Date: 05/18/05

This is a copy of a webpage.
My commentary in bold.

Two Gravity's or Three?

Source page

Are there two types of gravity?

22 January 2005
NewScientist.com news service
Marcus Chown

A MODIFIED theory of gravity could explain one of astronomy's big mysteries: how spiral galaxies rotate without flying apart.

Evidently they haven't yet read the opinion of those who know that a vortex cannot fly apart..

The favorite theory is that dark matter in the galaxies provides the required extra gravitational pull. But Israeli physicist Mordechai Milgrom had a different idea.

In the early 1980's he came up with a theory called modified Newtonian dynamics or MOND, in which extra-strong gravity takes the place of dark matter.

Mr. Milgrom does well to postulate that "extra gravitational pull" is not the answer..

The big problem with MOND has been that it contradicts the well-tested predictions of relativity, and so does not work in systems in which objects are moving at close to the speed of light or under large accelerations. This has meant that it could not make predictions about pulsars, black holes and, most importantly, how the universe came into being in the big bang. But now Jacob Bekenstein of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem has found a way round the problem.

If Relativity is so well tested, why does all of science still try to figure out the donkeys head by saying its rear-end is the head? Let's not even get started with blackholes. And Bekenstein now has a solution for the lack of predictions from MOND, on systems approaching the velocity of space...not the velocity of light..

Proponents of MOND believe theirs is a far more elegant explanation than dark matter. While the familiar, conventional force of gravity gets weaker in proportion to the square of distance, Milgrom suggested that there is also another form of gravity whose strength diminishes more slowly, declining linearly with distance.

MOND's dark matter is failing. Mr. Milgrom suggests what I have known for years. He says there is another form of gravity. Two gravity's. There are actually three forms. We know this already. .

In MOND, a single parameter explains the motion of stars in hundreds of spiral galaxies. This parameter is the acceleration, a0, below which gravity switches from its normal form to the stronger form. The dark matter theory requires different amounts of the stuff with a different distribution in each galaxy.

To fix MOND's clash with general relativity, Bekenstein has introduced twin fields. One gives rise to the conventional gravitational phenomena, while the second serves as the arena for the phenomena involving the other fundamental forces of nature - the electromagnetic force and the strong and weak nuclear forces.

Bekenstein says his theory is consistent with general relativity, gravity and MOND. "The theory reduces to Einstein's theory of gravity at high speeds and accelerations well above a0, to Newtonian gravity at low speeds and accelerations above a0, and to MOND at accelerations below a0."

The new theory fixes a number of problems with MOND, including its failure to explain the "lensing" of light as it is bent by the gravity of galaxy clusters. "Light is fundamentally relativistic, which is why MOND fails to predict its behavior," Bekenstein says. "With the new relativistic theory, the bending turns out to be much the same as observed."

The problem with MOND failing to explain "light lensing as it is bent by gravity", is that light is not bent by "gravity of galaxy clusters" because space, as an optical non-medium, bends itself.

Bekenstein says his theory is consistent with observations of the solar system and beyond. Intriguingly, it predicts some subtle new effects that might modify gravity in the outer solar system. "It's too early to say, but it might just have something to do with the Pioneer anomaly - the unexpected acceleration being experienced by NASA's Pioneer probes," he says.

From issue 2483 of New Scientist magazine, 22 January 2005, page 10.

The prediction of Mr. Bekenstein echo's the hypothesis of Impossible Correspondence, wherein the second form of gravity (Einstein's Cosmological Constant) works on space oppositely to our atomic gravity. Atomic gravity contracts space together and cosmic gravity expands space apart. I say, "contract and expand" because space is doing no "pushing or pulling" in a "action/reaction" manner, on masses like earth, planets or moons. In the vicinity of planet orbits, all bodies have their own spatial vortex completely around each one, so there are multiple spinning vortexes, contracting space into their own centers we call "mass". So deep space vortexes between these masses or far beyond these masses, are rolling with or against each other, which can change the direction and velocity of a stray spaceprobe which happens to cross the interface of two of these vortexes, at 20 A.U. from our sun.

Mr. Bekenstein also ventures to predict some "subtle new effects that might modify gravity in the outer solar system".

If I may say so, there is not a modified gravity in deep space, there is "the other opposite form" of gravity-time. "Time is gravity" (Keely) so there are also two "times" and it is the time difference of instrument time (atomic-time) and Reality (deep spatial-time), that is detected.

In deep space away from the ecliptic, such as where the Pioneer spacecrafts are, there is the Now of 4D-gravity. This is the real state of gravity......Present-Presence or non-stretched time/gravity. As I said before, "Gravity is what space does". Gravity is not what Einstein or his followers depicted it as.... a function of matter. That's backward from reality. Matter can never bend space and its vortexing gravity illusion. Nothing bends deep space. Space is always superior to matter. 4D is always superior to 3D but when 4D space vortexes gets close to its center, it alters its temporal and spatial characteristics not because matter is so much stronger. Space alters because the spatial/temporal vortex gets tighter and tighter toward its center, called mass/sun core. This gravity of deep space (called Hyperspheres) has different temporal and spatial characteristics than the gravity on earth (called Common gravity) and gravity in atomic matter (called Superstrings). Ref. 1

The atomic matter of the clocking instruments of the spacecraft are in a different frame as deep space. These differences are detected by the instruments.

The temporal and spatial phenomena should diminish as the spacecraft approaches another center of another vortex, around what is called another star-sun or as the spacecraft approaches our sun again..

A past file on the Pioneer probe Time-stretch Theory.


1. Trinary Relativity

Impossible Correspondence Index

Copyright. Robert Grace. 2005