "FDA says cloned animals are OK to eat - Health - More health news -". MSNBC. 2006-12-28. Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  50. Jump up ^ "Meat of Cloned Food is Safe to Eat, FDA Says". Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  51. Jump up ^ "An HSUS Report: Welfare Issues with Genetic Engineering and Cloning of Farm Animals | The Humane Society of the United States". Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  52. Jump up ^ "Not ready for prime time". Center for Food Safety. 21 march 2007. Retrieved 26 August 2010. 
  53. Jump up ^ Michael Hansen, Ph.D. (27 April 2007). "Comments of Consumers Union to US Food and Drug Administration on Docket No. 2003N-0573, Draft Animal Cloning Risk Assessment". Retrieved 26 August 2010. 
  54. Jump up ^ "Advocacy". [dead link]
  55. ^ Jump up to: a b Jaenisch, R. (2001). "Cloning with stem cells causes abnormalities in mice". Retrieved October 2011.  More than one of |work= and |newspaper= specified (help)
  56. Jump up ^ "Scientists 'to clone mammoth'". BBC News. 2003-08-18. 
  57. Jump up ^ Heidi B. Perlman (2000-10-08). "Scientists Close on Extinct Cloning". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 
  58. Jump up ^ Pence, Gregory E. (2005). Cloning After Dolly: Who's Still Afraid?. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-3408-1. 
  59. Jump up ^ Holloway, Grant (2002-05-28). "Cloning to revive extinct species". 
  60. Jump up ^ Gray, Richard; Dobson, Roger (31 January 2009). "Extinct ibex is resurrected by cloning". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2009-02-01. [dead link]
  61. ^ Jump up to: a b Ehrenfeld, David (2006). "Transgenics and Vertebrate Cloning as Tools for Species Conservation". Conservation Biology 20 (3): 723–732. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00399.x. PMID 16909565. 
  62. Jump up ^ "BBC News". 2011-12-07. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  63. Jump up ^ Yong, Ed (2013-03-15). "Resurrecting the Extinct Frog with a Stomach for a Womb". National Geographic. Retrieved 2013-03-15. 
  64. Jump up ^ "Yvonne A. De La Cruz ''Science Fiction Storytelling and Identity: Seeing the Human Through Android Eyes''" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  65. Jump up ^ [1]
  66. Jump up ^ Orphan Black on IMDB

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cloning.
Retrieved from ""


The Boys from Brazil is a 1978 British-American thriller film directed by Franklin J. Schaffner. It stars Gregory Peck and Laurence Olivier and features James Mason, Lilli Palmer, Uta Hagen and Steve Guttenberg in supporting roles. The screenplay by Heywood Gould is based on the novel of the same name by Ira Levin.

The film was produced by Martin Richards and Stanley O'Toole with Robert Fryer as executive producer. The music score was by Jerry Goldsmith and the cinematography by Henri Decaë. It was produced through Sir Lew Grade's ITC Entertainment and distributed by 20th Century Fox. It was nominated for three Academy Awards.

The film was shot on location in Austria, England, Portugal, and Lancaster, Pennsylvania. It was Schaffner's second sci-fi film, appearing ten years after Planet of the Apes.


Young, well-intentioned Barry Kohler (Steve Guttenberg) stumbles upon a secret organization of Third Reich war criminals holding clandestine meetings in Paraguay and realizes that Dr Josef Mengele (Gregory Peck), the infamous Auschwitz doctor, is among their number. He phones Ezra Lieberman (Laurence Olivier), an aging Nazi hunter living in Austria, with this information. A highly skeptical Lieberman tries to brush Kohler's claims aside, telling him that it is already well known that Mengele is living in Paraguay.

Having learned when and where the next meeting to include Mengele is scheduled to occur, Kohler records part of it using a hidden microphone, but is discovered and killed while making another phone call to Lieberman. Before the phone is hung up with Lieberman on the other end, he hears the recorded voice of Mengele ordering a group of ex-Nazis to kill 94 men in different countries, including Austria, Germany, Denmark, Holland, Norway, Sweden, Canada, England and the U.S.

Although frail, Lieberman follows Kohler's leads and begins travelling throughout Europe and North America to investigate the suspicious deaths of a number of aging civil servants. He meets several of their widows and is amazed to find an uncanny resemblance in their adopted, black-haired, blue-eyed sons. It is also made clear that, at the time of their deaths, all the civil servants were aged around 65 and had a cold, domineering and abusive attitude towards their adopted sons, while their wives were aged around 42 and doted on the sons.

Lieberman gains insight from Frieda Maloney (Uta Hagen), an incarcerated former Nazi guard who worked with the adoption agency, before realizing during a meeting with Professor Bruckner (Bruno Ganz), an expert on cloning, the terrible truth behind the Nazi plan: Mengele, in the 1960s, had secluded several surrogate mothers in a Brazilian clinic and fertilised them with ova each carrying a sample of Hitler's DNA preserved since World War II. 94 perfect clones of Hitler had then been born and sent to different parts of the world for adoption.

As Lieberman uncovers more of the plot, Mengele's superiors become more unnerved. After Mengele happens to meet (and then attacks) one of the agents he believes is in Europe implementing his scheme, Mengele's principal contact, Eduard Seibert (James Mason), informs him that the scheme has been aborted before Lieberman can expose it to the authorities. Mengele storms out, pledging that the operation will continue.

Seibert and his men destroy Mengele's jungle estate after killing his guards and servants. Mengele himself, however, has already left, intent on trying to continue his plan. He travels to rural Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, where one of the Hitler clones, Bobby Wheelock (Jeremy Black), lives on a farm with his parents. There he murders the boy's father (John Dehner), a Doberman dog breeder, and waits for Lieberman, who is on his way to the farm to warn Mr. Wheelock of Mengele's intention to kill him.

The instant Lieberman arrives and sets eyes on Mengele, he attacks the doctor in a fury. But Mengele soon gains the upper hand and holds him at gunpoint. He taunts Lieberman by explaining his plan to return Hitler to the world. Then, with one desperate lunge, Lieberman opens the closet where the Dobermans are held and turns them loose. The dogs corner Mengele and begin to attack him. At that point, Bobby arrives home from school. It is Mengele's first look at one of his clones. Bobby calls off the dogs and tries to find out what has happened.

Bobby can tell from the carnage that something is amiss. The injured Mengele tells Bobby how much he admires him, and explains that he is cloned from Hitler. But Bobby doubts his story and is also suspicious because the dogs are trained to attack anyone who threatens his family. Lieberman tells Bobby that Mengele has killed his father and urges him to notify the police. Bobby checks the house and eventually finds his dead father in the basement. He rushes back upstairs and sets the vicious dogs on Mengele once again, relishing his bloody death. Bobby then proceeds to help Lieberman, whom Mengele has shot and wounded, but only after Lieberman promises not to tell the police about the incident.

Later, while recovering from his wounds, Lieberman is encouraged by an American Nazi-hunter, David Bennett (John Rubinstein) to expose Mengele's scheme to the world. He asks Lieberman to turn over the list (that Lieberman had taken from Mengele's body while Bobby was calling for an ambulance) identifying the names and whereabouts of the other boys from around the world, so that they can be systematically killed before growing up to become bloody tyrants. Lieberman objects on the grounds that they are mere children. He burns the list before anyone can read it.



Ancient Antarctic lake thought to harbor prehistoric life, Hitler clones



In its reporting on the efforts of a Russian drilling team to reach a subglacial lake in Antarctica, Russian state media has revived an old conjecture about a secret Nazi cloning facility on the southern continent. 


Russian researchers from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of St. Petersburg pose for a photo Monday at the Vostok station in Antarctica. Russian state media says that the team has successfully drilled through two miles of ice to reach a massive subglacial lake that has been locked beneath the ice for millions of years.

Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute Press Service/AP


After a decade of effort, Russian researchers in Antarctica have successfully drilled through more than two miles of solid ice to reach a massive lake that has been sealed off from light and air for millions of years.


If Lake Vostok, a freshwater body roughly the size of Lake Ontario that has been locked beneath the ice for between 15 million and 34 million years, is found to harbor living organisms, the discovery would fuel hopes of discovering life on other worlds, such as Jupiter's moon, Europa, or Saturn's moon, Enceladus, both of which are thought to have liquid oceans below their icy crusts. 

The first announcement of the team's success was reported Monday in RIA Novosti. The Russian state-owned news agency quoted an unnamed "scientific source," who said, “Yesterday, our scientists stopped drilling at the depth of 3,768 meters and reached the surface of the sub-glacial lake.” 

A few paragraphs later, the story takes an unexpected turn:

With the current events happening at Lake Vostok, an old theory saying that German Nazis may have built a secret base there as early as the 1930s, has resurfaced.

It is thought that towards the end of the Second World War, the Nazis moved to the South Pole and started constructing a base at Lake Vostok. In 1943, Grand Admiral  Karl Dönitz was quoted saying “Germany's submarine fleet is proud that it created an unassailable fortress for the Fuehrer on the other end of the world,” in Antarctica.

According to German naval archives, months after Germany surrendered to the Allies in April, 1945, the German submarine U-530 arrived at the South Pole from the Port of Kiel. Crewmembers constructed an ice cave and supposedly stored several boxes of relics from the Third Reich, including Hitler’s secret files.

It is also rumored that later the submarine U-977 delivered the remains of Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun to Antarctica for DNA cloning purposes.

While some might find it odd that the very first official announcement of a major scientific breakthrough contains references to esoteric Nazi conspiracy theories, there is a kernel of truth in there – albeit a tiny one. In December 1938, a German expedition set off for Antarctica with the aim of establishing a whaling station and possibly a naval base. The expedition arrived in early 1939 and set about planting Nazi flags on land that had recently been claimed by Norway. The expedition named this region "Neuschwabenland," and apparently left without building any permanent structures.

That's all we really know about Nazis in Antarctica. The area that the German expedition claimed is on Antarctica's northern coast, hundreds of miles from the landlocked Lake Vostok. That a U-boat reached the South Pole seems doubtful, as the crew would have had to have gotten out and pushed their vessel overland. Of course it could be that the submariners had reached the magnetic South Pole, which is constantly shifting due to changes in the Earth's magnetic field. The magnetic South Pole is currently off the coast of Antarctica, south of Australia, but in 1939s it would have been several miles inland.

The rumor that a U-boat secretly ferried Hitler and his wife out of Germany is an old one. A Time Magazine story from Monday, July 23, 1945, relays the story of U-530, which surrendered to authorities in Mar del Plata, Argentina, some two months after Germany's surrender. The story notes that an Argentine reporter cited a police report describing a submarine surfacing off Argentina's coast and dropping off two passengers, "a high-ranking officer and a civilian." The Time reporter speculated that the couple  "might have been Adolf Hitler and his wife, Eva Braun, in man's dress."

There's no evidence that U-530 ever visited Antarctica, although neither the skipper nor his crew never explained exactly what they had been doing for the previous two months.  

Submarine U-977 also surrendered in Mar del Plata on August 17, 1945, after famously spending 66 days submerged as it travelled from the North Atlantic to Argentina. The voyage of U-977 has fueled a several conspiracy theories involving Hitler and Nazi gold, but no real evidence. 

In any case, it's highly unlikely that Nazi scientists would have even thought to attempt to preserve the Führer's DNA. The DNA molecule was first discovered in 1869, but it wasn't until 1952 that scientist confirmed that it plays a role in heredity. The first successful clone from an adult mammal didn't come until 1996, when Scottish scientists successfully cloned a sheep. 


  1. Dee Finney's blog February 7, 2012 page 130 WHAT'S UP WITH LAKE VOSTOK?...

    Feb 7, 2012 - “It is thought that towards the end of the Second World War, the Nazis moved to the South Pole and started constructing a base at Lake Vostok.
  2. • VIDEO INTERVIEWS - Dreams of the Great Earth Changes

    BD: You know, they have classified Lake Vostok. They took it away from JPL who was monitoring it and, you know, with satellites and all... Are you familiar with ...

    Dee Finney's blog February 10, 2012 page 132 OPERATION HIGHJUMP ...

    Feb 10, 2012 - Admiral Forrestal and Admiral Byrd - HEROES of the Hollow earth ... I read Admiral Byrd's entire diary and it truly is amazing.


November 16 1998


The Shroud of Turin will be at the centre of fresh controversy next month when a scientist details his claims to have isolated DNA from the "blood of Jesus." 

Dr. Leoncio Garza-Valdes, a former professor of microbiology, is the latest to question the scientific consensus that the shroud many believe was used to wrap the body of Jesus after the crucifixion is a medieval forgery. 

In his book, The DNA of God?, Dr. Garza-Valdes describes cloning tests carried out by colleagues at the University of Texas which show that the "red'' areas on the cloth, far from being paint, are ancient blood stains of a group consistent with a Jewish male. 

In addition, fragments of wood were found with the blood which, he believes, could have come from the cross. The fragments were from the oak tree, common in Jerusalem. 

But his claims have been greeted with caution by skeptics, who say that he has yet to provide convincing evidence that the shroud is not a fake. 

Dr. Garza-Valdes, who first studied segments of the shroud in Turin in 1993, is already known for challenging carbon dating tests carried out in 1988, which put the date of the cloth between 1260 and 1390. 

A number of experts subsequently concluded the ghostly image of a man on the cloth must be that of a crucified crusader, a painting or even an early form of photography, devised by Leonardo da Vinci. 

But Dr. Garza-Valdes and Professor Stephen Mattingly, a microbiologist at Texas University, have excited believers in the shroud by finding that the cloth is covered with a barely visible living "bioplastic'' coating of bacteria and fungi. 

This, the scientists believe, developed over the centuries "like a coral reef'' and could have skewed the 1988 carbon dating tests. 

The book details the experiments that show the "blood'' on the shroud is ancient and contains XY chromosomes, which establishes it as human and male. 

The tests were conducted by a team headed by Dr. Victor Tryon, director of the Centre for Advanced DNA Technology at the University of Texas Health Science Centre. 

Gene segments from the stains were cloned and the analysis showed that the blood came from a male with an AB blood type, common among Jewish people. 

Dr. Garza-Valdes, a practising Catholic, said the placing of the blood traces strongly indicated that the body was that of Jesus. 

"Not many people in the first century suffered all those lesions, the crucifixion wounds, the crown of thorns, the spear wound in the right side of the chest, the flagellations,'' he said. 

He disagreed with suggestions the DNA could be used to clone Jesus in the style of Dolly the sheep, saying that the samples were too degraded. 

Professor Michael Tite of Oxford University, one of the scientists who carried out the 1988 carbon dating tests, was skeptical of the new book's claims. "Nobody has yet provided me with convincing evidence that our carbon dating is incorrect,'' he said. 

"The amount of coating needed to skew the dating that much would be large, though the possibility cannot be ruled out. But I still believe the shroud is medieval.'' 






Created by an ET group, the creators traveled back in time and space with genetic material to support the disintegration of the Lyraen civilization. With seven different types of Draco races, the leader group is a seven to eight foot tall winged reptilian-type creature. Above is pictured a warrior used to conquer and occupy a planet. The slender four to five foot Draco similar to a lizard performs menial tasks and aids in abductions.

Harsh, warlike beings who feel little emotion, the Draco have no regard for culture or other beings. Most Draco are androgynous and reproduce by parthenogenesis, or cloning. One special group that is completely male creates hybrid races that conquer others.

The Earths Moon is a Draco planetoid placed in orbit aeons ago during the time of the Lemurian colonization. With the intention to divide and conquer, they are known to be brutal, as with Rigel by boiling oceans, scorching landmasses, etc. The Draco have vast underground bases on Earth and colonies on Venus.

A second Moon has been stationed over the Earth. It arrive behind the Hale-Bopp Comet in 1997. These are pure Reptilians. The hybrids, Illuminati, are in control of the Earth.


1. The Sirians were at war with the Orion system. This hostility exists to this day.  It is intriguing since the beings in Orion were once very human, as Lyraen colonists, and then were taken over by the Reptilians. However, the Sirians and the Reptilians trade with each other and the beings from Sirius A sell weaponry to the Dracos! A complex political situation indeed.

2. The comet also caused the planet Uranus to flip on its side. It is the only known planet that rotates north-South instead of East-West.

There follows excerpts from the book:

Montauk:The Alien Connection, by Stewart Swerdlow

Edited by Peter  Moon, Expansions Publishing Co.

Comments in italics are from Dan Winter, the rest is a quote directly from the book- pages mentioned..


Speaking in succession from right to left, the first one was a large reptilian creature who looked like a lizard stuffed into a black uniform. He spoke with a hissing noise in a language that sounded guttural and severe. Simultaneously, I heard the meaning of his words in my head. A member of a vast empire that spanned a large portion of the galaxy, his people are attempting to occupy all of the star systems on the outer fringes of this galaxy, eventually working their way inward. A defector, he now advises this council on the possible activities of these invasion forces.

According to the lizard, the Earth was invaded many thousands of years ago by an army of his people that arrived in a huge ship that is now the moon of Earth.

numerous sources- including we understand NASA's seismic data - confirm the moon is a hollow metal framework, towed in here, and infested internally with Greys and Dracs

Another such ship is on its way, he said, destined to arrive before the end of this century (as we calculate time).

Several sources - among them Alex Collier, have insisted artificial planetoids - like Hale Bopp's tow ins - were headed here in comet gravity tails - filled with invading Dracos. The sun cruisers in the solar / mercury near orbit - visible on several web sites - are said to be examples of these. Alex's Andromedan material specifically predicted the comet would drop the invasion ships in a temporary near Mercury orbit.

After being driven off the Earth by settlers from the Lyraen Empire, his people went underground.

Most of the Lemurian epoch stories suggest that the end of the Lemurian continent was a war with a reptialian race, which the humanoids won against the reptilians - but at the cost of the environment- forcing the humanoid surviving remnant underground- where their blood became more red and dependant on iron to bond oxygen (as opposed to the humanoid remnant who fled at that point largely to Sirius and Pleades where they became more blue / copper blood.)

There, they remain in stasis until they are to be reactivated by the incoming ship. These reptilians also maintain bases on Venus and on some of the moons of the outer planets. Because his people are male only, they created females for the sole purpose of breeding. Despite this, cloning is their primary method of reproduction. In conclusion, the lizard added that I would someday convert his people to the Light because my soul was an emissary to them many years ago. Remembering me, they would respect what I said to them.

The next one to speak was an amphibian-type being who looked very much like the Creature from the Black Lagoon.Slimy and moist, his body was covered with a scaly, greenish-grey skin. Breathing heavily, his thoughts flooded my brain. His civilization was the original inhabitant of Earth before the others arrived. At that time, Earth was mostly water and marshes. Devastated by mankind and aliens alike, there remain only a few pockets of his people at the deepest depths of the oceans. From time to time they come to dry land to sun themselves, thus creating the basis for the legendary mermaids and mermen. This species worked closely with the Atlanteans before that continent sank. They served as liaisons between mankind and the whales and dolphins. He said that these sea mammals are advanced races from another galaxy. Most of his people were lifted off-world to underground oceans on Neptune. This maneuver was facilitated by benevolent ET groups. Continuing, he told me that I have dolphin DNA; therefore, I could learn to communicate with his species in order to help mankind and the dolphin/whale systems.

Next, a being on the opposite side of the table spoke. Looking like a small dark-haired human, his eyes were so dark that they almost shined. His eyes seemed to pierce right through my own, and I found it difficult to look at him. Claiming to represent the Federation of Planets of this galaxy, he said that there are over 120 different member civilizations. Someday, Earth will be asked to join, but only if they are successful in repelling the invasion force. Otherwise, Earth could become a target by the Federation until the reptilians are removed.

This dark-haired human said that I was selected to speak with all of these aliens because each species had contributed to my DNA creation. I was made for the express genetic purpose of belonging to many different groups. Because of that, each group would be more willing to listen to me and accept my ideas since I partially belonged to them. Continuing, he said that my soul-personality had agreed to this mission long ago, undergoing training in many galaxies and alternate universes. He said that much of what they told me now would stay hidden in my cellular memory until each piece of information becomes necessary. Future hardships and sadness would condition me for my mission. Not wanting to hear any of this, I tensed up to the point of vomiting. The next thing I remember, I was still in the chair with another being talking to me.

This creature was a pale greyish-white. He possessed large, round, black eyes and a long nose. A short curtain of material draped around the back of his large head. His thin mouth did not move as he spoke words inside my head. With a harsh attitude, this grey claimed to be from the Rigel star system. Although he did not want to be part of this meeting, his overlords insisted that he attend it. His job was to monitor the procedures since I was once a part of their race, too. His home world was once part of the Lyraen civilization. After that culture disintegrated, the reptilians invaded his planet. Now his people are part of that empire and as such, do their bidding. From time to time he would send his workers, smaller grey creatures, to check up on me. Most of the time I would not remember it except as a bad dream.

Michael Ash - the supposed chief time empath from Montauk - had described to me how unpleasant and interventionist the many Rigelians were - who he encountered at Montauk. Also notably in the Buehler / Thoth materials- Thoth ( son of Enki / Adonai / Ra / Hermes) insists his blood is blue / black because HE WAS FROM RIGEL IN ORION. I suspect this was the ancestral family of Enki / Ra 's mother AIDA who was winged Drac.. "Ptah Taal" (Thoth - Nubian - blue black blood - was the reason the original name for EGYPT was KHEM - which means from the BLACKNESS - the term alCHEMy therefore means- science of making black holes. It was Thoth - Hermes family who impregnated Aksenpaten - which became the Tut / Magdalen story - and BLACK MADONNA). In Alex Collier - Andromedan papers (Defending Sacred Ground - etc.) Read about the origin of the term PTAH in Egypt (RA /ENKI'S line ) from the term PTAH TAAL - meaning 11th dimensional or Bird Tribe - but more probably WINGED DRAC or CIAKAR or MOTHMAN - The source of the psychokinesis in the DNA - ENKI - RA - AbRAham - used in his own sperm to make Adam and EVE fertile. (read Return of Enki- )

There would come a time when these greys would be at war with some of the worlds represented at this meeting. My job would then be to monitor the activities and report the findings to my controllers. My body contains chemicals needed by his race. The grey said that his race also looked human until war contaminated their environment, genetically degenerating them. My body was presented to them as a temporary token of hope and peace. Allowed to use my genetics for the purpose of upgrading their dying species, they could not purposefully harm me, permanently kidnap me, or allow me to remember what they did to get what they needed from me. These were the rules that all abided by to keep the status quo while at the same time benefiting from my creation.

If my mission failed, or if any of the participants in this project no longer wished to continue, then I would be removed to a safe place while the others fought amongst themselves, possibly even on the surface of the planet Earth. Finally, he told me that his people merely wished to correct the errors committed against them in order to evolve. They wished to become independent of the reptilians and recreate their old civilization before it was too late. Their dilemma was that, if they attempted this, they would be destroyed completely by their masters. On the other hand, if they continued with their masters orders, they would be targeted by the Federation planets. Because they felt hopeless, they looked out only for themselves.

At this point, the last being at the council tale, who sat in the middle, interrupted the Rigelian. This being was very tall. Standing up, he raised his arms to either side. The beautiful white robe he wore was trimmed in a blue that I had never seen before. His large head was round on top with a pointed chin. Standing with his arms outstretched, he remarkably resembled a living ankh. His oval eyes were brilliant blue; his skin ivory white. By far, he was the most impressive being at this gathering. When his thoughts filled my head, I could not even think of my own name! As he spoke, I saw words in a strange language swirling ethereally around his head.

Sequences of brain cortex charge domains in compression symmetry - origin of ancient alphabets - (compare- Hebrew - the software environment for a central borg computer doing genetic intervention - versus OPHANIM - bird tribe- origin of STARGATE the movie).. and physics symmetry elements of creation..

He told me his name, but I cannot remember it. Coming from the planet Khoom in the binary Sirius star system, his people were descendents of non-physical beings who inhabited hyperspace, a region of consciousness existing outside of linear time and space. They created the ancient Egyptian civilization as well as the Jewish people and gave them the Torah. The Crystal Skull was their creation, and they were in charge of many events in the galaxy and beyond. My soul-personality was from his people because it was the only type advanced enough to animate such a hybrid body as my own. Possessing the most advanced technology in the universe, all the other species came to these Sirians for information. Now, as an adult, I realize that this group also plays one civilization against the other to benefit evolution as well as their own species.

We know Enki / Enlil (Adonai - Lucifer - versus Yahweh Michael) father was most likely from Sirius. In a holdout position trying to save the last humanoid remnant against the onslaught of the borg machine Empire (Empire Strikes back become real). We suspect he (ANTU / or BIKI as the abos call him- literally SUN GOD / AN ) was half machine - but not happy about that (correct history describing Muab Dib's father line - Harkonen - half machine in DUNE - and Luke Skywalker's father Darth Vader - half machine in Star Trek - a Phyllis Schlemmer originated story). What is confusing is the Andromedan material - has insisted Sirius A was non-interventionist in it's political relation with EARTH - while Sirius B was more interventionist (interfere with indigenous genepools without regard to the PRIME DIRECTIVE).

This note hints that all the good DNA called Hebrew - actually descended from Enki in Egypt (the books: OUT OF EGYPT, & HOUSE OF THE MESSIAH & COPPER SCROLLS - present overwhelming evidence- the Rabbi's lied about Israel being Moses origin - Moses was the name Akhanaton took - when Enlil / Amun - took over Egypt & while he swiped the family gold to found the Essenes). The thing missing here is the SOURCE of the good Sirian DNA - which is actually winged Draconian.. Enki's mom. The crystal skull was a decadent control device used later by a fallen MAG matriliny who lost the skill to pass racial memory in a real skull touch. - see origins of BAPHOMET.