by Dee Finney

The Reverse side of the Dollar Bill. The Great Seal of the United States.

The Eye of the Holy spirit, here shown at the summit of a Pyramid of Creation, is a counterpart of the Eye of Vishnu mentioned in the Indian tale of the "Humbling of Indra". One may think of it as connoting, metaphorically, that mysterious 'impulse' out of which the Big Bang of creation sent flying into distances that are still receding in expanding space, hundreds of millions of exploding atomic furnaces which are seen from this earth as stars, constellations, and a Milky Way of  unnumberable points of light.

The present pyramid is not, however, of that first creation, but of a second, a 'new order of the world" (novus ordo seclorum), represented here as constituted of exactly 13 courses allegorical of our 13 original states. And whereas behind the new pyramid there is only a desert to be seen, before and around it are the sprouting seeds of a new and fresh beginning, dated 1776: 1 + 7 + 7 + 6 = 21.  Mankind, that is to say, has herewith come of age and taken to itself responsibility and authority for the shaping of human lives according to Reason.

Moreover, between the dated course at the the pyramid's base, which tells of an occurrence in Time, and the Eye at the top, which is of Eternity, there are 12 courses this being the number of signs of the belt of the Zodiac as defining the limits of the physical world. The number 13, accordingly, which is that of the dated course at the base, represents a creative transcendence of the boundary; of death, as appears in the popular superstition of 13 at table, but an achieved life beyond death, as signified in the model of the table at the Last Supper, where the 12 apostles were of the number of the belt of the zodiac by which the physical world is bounded, whereas the incarnate God who was about to die, though indeed among them in the field of Time, was of Eternity, beyond the pale of death. Thus the number 13 of our 13 originating states is here interpreted and celebrated as the sign of a resurrection of life out of death, fresh leaves from a desert, a wholesome gift of the light of Reason as an awakener to maturity of the mind in its social conscience.

From: Inner Reaches of Outer Space by Joseph Campbell, page 128

Obverse, Great Seal of the United States:

In the radiant disk above the American bald eagle's head the stars of the original 13 states are composed to form a Solomon's seal symbolic of the union of soul and body, spirit, and matter. Each of the interlaced equilateral triangles, one upward turned, the other downward, is a Pythagorean 'tetraktys' or "perfect triangle of fourness," of nine points, four to a side, enclosing a tenth representing the generative center ("still point of the turning world") out of which the others derive their force. The upward triangle is of spiritual, the downward pointing, of physical energy. Thus interlaced, the two represent the physical world recognized as informed by the spiritual, and in exactly this sense they appear at the Lotus Center of the awakened heart, Chakra 4, in the symbolic Lotus series of the Indian Kundalini.

In the Classical imagination, the 9 circumferencial points of the Pythagorean tetraktys were identified with the Muses and the point in the center with Apollo, around whose radiant form the 9 dance. In Jewish thought, the sign of the two triangles together is known as the 'magen david' (Hebrew, maghen Dawidth), "Shield of David" , and read as connoting the shekhinah, or presence of God in Israel (as originally in the burning bush and in the cloud on the summit of Mt. Sinai). In the Great Seal of the United States the reference is the inspiration of the light of Reason in the Constitution of the originating 13 colonies brought together as one nation: e pluribus unum, "out of many, one". These are homologous, though culturally differentiated, interpretations of the same "elementary idea".

When viewed as outlining a pyramid, the upward pointing triangle matches the pyramid on the reverse side of the Seal, with the single point at it's apex corresponding to the Eye out of which the expanding form of the universe has proceeded. As symbolized in the traditional Pythagorean tetraktys, the energy emanating from that initial point (which is of the opening both from and to eternity) yields, first, duality (2 points: measure and chaos, subject and object, light and dark, odd and even, male and female, etc. ), which then relate to each other in three ways (3 points: either a dominant, b dominant, or a and b in accord), whence derive all the phenomenal forms in the field of space-time (4 points: 4 quarters of the earth and heavens). There is a verse in the Chinese Tao Teh Ching: "The Tao produced One; One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produce all things" (Tao Teh Ching 42, translation, James Legge). Thus the ancient symbolism of the tetraktys: 1 point, 2 points, 3 points and 4; which series when read in the opposite sense of ascending or returning to the source, yields the interesting series, 4 3 2 (for the sense of which see: 432

Connotations of the same order pertain, of course, to the downward turned tetraktys, with its single point at the apex opening also from and to Eternity; so that, "What is above is below," and the energy of the Spirit (however named) whether from without (as from the Eye, the apex above) or from within the world (the apex below) is one. Moreover, since from every terminal point of the six-pointed Solomon's seal the same increasing series of 2 to 3 to 4 proceeds, it follows that the intended sense of the radiant symbol of 13 stars above the American bald eagle's head must have been the same essentially as that of Black Elk's remark, "The center is everywhere", above and below, north, south,e ast, and west - with an addition eighteenth-century implication of the humanizing light of reason reflected, universally, in the clarified consciousness of mankind.

The number of stripes on the American eagle's shield is 13; so also the number of the arrows and of the leaves of the laurel spray in its talons, while the number of the feathers of its tail is 9, to the eye, but through the eye to the intellect, the meanings of which can be known only to those already familiar with the illustrated tradition. Such a composition  may grace the eye, but in itself it lacks magic, or, as Joyce would say, the "radiance" (claritas) of an achieved work of "proper" art. One's heart is waked, not by the form of the work, but by its content, and if the latter is of a tradition either unknown or deceased, the work may be of interest, like the dollar bill, economically, but it is no longer a work of living art.

The artist fashioning a work of this kind serves in the way, rather of the priest of an assured tradition than of an innovating creator, and the refinement of his vocabulary can be astounding. Consider, for instance, the elegant concision of the statement of the relationship of a theological ground to the polity of this nation, founded in benevolence and reason, that is represented in the ideogram of the outspread eagle on our dollar bill overhead, the two fold tetraktys arranged in the form a Solomon's Seal of 13 five-pointed stars; other recurrences of the number 13, the sum of the feathers in the eagle's tail (3 + 3 + 3); and the offered choices of either a spray of laurel or a sheaf of 13 arrows. It is ironical that today we should be passing around as legal tender these sociological manifestos without being able to read the message of democracy engraved on every one of them, the spiritual inspiration out of which their economic value has been derived. So that, not only the message, but even its vocabulary, has been lost.





Isaiah  2: For in the last days the mountain of the Lord shall be glorious, and the house of God shall be on the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall come to it.

3: And many nations shall go and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will tell us his way, and we will walk in it: for out of Sion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord out of Jerusalem.

4: And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people: and they shall beat their swords into plough-shares, and their spears into sickles: and nation shall not take up sword against nation, neither shall they learn to war any more.


Rev 17:1   And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:

Rev 17:2   With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.

Rev 17:3   So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.

Rev 17:4   And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:

Rev 17:5   And upon her forehead [was] a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.

Rev 17:6   And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.

Rev 17:7   And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.

Rev 17:8   The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.

Rev 17:9   And here [is] the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.

Rev 17:10   And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, [and] the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.

Rev 17:11   And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition.

Rev 17:12   And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.

Rev 17:13   These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.

Rev 17:14   These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him [are] called, and chosen, and faithful.

Rev 17:15   And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.

Rev 17:16   And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.

Rev 17:17   For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled.

Rev 17:18   And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.


Rev 18:1   And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory.

Rev 18:2   And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.

Rev 18:3   For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.

Rev 18:4   And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.

Rev 18:5   For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.

Rev 18:6   Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.

Rev 18:7   How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.

Rev 18:8   Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong [is] the Lord God who judgeth her.

Rev 18:9   And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,

Rev 18:10   Standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come.

Rev 18:11   And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more:

Rev 18:12   The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble,  

Rev 18:13   And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots,   and slaves, and souls of men.

Rev 18:14   And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.

Rev 18:15   The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing,

Rev 18:16   And saying, Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls!

Rev 18:17   For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off,  

Rev 18:18   And cried when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What [city is] like unto this great city!

Rev 18:19   And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.

Rev 18:20   Rejoice over her, [thou] heaven, and [ye] holy apostles and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her.

Rev 18:21   And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast [it] into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.

Rev 18:22   And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft [he be], shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;

Rev 18:23   And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.

Rev 18:24   And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.

Prophecy of Nuclear War




DREAM - I don't know what country I was in, except that it was an Arab country.  In the next room, at a distance, a dark, swarthy man, dressed in a dark army green uniform was trying to instill talk of war and hate into his young son who was about 10 to 12 years old.

The boy came out of the room, and I had the opportunity to talk with him. I told him that the joy in life were the child-years, when one goes to school to learn about all the wonders of the world, all the things one doesn't know.  

The young boy, who was dressed in an army  uniform of dark green like his father, had bushy eyebrows, black hair, and dark skin like his father. I thought I saw understanding in his eyes, as I talked of the joy of learning.

I hope so.

Dreams and Visions of War - (starts in 1997)


Taken from this page which is no longer available: of http://www.arab.net/iraq/history/iq_saddam.html.

Saddam Hussein & the invasion of Kuwait

In 1979 the president, Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr, was replaced by Saddam Hussein, and once more the political situation flared into hostilities with Iran. The Iran-Iraq War, which began in 1980, lasted for eight years and had a crippling effect on the economy of both countries. Before Iraq had a chance to recover economically, it was once more plunged into war, this time with its invasion of Kuwait in 1990.

The invasion was the result of a long-standing territorial dispute, and Iraqi troops overran the country on 2nd August 1990. The UN security council condemned the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, and demanded a complete withdrawal by 15th January 1991.

When Iraq failed to comply with this demand, the Persian Gulf War ensued, with allied troops led by the US launching an aerial bombardment on Baghdad. The war, which proved disastrous for Iraq, lasted only six weeks, and a cease-fire was announced by the US on 28th February 1991. UN terms for a permanent cease-fire were agreed by Iraq in April of that year, and strict conditions were imposed, demanding the disclosure and destruction of all stockpiles of weapons.

By early 1992, it became apparent that Iraq still possessed weapons of mass destruction, and intense international pressure to eliminate these was brought to bear, in the shape of UN economic sanctions. In 1993 the Security Council voted to maintain these sanctions, despite attempts by Iraq to have them lifted.

The Kurds after Saddam Hussein - December, 1992 (A Good positive outlook)

1991 - Colin Powell was a strong military leader who didn't give up anytime, anywhere, and that is why he is considered a hero. Secretary of State Colin Powell talks to journalists in Washington Sunday after appearing on CBS's "Face the Nation."  Feb, 2001

Revelation 16:19

And the great city split into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell;
and Babylon the Great was remembered in the sight of God, to give her
the cup of the wine of the anger of his wrath.




Attack on Iraq

Bush and Blair bomb Baghdad


THE United States and Britain last night launched the biggest air raid on targets around Baghdad since Operation Desert Fox in December 1998, damaging President Saddam Hussein’s new command-and-control facilities.

The bombing mission, which involved at least 80 aircraft, including 24 American strike planes such as F16s, and nine RAF aircraft, including six Tornado GR1s, was the first military attack to be authorised by President Bush since taking office last month. The American aircraft carrier, USS Harry S. Truman, launched raids with F14s and F18s from the Gulf.

The decision to mount the raid was personally approved by Tony Blair who was involved in discussions from the beginning, according to military sources. “The decision was taken at the very highest level in London and Washington,” sources said.

Some of the command-and-control targets hit by the American and British bombers were as close as ten miles from the centre of Baghdad, but mostly to the north and north-west of the capital. The RAF bombers were assigned targets to the south.

Initial battle damage assessment by aircraft with high-resolution cameras indicated that no civilian areas had been hit. However, the military sources said that with such a huge amount of Iraqi anti-aircraft artillery in the air, there was a strong likelihood that the rounds would have damaged civilian properties.

Iraqi state television said eight people were wounded. Iraqi youth television, run by Saddam’s son Uday, said at least three children were among civilian casualties. Footage from a hospital included three children as well as three women and two men, bleeding with leg and stomach wounds. The severity of the injuries was not detailed.

“Baghdad was bombed today by enemy American planes,” the television announced. “This aggression is not new. American enemy planes bomb Iraqi cities daily,” it said.

Iraqi television did not specify which sites the bombs hit.

Military sources said the plans had been drawn up over the past few weeks after a dramatic increase in the number of missile and anti-aircraft artillery attacks against American and British aircraft in the combat air patrols over southern and northern Iraq.

Intelligence reports had also provided evidence that in the past six months the Iraqis had installed fibre-optic cables into the main command-and-control facilities around Baghdad which dramatically improved the effectiveness of their air defences.

Saddam also sent “technicians” to Belgrade to receive training by the Serbians in the use of Russian-made surface-to-air missiles, principally Sam 2s and Sam 6s. The Serbs succeeded in shooting down an American F117 Stealth fighter during the Nato bombing campaign in 1999.

In recent weeks, British and American pilots have experienced an increasing number of “trips”, the name for incidents where air crews can “feel” the missile or anti-aircraft shell close to the jet. With the improved integrated air defence network, the Iraqis were beginning to get much closer to their targets, the military sources said.

A US military spokesman said that the Iraqi air defence system had become much more sophisticated and it was imperative to neutralise it.

Last night’s raid began at 5.20pm, London time, when American bombers took off from Saudi Arabia and the RAF Tornados from Kuwait. As they approached Baghdad, they came under a huge barrage of anti-aircraft artillery fire. All the aircraft, however, returned safely to their bases. The raid finished at 6.07pm.

The military sources said that the coalition aircraft, all normally engaged in patrolling southern Iraq in the operation codenamed Southern Watch, had not flown beyond the 33rd parallel which marks the limits of the no-fly zone fixed after the 1991 Gulf War.

However, the missiles that were dropped, including RAF Paveway 2 guided bombs, are stand-off weapons that can cruise to their targets, adding up to 20 miles to the range. The sources said this was why some of the targets hit were beyond the 33rd parallel.

Last night a Pentagon spokesman said that the raids had degraded Iraq’s air defences and he did not anticipate further raids at present.

Copyright 2001 Times Newspapers Ltd.

Report: Iraq Will Retaliate

By Waiel Faleh Associated Press Writer

Saturday, Feb. 17, 2001

BAGHDAD, Iraq –– Iraq will retaliate for the largest attack by U.S. and British warplanes in months, a state-run newspaper vowed Saturday, as Iraqis returning to classes, jobs and markets a day after the deadly bombing uniformly condemned the United States.

In a front-page editorial, al-Qadissiya daily also dismissed U.S. assertions that the strikes – which killed two people – were ordered to protect pilots patrolling Iraqi skies. Iraq, it said, merely defends its airspace.

"This crime will not go without strong punishment for the aggressive Americans, to teach the American-Zionist new and old administration new lessons," the paper said, without being specific.

Sirens started wailing Friday evening, followed by explosions from anti-aircraft weapons from the southern and western outskirts of the city of more than 5 million. About 50 minutes later, more sirens marked the end of the strikes.

The official Iraqi News Agency, citing health ministry officials, said two people died and 20 were injured. It identified the dead as a woman, Ghayda Atshaan Abdullah, and a man, Khalil Hameed Alwash.

"All were innocent children, women and men who do not mean anything to America," said Tamader Jassim, a 19-year-old college student heading to class Saturday. "They expect us to hate our leader by doing this. ... They are wrong, we started to hate everything American because of these strikes."

In hospitals, children with bandaged legs and feet held their hands out to worried parents. Concerned family members stood by anxiously, waiting for news about their relatives.

"The more they continue their aggression, the stronger the Iraqi people ... will be in facing them," President Saddam Hussein and his top leadership figures said in a statement.

"We shall fight them on ground, sky and sea and their aggression will deepen their failure," said the statement from a joint meeting of the Revolutionary Command Council and the ruling al-Baath Party chaired by Saddam.

Friday was the first time in nearly two years that air raids sirens have sounded over the Iraqi capital, and while some huddled in fear inside their houses, others ventured out to watch the sky.

"How many times do they destroy what they themselves said they have already destroyed?" asked Samih Jamal, a 54-year-old retired government worker.

Arab League secretary-general Esmat Abdel Meguid denounced the airstrikes as an "unwarranted aggression" that worsens the plight of the Iraqi people. The league would support Iraq, but "our stance is a political one. We don't have jets or missiles," he told The Associated Press.

Two dozen warplanes fired long-range missiles targeting radar systems to the south and north of the capital, according to the U.S. Defense Department, which said Iraq had become increasingly threatening of late toward allied aircraft patrolling.

It was the first strike since December 1998 north of the 33rd parallel, which lies about 30 miles south of Baghdad and marks the edge of the southern "no-fly" zone patrolled by U.S. and British planes since 1991. Air raid sirens went off in Baghdad in February 1999 after strikes inside the no-fly zone.

In Baghdad late Friday, the few people out in the streets were defiant. Store owner Ayad Hamid Ali, 52, said the United States and Britain only want to scare the Iraqis. "But they know we will not bow to the foreigners," he said.

Shabab TV showed hundreds of youth demonstrating in the streets of the capital, volunteering to fight the enemy.

The allied warplanes struck their targets Friday without leaving the southern no-fly zone, using "standoff" weapons that zero in on targets from a distance, where the pilot is safer, the Pentagon said.

It said the operation appeared to have been successful and no more strikes were needed soon. The planes involved in the strikes came from various locations in the Gulf.

U.S. and British warplanes have been patrolling no-fly zones in northern Iraq since April 1991, shortly after the Gulf War ended. The southern no-fly zone was set up the following year.

Iraq does not recognize the no-fly zones and has been challenging allied aircraft since December 1998. The allies say their planes never target civilians, though missiles have hit residential areas. Iraq says about 300 people have been killed and more than 800 injured.

© Copyright 2001 The Associated Press

Saturday, February 17 6:35 AM SGT

Iraq vows to fight on to victory against US

BAGHDAD, Feb 17 (AFP) -

Iraq vowed Saturday to fight on to victory against the United States and blamed the first US bombing of Baghdad in two years on a Zionist plot.

The pledge came in an official communique released after President Saddam Hussein chaired a meeting of military and political chiefs in Iraq's Revolutionary Command Council and the ruling Baath party.

"The aggression will not force Iraq to give up its rights," said the statement. "Aggression and threats do not discourage Iraq." "Iraq will continue to fight them (enemies) on land, in the air and at sea. Iraq will finally win," it vowed.

"This aggression is explained by a Zionist and American plot and prepares the ground for operations by the Zionist entity against the Arabs and Palestinians," the communique said.

Two dozen US and British warplanes struck five Iraqi radar and command posts north of the 33rd parallel, US authorities said.

According to the communique the bombings hit the suburbs of Baghdad.

Arabs blast attacks on Iraq

Saturday, 17 February 2001 8:15 (ET)

Arabs blast attacks on Iraq


CAIRO--Arab League Secretary General Esmat Abdel Meguid on Saturday condemned Friday's U.S.-British air attacks on Iraqi sites outside Baghdad, calling the attack "unreasonable" and said innocent civilians had been killed and injured.

Meguid's statement said the air strikes are outside of international law and have ignited anger in the Arab world. Indignation already is running high among Arabs over continued United Nations sanctions against Iraq and the humanitarian crisis it is causing for the average Iraqi citizen.

Iraqi officials claim that two people died and over 20 other civilians were wounded after US and British warplanes struck Iraqi radar and command posts in the first major strikes since 1998.

Egypt, Jordan and Syria have re-established air links with Baghdad in defiance of an U.N. air embargo imposed on Iraq for its 1990 invasion of Kuwait. They also joined other Arab countries in providing food and medical assistance to Iraq and are actively working for the lifting of sanctions.

Arab anger also is boiling over the breakdown in Israeli-Palestinian peace talks and the escalation in violence between the two sides following Israeli Prime Minister-elect Ariel Sharon's victory in the polls earlier this month.

Abdel Meguid urged the U.N. to take the necessary measures to ensure Iraq's security and the freedom of its airspace.

In the Syrian capital of Damascus, a Russian envoy said Saturday his country and Syria prefer a political solution to the Iraqi problem because the air strikes would not yield "positive results."

"Russia shares Syria's position that the (air) strikes will not come up with any positive results," Deputy Foreign Minister Alexander Sultanov told reporters after a meeting with Syrian Foreign Minister Farouk Sharaa in Damascus.

The Russian official said "it is preferable to find a political solution" for the Iraqi problem and that "the first step in this direction would be the dialogue between Iraq and the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan at the end of this month."

Annan and Iraqi officials were expected to resume talks about ways to lift the embargo imposed by the U.N. since Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 in exchange for allowing the return of U.N. disarmement inspectors to Baghdad.

Sultanov said his talks with Sharaa were "excellent and important" as Russia's priority was to "listen to the Syrian officials about their analysis" of the latest developments in the Middle East. He described Syria as "a key country in the region" which is also "of great weight on the international arena."

Sultanov said he exchanged points of view with Sharaa about the deadlocked Arab-Israeli peace process and the situation in Iraq where "it is high time and important to find a political solution."

(Thanna Imam reported from Damascus)

Copyright 2001 by United Press International.   All rights reserved.

Britain: Iraq could get more

Saturday, 17 February 2001 8:17 (ET)

Britain: Iraq could get more

LONDON, Feb. 17 (UPI) -- Officials warned Saturday that Britain and the United States would launch more air and missile attacks against Iraq if Saddam Hussein persisted with "further aggression."

British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook and Defense Secretary Geoff Hoon,   who authorized London's role with Washington in Friday's attack on six air defense installations in Iraq, made it clear the allies are ready to strike again unless Saddam backs off.

Iraq said two people were killed and 20 injured in the raids Friday, and the Baghdad government issued a statement on government television vowing "we will fight them in the air, land and sea, and their aggression will achieve nothing but failure."

"Saddam Hussein should be clear that we will not tolerate continued attempts to endanger the lives of our aircrews," Hoon said. "But if he stops shooting at us, there will be no need for the RAF (Royal Air Force) to attack his air defenses."

Cook echoed the warning: "There is one very simple way in which the bombing can stop -- it does not need to happen again -- that is for Saddam Hussein to stop targeting our pilots."

"We cannot ask British pilots to patrol the no-fly zones and not act when we see Saddam Hussein preparing to shoot them down," the foreign secretary told a Labor Party spring conference in Glasgow on Saturday.

But the hard response to the alleged Iraqi aggression drew some opposition in British Prime Minister Tony Blair's own ruling Labor Party. Tony Benn, a leading member of the party's left wing, demanded that Blair immediately recall Parliament to debate the issue.

Benn sent a letter to the prime minister, saying "I am writing to ask for the immediate recall of Parliament to allow the defense secretary to make a statement about today's (Friday's) bombing of Iraq by American and British aircraft."

Been added "these attacks cannot be justified in international law and will certainly increase tension in the area at a time when the Palestinian-Israeli situation is worsening."

Hoon defended the attack. "We are quite confident that in international law our pilots have the right to defend themselves when they come under attack."

Copyright 2001 by United Press International. All rights reserved.

Saturday, Feb. 17, 2001

Iraq Threatens Retaliation for Western Attacks

BAGHDAD (Reuters) - Iraq vowed revenge on Saturday for U.S. and British attacks near Baghdad it said killed two civilians, while Russia and China led a chorus of international concern over raids seen as threatening Middle East stability.

President Saddam Hussein and his top aides discussed plans for military retaliation in the event of a repeat of the strike, the first major Iraq raid by new U.S. President George W. Bush.

The Iraqi News Agency said Saddam discussed the "American aggression and the military measures and plans that should be taken to retaliate against America and those who render facilities to it in case the aggression is repeated."

France, a member of the Gulf War coalition that ended Iraq's 1990-91 occupation of Kuwait, said it wanted an explanation for the first Western air strike near Baghdad in over two years, adding such assaults hindered efforts to solve the Iraq problem.

The Arab League said the assault had broken international law and would stoke anger across the Arab world.

Turkey reproached NATO-ally Washington for not informing it beforehand and said it hoped the raids would not be repeated. Syria and radical Palestinian groups also condemned the attacks and Gulf Arab Qatar said they were regrettable.

A Spanish foreign affairs spokesman said that at no stage had Spain and other European allies been informed of the raid.

U.S. ally Israel expressed understanding of the strike, saying the country that fired dozens of Scud missiles at the Jewish state in the Gulf War still posed a threat.

Prime Minister Tony Blair said Britain was ready to authorize further action against Iraq if Baghdad continued to attack British aircrews patrolling no-fly zones.

Baghdad's official press reacted furiously to the attacks.

"The Americans' and Britons' new, savage crime will not pass unpunished and without decisive retaliation," the official Qadissiya newspaper said in a front-page editorial.

"We will teach the new American administration and the Zionist entity (Israel) lessons on Jihad (holy war) and steadfastness," it said.

Several hundred Iraqis and Palestinians living in Iraq marched in Baghdad streets protesting against the raids.

"We will fight them in the air, on land and sea and their aggression will achieve nothing but failure," said an official statement after a meeting of Iraqi leaders chaired by Saddam.


The statement also blamed Kuwait and Saudi Arabia for providing bases for coalition forces in the region.

The demonstrators cursed the United States, Britain and Israel and burned an Israeli flag.

"We are here to say to all the world we are ready to fight the enemy everywhere," Fadhil Mahmoud, a shopkeeper, said. "The attack is unjustifiable and their justification was very silly," said Ali Hawi, a soldier at Baghdad's Bab al-Sharji flea market.

The Iraqi Health Ministry announced that two Iraqi civilians had been killed and more than 20 others wounded in the raids.

The United States said its planes attacked Iraqi radar systems. U.S. officials said 24 U.S. and British planes struck five Iraqi military targets five to 20 miles from Baghdad using various long-range precision-guided weapons.

Bush said he would take "appropriate action" if Saddam made weapons of mass destruction.

One of the reported victims was an 18-year-old woman and television pictures showed a man, apparently in his 30s, who was reported to have died in the attack. The Iraqi news agency named the dead as Aliah Atshan Abdullah and Khalil Hameed Alwash.

The Russian Foreign Ministry said the attacks proved that Washington and London relied on force in a policy that "worsens an already explosive situation in the Middle East and the Gulf."

President Vladimir Putin said air strikes did nothing to settle the situation around Iraq and urged any action taken against it to be sanctioned by the United Nations.

China urged the United States and Britain to stop attacks on Iraq immediately. India said the raids hurt only innocents. Iranian radio slammed the strikes, accusing Bush of trying to pick up where his father left off and overthrow Saddam.


The French Foreign Ministry said it had often expressed its incomprehension and disquiet at previous U.S.-British raids and Friday's strike would cause more damaging tensions.

France fought with its Western allies in the Gulf War and afterwards helped impose no-fly zones to protect opposition groups in the north and south of Iraq. But France has increasingly distanced itself from U.S.-British policy on Baghdad and its planes no longer help enforce the zones.

Iraqi television showed houses and shops in an area in Baghdad it said was damaged by the strikes. Reporters for Western media based in Baghdad have not yet been allowed to visit the targeted locations.

U.S. and British warplanes patrolling the zones have often attacked targets in the south and north since Baghdad started to challenge the aircraft in December 1998.

The United States and Britain launched four days of bombing in 1998 to punish Iraq for not cooperating with U.N. inspectors charged with eliminating its weapons of mass destruction.

Tuesday, February 20, 2001

Britain defends bombing of Iraq as French turn up the heat

LONDON, Feb 19 (AFP) -

Stung by fresh French criticism of the US-British bombing raid on Iraq, Britain on Monday said it launched the attacks to protect its own pilots and cast doubt on Baghdad's estimate for the death toll.

Junior defence minister Baroness Elizabeth Symons said Britain and the US had to act because in January this year their pilots came under attack from Iraqi ground batteries more often than in the whole of the previous year.

It was highly likely that Baghdad's assertions that the raid had claimed three lives and injured a number of civilians, were "propaganda," Symons added.

French Foreign Minister Hubert Vedrine turned up the pressure on Britain and the US on Monday by saying of the raid last Friday: "This action, as far as I am aware, is approved by hardly anyone."

Leaders in the Arab world, Russia and Turkey have also lined up to criticise the strike, while several figures in Britain's ruling Labour Party have expressed their misgivings.

In an apparent nod to international criticism of the bombing raid, Symons said that as well as coordinating policy on Iraq with the US, "we also have to consult very closely with our allies in Europe and elsewhere."

But she made no apologies for the action, saying it was "a proportionate response in self-defence" against attempts by the Iraqi military to shoot down British and American aircraft.

The raid "does not represent a change in policy" towards Iraq, said the British minister. "Faced with a substantial increase in the threat in recent weeks, we had no choice but to protect our people."

She said that the targets had been "carefully planned and cleared by ministers on both sides of the Atlantic," and were chosen to keep casualties to a minimum.

"We regret any casualties," said Symons, while adding that, "we learned long ago to mistrust Saddam Hussein's claims" about the human cost of bombing raids on Iraq.

The stated aim of the raid was to disable the command-and-control infrastructure used to operate Iraq's air defence system.

"Initial reports are that our attacks were successful with weapons impacting on or close to targets," the minister said in a statement to parliament.

"We are confident that the mission degraded the Iraqi air defence system and reduced the threat to coalition pilots."

In all, six Iraqi sites were targeted in the raid, including radar installations and command-and-control centres. "All were directly involved in targeting coalition air crews," said Symons.

Five of the targets were north of the southern no-fly-zone but none of them was closer than 10 miles (16 kilometres) to the Iraqi capital.

British and US aircraft have come under fire, from anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air missiles, while patrolling the no-fly-zones in northern and southern Iraq.

The patrols were established by the international community at the end of the Gulf War in 1991 to protect the ethnic minorities living in the zones from attacks by Baghdad.

Symons told parliament that if aircrews were unable to patrol the no-fly-zones without coming under attack, the alternative would be to "expose innocent people in north and south Iraq to a brutal, murderous regime."

Monday, February 19, 2001

Iraqis protest to cries of "Death to America"

BAGHDAD, Feb 19 (AFP) -

To cries of "Death to America," thousands of Iraqis held protests throughout the capital on Monday in a third straight day of anger over deadly US and British air strikes.

About 27,000 people took part in four separate demonstrations in the Baghdad suburbs of Saddam City, Al-Adhamiya and Ubaidy and the downtown area of Al-Wiyah to protest at Friday's raids which Iraq said killed three people and wounded 30.

The crowd in Saddam City cried "Death to America" and set fire to US and Israeli flags, as they had done in protests around the country organised over the previous two days by the ruling Baath party.

The 5,000-strong crowd chanted slogans denouncing US President George W. Bush for ordering the air strikes, the first since he took office on January 20.

Around 10,000 demonstrators in Baghdad's northeastern district of Al-Adhamiya chanted their allegiance to President Saddam Hussein, witnesses said.

The protestors, who included students and schoolchildren, gathered outside a Baath party office, waving banners that called for "revenge against the United States".

Further east in Ubaidy, more than 5,000 demonstrators, mainly workers, set fire to American, British and Israeli flags.

Waving Iraqi and Palestinian flags in tandem, the demonstrators called for "jihad (Islamic holy war) to liberate Arab soil of every traitor or tyrant from Baghdad to Jerusalem."

"Saddam, we are all soldiers, bomb Tel Aviv!" the crowd chanted during the one-hour demonstration. "We will not yield on Jerusalem and Saddam Hussein!"

Similar slogans were chanted in the central Al-Wiyah district where around 7,000 protestors also denounced the US and British raids, participants said.

On Sunday, Iraq said it fired missiles at US and British warplanes policing a "no-fly" zone over the south of the country, in defiance of the strikes aimed at knocking out radar posts used to coordinate surface-to-air missiles.

The United States and Britain said they bombed five military targets in the raids around Baghdad to protect their pilots patrolling air exclusion zones set up after the 1991 Gulf War.

Iraq does not recognise the zones, which are not specifically authorised by the United Nations, and regularly fires on the US and British planes.

The London Times on Monday quoted military sources as saying the allied planes had not come under Iraqi anti-aircraft or missile fire since the February 16 strikes.

Monday February 19, 2001

U.S., Israel Test Patriots As Iraq Vows Revenge

By Hassan Hafidh

BAGHDAD (Reuters) - Iraqi media vowed revenge on Monday against Saudi Arabia and Kuwait for abetting U.S. and British air strikes on Iraq, as Israel and the United States began a Patriot missile exercise that recalled the Gulf War.

About 20,000 Iraqis staged a second day of protest marches in Baghdad organized by the ruling Baath party against the first air raids around the Iraqi capital since 1998.

Demonstrators burned U.S. and Israeli flags and waved portraits of President Saddam Hussein.

Heightened tension in the Middle East after Friday's bombing of air defense installations close to Baghdad pushed up oil prices sharply Monday, traders said. London Brent crude futures were 61 cents higher at $27.40, although industry sources said Iraqi oil exports were continuing as normal.

NATO member France stepped up criticism of the raids -- President George W. Bush's first military action less than a month after he entered the White House -- while key U.S. allies Germany and Japan withheld public support. German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said his foreign minister would discuss during talks this week in Washington how to prevent ``solidarization of the Arab masses'' with Saddam.

Iraqi newspapers said Kuwait and Saudi Arabia were partly to blame for the bombing, in which 24 U.S. and British planes hit five military installations that U.S. officials said threatened aircraft patrolling Western-imposed no-fly zones over Iraq.

``We are not hiding that we are determined to retaliate against the rulers of tyranny, distress and treachery in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia,'' the government newspaper al-Jumhouriya said.

``They know what we can do at the moment that God chooses as the right time,'' the paper said in a front-page editorial.

Patriot Exercise Recalls Gulf War

Iraq said two civilians were killed and 20 wounded in the strike. U.S. and British planes resumed patrols over southern Iraq Saturday and Sunday.

French Foreign Minister Hubert Vedrine said on television there was ``no legal basis for this type of bombardment.''

``This action, as far as I am aware, is approved by hardly anyone. Only Canada and Poland, but I don't know why,'' he said. ''All other countries have expressed their disapproval, criticism, doubt and disquiet, as we have done, because we do not see the point of this action.

In what they insisted was a pure coincidence, Israeli and U.S. troops began a joint exercise Monday to test Patriot air defense missiles, used to intercept Iraqi Scud missiles fired at the Jewish state during the 1991 Gulf War. The Israeli army said the war games in the southern Israeli desert had nothing to do with the U.S.-British strikes, nor with next week's 10th anniversary of the end of the war.

``The exercise has been planned for over a year and is part of routine U.S.-Israel training designed to validate interoperability of air defense systems,'' the army said in a statement.

Israel has said it is taking seriously Saddam's threats to retaliate for the air strikes -- even though it considers there to be no immediate danger.

The U.S. and British bombing drew sharp condemnation from the Arab League, including former Gulf War allies Egypt and Syria, as well as U.N. Security Council powers Russia and China.

Secretary of State Colin Powell will have a chance to gauge dwindling Arab support for U.N. sanctions against Iraq when he begins his first Middle East trip later this week.

Powell is scheduled to visit Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Syria, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian territories.

The Iraqi news agency INA said Saddam met top aides on Sunday to discuss improvements to anti-aircraft defenses.

The U.S. and Britain said recently improved Iraqi air defenses had increased the risk to their planes patrolling zones set up to protect Shi'ite Muslims in the south and a Kurdish enclave in the north from any attack by Baghdad's forces.