compiled by Dee Finney


by Harold F. Carbonneau Jr.

Sometime during the 1st century the early Christians in the Rome catacombs began using fish symbols for secrecy purposes.
The earliest reference to this symbol was in Paedogogus, III, xi by Clement of Alexandria. In the Greek language, which was
commonly used at that time, the word for fish was ichthus (often spelled ichthus). At some point a creative person or group
formed an acrostic using the letters of i ch t hu s.

2 Tim 4:17

Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me;
that by me the preaching might be fully known,
and that all the Gentiles might hear:
and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion.

Rev 5:5

And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not:
behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David,
hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.

Rev 13:1-3

And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea,
having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns,
and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard,
and his feet were as the feet of a bear,
and his mouth as the mouth of a lion:
and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.
And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death;
and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast.

THE FISH AND I  - 5-24-03 - A DREAM - I was working on a computer, marking off the types of fish there were. I counted 17, made a mark, counted 17, made a mark, etc. until I had counted them all. Each time I made a mark, a new page started.

I also noted that there were 12 types in a ring as well.

A man came through the room and said, "If you look at the side of any fish, you can see what you are supposed to do with it, because it is written there."

That intrigued me, because I had never noticed that you could see writing on the side of a fish.

The man said, "Every fish has a message, and it will tell you even if it is poison."

Again I was intrigued and made a note of that to look the next time I saw a fish.

I then noticed that my husband had a girlfriend he was intending to leave me for, so I took my purse that had all my worldly possessions in it. I took it to a friend's house and put it in her kitchen next to the can of coffee, then I sneaked out the back door so nobody would know where I went.  Unfortunately I forgot that I didn't have shoes on and it had snowed so I couldn't go far barefooted.

I got a ride from some people, but again, being barefoot, as they drove down the highway, my feet were getting wet on the pavement, because my feet were dragging on the ground beneath the car like they were a rudder.

Finally I got back home, but there I was with no purse, so I couldn't do anything. So my husband had to drive me back to the woman's house to retrieve my purse.

We got there and he pulled up to the curb but within 12 inches of a large tree trunk and a pile of snow 3 feet high and I couldn't open the car door. He was angry about the tree and the snow so I was glad I had made the decision to hide my purse.

Finally he determined he had to move the car because the tree blocked the car door from opening. So I went into the house and got my purse.

I decided to see how much money I had. I opened my purse and pulled out a bag of candy. There were 17 pieces of candy in the bottom of it, but there was a stack of 17 small chocolate chip cookies in the right hand corner and that was even more important.

My son Bob was there and he wanted to know about the message of the fish, so we went to the kitchen and got the fish head I had left there. I opened the fished head and separated the top from the bottom so we could see the ring of 12 teeth inside.

I told him, "What was important was that I had 17 pieces of candy in it.

THE FISH AGAIN: 5-26-03 - DREAM - I was researching the 17 fish and wrote about them. After the work was done, it was decided to save the information on 3 different levels, indicated by bath towels hanging on silver rods in a bathroom - The towels were colored yellow, light green, and light blue.

NOTE: Following this, the next couple days were filled with coincidences and synchronicities with chocolate chip cookies - we saw them everywhere - on TV, in magazines, in the newspaper and people sent us dreams about chocolate chip cookies and pancakes.  That was amazing.

The word zodiac itself is taken from the Greek word zodiakos. It means 'a circle.'
Since so many astrological signs depict animals, like that of a lion, fish, scorpion,
ram, and so on, many have assumed that the word 'zodiac' comes from the Greek zoe,
to live. The root of zodiakos, is actually zoad. Zoad means a way, or a path,
or a going by steps. In this connection, the word zoad describes how the sun
appears to move through the stars -- step by step -- every twelve months.
As the sun returns to almost the exact spot that it occupied on the same date
a year earlier, this course is repeated every year. So the path, or way,
or the going by steps through the sky is called the zodiac.


Click on image to enlarge

The stars of the Plough, shown linked by the thicker lines in the chart above, form one of the most recognised star patterns in the sky. Also called the Big Dipper, after the soup ladles used by farmer's wives in America to serve soup to the farm workers at lunchtime, it forms part of the Great Bear constellation - not quite so easy to make out! The stars Merak and Dubhe form the pointers which will lead you to the Pole Star, and hence find North. The stars Alcor and Mizar form a naked eye double which repays observation in a small telescope as Mizar is then shown to be an easily resolved double star. A fainter reddish star forms a triangle with Alcor and Mizar. Ursa Major contains many interesting "deep sky" objects. The brightest, listed in Messier's Catalogue, are shown on the chart, but there are many fainter galaxies in the region too. In the upper right of the constellation are a pair of interacting galaxies M81 and M82 shown in the image below. M82 is undergoing a major burst of star formation and hence called a "starburst galaxy". They can be seen together using a low power eyepiece on a small telescope.

Mizar, at a distance of 78 light years from the Sun, and Alcor at 81 light years, while appearing to be a double star, are actually only an optical double. An optical double star is not a true double star where the components are gravitationally bound together and orbit around each other, but rather a chance alignment along our line of sight. However, Mizar and Alcor are members of the nearest star cluster to the sun, the Ursa Major moving cluster, Collinder 285.

The components of the Mizar multiple star system are Mizar A (Zeta 1 Ursa Majoris at magnitude 2.27) and Mizar B (Zeta 2 Ursa Majoris at magnitude 3.95), located 14.42 arc seconds away. Each of these stars is in turn a binary star, however the companions are so close to their primaries they can only be detected by spectroscopy.

When examining the field near to Mizar and Alcor in a telescope, four stars can easily be seen. The brightest is Mizar at magnitude 2.27. Alcor is about 12 arc minutes away at magnitude 4. Closer to Mizar at just 15 arc seconds away is Mizar B, the 4th magnitude companion. Between Mizar and Alcor is a fourth star, Sidus Ludoviciana, shining at magnitude 8, which is a field star that is not even part of the Ursa Major cluster

Ursa Major

Meaning = Great Bear

Plural Form = Ursae Majoris

Abbreviation = UMa

Right Ascension  = 10 hours

Declination = 48 degrees

Alpha Star = Dubhe

Ursa Major is a constellation located at right ascension 10 hours and declination 48 degrees.

The name of this constellation means Great Bear.

The principal star of this constellation is Dubhe.

Pisces                  The Fishes                AlRischa     M74                  
Aphrodite & Eros - who changed into fish to escape Typhon

Piscis Australis   The Southern Fish   Fomalhaut   Double stars        


Celestial Orientation Markers and Meridians
Zenith: At the luff of the top sail of Argo Navis
Nadir: Just under the rock of Andromeda.

Zenith Meridian: North to South: Breast of the Great Bear,
back legs of Leo, Hydra, the serpent of the upper world at the base of the Holy Grail, Crater,
at the Milky Way between Musca (Fly), Crux, and the stern of Argo Navis,
Tucan, the Macaw of the South.

Nadir Meridian: North to South: Pointers of the Big Dipper in Ursa Major,
tail of Draco, neck of the Camel, and Polaris, the nose of the Little Bear,
hat of king Cepheus, Milky Way at the top of the World Tree, the rock of Andromeda,
across the bridge from Sirrah, on the post cosmogenesis side of the World Tree,
the cup of Aquarius, Fomalhaut, the mouth of the Southern Fish, wings of the Stork.

The Story of Toll House Cookies
The Fisher

Fish were a popular food item throughout The Bible. They were taken from the Sea of Galilee, the Nile River when the Israelites were living in the Goshen area of Egypt, the Jordan River, and the Mediterranean Sea. As its name indicates, the Dead Sea, also called the Salt Sea, did not provide a living habitat for fish.

The photo shows 2 tilapia, also popularly known as "St. Peter's fish," taken from the Sea of Galilee. Along with them are 5 loaves of bread - similar to what Jesus Christ used to miraculously feed the 5,000 (Matthew 14:15-21). He later fed 4,000 from "a few small fish" and seven loaves of bread (Matthew 15:32-38) (see also The Miracles Of Jesus Christ)

Fishing became a major industry for Israel. Jerusalem apparently had a fish market from the time of the Old Testament (2 Chronicles 33:14, Nehemiah 3:3), with the Fish Gate the likely entrance to it.

It was from the ranks of fishermen that Jesus Christ called His first Apostles (Mark 1:16-20), including Peter and John. Fish and fishing were often associated with His ministry, and later were actually used as a symbol of it.

Jesus miraculously calmed the storm from a fishing boat (Matthew 8:23-26)

Jesus spoke many of His Parables to the crowds while He stood in a fishing boat (Matthew 13:1-58)

Jesus once miraculously paid His and Peter's taxes with a coin taken from inside a fish (Matthew 17:27)

Jesus miraculously had the disciples make a huge catch of fish, so great that their nets were filled to overflowing (John 21:1-14)

Jesus ate a piece of broiled fish with his disciples after His resurrection from The Tomb (Luke 24:42-43).

One of The Lord's most direct encouragements to those who accept and obey Him, and dire warnings to those who choose to reject His offer of eternal life, used fishing as an analogy -

"Once again, The Kingdom of Heaven is like a net that was let down into the lake and caught all kinds of fish. When it was full, the fishermen pulled it up on the shore. Then they sat down and collected the good fish in baskets, but threw the bad away. This is how it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come and separate the wicked from the righteous and throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth." (Matthew 13:47-50 NIV)

Jesus Christ said that His disciples would become "fishers of men"? Matthew 4:19

Job 41: Is it possible for Leviathan to be pulled out with a fish-hook, or for a hook to be put through the bone of his mouth?

Ezekiel 29:4: And I will put hooks in your mouth, and the fish of your streams will be hanging from your skin; and I will make you come up out of your streams, with all the fish of your streams hanging from your skin.

Amos 4:2: The Lord God has taken an oath by his holy name, that the days are coming when they will take you away with hooks, and the rest of you with fish-hooks.

Jonah 1:17: And the Lord made ready a great fish to take Jonah into its mouth; and Jonah was inside the fish for three days and three nights.

Habakkuk 1:15: He takes them all up with his hook, he takes them in his net, getting them together in his fishing-net: for which cause he is glad and full of joy.

Genesis 1:21: And God made great sea-beasts, and every sort of living and moving thing with which the waters were full, and every sort of winged bird: and God saw that it was good.

Exodus 4:2: And the Lord said to him, What is that in your hand? And he said, A rod.

Exodus 7:17: So the Lord says, By this you may be certain that I am the Lord; see, by the touch of this rod in my hand the waters of the Nile will be turned to blood;

Exodus 21:20: If a man gives his man-servant or his woman-servant blows with a rod, causing death, he is certainly to undergo punishment.

Numbers 17:2: Say to the children of Israel that they are to give you rods, one for every family, for every chief, the head of his father's house, making twelve rods; let every man's name be placed on his rod.

Numbers 17:6: So Moses gave these orders to the children of Israel, and all their chiefs gave him rods, one for the head of every family, making twelve rods: and Aaron's rod was among them.

Exodus 14:16: And let your rod be lifted up and your hand stretched out over the sea, and it will be parted in two; and the children of Israel will go through on dry land.

Mt:17:27: Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them for me and thee.

Jn:21:3: Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing. They say unto him, We also go with thee. They went forth, and entered into a ship immediately; and that night they caught nothing.

Jn:21:6: And he said unto them, Cast the net on the right side of the ship, and ye shall find. They cast therefore, and now they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes.

Jn:21:11: Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land full of great fishes, an hundred and fifty and three: and for all there were so many, yet was not the net broken.

1Cor:15:39: All flesh is not the same flesh: but there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, and another of birds.

Mt:8:26: And he saith unto them, Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith? Then he arose, and rebuked the winds and the sea; and there was a great calm.

Rv:8:8: And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood;

Rv:13:1: And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.

Rv:21:1: And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.

Jn:21:10: Jesus saith unto them, Bring of the fish which ye have now caught.

Lk:11:11: If a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a father, will he give him a stone? or if he ask a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent?

Jn:4:13: Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again:

Lk:17:27: They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all.

Mk:6:41: And when he had taken the five loaves and the two fishes, he looked up to heaven, and blessed, and brake the loaves, and gave them to his disciples to set before them; and the two fishes divided he among them all.

Numerology of the Bible deals with all the numbers in the Bible. These numbers can be classified into two main categories: (1) numbers in the surface text and (2) numbers hidden in the text.

To just give you a glimpse of the numbers in the surface text of the Bible, I am simply pointing out the wonder of the number 153.

As we all know, this number appears in chapter 21 of John, where Jesus' 7 disciples, with Peter in lead, were catching fish as they did not know what to do, even after they had seen the risen Lord. They worked hard all night, but caught nothing. Then they heard a man by the shore speaking to them: "Cast the net at the right side of the boat!" They did as instructed and caught a net of 153 big fish, no more and no less. This is the only miracle after Jesus' resurrection recorded in the Bible that is associated with a number. You know, a fisherman seldom counts his fish -- even he does, he counts in a rough number, not in an exact number -- there is little reason for doing the latter. What is so unusual about 153?

153 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 +7 + 8 + 9 + 10 +11 + 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 + 16 + 17

And the number 17 is associated with Noah's Ark (it rested on the Mountain of Ararat on the 17th of the month) and the Lord Jesus' resurrection (on the 17th as well). Amazingly, the Greek noun for "fish" in "153 big fish" occurs in the whole Bible in 17 verses.

See:  153

See:  The Book

From: http://tfalck.home.attbi.com/theomatics/

The theomatic values of 153 and 17 (153 = 17 x 9) both point to the fact that fish are symbolic of mankind and, more specifically, the redeemed or the elect. Consider these two passages and notice the connection:

"Once again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was let down into the lake and caught all kinds of fish. When it was full, the fishermen pulled it up on the shore. Then they sat down and collected the good fish in baskets, but threw the bad away. This is how it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come and separate the wicked from the righteous and throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth."

(Matthew 13:47) NIV

"Come, follow me," Jesus said, "and I will make you fishers of men."

(Mark 1:17) NIV

Following is a listing of just a few examples of 153, 17, and 170 found in both the Old Testament and the New Testament (two different languages). The examples are borrowed from Theomatics II.

Note: On this Web page, the English representations of the Greek spellings are from the theomatics New Testament database and represent a one-to-one character translation. Below the English representations (listed in blue) are the actual Greek characters (listed in red). Some browsers will not display the actual Greek characters. For the sake of simplicity, the Hebrew characters are not listed here--just the value of the word(s) and the English representations of the Hebrew characters (listed in blue) that are used in the theomatics Old Testament database. The theomatics database uses the Michigan Text for the Old Testament and the Majority Text for the New Testament. Originally, during the early years of research, the New Testament database used the Nestle Text--up to the 26th Edition--because at the time it was the only text that was available as an English/Greek interlinear that facilitated the research. However, sometime around 1985, Del began comparing the results with those of the Majority Text and has since come to the conclusion that the Majority Text is far more accurate. In checking theomatics against variant readings, Del has found that the Majority Text is almost always right (at least 80% of the time). So now the default text for theomatics is the Majority Text (edited by Zane C. Hodges, Arthur L. Farstad, The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text, Second Edition, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, 1985). Del is currently in the process of updating the computer research database based upon the Majority Text. The Greek characters listed below (in red) can be displayed in Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 and later (and possibly other browsers as well).

FISHES   153 x 8
ixjuev   Luke 9:13

THE NET   153 x 8
to diktuon   John 21:11

aleeiv anjrwpwn'   Mark 1:17

FISHES   170 x 11
ixjuwn'   John 21:11

laon"   Luke 9:13

THE MULTITUDE   153 x 17
tw oxlw'   Matthew 15:35

ALL MEN   170 x 2
pasin'   1 Corinthians 9:22

FISH OF THE SEA   153 x 3
"!y xgd   Genesis 1:26

FISH   17
hgdh   Exodus 7:18

ygd   Genesis 9:2

NET   17 x 15
'vmre   Habakkuk 1:15

ALL THE FISH   153 x 3
"xgdlk   Ezekiel 29:4

"!y ygdlk   Genesis 9:2

triton twn ktismatwn twn en jalassh   Revelation 8:9

!yh ygdk !da hwsxv   Habakkuk 1:14

'!yh ygdk !da   Habakkuk 1:14

!yh lvek   Genesis 32:12

THE SAND [YOUR] SEED   170 x 2
'dirz l<e   Isaiah 48:19

xpw liw lve   Judges 7:12

A fellow number researcher submits the following:



Also, related to the 5000 who were fed:  FIVE THOUSAND = 144



From: http://www.bibleonly.org/exp/24q.html

In the last chapter of John’s gospel, we find the story of the 153 fish in the unbroken net. This is a gematria puzzle of considerable complexity. To illustrate the point of the story, we will reproduce its key elements.

a. Peter enters the boat, then six follow him (John 21:2-3)

The Greek gematria value of Simon Peter is 1925. If a circle of 1925 circumference is drawn to represent Peter, then it can be filled with six similar circles representing the others. Each circle touches the center and the perimeter. Then a circle is drawn around all seven circles. Its diameter is 1224, which is the gematria value of "fishes" and "the net".

b. Jesus tells the men to cast the net from the other side of the net. (John 21:6)

The net is drawn from the side of the first large circle which represents the boat. Another arc is drawn which now creates the "vesica piscis": the measure of the fish. A large rhomboid fish is drawn into the right piscis.

c. Peter is naked. He wraps his fisher’s coat around him, and jumps into the water from the other side of the boat. (John 21:7)

Another piscis is drawn on the other side, with Peter’s circle in it to represent Peter in the water. The height of the piscis is 1060, which is the gematria value of "fisher’s coat." A four by four net is drawn inside the large fish, and now we find the 153 fish. Each small "fish" has a width of 153, and there are a total of 17 fish: 16 small and one large. 153 is the sum of the numbers from 1 to 17.

d. For extended meanings, we now rotate the diagram so that the net is on the bottom and Peter is on the top.

We now have a diagram of the Gnostic cosmos as described by Plato in Timaeus. The net in the sea represents the shifting world of manifestation, where everything is in a state of flux and nothing forever remains the same. The upper world, the world of gods and first principles, is the Intelligible world: all of the universal laws on which manifestation is based. The middle world of Humanity partakes of both spirit and matter, the eternal and the temporal.

From: 'Jesus Christ - Sun of God'
by David Fideler

The Symbolism of Apollo at Delphi

This diagram of the 153 fishes in the net is earlier than Christianity and is associated with the symbolism of Apollo at Delphi. Apollo is the earlier Greek personification of the Logos, the universal mediator, and it is ultimately from the mathematical symbolism of Apollo, the god of harmony, that both the diagrams of the 153 fish in the net and the feeding of the five thousand originate. Both of these diagrams are ultimately based on the numerical value of square root of 2 (1.415), the mathematical symbol of the ideal mean between unity and multiplicity, which is reflected in the title THE GOD APOLLO, 1415.

In the Christian version of John 21, the "foundation stone" of the geometry is the central circle of SIMON PETROS, 1925, the omphalos of Christianity, whose number determines the dimensions of the entire diagram. In this Christian adaptation, we start with "the omphalos" to arrive at the symbol of "the net". Likewise, in the earlier symbolism of Apollo, his omphalos at Delphi was covered with a net, symbolizing the veil of manifestation, woven from the central source of harmony. In the earlier version, the central circle symbolizes the omphalos at Delphi, the meeting point of heaven and earth, "the golden mean" of Apollo, The number 153 also figures in Delphic symbolism, for 1530 is the sum of DELPHI, 619, and OMPHALOS, 911.

Finally, if we draw a circle around the three worlds diagram, (above) the all-encompassing sphere has the measure of 7690, and 769, is the value of PYTHIOS, Apollo at Delphi.

When Christianity began, the center represents Simon Petros as the omphalos, "the foundation stone" of Christianity.

Figure 51: The Relationship between the 153 Fish in the Net and the Feeding of the Five Thousand.

This illustration shows how the mathematical progression illustrated in the previous diagram underlies the dimensions of the fish in the net geometry and the feeding of the five thousand. Both diagrams are thereby shown to be differing expressions of the same, underlying cosmological code.

The central figure is a vesica with a width of 1x the square root of 2 (1.415 = THE GOD APOLLO), which defines the diameter of the feeding of the five thousand geometry on the right.

The height of the central vesica measures 1 x the square root of 2 x the square root of 3 (2.448 = FISHES IN THE NET), which defines the height of the 153 fishes in the net geometry on the left.

In the diagram on the left, the rhombus intersects the length of the vesica in the upper world, dividing it into three equal segments of 353 units, the value of HERMES. This represents "Thrice-Great Hermes" or Hermes Trimegistos, a personification of the Logos.

153 as the measure of "the Fish in Archimedes

Archimedes (c 287-212 B.C.E.), in his treatise On the Measurement of the Cycle, uses the whole number ratio 153:265 to accurately approximate the irrational ratio square root of 3, "the measure of the fish" or the vesica piscis. Moreover, Archimedes uses this value in such a manner as to suggest that this approximation was well know to his contemporaries: it required no word of explanation at all.

This ratio, 153:265, precisely relates to the dimensions of the 153 "fish" in the unbroken net, for it defines the height and width of each rhombus in "the net." Figure 52.  Since 153 was known in the time of Archimedes as "the measure of the fish" or the vesica, ancient readers skilled mathematics would have immediately recognized the allegory of the 153 fish in the net for what is it: a geometrical "story problem."


Star  17      Fish Hook   90   Airy   Aquarius   Revelation   Natural Meditation   South-Above   A#   Violet

Hebrew Name: Tzaddi (fish hook)

Tzaddi means fish-hook, "signifying that which draws the fish (Nun-K13) out of the water (Mem-K12). The water is reflected, personal existence, symbolized by the Hanged Man. It is also, in a sense, the ocean of [the universal subconscious]. The fish symbolizes transforming and reproductive power."2 Tzaddi thus indicates the activity of raising up the reproductive force (the raising of the Kundalini energy in meditation) and of tapping into a well-spring of knowledge out of the waters of subconsciousness.

"Meditation is the function attributed to Tzaddi. It has been defined as "an unbroken flow of knowledge in a particular object." It is a fishing for truth in the depths of subconsciousness"3

Hebrew Name: Nun (fish)

Nun means "fish". As a verb it means "to sprout, to grow", and conveys the ideas of "fertility, fecundity, productiveness, generative power, [...] origin, source, mainspring, groundwork, [and] leaven."1 Life springs forth abundantly as it transforms itself from the old to the new. This transformation only seems like a "death", when one is attached or focused in the past or on the old outworn form.

The sense or function of Motion is attributed to Nun. "All motion is change, transformation, modification, variation. [...] Change is the basis of manifestation."2

Hebrew Name: Mem (water)

Mem is one of the three primary Hebrew "Mother" letters and means "water" or "seas." Water "is the first mirror. Water reflects images upside down."1 "The waters of the letter Mem are none other than the waters of consciousness- the Primal Substance of Being without beginning or end."



.From: http://www.therain.org/appendixes/app12.html

In the first mention of the heavenly bodies, the purpose of the Creator is clearly stated. Genesis 1:14-19 reveals the fact that they were created, not only "to divide the day from the night, and to give light upon the earth"; but, they were set "for SIGNS, and for SEASONS, and for days and years".

The figure Polysyndeton (see Appendix 6) emphasises these four purposes, and bids us single them out and consider them separately and independently.

They are "for SIGNS".

Hebrew 'oth, from 'athah, to come. Signs, therefore, of something or some One to come. Those who understand them are enlightened by them. Those who do not may well be "dismayed" (Jeremiah 10:2).

The stars are numbered and named. There are twelve signs of the Zodiac, called "the stars" Genesis 37:9 (eleven of which bowed down to Joseph's, the twelfth). The word Zodiac means the degrees or steps, which mark the stages of the sun's path through the heavens, corresponding with the twelve months.

The stars were all named by God (Psalm 147:4). Most of these names have been lost; but over 100 are preserved through the Arabic and Hebrew, and are used by astronomers to-day, though their meaning is unknown to them. Many of them are used in Scripture as being well known, though the translations are somewhat speculative: for example Job 9:9. Hebrew 'ash (Arcturus, Revised Version the Bear), kesil (Authorized Version Orion), kimah (Pleiades). Job 38:31, 32, mazzaroth (margin, and Revised Version, the twelve signs; margin, the signs of the Zodiac). Compare 2 Kings 23:5, 'ash (Arcturus with her sons, Revised Version the Bear with her train, both versions being incorrect as to the names). See also Isaiah 13:10. Amos 5:8.

These names and the twelve "signs" go back to the foundation of the world. Jewish tradition, preserved by Josephus, assures us that this Bible astronomy was invented by Adam, Seth and Enoch.

We see evidence of it as early as Genesis 11:4, where we read of the Tower of Babel having "his top with the heavens". There is nothing about the wrongly supplied italics "may reach unto". The words, doubtless, refer to the signs of the Zodiac, pictured at the top of the Tower, like the Zodiacs in the Temples of Denderah, and Esneh in Egypt.

The Babylonian "Creation Tablets" refer to them, though their primitive meaning had been either corrupted or lost. It is the same with the Greek mythology, which is a corruption of primitive truth which had been lost and perverted.

We have to remember that our written Scriptures began with Moses, say in 1490 B.C.: and thus, for more than 2,500 years, the revelation of the hope which God gave in Genesis 3:15 was preserved in the naming of the stars and their grouping in Signs and Constellations.

These groupings are quite arbitrary. There is nothing in the positions of the stars to suggest the pictures originally drawn around them. The Signs and Constellations were first designed and named; then, the pictures were drawn around them respectively. Thus the truth was enshrined and written in the heavens, where no human hand could touch it. In later years, when Israel came into the possession of the written "Scriptures of truth", there was no longer any need for the more ancient writing in the heavens. Hence, the original teaching gradually faded away and the heathen, out of the smattering they had heard by tradition, evolved their cosmogonies and mythologies.

Psalm 19 contains a vivid reference to these two Books of Revelation. That is why there is the very sudden change of subject at verse 7; a change which still perplexes and baffles all the skill of commentators.

The teaching is preserved in the structure of the Psalm, where we have

A | 1 - 4 -. The Heavens.

B | - 4 - 6. "In them, the sun".

A | 7 - 10. The Scriptures.

B | 11 - 14. "In them 1, Thy servant".

In this structure every line emphasises the elaboration of the design: for, while, in the first half, all the terms are literary, in the latter half they are all astronomical, thus welding the two portions of the Psalm into one harmonious whole.

For the meaning of the words, reference must be made to the Psalm itself. We can only note here that the first part does not refer to the wonders of creation, but to the eloquence of its teaching and revelation: they "declare", tell, or narrate (Genesis 24:66. Psalm 71:15), they "utter speech", but without words (omit "where" in verse 3); Hebrew = they "show forth", exhibit (Genesis 3:11. Psalm 97:6; 111:6); they prophesy "day by day", "night by night". The question is: What do they prophesy? What knowledge do they show forth? What glory do they tell of?

The answer is - Genesis 3:15. The one great central truth of all prophecy - the coming One, Who, though He should suffer, should in the end crush the head of the old serpent, the Devil.

But, where are we to open this book? Where are we to break into this circle of the Zodiacal signs?

Through the "precession of the Equinoxes" the sun gradually shifts its position a little each year, till in about every 2,000 years it begins the year in a different sign. This was foreseen; and it was also foreseen that succeeding generations would not know when and where the sun began its course, and where the teaching of this Heavenly Book commenced, and where we were to open its first page. Hence the "Sphinx" was invented as a memorial. It had the head of a woman and the body and tail of a lion, to tell us that this Book, written in the Heavens, began with the sign "Virgo", and will end with the sign "Leo". The word "sphinx" is from the Greek sphingo, to join; because it binds together the two ends of this circle of the heavens.

The number of the Signs is twelve, the number of governmental perfection or "rule": compare Genesis 1:18 (Appendix 10). They are divided into three books of four chapters (or signs) each: twelve being the product of 3 x 4. that is to say, of Divine truth working in the heavens and in the earth (see Appendix 10).

First Book. The Redeemer.

(His first coming).

A | VIRGO. The prophecy of the promised seed.

B | LIBRA. The Redeemer's work (grace).

B | SCORPIO. The Redeemer's conflict.

A | SAGITTARIUS. The prophecy fulfilled.

Second Book. The Redeemed.

(His work and its results).

C | CAPRICORNUS. The prophecy of deliverance.

D | AQUARIUS. Results of work bestowed.

D | PISCES. Results of work enjoyed.

C | ARIES. The prophesied deliverance fulfilled.

Third Book. The Redeemer.

(His Second Coming.)

E | TAURUS. The prophecy of coming judgment.

F | GEMINI. The Redeemer's reign in glory.

F | CANCER. The Redeemer's possession safe.

E | LEO. The prophecy of triumph fulfilled.

Each of the four chapters in each of these three books consists of three sections; and each section is represented by a Constellation. There are thus thirty-six (3 x 12) Constellations, which, with the twelve Signs, make forty-eight (4 x 12) in all.

They may thus be set forth :

The First Book. The Redeemer.

"The sufferings of Christ."


The prophecy of the promised seed.

COMA. (= The desired). The woman and child the desired of all nations (in the most ancient Zodiacs).

CENTAURUS (with two natures). The despised sin-offering.

BOOTES. The coming One with branch.


The Redeemer's atoning work.

CRUX. The Cross endured.

LUPUS. The Victim slain.

CORONA. The Crown bestowed.


The Redeemer's conflict.

SERPENS. Assaulting the man's heel.

OPHIUCHUS. The man grasping the serpent.

HERCULES. The mighty man victorious.


The Redeemer's triumph.

LYRA. Praise prepared for the Conqueror.

ARA. Fire prepared for His enemies.

DRACO. The dragon cast down.

The Second Book. The Redeemed.


The result of the Redeemer's sufferings.

SAGITTA. The arrow of God sent forth.

AQUILA. The smitten One falling.

DELPHINUS. The dead One rising again.


The Blessings assured.

PISCIS AUSTRALIS. The blessings bestowed.

PEGASUS. The blessings quickly coming.

CYGNUS. The Blesser surely returning.


The Blessings in abeyance.

THE BAND. The great enemy, "Cetus."

ANDROMEDA. The redeemed in bondage.

CEPHEUS. The Deliverer coming to loosen.


The Blessings consummated.

CASSIOPEIA. The captive delivered.

CETUS. The great enemy bound.

PERSEUS. The "Breaker" delivering.

The Third Book. The Redeemer.

"The glory that should follow."


Messiah coming to rule.

ORION. The Redeemer breaking forth as Light.

ERIDANUS. Wrath breaking forth as a flood.

AURIGA. Safety for His redeemed in the day of wrath.


Messiah as Prince of princes.

LEPUS. The enemy trodden under foot.

CANIS MAJOR. The coming glorious Prince.

CANIS MINOR. The exalted Redeemer.


Messiah's redeemed possessions.

URSA MINOR. The lesser sheepfold.

URSA MAJOR. The fold and the flock.

ARGO. The pilgrim's arrival at home.

LEO (E).

Messiah's consummated triumph.

HYDRA. The old serpent destroyed.

CRATER. The cup of wrath poured put.

CORVUS. The birds of prey devouring.