UPDATED 9-15-15


cern shiva






Scientists at Cern hold their breath as they prepare to fire up the LHC
If all goes to plan, beams of particles will begin whizzing around the LHC on Friday evening for the first time since last year's explosion
     •     Ian Sample, science correspondent
     •, Wednesday 18 November 2009 12.21 GMT



Cern scientists anxiously monitor their screens during the switch-on of the LHC in September last years. Photograph: AFP
A giant scientific instrument that was designed to recreate the big bang but blew itself up in the process will be back in business on Friday.

Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at Cern, the nuclear research organisation near Geneva, aim to have beams of subatomic particles whizzing around the machine on Friday evening, and will begin smashing them together soon after.

The first collisions will mark the end of a long and frustrating period for the researchers, who waited eight years for the machine to be built only to see it explode shortly after being switched on in September last year. Repairs and a new safety system cost an estimated £24m.

The machine, which occupies a 27km tunnel 100m beneath the French-Swiss border, will probe some of the deepest mysteries of the universe by crashing subatomic particles into one another at close to the speed of light.

The collisions are expected to reveal tantalising signs of new physics that could include extra dimensions of space and "supersymmetry", a theory that calls for every particle in the universe to have an invisible partner.

Scientists also hope the machine will finally discover the elusive Higgs boson, aka the God particle, which imbues other particles with mass. It may also expose the nature of dark matter, a mysterious, invisible material that stretches across the cosmos and collects around galaxies.

The £6bn machine was shut down last year after a spark caused by faulty wiring tore a hole in the collider and released liquid helium, wrecking surrounding equipment and encasing it in a layer of ice. Engineers have spent the past year checking the wiring in the rest of the machine and installing safety measures to prevent another catastrophe.

Work on the machine was interrupted earlier this month when a short circuit took out an electrical substation. The incident was blamed on a piece of baguette dropped by a passing bird.

The first collisions will be at low energies but will give scientists working on the machine's four giant detectors their first real data to work on.

Two beams of subatomic particles called protons, travelling in opposite directions around the tunnel, will be accelerated to almost the speed of light. At four points around the ring the beams will cross over, slamming the protons into each other head-on. The violent impacts will release fleeting bursts of energy that will recreate in microcosm the conditions that existed only a fraction of a second after the big bang.

Lyn Evans, who has overseen the construction of the LHC for the past 15 years, said Cern hoped to get two beams of protons circulating in the machine on Friday evening. "Then we just have to steer them into one another," he said. Collisions are expected to reach an energy of 2.2 trillion electronvolts by Christmas, enough for the LHC to take the title of the most powerful particle collider in the world.
By January, the machine should be running with at least three times as much energy as the current world-leading particle smasher, the Tevatron at Fermilab near Chicago.

"It's been a frustrating time, but what we do know is that the machine works beautifully," Evans said. "By Christmas, I expect we will take the high-energy frontier, if only by a whisker."

Cern engineers have already sent beams of particles half way around the machine. Their first goal later this week will be to circulate two beams of protons at low energy, the stage they reached this time last year before the machine exploded.

The first low-energy collisions will give scientists a chance to check the machine is working properly and ensure its detectors are recording the beautiful streaks of subatomic debris created when the particles crash into one another.

The machine will close for a couple of weeks over Christmas while engineers finish installing safety measures to prevent the machine exploding again when it is running at higher energies next year.
Jim Virdee, a physicist at Imperial College, London, and spokesman for the machine's giant CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector, has spent the past year calibrating the detector by watching high-energy particles in cosmic rays hurtle through it.

"There's a mood of great anticipation here. We're cautiously optimistic and looking forward to finally getting going," he said. "We will soon be making great inroads into new territory. We'll be looking for new things, but what we find depends on how kind nature is to us."

Some scientists are relying on the LHC to pull physics out of at least a decade in the doldrums. While theoretical physicists have pushed ahead with string theory and other models that describe the particles and forces of nature, experiments to prove any of them right or wrong have been lacking.
Last year, an American court dismissed a legal challenge that claimed the LHC might destroy the planet by creating a black hole or a clump of matter known as a strangelet. This year, physicists at the Niels Bohr Institute proposed an even more extraordinary possibility. Their calculations suggested that the long-sought Higgs boson was so abhorrent to nature that any machine that tried to make it would be "sabotaged" from the future. Few scientists are losing sleep over the prospect.

"We are absolutely and totally confident that the machine is perfectly safe, just as we were last year," said Evans. "And i'm not at all worried about the it being destroyed by its own future."

LHC to run at 3.5 TeV for early part of 2009-2010 run rising later

Geneva, 6 August 2009. CERN's1 Large Hadron Collider will initially run at an energy of 3.5 TeV per beam when it starts up in November this year. This news comes after all tests on the machine's high-current electrical connections were completed last week, indicating that no further repairs are necessary for safe running.

"We've selected 3.5 TeV to start," said CERN's Director General, Rolf Heuer, "because it allows the LHC operators to gain experience of running the machine safely while opening up a new discovery region for the experiments."

Following the incident of 19 September 2008 that brought the LHC to a standstill, testing has focused on the 10,000 high-current superconducting electrical connections like the one that led to the fault. These consist of two parts: the superconductor itself, and a copper stabilizer that carries the current in case the superconductor warms up and stops superconducting, a so-called quench. In their normal superconducting state, there is negligible electrical resistance across these connections, but in a small number of cases abnormally high resistances have been found in the superconductor. These have been repaired. However, there remain a number of cases where the resistance in the copper stabilizer connections is higher than it should be for running at full energy.

The latest tests looked at the resistance of the copper stabilizer. Many copper connections showing anomalously high resistance have been repaired already, and the tests on the final two sectors, which concluded last week, have revealed no more outliers. This means that no more repairs are necessary for safe running this year and next.

"The LHC is a much better understood machine than it was a year ago," said Heuer. "We can look forward with confidence and excitement to a good run through the winter and into next year."

The procedure for the 2009 start-up will be to inject and capture beams in each direction, take collision data for a few shifts at the injection energy, and then commission the ramp to higher energy. The first high-energy data should be collected a few weeks after the first beam of 2009 is injected. The LHC will run at 3.5 TeV per beam until a significant data sample has been collected and the operations team has gained experience in running the machine. Thereafter, with the benefit of that experience, the energy will be taken towards 5 TeV per beam. At the end of 2010, the LHC will be run with lead ions for the first time. After that, the LHC will shut down and work will begin on moving the machine towards 7 TeV per beam.


Some of the first protons to be accelerated inside the Large Hadron Collider smashed into an absorbing device called a collimator at near light speed, producing a shower of particle debris recorded in this image. About an hour later the beam completed a full circuit of the 27km tunnel, to cheers from physicists (Image: CERN)


It looks like some significant repairs will need to be made to the LHC before a re-start attempt (CERN). First there was a glitch with one of the huge 30-tonne transformers causing a delay of a few days, then a quench leaked a tonne of helium coolant into one of the tunnels, forcing a two-month shutdown while repairs could be made. In a statement released by CERN today, due to an obligatory maintenance period, the LHC will have to remain off-line until late March or early April 2009. Problems with an experiment as huge as the worlds biggest particle accelerator can be expected, but this will be a costly delay and a psychological setback after the initial excitement of the first particle circulation on October 10th. The elusive HIGGS BOSON will have to wait a few more months. There have been delays in the commissioning of the LHC and setbacks in the last few days, but after two decades of planning and construction, a few more months isn't that long in the grand scheme of things. --

Written by Ian O'Neill / Source: CERN press release

Fault shuts Large Hadron Collider for two months

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel at Cern. Photograph: Martial Trezzini/AP

The day the planet will finally discover whether the machine built to recreate the big bang will uncover the secrets of the universe or bring about the end of the world has been put off for two months.

The £5bn Large Hadron Collider, a 17-mile tunnel under the Swiss-French border built to smash protons together at velocities just below the speed of light, began operating amid great fanfare earlier this month.

However, only 36 hours into the project, the Cern (European Organisation for Nuclear Research) machine was found to have a fault and shut down.

Today a spokesman for Cern, James Gillies, said that the damage is worse than previously believed and will halt operations for two months.

It had been thought the results of the experiment would be known by the end of the year.

Scientists leading the project hope to be able to recreate conditions immediately after the big bang and provide answers to key questions on the composition of the universe. They have dismissed predictions by a tiny but vocal group of opponents that the experiment could create a black hole which would swallow the planet.

It is believed that the damage was caused when super-cooled helium escaped because of a faulty electrical connection between two magnets in the massive machine.

The sector that was damaged will have to be slowly warmed up to well above absolute zero over a number of weeks so that repairs can be made.

Giles said: "It's too early to say precisely what happened, but it seems to be a faulty electrical connection between two magnets that stopped superconducting, melted and led to a mechanical failure and let the helium out."

The collider, two decades in the making, is the world's largest atom smasher. It fires beams of protons from the nuclei of atoms around the tunnels at nearly the speed of light.

It then causes the protons to collide, revealing how the tiniest particles were first created after the big bang, the massive explosion physicists believe formed the universe.

Cern announced on Thursday that it had shut down the collider after a successful startup that had beams of protons circling in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions.

It was at first thought the failure of an electrical transformer that handles part of the cooling was the problem, Cern said. That transformer was replaced last weekend and the machine was lowered back to operating temperature to prepare for operations to be resumed.

It was then that scientists found the problem was worse than initially believed.



The Collider Dangerous Experiment 2


Dear Readers:

In reference to my previous newsletter  titled "the Collider" Experiment", after reading the latest news about the Collider's failure, do you really think all those "smart, educated heads" will ever realize that Mercury in his retrograde motion is responsible for the mishap?  You dream if you thing they can remotely raise a different awareness of their perception of Universe they are trying so hard to comprehend. Logic and more LOGIC is the real downfall in all their PHYSICAL experiments. Yes of course parts will break but after millions of dollars invested in technological research and the best of the best of manufacturers in the world at work who produced the  "faulty transformer" could those educated heads even realize that there is more hidden forces at work than they know? No way, their UCI is so commonsensical that the fault is SOLELY attributed to a "faulty transformer" OMG!  WHAT A WORLD OF IGNORANT!


GENEVA, Switzerland (AP) -- A 30-ton transformer that cools the world's largest particle collider malfunctioned, forcing physicists to stop using the atom smasher just a day after launching it to great fanfare, the European Organization for Nuclear Research said Thursday.

But really what are my chances just yet to reach the European Organization for Nuclear Research and explain to them the how and why of their failure? And even if I did how do you think those scientists hard-core UCI would react to what would be perceived as an incomprehensible astrological nonsense Cosmic Code jargon?

See this is where the true problem is EDUCATION on the subject is ZERO, NULL but doing so would open a new door leading to COSMIC PERCEPTION.

But again it would be OK with me if the European Organization for Nuclear Research totally ignore a little nobody Frenchman but what really sadden me most is that these new scientists kids also IGNORE the words of a genius… and that's NO ON! Their huge ego blinds them to the wise words of a TRUE genius and they chose to IGNORE them…

So where is the answer?

*The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift. We will not solve the problems of the world from the same level of thinking we were at when we created them. More than anything else, this new century demands new thinking: We must change our materially based analyses of the world around us to include broader, more multidimensional perspectives."

~Albert Einstein*

What if any elites of the Organization for Nuclear Research were to read my newsletter and Albert Einstein deep comments?  I let you be the judge and find the answer because it is too depressing for me to witness such a huge IMBECILITY running the forefront of science.

"When science finally honor the word science itself and investigate the "Divine" a real chance will be offered to the rest of mankind to uplift its perception and working of the Universe. The truth of life and the Universe cannot originate from ONE solitary foundation, it's all about a complex range of integration of all things at once".

All Is That And That Is All

  Dr. Turi          

Well the Dragon's Tail (nasty) in Leo (children/famous people) has once more proven me right!





A detail from a watercolor in the Vaticinia Nostradami codex, 1629 AD, at the Central National Library, Rome. The current buzz on the internet is a prophecy by Nostradamus that seems to indicate a colossal disaster for Geneva caused by the LHC. It's so striking, I thought it worth a closer look. While searching for the original French quatrain, number 44 in Century 9, I came across this image from what's being called 'The Lost Book of Nostradamus' from the recent book with this title by Ottavio Cesare Ramotti.

An archer shoots two fish in opposite directions across a gap, within a section of pipe. If you're imagining the LHC proton beams shooting through a detector through a beryllium pipe, and you're from the Renaissance, knowning nothing of physics and little of machinery, how better to illustrate this event? Fish too, in opposite streams, quite remarkable when you recall the quatrain and the 'Raypoz'.

It's not certain that Nostradamus wrote and illustrated this codex of 80 watercolors, something like William Blake's much later books of illuminations. It was attributed to Nostradamus by the title added in about 1689, while Nostradamus lived from 1503-1566. It's possible the codex was produced by Nostradamus' son César, who is known to have been a painter of miniatures and was preparing a booklet as a gift for King Louis XIII of France.

The current codex was presented by a Brother Beroaldus to Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, later Pope Urban VIII who was in office from 1623-1644. The mystery deepens as the codex some how found its way into the Central National Library in Rome, only to be rediscovered by Italian journalists in 1982. After some study, parts of it were found to be derived from an earlier work, the 'Vaticinia de Summis Pontificibus' from the 13-14th century. The 'Marston MS 225' at Yale, is also similar, probably from Bavaria or Bohemia. These earlier works were considered books of prophecies, though whose is in doubt.

If not quite evidence to confirm the Nostradamus LHC prophecy, it set me off on another search through the other 700 or so quatrains where I found another striking one, from Century 4, number 67. Before we look at this one, here is the one that has internet buzzing.

Leave, leave Geneva every last one of you,
Saturn will be converted from gold to iron,
Raypoz will exterminate all who oppose him,(?)
Before the coming the sky will show signs.
Migrés, migrés de Geneue trestous,
Saturne d'or en fer se changera,
Le contre Raypoz exteriminera tous,
Auvant l'aruent le ciel signes fera.
You've got to be careful with translations from Old French. The popular English version is not totally correct. Spellings vary in old texts, words change meanings and some become obscure.
The third line in question is one of a mistake in syntax. The translator was guessing here at the meaning. 'Le contre' clearly means 'the opposite'. 'Raypoz' is not a term used anywhere else in French and has no definite meaning. The opposite Raypos will exteriminate all, is the actual statement. 'Ray' is not French, though evidently it's Nostradamus' abbreviation of 'rayon', meaning 'ray.' 'Poz' is curiously written with a Z, a rare letter like in English, which indicates at least the pronunciation. 'Pos' for 'positive' is current in English as an abbreviation, and 'positif' is 'positive', though neither pos or poz would have been used in the Renaisance. Though the Z makes it clear that it isn't the French 'pos' which if so spelt would be pronounced like 'poe'. So 'poz' definately suggests 'positif'. Note that Nostradamus is consistent, using abbreviations to make up Raypos, as we do today. To call Raypoz the PositiveRay is a sound derivation, though it wouldn't have been understood back then, with the only rays being 'rayons de soleil' or sun rays, sunlight.

What is the Opposite of Raypos? A negative ray. In the case of the LHC, since they're using proton rays, the exact counterpart is antiproton rays, antimatter. So a matter/antimatter explosion destroying Geneva? All of us Trekkies know that. CERN experiments have confirmed it. And the Geneva Airport is a stone's throw away from the giant Atlas Experiment.

Two disturbing bits of information, the detail from the watercolor and the quatrain above. Have a look at number 3, the C4Q67:

The year that Saturn and Mars are equal fiery,
The air is very dry, a long meteor.(?)
From hidden fires a great place burns with heat,
Little rain, a hot wind, wars and raids.
L'an que Saturne & Mars esgaux combuste,
L'air fort sieché longe trajection.
Par feux secrets, d'ardeur grand lieu adust,
Peu pluie, vent chault, guerres, incursions.
You have to think like an astrologer here to make sense of the time clues he left in his works and consider his experience of the world. Nostradamus was himself a famous astrologer, well known for his almanac and the patronage he received at the court of Henry II of France and his Queen Catherine di Medici. But far from being in what we might consider a dubious profession, he was well respected and honest. Having studied with Rabelais at the same school, he was a Doctor of Medicine, perhaps the first of his day to insist on hygiene. Known also as a Mathematician, he was involved in public works projects, like the irrigation of the vast Paine de la Crau, which he also partly financed, near his home at Salon-de-Provence.

Both quatrains have astrological time clues. But Saturn wasn't discovered until after Galileo and the telescope. Well, like the modern method for inferring the presence of a celestial object by its apparent effect on other objects, modern astronomers have made similar guesses. With Nostradamus it was the careful study of Astrology that made Saturn real for him.

In the first quatrain, 'Saturn converted from gold to iron' is a metaphor for a conjuction where Saturn is unfavored, possibly eclipsed. In the other quatrain, 'The year that Saturn and Mars are equally fiery' could mean both are exhaulted. An astrologrer today might be able to put a date on this disaster at the LHC.

'The air is very dry, a long meteor.' is a suspect translation. The literal French is 'The air very dried long distance.' The air is dried by something and there is no meteor. The 'longe trajection' could be 'a long distance' and the drying is clear in the next line, not 'from' but 'by secret (not hidden) fires'. So we have poetically:
The air dried for a long way / By secret fires of ardent power, a great place burns.

As a real warning of the burning of the LHC and Geneva, I think that it should be considered seriously. Reconsidering 120 tonnes of helium under 15-20 atmospheres pressure, much of it in an odd superfluid state at critically low 1.9 K temperature, and exposed in the ring to an 8.2 Tesla magnetic field, and the 'Raypoz' and its opposite, what might happen if not a plasma fire, some altered state of helium combusts due to the enormous TeV energies, 5 per beam and a collision force of 10 TeV scheduled this summer. Even worse, some nuclear event, as in an earlier post, The Almost Thermonuclear LHC. If I were in Geneva, I'd pack my bags.

For the Hollywood History Channel version of Nostradamus: The Lost Book, the 5 minute video is the best look at the original watercolors.

For a brief Wikepedia history of the Lost Book and some images.

For more images from the Lost Book.

For an Old French dictionary, geared for Nostradamus.

Finally a big Nostradamus site, with the Centuries in French and English, searchable.


Fausto Intilla (fisico teorico) said...

The upcoming Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN could be dangerous. It could produce potentially dangerous particles such as mini black holes, strangelets, and monopoles.
A CERN study indicates no danger for earth, [Ref. 1] but its arguments are incomplete. The reasons why they are incomplete are discussed here.
This paper considers mainly micro black holes (MBHs) with low speeds. The fact that the speed of resultant MBHs would be low is unique to colliders. An important issue is the rate of accretion of matter subsequent to MBH creation.
This study explores processes that could cause accretion to be significant.
Other dangers of the LHC accelerator are also discussed.
I. Arguments for danger in LHC particle accelerator experiments
"In the 27-kilometer-long circular tunnel that held its predecessor, the LHC will be the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It will smash fundamental particles into one another at energies like those of the first trillionth of a second after the Big Bang, when the temperature of the Universe was about ten thousand trillion degrees Centigrade." [Ref. 5]
1. There is a high probability that micro black holes (MBHs) will be produced in the LHC. A reasonable estimation of the probability that theories with (4+d) dimensions are valid could be more than 60%. The CERN study indicates in this case a copious production of MBHs at the LHC. [Ref. 1] One MBH could be produced every second. [Ref. 4 & Ref. 5]
2. The CERN study indicates that MBHs present no danger because they will evaporate with Hawking evaporation. [Ref. 1] However, Hawking evaporation has never been tested. In several surveys, physicists have estimated a non trivial probability that Hawking evaporation will not work. [Ref. 9] My estimate of its risk of Hawking evaporation failure is 20%, or perhaps as much as 30%.
The following points assume MBH production, and they assume that Hawking evaporation will fail.
3. The cosmic ray model is not valid for the LHC. It has been said that cosmic rays, which have more energy than the LHC, show that there is no danger. This may be true for accelerators that shoot high energy particles at a zero speed target. This is similar to cosmic ray shock on the moon's surface. In these cases the center of mass of interaction retains a high speed. This is different from the situation at the LHC, where particles with opposing speeds collide. With cosmic rays (mainly protons in cosmic rays) we need a speed of 0.9999995 c to create a micro black hole of 1 TeV and after the interaction the micro black hole center of mass will have a speed of 0.999 c. As MBHs are not very reactive with matter, calculations indicate that this is more than enough velocity to cross planets or stars without being caught and to escape into space.
4. Lower speed MBHs created in colliders could be captured by earth. Using Greg Landsberg's calculation [Ref. 3] of one black hole with velocity less than escape velocity from earth produced every 10^5 seconds at the LHC, we have 3.160 (US notation 3,160) MBHs captured by earth in ten years. More precise calculations show that we could have a distribution of MBHs at every range of speed from 0 m/sec to 4 m/sec. The probability of very low speed MBHs is not zero. We need to evaluate if low speed MBHs present more risks.
5. The speed of a MBH captured by earth will decrease and at the end MBHs will come to rest in the center of earth. The speed will decrease because of accretion and interaction with matter.
If we consider that:
a. The CERN study's calculus for accretion uses the "Schwarzschild radius" for the accretion cross section. [Ref. 1] In the case of low speeds, we must not use the Schwarzschild radius for the calculus of accretion. There are several reasons the capture radius extends beyond the Schwarzschild radius. For example, if the MBH speed were zero, gravitational attraction would be active at a distance greater than the Schwarzschild radius.
b. If a MBH accretes an electron, it will acquire a charge and then probably accrete a proton.
c. If a MBH accretes a quark it will then probably accrete a proton. When a quark is caught, the whole nucleon can be expected to be caught because otherwise the black hole would have acquired a charge which is not complete. (For example minus 1/3.) In a nucleus a fractional charge is unstable and is not allowed. This strongly suggests that the MBH will be required to accrete other divided charges to reach a completed integer number of charges. The same process can be expected in regard to quark color.
d. Gauge forces at short distances could also help to capture an atomic nucleus.
Our calculus indicates that a slow speed MBH can be expected to capture 8.400 (US notation 8,400) nucleons every hour, at the beginning of an exponential process.
6. In the center of earth new processes could occur: As stated above, it has been estimated that in ten years 3.160 (US notation 3,160) MBHs could be captured by earth. All MBHs will progressively lose speed because of numerous interactions. After a time (calculations have to be completed to estimate this time) all these MBHs will go toward the precise gravitational center of earth. (Kip Thorne [Ref. 7 p. 111]) After numerous interactions they will stop there at rest and then coalesce into a single MBH. To get an idea and for a first approach our calculus indicates that the mass of this MBH could be on the order of 0.02 g with a radius of 4 x 10^-17 m. At the center of earth, the pressure is 3.6 x 10^11 Pascals. [Ref. 8]. This pressure results from all the matter in Earth pushing on the electronic cloud of central atoms. The move of electrons is responsible of a pressure (called degenerescence pressure) that counterbalance the pressure of all the matter in Earth.
Around a black hole there is not an electronic cloud and there is no degenerescence pressure to counterbalance the pressure of all the Earth matter.To indicate the pressure we must use the surface If in an equation Pressure P = Force F / Surface S if we keep F= Constant and we reduce surface, we are obliged to notice that Pressure P will increase. Here F is the weight of all the matter of Earth and this do not change. As the surface of the MBH will be very small, calculus indicate on this surface an impressive increase of pressure in the range of : P = aprox 7 x 10 ^ 23 Pa .
The high pressure in this region push strongly all the matter in direction of the central point where the MBH is.
Electrons directly in contact with the Micro Black Hole will first be caught, then the nucleus will be caught.
It is sure that the atoms will be caught one after the other but the more the pressure will be important the more the caught will be quick. When a neutron star begins to collapse in a black hole (implosion), at the beginning the black hole is only a micro black hole as we see in [Ref. 7 Page 443]. At this very moment the high gravitational pressure in the center of the neutron star is there breaking the "strong force" which lays between the quarks located into the neutrons.
The MBH will grow there only because of the high pressure.
In center of Earth pressure is normally far to small for such a process, but if we create a slow speed MBH that does not evaporate and if this MBH comes at rest in the center of Earth, the pressure in the center of Earth could be sufficient for the growing of the MBH. We must remember that in the surrounding of the MBH the "strong force" is broken and this could mean that the same kind of pressure process than in neutron star could work there ( in a slow mode compared with a neutron star of course ). In the center of Earth, the high pressure, the high temperature, the increasing mass associated with electrical and gauge forces process could mean important increase of capture and a possible beginning of an exponential dangerous accretion process. Our calculus indicates as a first approximation with a MBH of 0.02 g at rest at the center of earth that the value for accretion of matter could be in the range of 1 g/sec to 5 g/sec.
7. Conclusion about MBHs : We estimate that for LHC the risk in the range of 7% to 10%.

II. Other Risk Factors

The CERN study indicates that strangelets and monopoles could be produced and present no danger for earth. [Ref. 1]
We will present arguments of possible danger.
1. Strangelets
Strangelets are only dangerous for earth if they are not moving rapidly through matter. If only one strangelet is at zero speed there would be danger. We have seen for MBHs that the cosmic ray model is very different from the LHC where particles with opposing speeds collide. We have seen that, given the impact of opposite speed particles, the distribution of speeds of resultant particles indicates the probability of very low speeds (0 m/sec < speed < 4 m/sec) and this could mean dangerous strangelets. We estimate a minimal risk for strangelets on the order of 2%. We might estimate as high as 10 % if we want to be wise because the danger is primary!
2. Monopoles
Monopoles could be produced in the LHC. [Ref. 1] .CERN's calculations indicate that one monopole produced in LHC could destroy 1.018 (US notation 1,018) nucleons but it will quickly traverse the earth and escape into space. However, we know that photons produced in the center of the sun need thousands of years to traverse the sun and escape into space because of the numerous interactions. If the speed given to the monopole after interaction is a speed in a random direction, we can imagine that the monopoles produced in the LHC could stay a very long time in earth and be dangerous. 3. Estimate of danger due to our ignorance of ultimate physical laws: We have not exhausted processes that might cause danger. There are other particles, black energy, black mass, quintessence, vacuum energy, and many non definitive theories. We estimate this danger ranging from a minimal 2% risk to 5%.


The CERN study [Ref. 1] is a remake of a similar study for the earlier Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven (RHIC) [Ref. 6] adapted to the LHC.
It is important to notice that: The study for the RHIC had concluded that no black holes will be created. For the LHC the conclusion is very different: "Black holes could be created!" !
The main danger could be now just behind our door with the possible death in blood of 6.500.000.000 (US notation 6,500,000,000) people and complete destruction of our beautiful planet. Such a danger shows the need of a far larger study before any experiment ! The CERN study presents risk as a choice between a 100% risk or a 0% risk. This is not a good evaluation of a risk percentage!
If we add all the risks for the LHC we could estimate an overall risk between 11% and 25%!.
We are far from the Adrian Kent's admonition that global risks that should not exceed 0.000001% a year to have a chance to be acceptable. [Ref. 3] .Even testing the LHC could be dangerous. Even an increase in the luminosity of the RHIC could be dangerous! It would be wise to consider that the more powerful the accelerator will be, the more unpredicted and dangerous the events that may occur! We cannot build accelerators always more powerful with interactions different from natural interactions, without risk. This is not a scientific problem. This is a wisdom problem!
Our desire of knowledge is important but our desire of wisdom is more important and must take precedence. The precautionary principle indicates not to experiment. The politicians must understand this evidence and stop these experiments before it is too late!

Fausto Intilla -

1.. Study of potentially dangerous events during heavy-ion collisions at the LHC: Report of the LHC Safety Study Group. CERN 2003-001. February 28, 2003.
2.. E-mail exchange between Greg Landsberg and James Blodgett, March 2003,
(No longer posted. Request a copy. Risk Evaluation Forum, BOX 2371, Albany, NY 12220 0371 USA.)
3.. A critical look at risk assessment for global catastrophes, Adrian Kent, CERN-TH 2000-029 DAMTP-2000-105. Revised April 2003. hep-ph/0009204. Available at: ...

4.. High energy colliders as black hole factories: the end of short distance physics, Steven B. Giddings, Scott Thomas. Phys Rev D65 (2002) 056010.
5.. CERN to spew black holes, Nature October 2, 2001.
6.. Review of speculative disaster scenarios at RHIC September 28, 1999 W.Busza, R.L. Jaffe, J.Sandweiss and F.Wilczek.
7.. Trous noirs et distorsions du temps, Kip S. Thorne, Flammarion 1997. ISBN 2-08-0811463-X. Original title: Black holes and times warps. 1994 Norton. New York.
8.. Centre de la Terre, Science & Vie N 1042. Gallate 2004.
9.. Results of several Delphi groups and physicist questionnaires, James Blodgett, Risk Evaluation Forum, forthcoming.
Speakeron said...
Saturn is easily visible to the naked eye and was well known to the ancients. It's untrue to say "Saturn wasn't discovered until after Galileo and the telescope". Galileo was the first to discover its rings, but no astrologer predicted that.
Alan Gillis said...
I'm familiar with the oft-repeated 'easily visble Saturn', found even on NASA sites, but as an amateur astronomer, I defy anyone to locate Saturn with the naked eye. Certainly some ancient cultures did identify a planet beyond Jupiter, but these observations were made by astologer-astronomers who didn't have telescopes or 200-20 vision.

Perhaps, speakeron, as a resident of Switzerland, you might tell us what the Swiss feel about the LHC. I get the impression from French media, there isn't much interest.
Valentina said...
"Mars and Saturn Get Together"
Could this article be somehow related to the prophecy about "Mars and Saturn are equally as fiery"?
Their next meeting is set for July 30, 2010.

Protons have made their first complete lap of the world’s most powerful accelerator to cheers and high fives from assembled physicists.

At 1025 (local time) scientists sent a single beam of protons in a clockwise direction around the full 27 kilometres of the Large Hadron Collider at the CERN laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland.
The journey began at 0930 when LHC project leader Lyn Evans and his team launched protons into the ring. Progress was made in short steps of a few kilometres, so that physicists could learn how to steer the beam, which is travelling at 99.9998% the speed of light.
Steering particles
The LHC's tunnel is filled with devices called collimators, which steer the beam every few kilometres. Evans and his team opened the collimators one by one when they were sure that they could steer the protons precisely.
The machine worked better than anyone expected. It took only 55 minutes for physicists to steer beams around the full 27km, and the LHC worked on its first go, far better than anyone dared to hope.
Earlier Evans said that he did not know how long it would take his team to circulate the beam.
"It took us 12 hours to circulate a beam around the Large Electron Positron Collider," says Evans. The LEP Collider was the LHC's predecessor that was shut down in 2000.
Giant freezer
Physicists working on two of the giant experiments – CMS and ATLAS – have seen sprays of particles in their detectors as protons smashing into the collimators next to the detectors.
The day was not without its dramas, however. During the night, part of the cryogenic system that keeps the ring chilled to 1.9 kelvin (just above absolute zero) failed.
The ring has to be cold for the powerful magnets to work. Physicists managed to fix the problem overnight and started the day's tests on schedule..
Evans hopes initially to circulate the beams many times in the clockwise direction. The team will attempt to repeat the test later today, but sending protons around in the opposite direction.
However, it will be several weeks before physicists accelerate two proton beams travelling in opposite directions to their full energy of 7 teraelectronvolts, and smash them head on.
The Large Hadron Collider – Find out more about the world's biggest experiment in our cutting-edge special report.


Collider starts and we're still here


Leigh Dayton, Science writer | September 11, 2008

LAST night, physicists near Geneva switched on the largest, most powerful scientific tool ever built and the world did not vanish down a black hole, as alarmists had predicted.

Instead, the $US8 billion ($9.9billion) Large Hadron Collider successfully sent the first beam of protons -- members of a group of subatomic particles called hadrons -- hurtling around a 27km circular tunnel running beneath Switzerland and France.

The event caused sighs of relief from more than 2000 scientists from 150 institutes in 45 countries, including Australia, who had waited 14 years for the moment.

But their relief had nothing to do with lurking black holes, said cosmologist and theoretical physicist Paul Davies with Arizona State University in Tempe.

"The black hole threat was time-wasting drivel. Even had black holes appeared they would have immediately disappeared," he said.

The point of yesterday's exercise was to begin callibrating the more than 10,000 powerful superconducting magnets and four enormous detectors comprising the collider, run by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, or CERN

Once the collider is up and running scientists will use it to send proton beams around the collider in opposite directions at nearly the speed of light.

The ensuing collisions will smash the particles apart, helping physicists gain insights into the fundamental nature of matter.

"It's an exciting time because this new accelerator is providing us a window to a new regime of matter never studied before," said University of Sydney physicist Aldo Saavedra.

Along with scientists at Melbourne and Wollongong universities and WA industrial partner VEEM Engineering Group, Dr Saavedra has contributed to the development of the ATLAS detector which will be used to look for signs of new physics.

One of the first signs scientists hope to detect is proof of the Higgs boson, a subatomic particle first proposed in the mid-1960s by American physicist Peter Higgs.

The boson is central to the so-called Standard Model of particle physics as it explains how other particles gain mass.

But as Professor Davies says, the "goddamn" particle -- commonly known as the "God" particle -- has until now remained beyond the reach of technology.

"I am sure the 'Higgs' will be found, but if there's no 'Higgs' it would be really exciting because it would falsify the Standard Model and force a rethink," he said.

Professor Davies predicted that while confirming the Higgs boson could take two or three years, it may take mere months to detect "supersymmetry", the "bridge" between subatomic particles and fundamental forces like gravity, electromagnetism and weak and strong interaction.

Physicists also plan to use the collider to recreate conditions just billionths of a second after the Big Bang, which brought time and space into existence.

If so, they might unravel the mystery of the "dark stuff" making up over 95 per cent of the universe.

Astrophysicists believe the ordinary matter making up stars, galaxies, planets and the other stuff of space adds up to less than 5 per cent of the universe. The rest is "dark matter" and "dark energy"' about which little is known.

 By Roger Highfield, The Telegraph
Tuesday, September 9, 2008

Scientists working on the world's biggest machine are being besieged by phone calls and emails from people who fear the world will end next Wednesday, when the gigantic atom smasher starts up.

The Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, where particles will begin to circulate around its 17 mile circumference tunnel next week, will recreate energies not seen since the universe was very young, when particles smash together at near the speed of light.

Such is the angst that the American Nobel prize winning physicist Frank Wilczek of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has even had death threats, said Prof Brian Cox of Manchester University, adding: "Anyone who thinks the LHC will destroy the world is a t---."

The head of public relations, James Gillies, says he gets tearful phone calls, pleading for the £4.5 billion machine to stop.

"They phone me and say: "I am seriously worried. Please tell me that my children are safe," said Gillies.

E-mails also arrive every day that beg for reassurance that the world will not end, he explained. Others are more aggressive.

"There are a number who say: "You are evil and dangerous and you are going to destroy the world."

"I find myself getting slightly angry, not because people are getting in touch but the fact they have been driven to do that by what is nonsense. What we are doing is enriching humanity, not putting it at risk."

There have also been legal attempts to halt the start up. The remarkable outpouring of concern about turning on the experiment, the most ambitious in history, comes as a new report concludes that it poses no threat to mankind. Since 1994, when the collider was first mooted by the multi-national European nuclear research organisation (CERN), dogged doomsayers have claimed that there would be a small but real risk that an unstoppable cataclysm would take place.

Many of the emails received by Gillies cite a gloomy book -- Our Final Century?: Will the Human Race Survive the Twenty-first Century? -- written by Lord Rees, astronomer royal and president of the Royal Society.

"My book has been misquoted in one or two places," Lord Rees said yesterday.  "I would refer you to the up-to-date safety study."

The new report published today provides the most comprehensive evidence available to confirm that nature's own cosmic rays regularly produce more  powerful particle collisions than those planned within the LHC.

The LHC Safety Assessment Group has reviewed and updated a study first completed in 2003, which dispels fears of universe-gobbling black holes and of other possibly dangerous new forms of matter, and confirms that the
switch-on will be safe.

The report, 'Review of the Safety of LHC Collisions', published in the Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, proves that if particle collisions at the LHC had the power to destroy the Earth, we would never have been given the chance to worry about the LHC, because regular interactions with more energetic cosmic rays would already have destroyed the Earth.

The Safety Assessment Group writes, "Nature has already conducted the equivalent of about a hundred thousand LHC experimental programmes on Earth  -- and the planet still exists."

The Group compares the rates of cosmic rays that bombard Earth to show that  hypothetical black holes or strangelets, that have raised fears in some, will pose NO threat.

As the Group writes, "Each collision of a pair of protons in the LHC will release an amount of energy comparable to that of two colliding mosquitoes, so any black hole produced would be much smaller than those known to astrophysicists."

They also say that such microscopic black holes could not grow dangerously.  As for the equally hypothetical strangelets, the review uses recent experimental measurements at the Brookhaven National Laboratory's
Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, New York, to prove that they will not be produced in the LHC.

The collider is designed to seek out new particles including the long-awaited Higgs boson responsible for making things weigh what they do, the possible source of gravity called dark matter, as well as probe the differences between matter and antimatter.
Watch the LHC start up on September 10th using the real-time CERN video broadcast:

It's official, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will begin operations in a little over a month. On September 10th, the most sophisticated particle accelerator will go online, injecting the first circulation of accelerated particles. Actual experiments involving collisions will occur once scientists are satisfied the LHC is fully optimized and calibration is complete. The LHC has been undergoing "cool-down" for some time, ensuring the LHC's eight sectors are approaching the 1.9K (-271°C) operational temperature (that is 1.9 degrees above absolute zero). All going well, on September 10th, the first beam will be accelerated to an energy of 450 GeV (0.45 TeV), the preliminary step on the path to attaining particle energies of 5 TeV, a record breaking target … awesome.

Earlier today, CERN announced that the LHC will be ready by September 10th to attempt to circulate a beam of particles. This news comes as the "cool-down" phase of LHC commissioning reaches a successful conclusion, cooling all eight sectors to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero. The LHC will accelerate particles to relativistic velocities, accessing energies previously unimaginable. Once the LHC reaches its optimum design specification (possibly by 2010), it will generate beams seven-times more energetic and 30-times more intense than any other particle accelerator on the planet. The accelerator ring lies below
the Swiss countryside with a circumference of 27 km (17 miles). -- Written by Ian O'Neill / Source: CERN

Large Hadron Collider to be launched Oct. 21, 2008 - Russian scientist

20:10 | 05/ 08/ 2008
MOSCOW, August 5 (RIA Novosti) - The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, will be officially unveiled on October 21, a Russian scientist said Tuesday.

LHC is a particle accelerator that will smash together opposing beams of protons to explore the validity and limitations of current particle physics theory.

"The collider is to be inaugurated on October 21," said Alexander Vodopyanov, of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). "This means at least one test-run of proton beams around the accelerator ring will be conducted prior to inauguration."

The scientist said all eight sections of the collider's large ring had been cooled to temperatures approaching absolute zero. An experimental run of a proton beam through one of the sectors could be carried out as early as this week.

The $5.8 billion international project at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, known by its French initials CERN, involves more than 2,000 physicists from hundreds of universities and laboratories in 34 countries.

The accelerator complex, 27 kilometers in circumference, sits in a subterranean tunnel about one hundred meters below the Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva, Switzerland.

Once it is up to speed, it is hoped the collider will produce the so-called Higgs boson, the observation of which could confirm the predictions and "missing links" in the Standard Model of physics and could explain how other elementary particles acquire properties such as mass.

Some theorists and members of the general public have long voiced fears that microscopic black holes may appear as a result of the experiment, capturing surrounding matter and ultimately leading to the destruction of the entire planet.

However, scientists have consistently dismissed these allegations as "ridiculous" - even if a microscopic black hole did form, they say, it would only last for a fraction of a second.

LHC scientists said in a special "safety" report that collisions of subatomic particles similar to those simulated on the collider constantly occur in nature. Research data indicates that collision of cosmic ray particles generate much more energy than the LHC.

"Obviously, the world will not end when the LHC switches on," Lyn Evans, the head of the project at CERN, said in June.


Large Hadron Collider nearly ready
August 1, 2008 11:38 AM
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 27 kilometer (17 mile) long particle accelerator straddling the border of Switzerland and France, is nearly set to begin its first particle beam tests.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is preparing for its first small tests in early August, leading to a planned full-track test in September - and the first planned particle collisions before the end of the year.
The final step before starting is the chilling of the entire collider to -271.25 C (-456.25 F). Here is a collection of photographs from CERN, showing various stages of completion of the LHC and several of its larger experiments (some over seven stories tall), over the past several years.




Large Hadron Collider


Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) that lies under the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. The LHC is in the final stages of construction and commissioning, with some sections already being cooled down to their final operating temperature of approximately 2K. The first beams are due for injection mid June 2008 with the first collisions planned to take place 2 months later. The LHC will become the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. The LHC is being funded and built in collaboration with over two thousand physicists from thirty-four countries as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.

When activated, it is theorized that the collider will produce the elusive Higgs boson, the observation of which could confirm the predictions and "missing links" in the Standard Model of physics and could explain how other elementary particles acquire properties such as mass. The verification of the existence of the Higgs boson would be a significant step in the search for a Grand Unified Theory, which seeks to unify three of the four known fundamental forces: electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force, leaving out only gravity. The Higgs boson may also help to explain why gravitation is so weak compared to the other three forces. In addition to the Higgs boson, other theorized novel particles that might be produced, and for which searches are planned, include strangelets, micro black holes, magnetic monopoles and supersymmetric particles.


Technical Design

The collider is contained in a circular tunnel with a circumference of 27 kilometres (17 mi) at a depth ranging from 50 to 175 metres underground. The tunnel, constructed between 1983 and 1988, was formerly used to house the LEP, an electron-positron collider.

The 3.8 metre diameter, concrete-lined tunnel crosses the border between Switzerland and France at four points, although most of its length is inside France. The collider itself is underground, with surface buildings holding ancillary equipment such as compressors, ventilation equipment, control electronics and refrigeration plants.

The collider tunnel contains two pipes, each pipe containing a beam. The two beams travel in opposite directions around the ring. 1232 dipole magnets keep the beams on their circular path, while additional 392 quadrupole magnets are used to keep the beams focused, in order to maximize the chances of interaction between the particles in the four intersection points, where the two beams will cross. In total, over 1600 superconducting magnets are installed, with most weighing over 27 tonnes. 96 tonnes of liquid helium is needed to keep the magnets at the operating temperature.

The protons will each have an energy of 7 TeV, giving a total collision energy of 14 TeV. It will take less than 90 microseconds for an individual proton to travel once around the collider. Rather than continuous beams, the protons will be "bunched" together, into 2,808 bunches, so that interactions between the two beams will take place at discrete intervals never shorter than 25 ns apart. When the collider is first commissioned, it will be operated with fewer bunches, to give a bunch crossing interval of 75 ns. The number of bunches will later be increased to give a final bunch crossing interval of 25 ns.

Prior to being injected into the main accelerator, the particles are prepared through a series of systems that successively increase the particle energy levels. The first system is the linear accelerator Linac 2 generating 50 MeV protons which feeds the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). Protons are then injected at 1.4 GeV into the Proton Synchrotron (PS) at 26 GeV. Finally the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is used to increase the energy of protons up to 450 GeV.

The LHC will also be used to collide lead (Pb) heavy ions with a collision energy of 1,150 TeV. The ions will be first accelerated by the linear accelerator Linac 3, and the Low-Energy Injector Ring (LEIR) will be used as an ion storage and cooler unit. The ions then will be further accelerated by the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) before being injected into LHC ring, where they will reach an energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon. Six detectors are being constructed at the LHC, located underground in large caverns excavated at the LHC's intersection points. Two of them, ATLAS and CMS, are large, "general purpose" particle detectors.

ALICE is a large detector designed to study the properties of quark-gluon plasma looking at the debris of heavy ion collisions. The other three (LHCb, TOTEM, and LHCf) are relatively smaller and more specialized. A seventh experiment, FP420 (Forward Physics at 420m), has been proposed which would add detectors to four available spaces located 420m on either side of the ATLAS and CMS detectors.

The size of the LHC constitutes an exceptional engineering challenge with unique safety issues. While running, the total energy stored in the magnets is 10 GJ, while each of the two beams carries an overall energy of 362 MJ. For comparison, 362 MJ is the kinetic energy of a TGV running at 157 km/h (98 mph), while 724 MJ, the total energy of the two beams, is equivalent to the detonation energy of approximately 173 kilograms (380 lb) of TNT, and 10 GJ is about 2.4 tons of TNT. Loss of only 10-7 of the beam is sufficient to quench a superconducting magnet, while the beam dump must absorb an energy equivalent to a typical air-dropped bomb.

These immense kinetic energies become far more spectacular when you consider how little matter is carrying it. At its maximum energy rating (2.76TeV per particle with a total of 362MJ), there is just 1.15E-9 grams of hydrogen in the system (or 0.026 of one cubic millimeter).



When in operation, about seven thousand scientists from eighty countries will have access to the LHC, the largest national contingent of seven hundred being from the United States. Physicists hope to use the collider to test various grand unified theories and enhance their ability to answer the following questions:

  • Is the popular Higgs mechanism for generating elementary particle masses in the Standard Model realised in nature? If so, how many Higgs bosons are there, and what are their masses?
  • Will the more precise measurements of the masses of the quarks continue to be mutually consistent within the Standard Model?
  • Do particles have supersymmetric ("SUSY") partners?
  • Why are there apparent violations of the symmetry between matter and antimatter?
  • Are there extra dimensions indicated by theoretical gravitons, as predicted by various models inspired by string theory, and can we "see" them?
  • What is the nature of dark matter and dark energy?
  • Why is gravity so many orders of magnitude weaker than the other three fundamental forces?


A simulated event in the CMS detector,

featuring the appearance of the Higgs boson.

Proton-Proton Collisions at the LHC

Computer reconstruction of particle tracks, originating
from the simulated decay of a Higgs boson.

LHC as an ion collider

The LHC physics program is mainly based on proton-proton collisions. However, shorter running periods, typically one month per year, with heavy-ion collisions are included in the programme. While lighter ions are considered as well, the baseline scheme deals with lead (Pb) ions. This will allow an advancement in the experimental programme currently in progress at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

Proposed Upgrade

After some years of running, any particle physics experiment typically begins to suffer from diminishing returns; each additional year of operation discovers less than the year before. The way around the diminishing returns is to upgrade the experiment, either in energy or in luminosity.

A luminosity upgrade of the LHC, called the Super LHC, has been proposed, to be made after ten years of LHC operation. The optimal path for the LHC luminosity upgrade includes an increase in the beam current (i.e., the number of protons in the beams) and the modification of the two high luminosity interaction regions, ATLAS and CMS. To achieve these increases, the energy of the beams at the point that they are injected into the (Super) LHC should also be increased to 1 TeV. This will require an upgrade of the full pre-injector system, the needed changes in the Super Proton Synchrotron being the most expensive.

Micro black holes

Although the Standard Model of particle physics predicts that LHC energies are far too low to create black holes, some extensions of the Standard Model posit the existence of extra spatial dimensions, in which it would be possible to create micro black holes at the LHC at a rate on the order of one per second. According to the standard calculations these are harmless because they would quickly decay by Hawking radiation. The concern is that among other disputed factors, Hawking radiation (the existence of which is still debated) is not yet an experimentally-tested or naturally observed phenomenon.

The opponents to the LHC consider that micro black holes produced in a terrestrial laboratory might not decay as rapidly as calculated, or might even not be prone to decay. According to CERN, physicists in general do not question the assumption that black holes are generally unstable and those few who have pointed out issues with Steven Hawking's radiation were only attempting to achieve a more rigorous proof of it.[30] "No-one ever claimed that his proof of the decay is wrong, and that therefore they should be stable." CERN further argues that even if micro black holes were created and were stable, they would pose no reasonable threat to the Earth during its remaining 5 billion years of existence. However, Dr. Adam D. Helfer's thesis concludes "no compelling theoretical case for or against radiation by black holes", and Dr. Otto E. Rossler's thesis calculates that Earth accretion time could be as short as 50 months.


A strangelet or "strange nugget" is a hypothetical object consisting of a bound state of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks. The size could be anything from a few femtometers across (with the mass of a light nucleus) to something much larger. Once the size becomes macroscopic (on the order of meters across), such an object is usually called a quark star or "strange star" rather than a strangelet. An equivalent description is that a strangelet is a small fragment of strange matter. The term "strangelet" originates with E. Farhi and R. Jaffe. Strangelets have been suggested as a dark matter candidate.


Large Hadron Collider Wikipedia

   Large Hadron Collider YouTube -- Watch Michio Kaku

Large Hadron Collider Google Images

LHC - Large Hadron Collider CERN

Large Hadron Collider Website









In the News ...

Large Hadron Collider Enables Hunt For 'God' Particle To Complete 'Theory Of Everything' Science Daily - June 1, 2008
When the world's most powerful subatomic particle collider begins gathering data this summer ... Hopefully it will help unlock some deep scientific mysteries and perhaps even lead to discovery of the
Higgs boson, sometimes called "the God particle" because it is believed its discovery will refine the understanding of exactly how the universe came to be and how it functions, and how mass came to be in the first place.

LHC: Amazing Images National Geographic - March 2008

The God Particle - Higgs Boson National Geographic - March 2008

Could the Large Hadron Collider destroy Earth?

By Chris Gaylord | 07.01.08

Now that the European Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is completed and ready to fire up in August, a slew of articles have popped up quoting doomsayers. An AP article from this weekend was the most recent example of critics warning that the 17-mile, $5.8 billion supercollider – which will slam protons together in an attempt to learn more about the building blocks of the universe – will inadvertently create a black hole that will gobble up the Earth.

So, will the most ambitious science project in human history end human history? No.

I should say “no, according to scientists working on the LHC.” But the evidence points to a resounding “no.”

A study released last month disassembled the arguments against powering up the collider. The report found “no basis for concerns that [small] black holes from the LHC could pose a risk to Earth on timescales shorter than the Earth’s natural lifetime.” In other words: Yes, it could happen, but chances are the sun will burn out before this collider can have an Earth-ending mishap.

Their reasoning? Slashdot puts it best: “Everything that will be created at the LHC is already being created by cosmic rays. If a black hole created by the LHC is interactive enough to destroy the world within the lifetime of the sun, similar black holes are already being created by cosmic rays.”

If such black holes were naturally flinging around in the universe, they would bump up against “dense cosmic objects,” such as neutron stars, and over time the black holes would swallow the star. But, from looking through telescopes we know that there are plenty of old neutron stars around. So, if it’s safe for them, it’s also safe for us. “Any black hole that could be created at the LHC, even if it is stable, would have no effect on the earth on any meaningful timescale,” Slashdot says.

This conclusion is backed by the European agency that runs the LHC, a panel of independent scientists, the US Department of Energy, the US National Science Foundation, and science star Stephen Hawking – who argues that even if black holes developed, “they would instantly evaporate.”

That’s good enough for me.

WASHINGTON, July 2 , 2008  (UPI) -- The U.S. Department of Energy says its contribution to the Large Hadron Collider under construction in Switzerland has been completed.

The Energy Department and the National Science Foundation said the U.S. contribution -- $531 million in several key components, including two particle detectors -- was completed on budget and ahead of schedule.

"The success of the U.S. LHC project is based on the quality of the U.S. teams, and national and international collaboration," Energy Department Undersecretary for Science Raymond Orbach said. "The U.S. groups, from universities and national laboratories, worked extraordinarily well together. We celebrate their accomplishments and, together with them, look forward to extremely exciting science coming from the LHC."

Scientists predict that the LHC's very-high-energy proton collisions will yield extraordinary discoveries about the nature of the physical universe.

The LHC is expected to generate its first particle collisions later this year. When the LHC begins scientific operations, U.S. physicists will make up the largest group of scientists from any single nation, officials said.

The Truth About Microscopic Black Holes and the Utter Destruction of Earth

Science fiction is rife with tales of experiments that run out of control and blow up the planet or exterminate all life or something. Maybe that's why two U.S. researchers sued the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), trying to get an injunction that would prevent them from building their Large Hadron Collider. Their reason? Concern that it would create an apocalyptic mini-black hole here on Earth. Many debated whether their fears were pure cranksterism or held a grain of truth. Now a physics professor has researched the issue and discovered the truth about the LHC's inherent risks to all humanity.

The Large Hadron Collider, once operational, will fire beams of protons into each other at energy levels never seen on Earth. We don't really know what will happen when experiments begin (or we wouldn't bother running the experiments), and there are fears that all kinds of weird, hypothetical particles could be created that will devour the planet, or that a small but stable black hole will begin consuming all nearby matter. Steve Giddings, Professor of Physics at UC Santa Barbara, studied the risks. His conclusions:

  • The chances of a microscopic black hole forming are impossibly small.
  • Cosmic rays smash into particles all the time at very high energies. We probably would have noticed if the universe was being chewed up by an endless torrent of ravenous mini black holes.
  • In the incredibly unlikely event that a microscopic black hole forms, it would exist for "a nano-nano-nanosecond." Not long enough to do any damage, in other words.
  • Giddings even studied what would happen if a long chain if bizarre events occurred, and a stable micro black hole formed. The result would be...nothing much. Even a stable microscopic black hole would be harmless.

Earth 'not at risk' from collider

By Paul Rincon
Science reporter, BBC News

June 23, 2008

Our planet is not at risk from the world's most powerful particle physics experiment, a report has concluded.

The document addresses fears that the Large Hadron Collider is so energetic, it could have unforeseen consequences.

Critics are worried that mini-black holes made at the soon-to-open facility on the French-Swiss border might threaten the Earth's very existence.

But the report, issued the European Organization for Nuclear Research, says there is "no conceivable danger".

The organization - known better by its French acronym, Cern - will operate the collider underground in a 27km-long tunnel near Geneva.

This Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a powerful and complicated machine, which will smash together protons at super-fast speeds in a bid to unlock the secrets of the Universe.

Six "detectors" - individual experiments - will count, trace and analyse the particles that emerge from the collisions.

Most physicists believe the risk of a cataclysm lies in the realms of science fiction. But there have been fears about the possibility of a mini-black hole - produced in the collider - swelling so that it gobbles up the Earth.

Critics have previously raised concerns that the production of weird hypothetical particles called strangelets in the LHC could trigger the mass conversion of nuclei in ordinary atoms into more strange matter - transforming the Earth into a hot, dead lump.

New particles

The lay language summary of the report, which has been written by Cern's top theorists, states: "Over the past billions of years, nature has already generated on Earth as many collisions as about a million LHC experiments - and the planet still exists."

The report added: "There is no basis for any concerns about the consequences of new particles or forms of matter that could possibly be produced by the LHC."

The new document is an update of the analysis carried out in 2003 into the safety of the collider by an independent team of scientists.

The authors of the latest report, including theoretical physicist John Ellis, confirmed that black holes could be made by the collider. But they said: "If microscopic black holes were to be singly produced by colliding the quarks and gluons inside protons, they would also be able to decay into the same types of particles that produced them."

The report added: "The expected lifetime [of a mini-black hole] would be very short."

On the strangelet issue, the report says that these particles are even less likely to be produced at the LHC than in the lower-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in New York, which has been operating since 2000.

A previous battle over particle accelerator safety was fought over the US machine.

'Fundamental question'

The scientific consensus appears to be on the side of Cern's theorists.

But in 2003, Dr Adrian Kent, a theoretical physicist at the University of Cambridge, wrote a paper in which he argued that scientists had not adequately calculated the risks of a "killer strangelet" catastrophe scenario.

He also expressed concern that a fundamental question (how improbable does a cataclysm have to be to warrant proceeding with an experiment?) had never been seriously inspected.

The LHC was due to switch on in 26 November 2007. The start-up has been postponed several times, however, and is currently scheduled for later this summer.

The first delay was precipitated by an accident in March 2007 during stress testing of one of the LHC's "quadrupole" magnets.

A statement carried on the Cern website from the US laboratory that provided the magnet stated that the equipment had experienced a "failure" when supporting structures "broke".

It later emerged that the magnet had exploded in the tunnel, close to one of the LHC's most important detectors.

No one was in the immediate vicinity of the test, so there were no injuries. The magnet problem was fixed shortly afterwards.

In March, a complaint requesting an injunction against the LHC's switch-on was filed before the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii by seven plaintiffs.

One of the plaintiffs had previously attempted to bring a similar injunction against the RHIC over safety concerns.

Atom Smasher Smashes Energy Record

Carl Franzen

Carl Franzen Contributor

(March 19) -- From broken down to record breaking, the Large Hadron Collider -- the world's largest, most expensive particle accelerator -- just achieved yet another milestone on the quest to discover the secrets of the physical universe.

Today, scientists at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, proudly announced they had circulated the highest energy particle beams ever produced by humans around the LHC, and on their first attempt, no less.

"It was incredible. I really didn't expect it to go," said Mike Lamont, the head of LHC machine operations, in a video posted on the CERN Web site. "Astounding. I mean, I don't think anyone in their wildest dreams expected us to go to 3.5 TeV. I think to do that on the first try just shows us what a beautiful machine we've got here."

The Large Hadron Collider
Sean Gallup, Getty Images
The Large Hadron Collider, also known as the "big bang machine," set a new energy record on Friday, packing a 3.5-trillion electron-volt punch, according to scientists at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

The measurement Lamont refers to, "TeV," stands for "tera-electron volts," a physics term that describes the extremely small amount of kinetic energy one particle gains when it is accelerated. In reaching the new level of 3.5 TeV early this morning, the LHC bested its own previous world record of 0.18 TeV, achieved in November. By contrast, 1 TeV is equal to the energy produced by a flying mosquito.

In two years, CERN scientists aim to accelerate beams of protons at twice as much energy around the LHC, a 17-mile-long underground ring located beneath the Swiss-French border near the city of Geneva.

"A full 7 TeV beam contains as much energy as a Royal Navy aircraft carrier steaming at 12 knots," says Lewis Page at The Register. "Once the beams are up, that energy has to go somewhere in the end: If a single magnet were to fail, for instance, a terrific blast of energy would leave the Collider's ring at that point with consequences much the same as if HMS Invincible had suddenly popped out of nowhere and rammed the tunnel."

Acceleration is only the first part of the much grander experimental process, however, as CERN scientists then point the beams toward one another inside the ring to create a collision, which in turn will produce double the amount of energy of each individual beam. The first collisions of the two 3.5 TeV beams (a 7 TeV total) are set to take place in the coming weeks, according to CERN via ZDNet.

When CERN scientists finally achieve their goal of colliding two 7 TeV beams together next year, they hope to observe in microcosm the same conditions that existed immediately following the "big bang," the widely held theory that the universe emerged from a single, unimaginably violent expansion of particles from one superdense, superhot state some 12 billion to 15 billion years ago.

"As the universe cooled and the temperature fell below a critical value, an invisible force field called the 'Higgs field' was formed together with the associated 'Higgs boson' [particle]," notes CERN's Web site. "The problem is that no one has ever observed the Higgs boson in an experiment to confirm the theory."

One of CERN's ultimate objectives for the LHC is to use it to definitively answer whether such a particle exists or not, which would result in either the confirmation or refutation of the theoretical building blocks of all modern physics. However, the implications of locating the so-called "God particle" have proven to be highly unsettling to some in both the public and scientific spheres.

A widely disseminated and erroneous fear is that the LHC could produce a black hole capable of destroying the Earth. Several individuals have even filed lawsuits against CERN in a bid to stop work on the Large Hadron Collider for this very reason.

In addition, since its construction began in 1995, the LHC has been beset by numerous unforeseen technical obstacles, glitches and bizarre moments of misfortune that have added at least $40 million to its total cost of $4.3 billion, reports the Telegraph.

The list of errors is as long as it is strange: In 2005, a technician was killed by a falling crane. In 2007, "there was a serious failure in a high-pressure test" of three focusing magnets inside the LHC. Finally booted up in October 2008, the LHC was quickly shut down again just a few weeks later after an underground tunnel ruptured, flooding the area with a ton of liquid helium and causing crucial magnets to overheat and fail. In 2009, more leaks were found, further delaying the project's timeline.

That same year, one CERN scientist made headlines after being arrested and charged with "criminal association with a terrorist enterprise," in connection with al-Qaida. Finally, less than a month later, a random bird somehow managed to drop a "bit of baguette" into the machine, causing it to overheat and shut down.

The sheer number and variety of problems eventually led some in the scientific press to speculate that a force from the future or God himself was deliberately sabotaging the Large Hadron Collider to prevent it from unleashing a great catastrophe via its experiments.

However, since being turned back on in November, the LHC has performed "almost flawlessly," according to The Associated Press.

The latest energy achievement also kicks off what is to be the LHC's longest period of continual operation. CERN says it will remain on and accelerating for the next 18 to 24 months. By the end of 2010, however, it will be shut down for a short period of maintenance. And then again, in 2011, it will be turned off for a whole year to undergo more extensive repairs.
Filed under: World, Science

CERN:  2015 

NOW!  Christians are worried that colliding particles at CERN is going to open up a portal or doorway into another dimension, and let "something" in OR suck "something" out, and we won't be able to close that doorway again.

There are tons of videos on You Tube about CERN, the giant particle accelerator that is supposedly to finally be turned on September 23rd, 2015. Most of these videos are so biased – many through the lens of religious dogma – that they don’t supply much true information.


Tom Horn  discusses with Steve Quayle in a televised edition they talk about CERN and the search for gateways to other realms. Will scientists find proof of other dimensions? Do they plan to make war with God Himself!

The CERN is a demonic tool that will rip open a portal to the under world which will cause all fallen angels and demons to walk on earth once again. Matthew 15:14 Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch. Luke 6:39 And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch?






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Respected physicist Stephen Hawking has warned the end of the world could be sparked by the elusive ‘God particle’. The Cambridge-educated cosmologist said the Higgs boson could become unstable at very high energy levels and have the potential to destroy the universe. Mr Hawking said it would lead to a “catastrophic vacuum decay” which would cause space and time to collapse and that we would NOT have any warning to the danger. The eminent scientist added that the armageddon scenario could happen at any time. Speaking in the preface to a new book called Starmus, Mr Hawking said: “The Higgs potential has the worrisome feature that it might become megastable at energies above 100bn giga-electron-volts (GeV). This could happen at any time and we wouldn’t see it coming. “This could mean that the universe could undergo catastrophic vacuum decay, with a bubble of the true vacuum expanding at the speed of light. This could happen at any time and we wouldn’t see it coming.

The Cambridge-educated cosmologist said the Higgs boson could become unstable at very high energy levels and have the potential to destroy the universe.

Mr Hawking said it would lead to a "catastrophic vacuum decay" which would cause space and time to collapse and that we would NOT have any warning to the danger

The eminent scientist added that the armageddon scenario could happen at any time.

Speaking in the preface of a new book called 'Starmus', Mr Hawking aid, "The Higgs potential has the worrisome feature that it might become megastable at energies above 100bn giga-electron-volts (GEV)

"This could mean that the universe could undergo catastrophic vacuum decay, with a bubble of the true vacuum expanding at the speed of light.  This could happen at any time and we wouldn't see it coming.

The Higgs boson was discovered in 2012 by scientists at CERN, who operate the world's largest particle physics laboratory.

Also known as the God particle, it was found by accelerating two beams of protons in opposite directions and then smashing them together.

It was name after British physicist Peter Higgs who predicted its existence in 1964.

Mr Hawking, 72, did say the likelihood of such a disaster is unlikely to happen in the near future.



I watched a documentary the other day about Pulsars, and the Hubble Telescope showed images of pulsars spinning and then let us hear the beats and sounds of different kinds that they made that nobody in space can hear, but our technology can listen in on.  It was just phenomenal. 

Then I found out that there was a star music festival in Tenerife last July, 2012, and here is a little something from that.
the star music
Brian May and  Edgar Froese with Tangerine Dream