Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20, 2011

today's date November 12, 2013

page 594


11-12-13 - NOON MEDITATION DREAM.  I was in a city somewhere and my husband and I met a young blonde woman and she was acting frightened. 

We wanted to help her but before we could ask her what her problem was, she was kidnapped by some men and they pulled her into the back seat of a beige car.

Somehow, we got in front of that car, but then it dropped back a bit and my husband asked me to read the license plate number.

I said, "It's too far back, I can't see it!"

So, my husband slowed down a bit and the beige car passed us up on the left side and got ahead of us.

The beige car then came up behind a trash truck and almost hit it and swerved to miss the truck and when it did, it started to tip over to the left.

We stopped our car and I ran ahead and someone said, "Get her out of there!"  and I grabbed her by the arm and pulled her into our vehicle.

I thought we were going to get into a fight with the men in the other car for rescuing her, but we seeemd to be okay, and she said to me. "Thank you for saving me.  My number is " 0 " and because of you,  I am whole again. "




"It is for the planting in his
season we celebrate.
and for all those who will
breathe the fragrance of a
future flowering.

The seed must have many to care for it.

Listen and you will hear
it's heartbeat in the earth,
feel its warmth beneath your feet.
Tend the season with gentlenesss
and prepare for the time of your journey.

Wactch for a Dream Feather
and join the circle.

When all in each generation have done so,
the Wheel of Light will be complete.

0 (zero; BrE: /ˈzɪərəʊ/ or AmE: /ˈziːroʊ/) is both a number[1] and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. It fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures. As a digit, 0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems. In the English language, 0 may be called zero, nought or (US) naught /ˈnɔːt/, nil, or — in contexts where at least one adjacent digit distinguishes it from the letter "O" — oh or o /ˈ/. Informal or slang terms for zero include zilch and zip.[2] Ought or aught /ˈɔːt/ has also been used historically.[3] (SeeNames for the number 0 in English.)

The word zero came via French zéro from Venetian zero, which (together with cypher) came via Italian zefiro from Arabic صفر, ṣafira = "it was empty",ṣifr = "zero", "nothing". This was a translation of the Sanskrit word shoonya (śūnya), meaning "empty". The first known English use was in 1598.[4][5][6][7]

In 976 AD the Persian encyclopedist Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khwarizmi, in his "Keys of the Sciences", remarked that if, in a calculation, no number appears in the place of tens, then a little circle should be used "to keep the rows". This circle was called صفر (ṣifr, "empty") in Arabic language. That was the earliest mention of the name ṣifr that eventually became zero.[8]

Italian zefiro already meant "west wind" from Latin and Greek zephyrus; this may have influenced the spelling when transcribing Arabic ṣifr.[9] The Italian mathematician Fibonacci (c.1170–1250), who grew up in North Africa and is credited with introducing the decimal system to Europe, used the term zephyrum. This became zefiro in Italian, which was contracted to zero in Venetian.

As the decimal zero and its new mathematics spread from the Arab world to Europe in the Middle Ages, words derived from ṣifr and zephyrus came to refer to calculation, as well as to privileged knowledge and secret codes. According to Ifrah, "in thirteenth-century Paris, a 'worthless fellow' was called a '... cifre en algorisme', i.e., an 'arithmetical nothing'."[9] From ṣifr also came French chiffre = "digit", "figure", "number", chiffrer = "to calculate or compute", chiffré = "encrypted". Today, the word in Arabic is still ṣifr, and cognates of ṣifr are common in the languages of Europe and southwest Asia.

Modern usage

There are different words used for the number or concept of zero depending on the context. For the simple notion of lacking, the words nothing andnone are often used, while nought, naught and aught[10] are archaic and poetic forms with the same meaning. Several sports have specific words for zero, such as nil in football, love in tennis and a duck in cricket. In British English, it is often called oh in the context of telephone numbers. Slang words for zero include zip, zilch, nada, scratch and even duck egg or goose egg.[11]



heart with trachea
beautiful, pleasant, good

Ancient Egyptian numerals were base 10. They used hieroglyphs for the digits and were not positional. By 1740 BCE the Egyptians had a symbol for zero in accounting texts. The symbol nfr, meaning beautiful, was also used to indicate the base level in drawings of tombs and pyramids and distances were measured relative to the base line as being above or below this line.[12]


By the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the Babylonian mathematics had a sophisticated sexagesimal positional numeral system. The lack of a positional value (or zero) was indicated by a space between sexagesimal numerals. By 300 BC, a punctuation symbol (two slanted wedges) was co-opted as a placeholder in the same Babylonian system. In a tablet unearthed at Kish (dating from about 700 BC), the scribe Bêl-bân-aplu wrote his zeros with three hooks, rather than two slanted wedges.[13]

The Babylonian placeholder was not a true zero because it was not used alone. Nor was it used at the end of a number. Thus numbers like 2 and 120 (2×60), 3 and 180 (3×60), 4 and 240 (4×60), looked the same because the larger numbers lacked a final sexagesimal placeholder. Only context could differentiate them.


The concept of zero as a number and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India, where, by the 9th century AD, practical calculations were carried out using zero, which was treated like any other number, even in case of division.[14][15] The Indian scholar Pingala (circa 5th–2nd century BC) used binary numbers in the form of short and long syllables (the latter equal in length to two short syllables), making it similar to Morse code.[16][17] He and his contemporary Indian scholars used the Sanskrit word śūnya to refer to zero or void.

In 498 AD, Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata stated that "sthānāt sthānaṁ daśaguņaṁ syāt"[18] i.e. "from place to place each is ten times the preceding,"[18][19] which is the origin of the modern decimal-based place value notation.[20][21]

The oldest known text to use a decimal place-value system, including a zero, is the Jain text from India entitled the Lokavibhâga, dated 458 AD, whereshunya ("void" or "empty") was employed for this purpose.[22] The first known use of special glyphs for the decimal digits that includes the indubitable appearance of a symbol for the digit zero, a small circle, appears on a stone inscription found at the Chaturbhuja Temple at Gwalior in India, dated 876 AD.[23][24] There are many documents on copper plates, with the same small o in them, dated back as far as the sixth century AD, but their authenticity may be doubted.[13]

Rules of Brahmagupta

The rules governing the use of zero appeared for the first time in Brahmagupta's book Brahmasputha Siddhanta (The Opening of the Universe),[25]written in 628 AD. Here Brahmagupta considers not only zero, but negative numbers, and the algebraic rules for the elementary operations of arithmetic with such numbers. In some instances, his rules differ from the modern standard. Here are the rules of Brahmagupta:[25]

In saying zero divided by zero is zero, Brahmagupta differs from the modern position. Mathematicians normally do not assign a value to this, whereas computers and calculators sometimes assign NaN, which means "not a number." Moreover, non-zero positive or negative numbers when divided by zero are either assigned no value, or a value of unsigned infinity, positive infinity, or negative infinity.


This is a depiction of zero expressed in Chinese counting rods, based on the example provided by A History of Mathematics. An empty space is used to represent zero.[26]

The Sunzi Suanjing, of unknown date but estimated to be dated from the 1st to 5th centuries, and Japanese records dated from the eighteenth century, describe how counting rods were used for calculations. According to A History of Mathematics, the rods "gave the decimal representation of a number, with an empty space denoting zero."[26] The counting rod system is considered a positional notation system.[27]

Zero was not treated as a number at that time, but as a "vacant position", unlike the Indian mathematicians who developed the numerical zero.[28] Ch’in Chu-shao's 1247 Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections is the oldest surviving Chinese mathematical text using a round symbol for zero.[29] Chinese authors had been familiar with the idea of negative numbers by the Han Dynasty (2nd century CE), as seen in the The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art,[30] much earlier than the fifteenth century when they became well established in Europe.[29]

Islamic world

The Arabic-language inheritance of science was largely Greek, initially from Nestorian Christians in Persia, but the first influences in astronomy wereHindu.[31] In 773, at Al-Mansur's behest, translations were made of the Siddhantas, Indian earliest astronomical treatises dating as far back as 425 B.C.; these versions may have been the vehicle through which the "Arabic" numerals and the zero were brought from India into the Muslim world.[32]

The Hindu-Arabic numerals and the positional number system were introduced around 500 AD, and about 825 AD, it was introduced by a Persianscientist, al-Khwārizmī,[8] in his book on arithmetic, which was translated into Latin in the 12th century under the title Algoritmi de numero Indorum. This title means "Algoritmi on the numbers of the Indians", where "Algoritmi" was the translator's Latinization of Al-Khwarizmi's name.[33] This book synthesized Greek and Hindu knowledge and also contained his own fundamental contribution to mathematics and science including an explanation of the use of zero. It was only centuries later, in the 12th century, that the Arabic numeral system was introduced to the Western world through Latintranslations of his treatise Arithmetic.

Greeks and Romans

Records show that the ancient Greeks seemed unsure about the status of zero as a number. They asked themselves, "How can nothing besomething?", leading to philosophical and, by the Medieval period, religious arguments about the nature and existence of zero and the vacuum. Theparadoxes of Zeno of Elea depend in large part on the uncertain interpretation of zero.

Example of the early Greek symbol for zero (lower right corner) from a 2nd-century papyrus

By 130 AD, Ptolemy, influenced by Hipparchus and the Babylonians, was using a symbol for zero (a small circle with a long overbar) within a sexagesimal numeral system otherwise using alphabetic Greek numerals. Because it was used alone, not just as a placeholder, thisHellenistic zero was perhaps the first documented use of a number zero in the Old World. However, the positions were usually limited to the fractional part of a number (called minutes, seconds, thirds, fourths, etc.)—they were not used for the integral part of a number. In laterByzantine manuscripts of Ptolemy's Syntaxis Mathematica (also known as the Almagest), the Hellenistic zero had morphed into the Greek letter omicron (otherwise meaning 70).

Another zero was used in tables alongside Roman numerals by 525 (first known use byDionysius Exiguus), but as a word, nulla meaning "nothing", not as a symbol. When division produced zero as a remainder, nihil, also meaning "nothing", was used. These medieval zeros were used by all future medieval computists (calculators of Easter). The initial "N" was used as a zero symbol in a table of Roman numerals by Bede or his colleague around 725.

Medieval Europe – zero as a decimal digit

Positional notation without the use of zero (using an empty space in tabular arrangements, or the word kha "emptiness") is known to have been in use in India from the 6th century. The earliest certain use of zero as a decimal positional digit dates to the 5th century mention in the text Lokavibhaga. The glyph for the zero digit was written in the shape of a dot, and consequently called bindu ("dot"). The dot had been used in Greece during earlier ciphered numeral periods.

The Hindu-Arabic numeral system (base 10) reached Europe in the 11th century, via the Iberian Peninsula through Spanish Muslims, the Moors, together with knowledge of astronomy and instruments like the astrolabe, first imported by Gerbert of Aurillac. For this reason, the numerals came to be known in Europe as "Arabic numerals". The Italian mathematician Fibonacci or Leonardo of Pisa was instrumental in bringing the system into European mathematics in 1202, stating:

After my father's appointment by his homeland as state official in the customs house of Bugia for the Pisan merchants who thronged to it, he took charge; and in view of its future usefulness and convenience, had me in my boyhood come to him and there wanted me to devote myself to and be instructed in the study of calculation for some days. There, following my introduction, as a consequence of marvelous instruction in the art, to the nine digits of the Hindus, the knowledge of the art very much appealed to me before all others, and for it I realized that all its aspects were studied in Egypt, Syria, Greece, Sicily, and Provence, with their varying methods; and at these places thereafter, while on business. I pursued my study in depth and learned the give-and-take of disputation. But all this even, and the algorism, as well as the art of Pythagoras, I considered as almost a mistake in respect to the method of the Hindus (Modus Indorum). Therefore, embracing more stringently that method of the Hindus, and taking stricter pains in its study, while adding certain things from my own understanding and inserting also certain things from the niceties of Euclid's geometric art. I have striven to compose this book in its entirety as understandably as I could, dividing it into fifteen chapters. Almost everything which I have introduced I have displayed with exact proof, in order that those further seeking this knowledge, with its pre-eminent method, might be instructed, and further, in order that the Latin people might not be discovered to be without it, as they have been up to now. If I have perchance omitted anything more or less proper or necessary, I beg indulgence, since there is no one who is blameless and utterly provident in all things. The nine Indian figures are: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. With these nine figures, and with the sign 0 ... any number may be written.[34][35]

Here Leonardo of Pisa uses the phrase "sign 0", indicating it is like a sign to do operations like addition or multiplication. From the 13th century, manuals on calculation (adding, multiplying, extracting roots, etc.) became common in Europe where they were called algorismus after the Persian mathematician al-Khwārizmī. The most popular was written by Johannes de Sacrobosco, about 1235 and was one of the earliest scientific books to beprinted in 1488. Until the late 15th century, Hindu-Arabic numerals seem to have predominated among mathematicians, while merchants preferred to use the Roman numerals. In the 16th century, they became commonly used in Europe.

The Americas

The back of Olmec stela C from Tres Zapotes, the second oldest Long Count date discovered. The numerals translate to September, 32 BC (Julian). The glyphs surrounding the date are thought to be one of the few surviving examples ofEpi-Olmec script.

The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar developed in south-central Mexico and Central America required the use of zero as a place-holder within its vigesimal (base-20) positional numeral system. Many different glyphs, including this partial quatrefoilMAYA-g-num-0-inc-v1.svg—were used as a zero symbol for these Long Count dates, the earliest of which (on Stela 2 at Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas) has a date of 36 BC.[36] Since the eight earliest Long Count dates appear outside the Maya homeland,[37] it is assumed that the use of zero in the Americas predated the Maya and was possibly the invention of the Olmecs. Many of the earliest Long Count dates were found within the Olmec heartland, although the Olmec civilization ended by the 4th century BC, several centuries before the earliest known Long Count dates.

Although zero became an integral part of Maya numerals, with a different, empty tortoise-like "shell shape"used for many depictions of the "zero" numeral, it did not influence Old World numeral systems. Quipu, a knotted cord device, used in the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean region to record accounting and other digital data, is encoded in a base ten positional system. Zero is represented by the absence of a knot in the appropriate position.

In mathematics

See also: parity of zero

0 is the integer immediately preceding 1. Zero is an even number,[38] because it is divisible by 2. 0 is neither positive nor negative. By most definitions[39] 0 is a natural number, and then the only natural number not to be positive. Zero is a number which quantifies a count or an amount of null size. In most cultures, 0 was identified before the idea of negative things (quantities) that go lower than zero was accepted.

The value, or number, zero is not the same as the digit zero, used in numeral systems using positional notation. Successive positions of digits have higher weights, so inside a numeral the digit zero is used to skip a position and give appropriate weights to the preceding and following digits. A zero digit is not always necessary in a positional number system, for example, in the number 02. In some instances, a leading zero may be used to distinguish a number.

Elementary algebra

The number 0 is the smallest non-negative integer. The natural number following 0 is 1 and no natural number precedes 0. The number 0 may or may not be considered a natural number, but it is a whole number and hence a rational number and a real number (as well as an algebraic number and acomplex number).

The number 0 is neither positive nor negative and appears in the middle of a number line. It is neither a prime number nor a composite number. It cannot be prime because it has an infinite number of factors and cannot be composite because it cannot be expressed by multiplying prime numbers (0 must always be one of the factors).[40] Zero is, however, even (see parity of zero).

The following are some basic (elementary) rules for dealing with the number 0. These rules apply for any real or complex number x, unless otherwise stated.

The expression 00, which may be obtained in an attempt to determine the limit of an expression of the form f(x)g(x) as a result of applying the limoperator independently to both operands of the fraction, is a so-called "indeterminate form". That does not simply mean that the limit sought is necessarily undefined; rather, it means that the limit of f(x)g(x), if it exists, must be found by another method, such as l'Hôpital's rule.

The sum of 0 numbers is 0, and the product of 0 numbers is 1. The factorial 0! evaluates to 1.

Other branches of mathematics

Related mathematical terms

In science


The value zero plays a special role for many physical quantities. For some quantities, the zero level is naturally distinguished from all other levels, whereas for others it is more or less arbitrarily chosen. For example, for an absolute temperature (as measured in Kelvin) zero is the lowest possible value (negative temperatures are defined but negative temperature systems are not actually colder). This is in contrast to for example temperatures on the Celsius scale, where zero is arbitrarily defined to be at the freezing point of water. Measuring sound intensity in decibels or phons, the zero level is arbitrarily set at a reference value—for example, at a value for the threshold of hearing. In physics, the zero-point energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may possess and is the energy of the ground state of the system.


Zero has been proposed as the atomic number of the theoretical element tetraneutron. It has been shown that a cluster of four neutrons may be stable enough to be considered an atom in its own right. This would create an element with no protons and no charge on its nucleus.

As early as 1926, Professor Andreas von Antropoff coined the term neutronium for a conjectured form of matter made up of neutrons with no protons, which he placed as the chemical element of atomic number zero at the head of his new version of the periodic table. It was subsequently placed as a noble gas in the middle of several spiral representations of the periodic system for classifying the chemical elements.

In computer science

The most common practice throughout human history has been to start counting at one, and this is the practice in early classic computer scienceprogramming languages such as Fortran and COBOL. However, in the late 1950s LISP introduced zero-based numbering for arrays while Algol 58introduced completely flexible basing for array subscripts (allowing any positive, negative, or zero integer as base for array subscripts), and most subsequent programming languages adopted one or other of these positions. For example, the elements of an array are numbered starting from 0 in C, so that for an array of n items the sequence of array indices runs from 0 to n−1. This permits an array element's location to be calculated by adding the index directly to address of the array, whereas 1 based languages precalculate the array's base address to be the position one element before the first.

There can be confusion between 0 and 1 based indexing, for example Java's JDBC indexes parameters from 1 although Java itself uses 0-based indexing.

In databases, it is possible for a field not to have a value. It is then said to have a null value. For numeric fields it is not the value zero. For text fields this is not blank nor the empty string. The presence of null values leads to three-valued logic. No longer is a condition either true or false, but it can beundetermined. Any computation including a null value delivers a null result. Asking for all records with value 0 or value not equal 0 will not yield all records, since the records with value null are excluded.

A null pointer is a pointer in a computer program that does not point to any object or function. In C, the integer constant 0 is converted into the null pointer at compile time when it appears in a pointer context, and so 0 is a standard way to refer to the null pointer in code. However, the internal representation of the null pointer may be any bit pattern (possibly different values for different data types).

In mathematics −0 = +0 = 0, both −0 and +0 represent exactly the same number, i.e., there is no "negative zero" distinct from zero. In some signed number representations (but not the two's complement representation used to represent integers in most computers today) and most floating pointnumber representations, zero has two distinct representations, one grouping it with the positive numbers and one with the negatives; this latter representation is known as negative zero.

In other fields

Symbols and representations of zero

Text figures 036.svg

The modern numerical digit 0 is usually written as a circle or ellipse. Traditionally, many print typefaces made the capital letter O more rounded than the narrower, elliptical digit 0.[41] Typewriters originally made no distinction in shape between O and 0; some models did not even have a separate key for the digit 0. The distinction came into prominence on modern character displays.[41]

A slashed zero can be used to distinguish the number from the letter. The digit 0 with a dot in the center seems to have originated as an option on IBM 3270 displays and has continued with some modern computer typefaces such as Andalé Mono, and in some airline reservation systems. One variation uses a short vertical bar instead of the dot. Some fonts designed for use with computers made one of the capital-O–digit-0 pair more rounded and the other more angular (closer to a rectangle). A further distinction is made in falsification-hindering typeface as used on German car number plates by slitting open the digit 0 on the upper right side. Sometimes the digit 0 is used either exclusively, or not at all, to avoid confusion altogether.

Zero as a year label

In the BC calendar era, the year 1 BC is the first year before AD 1; no room is reserved for a year zero. By contrast, in astronomical year numbering, the year 1 BC is numbered 0, the year 2 BC is numbered −1, and so on.[42]

See also


  1. Jump up^ Russel, Bertrand (1942). Principles of mathematics (2 ed.). Forgotten Books. p. 125. ISBN 1-4400-5416-9., Chapter 14, page 125
  2. Jump up^ Soanes, Catherine; Waite, Maurice; Hawker, Sara, eds. (2001). The Oxford Dictionary, Thesaurus and Wordpower Guide (Hardback) (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860373-3.
  3. Jump up^ aught at
  4. Jump up^ Menninger, Karl (1992). Number words and number symbols: a cultural history of numbers. Courier Dover Publications. p. 401.ISBN 0-486-27096-3.
  5. Jump up^ ""zero, n.". OED Online. December 2011. Oxford University Press. (accessed March 04, 2012).". Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
  6. Jump up^ "cipher | cypher, n.". OED Online. December 2011. Oxford University Press. (accessed 4 March 2012).
  7. Jump up^ Merriam Webster online Dictionary
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b Will Durant, 'The Story of Civilization', Volume 4, The Age of Faith, pp. 241.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  10. Jump up^ 'Aught' definition, – Reterieved April 2013.
  11. Jump up^ 'Aught' synonyms, – Reterieved April 2013.
  12. Jump up^ George Gheverghese Joseph (2011). The Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics (Third Edition). Princeton. p. 86.ISBN 978-0-691-13526-7.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b Kaplan, Robert. (2000). The Nothing That Is: A Natural History of Zero. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  14. Jump up^ Bourbaki, Nicolas (1998). Elements of the History of Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York: Springer-Verlag. 46. ISBN 3-540-64767-8.
  15. Jump up^ Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2007), entry algebra
  16. Jump up^ Binary Numbers in Ancient India
  17. Jump up^ Math for Poets and Drummers (pdf, 145KB)
  18. ^ Jump up to:a b Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata, translated by Walter Eugene Clark.
  19. Jump up^ Agarwal, M.K. (23 May 2012). From Bharata to India: Chrysee the Golden. iUniverse. p. 206. ISBN 9781475907650.
  20. Jump up^ O'Connor, Robertson, J.J., E. F. "Aryabhata the Elder". School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  21. Jump up^ The Britannica Guide to Numbers and Measurement (Math Explained). The Rosen Publishing Group. 15 August 2010. pp. 97–98. ISBN 9781615301089.
  22. Jump up^ Ifrah, Georges (2000), p. 416.
  23. Jump up^ Bill Casselman (University of British Columbia), American Mathematical Society, "All for Nought"
  24. Jump up^ Ifrah, Georges (2000), p. 400.
  25. ^ Jump up to:a b Algebra with Arithmetic of Brahmagupta and Bhaskara, translated to English by Henry Thomas Colebrooke, London1817
  26. ^ Jump up to:a b Luke Hodgkin (2 June 2005). A History of Mathematics : From Mesopotamia to Modernity: From Mesopotamia to Modernity. Oxford University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-19-152383-0.
  27. Jump up^ Crossley, Lun. 1999, p.12 "the ancient Chinese system is a place notation system"
  28. Jump up^ Kang-Shen Shen; John N. Crossley; Anthony W. C. Lun; Hui Liu (1999). The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art: Companion and Commentary. Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-19-853936-0. "zero was regarded as a number in India... whereas the Chinese employed a vacant position"
  29. ^ Jump up to:a b Mathematics in the Near and Far East, p. 262
  30. Jump up^ Struik, Dirk J. (1987). A Concise History of Mathematics. New York: Dover Publications. pp. 32–33. "In these matrices we find negative numbers, which appear here for the first time in history."
  31. Jump up^ Pannekoek, A. (1961). A History of Astronomy. George Allen & Unwin. p. 165.
  32. Jump up^ Sarton, G. Introd. to the History of Science. p. 530.
  33. Jump up^ Brezina, Corona (2006). Al-Khwarizmi: The Inventor Of Algebra. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4042-0513-0.
  34. Jump up^ Sigler, L., Fibonacci's Liber Abaci. English translation, Springer, 2003.
  35. Jump up^ Grimm, R.E., "The Autobiography of Leonardo Pisano", Fibonacci Quarterly 11/1 (February 1973), pp. 99–104.
  36. Jump up^ No long count date actually using the number 0 has been found before the 3rd century AD, but since the long count system would make no sense without some placeholder, and since Mesoamerican glyphs do not typically leave empty spaces, these earlier dates are taken as indirect evidence that the concept of 0 already existed at the time.
  37. Jump up^ Diehl, p. 186
  38. Jump up^ Lemma B.2.2, The integer 0 is even and is not odd, in Penner, Robert C. (1999). Discrete Mathematics: Proof Techniques and Mathematical Structures. World Scientific. p. 34. ISBN 981-02-4088-0.
  39. Jump up^ Bunt, Lucas Nicolaas Hendrik; Jones, Phillip S.; Bedient, Jack D. (1976). The historical roots of elementary mathematics. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 254–255. ISBN 0-486-13968-9., Extract of pages 254–255
  40. Jump up^ Reid, Constance (1992). From zero to infinity: what makes numbers interesting (4th ed.). Mathematical Association of America. p. 23.ISBN 978-0-88385-505-8.
  41. ^ Jump up to:a b Bemer, R. W. (1967). "Towards standards for handwritten zero and oh: much ado about nothing (and a letter), or a partial dossier on distinguishing between handwritten zero and oh". Communications of the ACM 10 (8): 513–518. doi:10.1145/363534.363563.
  42. Jump up^ Steel, Duncan (2000). Marking time: the epic quest to invent the perfect calendar. John Wiley & Sons. p. 113. ISBN 0-471-29827-1. "In the B.C./A.D. scheme there is no year zero. After 31 December 1 BC came AD 1 January 1. ... If you object to that no-year-zero scheme, then don't use it: use the astronomer's counting scheme, with negative year numbers."


This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 0 (number).
Look up zero in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Zero



The Wheel of Light

Monthly Newsletter - November 2013

The most significant planetary event this month is the new Moon solar eclipse on November 3. Eclipses are relatively rare events, taking place about five times each year. Eclipses can be either at the time of a full Moon (when the earth blocks the light of the Sun from being reflected by the Moon) or at the new Moon (when the Moon passes in front of the Sun and blocks some portion of its light from reaching the Earth). If the new Moon takes place when the Moon is close to the Earth’s equator, the Moon may entirely block out the solar light. Such is the case this month when the eclipse will appear as total in the Atlantic Ocean and into Africa.

Ancient teachings proclaimed eclipses to bring negative events. Just because something is rare, however, doesn’t mean that it portends something bad. What it may simply indicate is that something unusual or unexpected will tend to occur on earth when something rare occurs in the sky. Furthermore, these events are more likely to take place where the eclipse is strongest or total. Since most of us don’t live in the Atlantic Ocean or in Africa, we may conclude that unexpected activities are less likely to happen to us.

The influence of an eclipse may be experienced by people who have a planet or angle of their natal horoscope activated by the eclipse. This eclipse will be at eleven degrees of Scorpio. This doesn’t mean that something bad will happen to these people. It simply suggests they are most likely to experience something unusual. A clue as to where they might experience something strange could be reflected by what part of their natal horoscope the eclipse will activate. For example, if it’s the tenth house it could pertain to career. The seventh would suggest relationship. The fourth house would activate the home and family.

When an eclipse takes place, the Sun, Moon and Earth are in alignment both in longitude as well as latitude. Astrologers reference these points as “nodes”. There is a south node and a north node. This eclipse coincides with the north node. This is traditionally seen as a time when positive, beneficial events and opportunities present themselves. Sometimes this can be in the form of supportive relationships. So those whose horoscopes connect to the eclipse could also look forward to something positive, if unexpected, taking place. This could also pertain to leaders of nations. There may an outpouring of public support or some type of beneficial situation that unexpectedly presents itself. Again, this would be most likely to effect leaders of African nations or those whose charts in some significant way correspond to the eclipse.

Another consideration is how long these unexpected events are likely to take place. The ancient rule is that the effects of a solar eclipse will last in years the same duration as the eclipse itself lasts in hours. This one will last about 5 ½ hours. I don’t know anyone who has actually tracked this so I can’t vouch for it. I can suggest, however, that when Mars or Sun aspect eleven degrees of Scorpio, an unexpected event might occur well beyond the duration of the eclipse itself. Interestingly enough, both Mars and the Sun aspect the eclipse point in August 2014. Stay tuned.

AriesAries (March 21-April 20)
Aries: At times you can be brusque and impulsive. This is a good time to work on refining your technical skills and becoming more tactful. Growth can come from noticing ways to improve yourself and then doing the work to do so. Discipline can be strong in early month and family support can arrive in mid-month.

TaurusTaurus (April 21-May 21)
Taurus: The eclipse could bring emotional clarity about your primary relationship. Use this as a time to be receptive to and supportive of your partner. Emotions could be intense and passions run high, so keep your focus on the developing a deeper connection. Relationship transformation could ensue.

GeminiGemini (May 22-June 21)
Gemini: There could be tendencies to be self-critical this month. Use this as a time to work on yourself but don’t get bogged down in extraneous details or excessive self-undermining behavior. Spending time in quiet contemplation could prove productive.

CancerCancer (June 22-July 22)
Cancer: The eclipse could bring awareness of deep feelings or emotional connections you have with important people in your life. Let the awareness percolate for a while. The full Moon on the 17th would be a good time to share in a more personal, intimate way with others.

LeoLeo (July 23-August 23)
Leo: The eclipse could impact your relationship to your family. You could feel a deep sense of personal responsibility or feel limited and restricted in some way. Growth comes from not responding to either experience with attempts at controlling others. React in measured ways and cautious tones.

VirgoVirgo (August 24-Sept 22)
Virgo: Being authentic and self-affirming can enable you to generate both social support and professional opportunities. This is a good time to take risks that you might usually avoid.

LibraLibra (Sept 23-Oct 23)
Libra: Focus on personal and domestic issues this month. Notice areas where changing your relationship to yourself or members of your family are required. The energy is present to make those changes and the timing is perfect. Failure to make voluntary changes now could lead to extreme or abrupt ones later on.

ScorpioScorpio (Oct 24-Nov 22)
Scorpio: A lot of energy in your sign this month. Growth comes from being measured in using it. Strive to avoid the extremes of being too explosive or too secretive. The former can be intimidating to others while the latter merely causes others to not realize how sensitive you may be.

SagittariusSagittarius (Nov 23-Dec 21)
Sagittarius: In a time of intense feeling and unexpected events, you might find this period to be fairly calm and supportive. You could use the energy this month to do some serious introspection for the purpose of spiritual growth or emotional clarity. Spending quality time alone would be beneficial.

CapricornCapricorn (Dec 22-Jan 20)
Capricorn: The eclipse could be useful in the process of working to define who you are. By extension, notice how your energy affects others. Growth can come from integrating a sense of well-being and personal fulfillment on your path to achieving long-range goals.

AquariusAquarius (Jan 21 to Feb 19)
Aquarius: Relationship or financial challenges could arise in mid-month. Growth can come from being neither reactive nor controlling. Striving to see things from another’s point of view can be beneficial.

PiscesPisces (Feb 20-March 20)
Pisces: Your intuition keeps expanding with the potential to bring greater clarity and wisdom all the time. Being more open about what you perceive is a good way to be of service to others.

Rio Olesky has been a professional astrologer since 1976. He is the author of A Manual for the Modern Mystic and Astrology and Consciousness. He offers both private readings as well as classes for both beginning and intermediate students. To make an appointment for a reading or to find out more information about classes and lectures, call Rio at 707-887-1820. Check out his


wheel of light

wheel of light


wheel of light




Wheels of Light
From "Wheels of Light: Chakras, Auras, and the Healing Energy of the Body" by Rosalyn Bruyere
Posted by: DailyOM

In my twenty years as a healer and teacher, the one question I can count on every new student to ask is "What's a aura?" From antiquity there has been a myriad of literary and pictorial descriptions of the aura. Sometimes it has been depicted as a luminous radiation surrounding the body. Frequently, it has been pictured as a kind of light around the head -- which some religious traditions call a halo. Most of us are familiar with paintings of haloed Christian saints. In earlier Chinese and Japanese art, a single and sometimes a triple halo surrounds the head of images of the bodhisattva or Buddha. In ancient Egyptian culture, the aura was often depicted as wings enfolding the body. In Native American tradition, the radiant aura of the buffalo has given rise to the legend of the white buffalo. When Matthew (17:2) describes the transfiguration of Christ, he says that Jesus's face "did shine as the sun," and "his raiment was white as the light." Luke (9:29)adds that Jesus's raiment was "glistering." This is a Biblical description of Christ's aura, which the Apostles Peter, James, and John were able to see when they were taken by their Master to a mountain just prior to his crucifixion. 

People who are able to see auras have often reported seeing a kind of luminous radiation surrounding an individual, usually consisting of one or sometimes several colors. We now know that the aura, or auric field, relates to the electromagnetic field, which emanates from all matter. This field of energy, which usually extends five or six inches around the body, is outside the range of normal vision and in what is sometimes termed the realm of psychic sight. But even those who can't see the aura can still have an experience of it. The aura is what keeps us from bumping our shopping carts into one another in the supermarket. It's what allows us to sense another's presence in a darkened room, and it's what makes someone turn to look at us across a crowded room. 

This implies that the aura is not just a reflection of light, as might have been assumed from the literary descriptions and paintings of old. It is an emanation, a luminous radiation, a field of light or energy that extends beyond the body to interact with our external environment. It is an energy system that keeps body and mind alive and healthy, and may in actuality create them. 

The aura itself is generated by the spinning of smaller vortices of energy located within the body. Different religious traditions have called these subtle energy centers different things, but the word most commonly used is chakra from the Sanskrit word meaning "wheel of light." These seven chakras are who and what we are, what we feel and how we think and change. They are how we express ourselves and how we create. Although we as Westerners have no cognitive awareness of its energies, the chakra system is precisely the means by which we gain awareness. It is how we experience life, how we perceive reality, and how we relate to self, others, and the world, It is life itself. 

As we explore the aura and the chakras, it is important for us to view our journey not as revolutionary, but rather as very traditional. Chakras, as well as auras and electromagnetic fields, are as old as the earth itself. The chakra system, in fact, is a part of the ancient and lost mysteries. And, in the end, the chakra system in our bodies is how we find our way back to the most ancient mystery of all -- God, the Oneness, the Omniscient. 

The majority of what I know about the chakra system has come directly from my twenty years of experience as a healer and aura reader. As a young healer and psychic, when I would look at another's auric field, I would notice that some areas were darker than others, or that there were "holes" in the aura. I came to understand that those holes were indications of ill health or predictive of illness to come. When I put "energy" into a body and watched its movement, I observed that adding energy to one part of the body reveals how the body uses energy, and therefore how healthy it is. I watched people think, I watched them feel. I saw that these "patterns" correspond to their disease. From this experience I learned that we can suppress information in the body or in the chakra system, but we can never eliminate it. We can alter that information by the way we move or the way we think. Even if we make a slight change in behavior, it precipitates change in every other aspect of our lives. That was when I began to view the aura as a reflection of a person's entire well-being. 

I had grown up seeing auras. Though some people consider psychic or "second" sight a spiritual gift, psychism runs in my family and was never considered a "gift." It was a "knowing" that allowed family members to assist one another in times of imminent disaster. 

I was raised by my grandmother and great-grandmother, Nana. It was Nana who taught me to see auras around plants, although she never used that term. She would say, "Do you see the light? What color is it? Do you see that the light on the plant is increasing?" She told me that cuttings taken from a plant on which light was increasing would take root, but that cuttings taken from a plant on which light was decreasing wouldn't root. Then she'd have me do experiments in which I'd take cuttings from different plants, some with a full bright aura, others with a diminishing auric field, so I could discover for myself the truth of her teachings. So it was that in a very practical way I learned from Nana to "see" auric light and energy and to identify what was "full of light" as that which was also "full of life." 

When I was six, Nana's husband, Mickey, died. But she continued to have communication with him. Nana's ability to see the light around plants had been viewed by the less psychic family members as a benign idiosyncrasy. But as Nana began to share with the rest of the family more and more of what Mickey was "saying," they became alarmed. Her conversations with the dead came to be viewed as an indication of increasing mental instability. Fearing my great-grandmother was having a nervous breakdown, the family had her hospitalized, and Nana was given electroshock treatments. When she returned home, she no longer conversed with Mickey -- nor did she take me into the garden anymore to see the plants. Witnessing what had happened to Nana, I decided that if I was to avoid her experience I had better forget about seeing any more light around plants. And, at the age of seven, I did. 

Then, in my early twenties, I married and had children, who began to speak about the "colored fuzz" around people. Their ability to "see" auras restimulated my own. In order to raise them responsibly, I was forced to seek out the teachers who could help me make sense of our experiences. My studies not only helped me make sense of those experiences but introduced me to their practical applications. I was taught rudimentary healing techniques, which I sometimes practiced on my friends. I had no intention of becoming a healer, but, as the people I "treated" began to feel better and talk about it, I found that that's what I had become. 

When people came to me, I would explain what an aura was and how I saw their disease, and so I developed a reputation as an aura reader, too. One day a woman phoned, identifying herself as a healer. She asked if she could bring a client to my home and requested me to tell her what I saw in the aura of the client as she worked. I was completely unprepared for what transpired that day. Rather than laying-on-of-hands, which was the healing method I had been taught, Emilie Conrad Dàoud used chanting and dancing in a very involved process. At the end of that process I told her what I had seen aurically. She then took that information to Dr. Valerie Hunt, who was at that time the Chairman of the Department of Kinesiology at UCLA. Dr. Hunt was researching the same process that we were, but from the viewpoint of a kinesiologist. Eventually I was asked to work in collaboration with both of them. 

Dr. Hunt had received a grant to study Structural Integration, or rolfing (a technique for reshaping and realigning the body through deep manipulation). During the course of this project (which I will refer to throughout the book as The Rolf Study), we were able to measure the frequencies of the human energy field and discovered that these frequencies correlated with the frequencies of visible light. From that, we concluded that what science had been calling the human energy field, or the mind field, and what religious traditions had been calling the auric field were one and the same. Furthermore, the results of our research provided evidence that this large electromagnetic energy field is in fact generated by the smaller internal vortices of energy I mentioned earlier -- the chakras, the source of the human aura. 

Around that same time, other scientists too were coming to the conclusion that the mind is not in the brain, but that it is an energy field in and around the body. New techniques such as Kirlian photography and biofeedback also pointed to the possibility of such a relationship. Wilder Penfield's The Mystery of the Mind, Karl Pribram's Languages of the Brain, Dr. Robert O. Becker's The Body Electric, W. A. Tiller's work, and the auric field research of Dr. Hunt all shed light on the connection between chakras, auras, and the mind. Similar, and in some cases more thorough, research had been in progress in the Soviet Union since the 1920s. 

Our research at UCLA was significant on more than one level. It was perhaps the first attempt made in our country to examine an electrical manifestation, a magnetic field phenomenon, as connected to the healing process. Prior to that time, laying-on-of-hands healing had been viewed as a psychological, not an energetic process. Our research was important in that it was a meaningful attempt to correlate the body's natural frequency ranges with the spiritual world. 

As a result of being involved with this research, I realized that in reading the aura I was looking at an aspect of mind, not in the intellectual sense but in terms of a definition that embraces all of consciousness -- the physical, the emotional, and the spiritual, as well as the intellectual. If the aura is an indication of a person's entire well-being, then the overall health of an individual is influenced by the way in which he or she lives his or her life. Thus, physical exercise, diet, meditation, and other spiritual practices, what and how we think as well as what we feel or don't feel, are all influential factors in determining how healthy -- or ill -- we are. 

Health is generally defined as the absence of disease, but this is really an unsatisfactory definition. The word "health" means "wholeness." Health implies much more than freedom from disease. A complete definition of health must include vitality, appropriate feelings, clear thinking and reasoning, and a willingness to embrace change. Responsibility and creative self-expression, intuitive understanding and a vital spiritual life are also essential if we are to be whole and healthy. In his sermon on the mount, Jesus tells the multitude "Ye are the light of the world" (Matthew 5:14)and challenges them to let their light shine before men (Matthew 5:16). The light that shines forth from each of us -- the kind and quality of light generated by the chakras and reflected in the colors of our auric fields -- is a reflection of our state of health and our condition of wholeness. Thus, I came to understand that our definition of health needs to become "full of light." 

Not long after my involvement with The Roll Study, I had an opportunity to put those research findings into practice and to learn even more, this time from the Native American culture, when I was asked to heal one of the Hopi tribal elders, Grandfather David Monongya. He was in Los Angeles to raise consciousness regarding the strip mining at Big Mountain, site of one of the first conflicts over the Hopi-Navajo tribal land. Grandfather David had cataracts. I laid hands on his body and very quickly moved to his head and laid hands on his eyes. He seemed to know exactly what I was doing. About the time I was actually beginning to accomplish something that I felt was healing, he said, "Oh, I see much better now. Please sit down." Of course I had not healed him, and in a manner of speaking, as it turned out, I ended up receiving a healing from him. He called to two or three other people in the house, and we listened for five hours as he related the Hopi prophecy. (See Appendix II for a summary of the Hopi prophecy.) I was stunned by the similarities between the story of the Apocalypse in Revelation and the predictions for the "end time" in Hopi. 

I began to compare different cultures with different religious traditions as a way of finding other similarities in their teachings and sacred mysteries. The more I studied, the more I found varied cultural references to the chakra system. Shortly after my meeting with Grandfather David, I made a journey to the Holy Land. There I found that the chakra system as I knew and understood it meant something different once I was removed from my own culture and cultural heritage. I discovered that the light -- the aura -- and the meaning of the auric colors often differed from culture to culture. In Western society, people tend to think in yellow, daydream in blue, change in green, and get angry in red. While this tendency is not absolute, it is generally consistent. In traveling six hundred miles up the Egyptian Nile I never saw blue or yellow in the auras of Islamic people; I also noticed that aurically their thought process seemed to closely resemble that of the Native American people whom I had observed. Once in Israel, I again saw yellow auric fields, an observation that led me to believe that Israelis tend to "think" more like Europeans and Americans. From these experiences I began to comprehend why, in the Middle East, Israelis and Arabs do not seem to understand each other's way of thinking and why, on our own continent, the Native Americans and nonindigenous peoples fail to understand each other's ways. These observations led me to question whether or not the practices of different religions and particularly prayer positions change the auric colors. I especially began to wonder whether thought was something other than logic as we know it in the West. 

Once I began to explore things in this way, it followed that if an entire culture's thought process was dominated by a particular chakra color, that culture would process reality through that dominant chakra. In other words, since each chakra has a particular "viewpoint," a culture would tend to "see" reality through the "eyes" of that chakra. Furthermore, because each chakra is directly related to a specific area of the body, certain positions and postures of the body would enhance the dominance of one or two colors while inhibiting others. In Islam, for instance, a Moslem bows on a prayer rug, with his knees on the ground. He then puts his forehead (more specifically, his "third eye") on a point that is usually a design on the rug. This posture directs focus to the area around the navel and around the forehead, making the second (orange) and sixth (purple) chakras dominant. 

As one chakra center becomes predominant in a given culture, that chakra "colors" the values, assumptions, and prejudices of that society. This in turn often creates a prevailing one-mindedness or dogmatism. Such narrowness of vision has often determined the characteristics of a culture and the course of an era. 

As far as I can tell, Native Americans are the only people who have a natural relationship with the chakra system that has not been dogmatized. As a result, they have not made any chakras right or wrong, good or bad, hot or cold, more important or less important. They have not had to make their world view fit that of Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Whereas these religions have evolved priesthoods that have both written in and written out various ideas over the centuries, the Native Peoples have an attitude that all the chakra centers are good, valid, and important. These people, who, by their own accounts, have lived here for fifteen thousand years, have had a working knowledge of the body's energy system since that time. They also have maintained a tradition of practices, rituals and ceremonies that affect those energy centers. 

I have been greatly influenced by the traditions and ways of these peoples. Furthermore, because of my ability to see the effect they have on us, I have been deeply moved to learn their ways and ceremonies and to include them in my work. I do not see these practices as being in conflict with anything else I know religiously. I view them as part of understanding religion. Like the Native Americans, I believe the energy field of the earth itself resonates up through our bodies, which is why I think it is natural for me to worship as a Native person would. Practicing religion with the plants, the herbs, and the animals that exist where I am makes me more connected and more ecologically responsible to the ground upon which I live, and I find the simplicity with which one can pray with what naturally occurs around him absolutely as it should be. 

The more I studied Native American culture as well as the ancient traditions of the Egyptians and Greeks, the philosophies of the Hindus, and the religions of the East, the more I realized the potential value of the chakra system as a means of understanding life and energy and the symbolic relationship between them. As a young teacher of this material, I kept trying to find a textbook from which to teach. I found none. The few books available presented their own unique theories and ideas and were generally contradictory of one another. This book in many ways is an attempt to create a source that pulls those ideas together, and that correlates the wisdom of the ages with modern scientific thought, so that others may come to know the energy and light of life. In so doing, I had to face the fact that this material has no beginning and no end; it is evolving, a work in progress, as is the human race. 

I am writing this text primarily for Americans, mainly for students of healing. If it serves its purpose, it will become obsolete. Those who study the chakra system will acquire an understanding of it and will then be able in their own individual ways to add to it the knowledge they accumulate through their own experience. This book is merely a foundation from which a greater structure is certain to arise. 

It is my hope that those who read this book will find, as I have, support and validation for many aspects of themselves. My study of the chakra system has allowed me to develop many elements of my own being, without having to sacrifice one for the other. I have been able to embrace motherhood and the ministry, art and engineering; I have been allowed wholeheartedly and without conflict to live up to my resolution to pursue the spiritual in science and science in the spiritual. 

In seeking the scientific in the spiritual, I have clearly been influenced by my early scientific background. I have searched for whatever validating "empirical" data I could find. Until recently, though, chakras have had little validation in the scientific world. Nevertheless, these powerful energy centers have been spinning, creating, and recording their symbolic reality since the beginning of time. 

In antiquity, before science and religion were divided into separate, antagonistic camps, the chakras were an integrated part of daffy life. Not only were they an aspect of spiritual tradition and practice, but as a reflection of the natural laws of the greater macrocosm they were also at the root of the ancient sciences as well. The people of antiquity (the Egyptians, Chinese, Hindus, Greeks, and, in our own country, the Native Americans) knew of these phenomena, although they may have called them by different names. Furthermore, these peoples attempted to preserve and transmit this knowledge through teachings and sacred ceremony. Within that ceremony one was taught to quiet bodily functions and to silence the mind long enough to observe one's own internal silence, wherein one could become aware of the presence, reality, and power of the chakras, of the flows of energy moving through one. Then, when the Dark Ages descended upon the world, both the scientific and religious traditions of old were forced into the dark recesses of secluded rooms and secret chambers. 

As each of the ancient civilizations was conquered -- the Egyptian, the Chinese, the Greek, the Roman -- vast libraries were burned and within the fires were consumed massive volumes of antiquarian and esoteric wisdom. It is no mistake that the period that followed was termed the Dark Ages. By the time the light shone again, science and religion had become enemies, and common knowledge of the chakra system had become an esoteric mystery. 

These mysteries, however, were preserved by sacred priesthoods and transmitted to select initiates throughout the ages. In our own culture the Native Americans have preserved these ideas through oral tradition. Moreover, it was prophesied by nearly every ancient culture that there would be a future time when this "lost" knowledge would be rediscovered. 

That which is a mystery shall no longer be so, and that which has been veiled will now be revealed; that which has been withdrawn will emerge into the light, and all men shall see and together they shall rejoice. 
The future that was prophesied has come. This new age that is dawning is the time wherein the ancient mysteries shall be once more revealed. 

It has taken thousands of years, but within this century scientists and spiritual seekers alike have once again begun to view the laws of nature and the laws of God as reflections of the same truth. It is this viewpoint that has allowed for scientific investigations into the nature of the chakra system and the aura and the relationship between them and the mind. 

The "Mysteries" of the Chakras 

As we have said, the aura or electromagnetic field that emanates from all matter usually consists of one or sometimes several colors. The colors are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, and white, with variations in shades and mixes, but all have a luminous glow that comes from the life-giving energy that is the auric field. 

These auric field colors are very specifically related to the chakras. My experience indicates that each chakra has four discernible characteristics that functionally affect the aura: color, size and shape, rotation or spin, and intensity (which is a function of the "openness" and thus the amount of energy that is produced by the chakra; although a chakra in actuality cannot be "open" or "closed," these terms are frequently used in discussions about the chakras in reference to the amount of energy actually being produced by any given chakra at any given time). It is out of these characteristics that the aura is generated. As a chakra spins, it produces its own electromagnetic field, which combines with the fields generated by the other chakras to produce what we call the auric field. The amount of energy produced by a particular chakra (or group of chakras) determines the color that dominates the auric field. Thus, in a person in a highly emotional state when the second chakra is dominant, the auric field is predominantly orange, while one who is in a state of high creativity (utilizing the fifth chakra) will generally have an auric field that is predominantly blue. 

This auric field is also related to the mind. When most of us think of the mind, we immediately think of the brain. Recently, however, science has begun to postulate that the mind is not in the brain. Specifically, thought and memory seem to exist throughout the body, memory being logged primarily within the body's fascia or connective tissue. Furthermore, thought itself can also be described as a form of energy. 

Although in scientific terminology energy is strictly defined as "the capacity for doing work," I use it throughout this book to denote the various frequencies and magnitude of oscillations within a dynamic electromagnetic field -- in the form of either potential or kinetic energy. 

Kinetic energy is energy in movement within either a static or dynamic electromagnetic field. A field is considered static until the intensity of either the electric or the magnetic field is varied. A dynamic electromagnetic field consists of oscillations of a specific frequency or wavelength; a more complex field may have several frequencies. In a dynamic field, the magnitude of the oscillations determines the intensity of the field, or the amount of energy being carried in the field. The frequency and wavelength determine the "color" of the propagation. (Propagation is a term used to describe the extension or transmission of sound waves or of electromagnetic radiation through air or water. I So when we refer to the energy moving from chakra to chakra, or through the body, it is understood that this energy is being carried by moving electromagnetic fields. When we refer to "color of energy" (or, sometimes, frequency), we mean the color of the energy or chakra, as defined by the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation being emitted at that location, as perceived by those who have second sight. 

The sum of potential and kinetic aura is always constant. The law of conservation holds that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Thus, energy cannot be extracted from or added to an electromagnetic field without a corresponding change in the field. A thought then can be referred to as a potential or static electromagnetic field pattern. On the other hand, the thinking process represents a continually changing or dynamic electromagnetic field. As thought changes from a static to a dynamic field, it imparts energy to and receives energy from the thinker during the course of the thinking process. When the process ends, the resultant thought is stored (a memory) as a static electromagnetic field pattern in the auric field. Clearly the mind, the aura, and the electromagnetic chakra system are inseparably interrelated. 

Perhaps, as past sages and most Eastern and mystery religions have believed, history is not linear but cyclical. Even Pythagoras and Plato, themselves initiates of the mystery schools, embraced this view of history as well as the cyclical evolution of mankind. If this is so, then ancient wisdom and modern scientific thought are not as far apart in the time-space continuum as we may have once believed. In the words of Fritjof Capra: 

A dramatic change of concepts and ideas has occurred in physics during the first three decades of the century. Still being elaborated in our current theories of matter, the new concepts have profoundly changed our world view from the mechanistic thinking of Descartes and Newton to a holistic and ecological view....It is...not surprising that the new vision of reality comes very close to the views of mystics of all ages and traditions and, in particular, to the views held in the spiritual traditions of India. Ten years ago, I was amazed to find the most striking parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism. These parallels can now be extended with equal justification to biology, psychology and other sciences. We now can say, with considerable confidence, that the ancient wisdom of the East provides the most consistent philosophical background to our modern scientific theories. 
Astrologically, the age of Aquarius is reputed to be the age of the common man. When in the ancient world it was foretold that this age of Aquarius would be the time when all the ancient "lost" mysteries and their importance would be revealed to the common person, a seed of hope for the future of the planet was sown. Now the season of harvest has come. 

It is significant that one of the last two discovered planets, Uranus (called the "erratic revolutionary"), was first sighted not by a scientist viewing the stars from an observatory on high, but by a simple curious stargazer observing the heavens through his own domestic telescope. Esoteric knowledge that was lost in the flames that consumed the great library of Alexandria is being rediscovered within the laboratories of modern science. Things that were mysterious five thousand years ago in Egypt are now being taught to children in their first physics class. 

"The secret mysteries of the People," foretold the Hopis a thousand years ago, "shall be made known when the sons of White men wear beads and long hair. The truth of these Sacred Ways shall be revealed when the Eagle lands on the moon." Any of us who remember the sixties and NASA's moon flights know that these events have already come to pass. 

If the ideas contained within this book are difficult and challenging, it may assist us to remember that others before us were likewise challenged. Perhaps, most importantly, it would be worth our time and energy to think about what the rediscovery of these ideas could mean for us both personally and globally. These ancient, now reborn, mysteries may very well provide the kind of wisdom we need to guide us through the fears, disease, and darkness of a nuclear world into a new age of hope and understanding, health and light. The very survival of the race may depend on the ability of each of us to embrace new ways of thinking and being and to adopt both a traditional and revolutionary path. 

It is my hope that you will view this book with a sense of exploration, as an adventure into your own personal undiscovered realms. I would also hope that at the end of the journey you will have begun to grow in health and fulfillment because you will have come closer to embracing the totality of yourself with love and understanding. 

Let us begin now to unravel some of these ancient and sacred mysteries. 

Copyright © 1989, 1991, 1994 by Rosalyn L. Bruyere

See Also: Book Excerpt, Energy Work, Chakras



Light in the world

The sutta concludes with the following passage:

So in that instant, at that very moment, the word traveled up to the realm of the high divinities. This ten-thousandfold world system trembled and shook and resounded, and a great measureless radiance, surpassing the shining glory of the devas, was made manifest in the world.
Then the Blessed One uttered the pronouncement: “It is Kondañña who has seen deeply! Kondañña who has seen deeply.” And so it was that the name of Venerable Kondañña became “Kondañña the deep seer.”

Ajahn Sucitto explains the first part of this passage as follows:

In The Discourse That Sets Turning the Wheel of Truth, the Buddha’s teachings were set rolling and produced a great light. It’s a light that is said to have radiated through the ten-thousandfold world system: from the twenty brahma realms of the highest divinities all the way down through the eight hells. Even down there, according to the accounts, it was a great moment too. In those places of utter gloom, there was an illumination by which the poor wretches could see that there were other beings in the same predicament. By the standards of those places, this was a burst of light. For a moment, some sense of not being alone in the mess lessened the intensity of it. Others have been here, and are here, now. It’s good to remember this. This light has this broad focus and also is long lasting. It continues to shine today. Once again, if we translate cosmological events into events in consciousness, the light that we’ve seen glowing throughout the discourse is the light of wisdom...

Ajahn Sucitto explains the second part of this passage ("It is Kondañña who has seen deeply!") as follows:

At this time, the Buddha himself makes no mention of all the shining and shaking going on; more to the point, he was more concerned that the Dhamma he had taught had triggered a realization in Kondañña’s mind. If this could be communicated to one person, then there was no reason why it couldn’t be communicated to another. A big wheel of light—encompassing ethics, meditation, and wisdom—had started shining. This was a beginning, and it encouraged the Buddha to continue and develop his teaching.

  • FROM:


    The Hutchison Effect

    Canadian inventor John Hutchison is credited with the discovery of a highly-anomalous electromagnetic effect which causes the jellification of metals, spontaneous levitation of common substances, and other effects resulting from what is believed to be a very complex scalar-wave interaction between electromagnetic fields and matter.

    It wasn't until 1996 that another of Tesla's inventions was figured out:  The first Zero Point electromagnetic radiation energy patent was issued to Dr. Frank Mead on Dec. 31, 1996. Patent  no. 5,590,031 made history as Dr. Mead of Edwards Air Force Base designed spherical receivers to access zero point electromagnetic radiation. These receiving devices that convert neutrinos, gamma rays, tachyons to electricity require very high frequency receiver technology. Dr. Mead grapples with the high frequencies that may extend up to 10 to the 40th Hz (cycles per second).

    To get an idea of the dimensions of these high zero point frequencies, gigahertz radar is only 10 to the 10th Hz. Visible light is about 10 to the 14th Hz and gamma rays reach into the 10 to the 20th powers where the wave length is smaller than an atom. It appears very small particle devices are necessary to access these very high frequency zero point energy particles. Dr Mead is interested in working with single particles like protons or neutrons that may only be slightly different by only parts per trillion. 

    Again read carefully articles on the secrets of Tesla's electric Pierce-Arrow finally revealed, page 18 of vol 8 no 3 in the recent blockbuster issue of Electrifying Times. This special issue bares all about revolutionary suppressed free energy technology. It took a year to gather all this information to put in one issue. 

    Nicola Tesla was the first human on planet earth to build a zero point energy receiving device and convert it to electricity to power his electric Pierce-Arrow. Zero point electromagnetic radiation energy may potentially be used to power interplanetary craft as well as provide for society's electric power needs. 

    This technology has remained unharnessed as far as mainstream science is aware. Although a few private inventors besides Nikola Tesla have had successes tapping into the Zero Point electromagnetic energies, their technology has been highly suppressed. Inventors labs have been raided or destroyed.

    Dr. Marc Millis of NASA's new Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Research Program has published articles relating to Zero Point Space Drives. "Challenge to Create the Space Drive" (J. Prop. & Power, V.13. No. 5, 1997, p. 577). In it Dr. Millis states, "Electromagnetism is also suggested as a target phenomenon for space drive research because of ZPF. (Zero Point Field) ZPF is also an electromagnetic phenomenon and discovering a way to react with ZPF would likely create a space drive" 

    References: and Inside Zero Point Energy by Thomas Valone, Infinite Energy Magazine, Vol 5, Issue 26, 1999,


    Tesla and a number of other European scientists had been pioneers in the conversion of circumscribed small-area antigravity fields out of electromagnetic fields. Tesla wrote about the theories behind the distortion or manipulation of a gravitational field through the propagation of electromagnetic waves.


    Excerpted from "Beyond The Illusion" website...

    In the summer of 1995, Hutchison puzzled onlookers by sitting on the curb and picking out stones, Why would a rockhound sort through ordinary street rocks?

    What the neighbors do not know is that John Hutchison is well-known in new-energy circles, and is even known to some who move in the circles of established science. His visitors have included distinguished physicists. But unlike Shoulders and Lambertson, he is a self-taught scientist. As a boy in Vancouver, he read about Nikola Tesla and then startled neighbors with Tesla coil experiments in his backyard.

    While in his twenties, he developed a medical problem that resulted in his living on a small disability pension. For years, he lived a generally reclusive life, digging for rare electrical equipment in military surplus stores and junkyards, and carrying his finds home on the city bus. Apart from time spent as a volunteer at a local ecology center, he spent hours in his bedroom-turned-laboratory, patiently rebuilding equipment. He considered opening a museum.

    Antigravity and the Hutchison Effect

    Hutchison's life changed drastically in 1979 when, upon starting up an array of high-voltage equipment, he felt something hit his shoulder. He threw the piece of metal back to where it seemed to have originated, and it flew up and hit him again. This was how he originally discovered the Hutchison effect. When his Tesla coils, electrostatic generator, and other equipment created a complex electromagnetic field, heavy pieces of metal levitated and shot toward the ceiling, and some pieces shredded.

    What is the Hutchison effect? As with much of the new-energy field, no one can say for sure. Some theorists think the effect is the result of opposing electromagnetic fields cancelling each other out, creating a powerful flow of space energy.

    Beyond the Hutchison Effect:
    The Dirt Cheap Energy Converter

    Hutchison moved beyond the Hutchison effect and into the field of space energy, and had acquired a Canadian business manager. In 1994, Hutchison built a working space energy device about the size of a microwave oven. The Hutchison Converter was based on Tesla's resonance principle. Tesla demonstrated this principle by steadily pulsing bursts of energy into his electric coils, each burst coming before energy from the previous burst had time to die away. This led to higher and higher amounts of energy, like a child going higher and higher on a swing.

    Hutchison captured the same pulsing, rhythmic energy by using crystals of barium titanate, a material that can capture the pulses of certain electromagnetic frequencies in the way that a radio can pick up certain radio frequencies. When the crystal pulses, or resonates, it produces electric power.

    The converter put out six watts, enough to power a motor that kept a small propeller spinning furiously. The whirring of a tiny propeller looks rather silly, until one realizes that the apparatus contains no batteries, no fuel, and no connection to a power outlet. It works continuously for months.

    One day while experimenting, Hutchison cracked a crucial part and decided to take the unit apart.

    He built a smaller, more portable model. Resembling an Oscar statue in size and shape, the portable converter put out slightly more than a watt of power. It lit a tiny lamp as a demonstration and also ran a small motor.

    In front of an audience of about 500 Hiroshima residents, Hutchison slapped the device onto a table lit by the bright lights of a television crew. He quickly unscrewed all the parts and revealed its inner details, while the camera zoomed in for a closeup and a pair of chopsticks provided a scale to show the size of the device. It was clear that the converter contained no batteries. Afterward, men crowded around Hutchison, offering him their business cards and asking him to sell them a supply of barium titanate.

    Back home, Hutchison's business advisor fretted that the inventor had given away his secrets. But Hutchison shrugged his shoulders; he had gone beyond the prototype technology he had taken to Japan. He now had a new secret - the stovetop process he called Dirt Cheap because the ingredients included common rocks.

    The new process grew out of his use of barium titanate. He wondered, "Why can't I make a material that works even better?" Hutchison knew that other researchers had put electrodes on certain rocks to show that the rocks generated a tiny electric current, somehow soaked up from the cosmos.

    So Hutchison sorted through small stones on the street in front of his apartment and threw them into a test tube-sized metal container. Next, he added a mixture of low-cost, common chemicals, he won't reveal which ones and put this rock soup on the stove to simmer. This allowed water to evaporate and tiny pockets of air to rise from the stones so that the chemicals could enter them. Before the mixture cooled into a solid, he added specially treated posts to draw electricity from the crystal-like substance th at had formed. Again, no one is entirely sure as to how the Dirt Cheap method works, although one physicist told Hutchison that the Casimir effect, used by Ken Shoulders to create charge clusters, may be at work.

    When he first discovered his Dirt Cheap process, Hutchison didn't bother to patent it. He had heard from other inventors how their laboratories had been vandalized and their property had been stolen once the Patent Office had been notified, and he was not eager to be the first inventor to take a bold step by manufacturing a large home- or factory-sized unit that could restructure industries. Besides, in the 1980s - when he was still working with the Hutchison effect - he had received a few threatening comments from strangers.

    How could Hutchison enjoy his peaceful life and still get a space energy product to the public in a low-key manner? He says he has hit upon an unusual strategy: building miniature flying saucers powered by Dirt Cheap-supplied electricity, and selling them as space-energy children's toys. Hutchison hopes an environmentally safe toy that lights up without batteries will intrigue the public into buying Dirt Cheap devices that could power large appliances. And perhaps, the Dirt Cheap process could help lead to a world of nonpolluting new energy.




    I mentioned earlier that there were several reasons why participatory time travel hasn’t been possible before. Another reason that your highest mystics and scientists have had limited success in this venture is the nature of your 3-D locus itself. For in order to travel independently in time you need to have at least a 5th dimensional locus. You need to be grounded in a simultaneous perspective that is vast enough that your now-moment can embrace eons of linear time in an infinite variety of parallel dimensions. A very few ascended masters in your history have achieved this, but not very many. This, my friends, is what you are emerging into as a species.

    The cusp of the 21st century is an exciting time for you to be living in. I do not wish to repeat here what the more intuitive ones among you have already attuned to, so I will simply say that yes, you are at the threshhold of an awesome collective event, a "birthing" if you will, a "shift of the ages", a Zero Point long foretold and long awaited not only by shamans and prophets on Earth but throughout the infinite galaxies. For reasons that will become clear to you, what is taking place on Earth now is creating a ripple effect through all Creation. A whole new cycle of evolution is beginning through all the God-universes, and this little planet called Earth has a key role to play in it, which incidentally, is why you have such a wide gallery of spectators observing you at this time. It has to do with the fact that some of the highest beings in Creation are currently incarnate on Earth, along with the most diverse array of lifeforms and origins ever assembled, all incarnate in physical density in a great experiment of unification.

    Those of you who have had experiences of unity-consciousness will know that it is no great effort to experience Oneness with the All on the higher dimensions, while it is here on 3-D Earth with its infinite diversity and polarity consciousness where that becomes a test of courage and commitment. With so much of your Earth’s longing for spirituality based on the need to escape the pain and suffering of being human at this time, it may surprise you to learn that you are the cutting edge of God-consciousness right now in this physical density. If Earth can experience unity-in-diversity on a physicalized (3rd or 4th) dimension, it greatly expands the activity of the Heart of God as the entire Universe begins a cycle of inbreath back to the Mind of God.


    For yes, there are cycles within cycles within cycles enfolded in your planetary birthing. Not only are you nearing the end of a millenium but you are also at the end of a 2160 year Piscean Age. The Aquarian Age you enter into is not just the beginning of another Age but the beginning of an entire 25,920-year cycle marked by the precession of the equinoxes. This Precessional Year also reflects the orbit of your solar system around Alcyone, the central sun of the Pleiades. Twice during the Precessional Year, including at the beginning of the Age of Aquarius, you enter the influence of a high-vibrational stream of unified light known as the "photon belt", emanating from the Galactic Sun, which synchronizes your entire galaxy to the Mind of God.

    Your Galactic Sun is likewise completing its own spiral through the galaxies nearing the moment described in the Hindu Scriptures as the "inbreath of God". Everything in the current cycle of Creation up to this point has been an expression of the "outbreath of God". Now is the moment of return, when all things in all dimensions in all universes fold back to a higher octave of Unity. It is like the speedometer in one of your automobiles synchronizing to 99999 before turning over to Zero Point.

    Zero Point refers to a convergence taking place on Earth that ties together all these great cycles with all the dimensions in Creation in the journey back to Oneness. The cusp of a millenium links with the cusp of an Age links with the cusp of a Precessional Year links with the cusp of a Galactic Cycle links with the cusp of the Creator’s Breath.

    What does this mean? Because of the unique nature of this particular Zero Point, Earth stands at the threshhold of a cosmic moment of birth in which Creator and Creation become one. In other words, the veils between the dimensions are about to disappear for a moment of time, or rather a moment out of time, long enough for Creator consciousness to slip into the hearts and minds of all beings embodied on Earth, and by reflection, the entire inhabited universes. In this moment of timelessness, it is as if all Creation holds its breath with the Creator, and is then forever after infused with the Spirit of God.

    The frequency of oscillation of any lifeform has to do with its connectedness with Spirit. In that moment of Infusion, the frequency of all beings on the planet will be raised in one extraordinary jolt of awakening. And since time and dimension also have to do with frequency, you will be suddenly catapulted into the 4th dimension as a collective event. While the collective transition to the 5th dimension will yet take a while, some of you may find yourself going past the 4th into the 5th or even 6th dimensional frequencies, activating the ascension process. Thus it is that I, Windrider, having found myself in 6-D after the Shift, chose to dissolve my 4th dimensional body into the unified light, and found myself practicing the ability to translate through all times and dimensions of the Creator Universes.


    With that background, I wish to now speak with you about the two streams of probability that currently stretch out before you.

    The Great Shift I have talked about is inevitable. It is a certainty in all the probable timelines of your future. What actually happens at this Zero Point, or Cosmic Birth, is still undetermined, however, and depends entirely on the collective consciousness latent in that moment.

    My existence among you and that of other masters from your future reflects the fact that a proportion of humanity has sucessfully navigated through the Shift. It does not reflect what that proportion is. That keeps ever changing, and our wish is that this include the greatest number of beings possible.

    These are the two probability scenarios that exist at this time. One is that at the moment of Zero Point that all beings on this planet are translated into the 4th dimension. This is the best case scenario. The other is that there will be a split between the worlds, that those who are prepared to move into 4-D will do so, and those who are not will remain behind in 3-D to play out their karma on a parallel Earth, which will likely result in cataclysmic destruction.

    The third alternative probability and worst case scenario, that your entire planet would be destroyed in a great cataclysm, no longer exists. This did seem a likely possibility up until a decade or two ago in your time, and on behalf of all the ascended masters I congratulate you on the shift of consciousness you have already undergone so as to avert this! There is a great light being carried on the Earth right now. This is why we believe it is possible to shift out further from the second scenario of partial translation into 4-D to the best case scenario of a full translation of planet Earth. This is also why the advent of Zero Point has been postponed to the extent possible in order to give all humanity the opportunity to make the Shift together.

    Many of your ancient prophecies speak to the second stream of probability because that seemed to be the most hopeful scenario envisioned at that time. Jesus spoke of the "rapture", of two men working in the fields, one of whom would be taken, the other left behind. Christian, Muslim and Hebrew scriptures are replete with images of a "day of judgement", when the "righteous’ would be rewarded and the "unrighteous" punished.

    There are also metaphors in this age that reflect the first scenario. The story of "the hundredth monkey", which is an apt description of bioloical as well as spiritual evolution, is one example. Always it is true that when there is a sufficient number of beings envisioning and practicing a new paradigm, that the "law of grace" is then invoked, and the rest of the monkeys, or humanity, as the case may be, are brought into entrainment.


    What needs to happen for mass consciousness to shift from the second to the first stream of probability? The second scenario is based on "karma", the first scenario on "grace". You need to understand that the "law of grace" is a higher octave of the "law of karma". And you need to understand and fully embrace your personal as well as collective shadows.

    When the master Jesus spoke of forgiving your enemy he spoke not of condoning their actions but of recognizing that you and he both were shadow and light together, and that forgiveness provided you both an opportunity to practice a divine alchemy, unifying both shadow and light in the experience of Oneness. He also counseled us to "love your neighbor as yourself".

    The test for awakened humanity is this. Can you extend the hand of forgiveness and love in this expanded sense to your brothers and sisters in ignorance and darkness, a forgiveness that arises from compassion, a forgiveness that embraces your neighbor, yourself, the dark lords, the powermongers, the satanic forces, the military mind, the secret governments, the illuminati, the "reptilians", "greys", "annunaki", or whatever your own version of the "enemy" happens to be?

    When you do so, this activates the law of grace, and brings to an end a polarized conflict that opens the door to a full planetary awakening. More than that it provides an opportunity to resolve and heal a long drawn out intergalactic war, and bring much suffering to an end. It assures that in the "inbreath of God" to come that none get left behind. This is the best case scenario, and one that I have traveled back into your time to seed once again.

    It begins with belief, followed by desire. Know that it is possible to experience a graceful pain-free unified birthing into the Fourth Dimension and beyond. Know also that you are capable of being the agents of God in this great alchemy. You have already proved this in averting the third probability of cataclysmic destruction.

    I depart now, and I impart you with love and grace. Know that you have great assistance in this profound opportunity ahead. Call on the ascended masters and the brotherhoods of light, the angelic hierarchies and the Elohim, call on the avatars and saints throughout the ages, call on the star nations and the intergalactic councils of light, call on your higher selves and the Christ, call on the Planetary, Solar, Galactic and Univesal Logos, call on the Great Spirit that many call God. You are not alone, and we are not separate! Adonai!


    Note from Kiara: This transmission came through during the Grand Fixed Cross of August 16 and 17, 1999; also coincidentally the twelfth anniversary of Harmonic Convergence, after having spent a week in spiritual retreat and ceremony in the upper meadows of Mount Shasta. My own experience of the transmission was an expanded state where a barrage of concepts, energy and information flowed through that I was left to translate into writing to the best of my ability. There seemed to be a lot more wanting to be said, which I have left out for the purpose of focus and brevity at this time. Feedback from readers and accounts of similar experiences would be welcome. You may contact me at Please feel free to forward, copy or share this information as feels appropriate.

    From: (Shoshana)

    Reply-to: (Shoshana)





    The American Tragedy: A Symbolic Event, Manifest Revelation -

    Sep 11, 2001 ... When all in each generation have done so, the wheel of light will be complete." [ end of excerpt]. Other dreams and coincidences indicated that ...




    12-25-97 - DREAM

    NOTE:  I received a Christmas gift of a pair of silver earrings each with 3 silver feathers dangling from them.  That same night I had the following dream:

    I was living in a city.  I found a huge green emerald beaded necklace.  Intertwined in the necklace was another necklace on two silver chains. On the chains was a silver pendant of a particular shape with 3 silver feathers hanging from it.  

    I took the silver necklace off the beaded necklace - separated them- and kept the silver necklace with the three feathers.  It twinkled and sparkled as it twisted around on the chains.

    I took the green emerald beaded necklace to a woman who collected emeralds like this. She had a whole room full of polished stones and beads as well as rough cut stellae shaped stones by the million. In the center of the room was an uncut emerald as least 5 feet tall by 4 feet wide with millions of other emeralds all around it.

    She knew immediately that the silver feathered necklace belonged with the beaded emerald necklace I brought to her.  She knew it was supposed to be an entwined pair. She told me that the silver feathered part was far more valuable than the jewels because it belonged to a people of antiquity.

    She immediately sent two of her henchmen out to find the silver parts, not knowing that I had it in my pocket with my hand on it. I became worried that I might be in some kind of trouble for having it because of it's value, but I didn't admit that I had it.

    NOTE: After I had this dream, I was compelled to find out why the three silver feathers had more value than her whole room full of emeralds.

    This is what I found:  In the book "Dream Feather by Viento Stan-Padilla, a little Indian boy hears a song drifting down from the sun. He knew that from the ancient stone etchings on the cave walls, that the feather was foretold and would be his guide if he but followed it and return to the source.The feather took him on an inner journey where he met a shining presence, where a flash of light and a flame beheld gave him the seed that reunited and fused forever the center of his heart to the circle of creation. He says we should all watch for a Dream Feather and join the circle because when each generation has done so, the wheel of light will be complete.

    In Joseph Campbell's book, "The Inner Reaches of Outer Space - Metaphor as Myth and Religion, he shows an Egyptian scene of the weighing of the heart of the deceased against a feather symbolic of Ma'at, goddess of the moral order of the universe. Ma'at is the goddess of truth and represents truth and justice of the Supreme God. The weight of the heart of the deceased is found to be just only if guilt has not made the heart heavier than Ma'at's feather. The heart must be ma'ati (in accordance with Ma'at) if the deceased is to 'become Osiris' (i.e. take on immortality)  If the heart does not pass the test, the soul must be reborn.

    Four feathers adorned the headdress of the god Anhur, (Onouris), a warrior-like figure from the Upper Egyptian city of Thiis. The dispeller of demons Beset was also portrayed with a crown of feathers.

    The polyvalent god and hero Quetzallccoatl was portrayed as a snake covered with iridescent-green feathers of the quetzal bird. These feathers also made up the insignias of Mexican kings. Each feather in the headdresses of the native inhabitants signified an act of bravery of the wearer.


    1991 - DREAM - by Jeff:

    I and an oriental man went to a house to buy Avon pefume. It was raining hard. I wrote a check and placed it on the porch. A very big man let us into the house. My oriental companion had to take off his head and hold it under his arm. The big man led us into a split-level bedroom, with the bed on the higher level.

    Another very big man was there, who looked mean. This big man started chasing us. They ran for the front door, but the other big man was guarding the door, holding a knife. We all ran around in a circle in the living room. After a while, the big man at the door said he would let us out.

    Instantly, the knife turned into a feather and we were set free. The strange thing was - that I realized all along that the knife was really a feather, but for some reason I perceived it as a knife.

    Comments from Joe Mason:

    Shortly after hearing the dream, I "just happened" to read in "The Sacred Symbols of Mu," that the feather represented "Truth" to the ancient Egyptians. They choose the feather to symbolize Truth, because it can be so easily blown away.

    The dream speaks in a big way. The truth will set you free . . . we dwell in the land of Maya/illusion. The oriental man (foreigner from another land) is The Divine Ka, the Divine Double, The Self. The perfume is related to the "flower" symbolism, symbolic of the Oversoul. The check is karma - in the "learning" sense. We have nothing to fear but our own fears. We are eternal beings - nothing can really harm us. etc.


    Cultivating & Strange Things In the Field


    From: (Bryon Smith)

    Dream-Link. org

    I was on the big tractor and in the field when I noticed something strange laying between two rows of grain. I'm not sure what this crop was however. Anyway I drove the tractor up near it and it vanished, I couldn't see this thing anymore. I wasn't sure what it was I thought it might be a dead animal but it was like nothing I had ever seen before. I backed up again and there it was and I would draw close to it and it would vanish. I came near it this second time and accidentally ran over some of the crop. I looked down and saw a HUGE white feather laying on the ground between two rows. I recall thinking there's no birds that large on this Earth, it must have fallen from a huge angel.

    Again I backed up and this time I looked down and saw what certainly appeared to be a large women laying on the ground at the edge of one of the rows. I stopped and looked at her face wondering if she were dead. I saw no movement or indications of life and the more I looked the more it looked like an illusion. Her face almost looked like it was made up out of cobwebs as it was just that color and texture. I backed the tractor up and the right front wheel came across this form and it appeared to just roll up and vanish.


    So here's a strange dream for everyone to try to figure out. We know the crop is the harvest but this crop I didn't recognize even what it was. It was about the height of a bean crop. That first thing I saw was some kind of dead animal all right but the only thing I can think of to describe it was that kind of bird that has a really huge head and beak. The bird isn't all that big but the head is way larger than you would think it would be. I can't think of the name of it. All I can say is this first dead animal I saw reminded me of something like that.

    The huge white feather is on the ground. I can say the white feather is an Indian sign of peace and wisdom when wore hanging down over the ear. I really don't know if this is a sign of the end of peace or not in this dream but I get the impression it is a symbol of war to see the large white feather on the ground like this in the middle of a harvest of what ever it was. The harvest itself is a war and death symbol.

    The large image on the ground appeared to be a large dead women or dead angel perhaps but it was hollow like a shell made from something else but it looked so very real like you could reach out and touch it.



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