Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20, 2011

today's date August 30, 3013


page 551





8-30-13 - THE BROTHERS




In the beginning, I was going to go into a store to purchase something with a Father and his son who was 4 years old.  We couldn't go into the store because the son wasn't wearing shoes.  We were told we could bring him in if we carried him.


Back at home, apparently I was moving from one house to another, and I was with two brothers.  One of the brothers (the one on the right) opened the bedroom closet door, and I saw a box on the top shelf that had my church bookkeeping files in it.  I told the brother that I had to have that box too.


I was then going somewhere with the two brothers, and it would have been inappropriate to hold their hands, but each of the brothers had two sons, (about 4 or 5 yrs old each) so I held the hand of one pair of brothers on the left, and the hand of the other pair of brothers on the right.  The other brother held his brothers hand.


The problem with this arrangement was that even though each of the pair of brothers was holding his brother's hand, they were fighting with their own brother because they weren't holding my hand.


So, there was a constant struggle between each pair of brothers because the other brother wasn't holding my hand.


P.S.  I keep thinking about the twin brothers on the show "Property Brothers" that I love to watch.  They are Drew and Jonathan





Cain and Abel (Hebrew: הֶבֶל ,קַיִן Qayin, Hevel) were according to the Book of Genesis, two sons of Adam and Eve. Cain is described as a crop farmer and his younger brother Abel as a shepherd. Cain was the first human born and Abel was the first human to die. Cain committed the first murder by killing his brother. Exegeses of Genesis 4 by ancient and modern commentators have typically assumed that the motives were jealousy and anger. Although the Cain and Abel story is found in the Quran, the text refers to them simply as the sons of Adam (Arabic: ابني آدم), and neither of them is mentioned by name.

A millennia-old explanation for Cain being capable of murder is that he may have been the offspring of a fallen angel or Satan himself, rather than being from Adam. Allusions to Cain and Abel as an archetype of fratricide appear in numerous references and retellings, through medieval art and Shakespearean works up to present day fiction.

Genesis narrative


Cain leadeth Abel to death, by James Tissot

Hebrew Bible version:

1Adam knew his wife Eve intimately, and she conceived and bore Cain. She said, "I have had a male child with the LORD's help."


2Then she also gave birth to his brother Abel. Now Abel became a shepherd of a flock, but Cain cultivated the land.


3In the course of time Cain presented some of the land's produce as an offering to the LORD.


And Abel also presented [an offering]— some of the firstborn of his flock and their fat portions.] The Lord had regard for Abel and his offering, but He did not have regard for Cain and his offering. Cain was furious, and he was downcast.


6Then the LORD said to Cain, "Why are you furious? And why are you downcast?


 7If you do right, won't you be accepted? But if thou do not do right, sin is crouching at the door. Its desire is for you, but you must master it."


8Cain said to his brother Abel, "Let's go out to the field."

And while they were in the field, Cain attacked his brother Abel and killed him.
—Genesis 4:1-8 (HCSB)

The Septuagint, an early Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, offers an alternate version of the seventh verse:


If you offer properly, but divide improperly, have you not sinned? Be still; to you shall he submit, and you shall rule over him.

Later in the narrative, God asks Cain, "Where is Abel thy brother?" Cain replies, "I do not know: Am I my brother's keeper?"

After this, God said to Cain, "What hast you done? The voice of thy brother's blood crieth out to Me from the ground! So now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand. When thou farm the ground, it shall not yield good crops to you! Thou shall be a fugitive and a vagabond on the earth! (Genesis 4:10-4:12)


Cain and Abel are traditional English renderings of the Hebrew names Qayin (קין) and Hevel (הבל). The original text did not provide vowels. It has been proposed that the etymology of their names may be a direct pun on the roles they take in the Genesis narrative. Abel is thought to derive from a reconstructed word meaning "herdsman", with the modern Arabic cognate ibil now specifically referring only to "camels". Cain is thought to be cognate to the mid-1st millennium BC South Arabian word qyn, meaning "metalsmith". This theory would make the names descriptive of their roles, where Abel works with livestock, and Cain with agriculture—and would parallel the names Adam ("man," אדם) and Eve ("life-giver," חוה Chavah).


The oldest known copy of the Biblical narrative is from the Dead Sea Scrolls, and dates to the first century CE. Cain and Abel also appear in a number of other texts, and the story is the subject of various interpretations. Abel, the first murder victim, is sometimes seen as the first martyr;[while Cain, the first murderer, is sometimes seen as an ancestor of evil. Some scholars suggest the pericope may have been based on a Sumerian story representing the conflict between nomadic shepherds and settled farmers.  Modern scholars typically view the stories of Adam and Eve and Cain and Abel, to be about the development of civilization, during the age of agriculture. Not the beginnings of man, but when people first learned agriculture, replacing the ways of the hunter-gatherer.


Adam and Eve mourn the death of Abel; oil on canvas 1888 painting by William Bouguereau

The Genesis narrative does not give a specific reason for the murder of Abel. Modern commentators typically assume that the motives were jealousy and anger due to God rejecting his offering, while accepting Abel's. Ancient exegetes, such as the Midrash and the Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan, suggest something even more sinister behind the killing.


 They supplement that the motive involved a desire for the most beautiful woman. According to Midrashic tradition, Cain and Abel each had twin sisters whom they were to marry. The Midrash states that Abel's promised wife, Aclima, was more beautiful. Since Cain would not consent to this arrangement, Adam suggested seeking God's blessing by means of a sacrifice. Whomever God blessed, would marry Aclima. When God openly rejected Cain's sacrifice, Cain slew his brother in a fit of jealousy and anger.Analysts have described Cain's relationship to his sister as being incestuous.


Feofan Abel.jpg
A Christian icon of Abel
Righteous, First Martyr
Honored in Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Major shrine Nabi Habeel Mosque, Damascus


Abel (Hebrew: הֶבֶל, Hevel; Arabic: هابيل, Hābīl) is Eve's second son. His name is composed in Hebrew of the same three consonants as a root speculated by people to have originally meant "breath", because rabbis postulated one of its roots thus, also "waste", but is used in the Hebrew Bible primarily as a metaphor for what is "elusive", especially the "vanity" (another definition by the rabbis of medieval France, Rashi in specific from his translation into Old French) of human beauty and work e.g. Hevel Hayophi (He-vel Ha-yo-fi) vanity is as beauty from the Song of Songs of Solomon.


 Julius Wellhausen, and many scholars following him, have proposed that the name is independent of the root. Eberhard Schrader had previously put forward the Akkadian (Old Assyrian dialect) ablu ("son") as a more likely etymology.

In Christianity, comparisons are sometimes made between the death of Abel and that of Jesus, the former thus seen as being the first martyr. In Matthew 23:35 Jesus speaks of Abel as "righteous", and the Epistle to the Hebrews states that "The blood of sprinkling ... [speaks] better things than that of Abel".(Hebrews 12:24) The blood of Jesus is interpreted as bringing mercy; but that of Abel as demanding vengeance (hence the curse and mark).


Abel is invoked in the litany for the dying in Roman Catholic Church, and his sacrifice is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass along with those of Abraham and Melchizedek. The Coptic Church commemorates him with a feast day on December 28.


According to the Coptic Book of Adam and Eve (at 2:1-15), and the Syriac Cave of Treasures, Abel's body, after many days of mourning, was placed in the Cave of Treasures, before which Adam and Eve, and descendants, offered their prayers. In addition, the Sethite line of the Generations of Adam swear by Abel's blood to segregate themselves from the unrighteous.


In the extra-biblical Book of Enoch (22:7), the soul of Abel is described as having been appointed as the chief of martyrs, crying for vengeance, for the destruction of the seed of Cain. This view is later repeated in the Testament of Abraham (A:13 / B:11), where Abel has been raised to the position as the judge of the souls.

According to Shi'a Muslim belief, Abel is buried in Nabi Habeel Mosque, located west of Damascus, in Syria.


Cain Henri Vidal Tuileries.jpg
Known for First murderer in human history
Spouse(s) Awan, who was his sister
Children Enoch
Parents Adam and Eve

Cain (Hebrew: קַיִן, Qayin; Koine Κάïν, Ka-in;[28] Ethiopian version: Qayen; Arabic: قابيل, Qābīl) is the first child of Eve,[29] the first murderer, and the first human being to fall under a curse.


According to the biblical narrative in Genesis 4:1-16, Cain treacherously murdered his brother Abel, lied about the murder to God, and as a result was cursed and marked for life. With the earth left cursed to drink Abel's blood, Cain was no longer able to farm the land.Exegesis of the Hebrew narrative has Cain punished as a "fugitive and wanderer".Exegesis of the Septuagint's narrative, "groaning and shaking upon the earth" has Cain suffering from body tremors.


 Interpretations extend Cain's curse to his descendants, where they all died in the Great Deluge as retribution for the loss of Abel's potential offspring. Cain's curse involves receiving a mark from God, commonly referred to as the mark of Cain. This mark serves as God's promise to Cain for divine protection from premature death, with the stated purpose to prevent anyone from killing him. It is not known what the mark is, but it is assumed that the mark is visible.


The Targumim, rabbinic sources, and later speculations supplemented background details for the daughters of Adam and Eve. Such exegesis of Genesis 4 introduced Cain's wife as being his sister, a concept that has been accepted for at least 1800 years.This can be seen with Jubilees 4 which narrates that Cain settled down and married his sister Awan, who bore his first son, the first Enoch,[36] approximately 196 years after the creation of Adam. Cain then establishes the first city, naming it after his son, builds a house, and lives there until it collapses on him, killing him in the same year that Adam dies.


Concerning the commandment for Cain to wander the earth, later traditions arose that this punishment was to be forever, as referenced in the legends of the Flying Dutchman or the Wandering Jew. According to some Islamic sources, such as al-Tabari, Ibn Kathir and al-Tha'labi, Cain migrated to Yemen.


In Jewish tradition, Philo, Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer and the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan asserted that Adam was not the father of Cain. Rather, Eve was subject to adultery having been seduced by either Sammael, the Serpent (nahash, Hebrew: נחש) in the Garden of Eden,[40] or the Devil himself.[3] Christian exegesis of the "evil one" in 1 John 3:10-12 have also led some commentators, like Tertullian, to agree that Cain was the son of the Devil or some fallen angel. Thus, according to some interpreters, Cain was half-human and half-angelic, a Nephilim. Gnostic exegesis in the Apocryphon of John has Eve seduced by Yaldaboth. However, in the Hypostasis of the Archons, Eve is raped by a pair of Archons.

According to the Life of Adam and Eve, Cain fetched his mother a reed (Heb. qaneh) which is how he received his name Qayin (Cain). The symbolism of him fetching a reed may be a nod to his occupation as a farmer, as well as a commentary to his destructive nature. He is also described as "lustrous", which may reflect the Gnostic association of Cain with the sun.[42]

Legacy and symbolism

A medieval legend has Cain arriving at the Moon, where he eternally settled with a bundle of twigs. This was originated by the popular fantasy of interpreting the shadows on the Moon as a face. An example of this belief can be found in Dante Alighieri's Inferno (XX, 126) where the expression "Cain and the twigs" is used as a kenning for "moon".


In medieval Christian art, particularly in 16th century Germany, Cain is depicted as a stereotypical ringleted, bearded Jew, who killed Abel the blonde, European gentile symbolizing Christ. This traditional depiction has continued for centuries in some form, such as James Tissot's 19th century Cain leads Abel to Death.


In the treatise on Christian Hermeticism, Meditations on the Tarot: A journey into Christian Hermeticism, describes the Biblical account of Cain and Abel as a myth, i.e. it expresses, in a form narrated for a particular case, an "eternal" idea. It shows us how brothers can become mortal enemies through the very fact that they worship the same God in the same way. According to the author, the source of religious wars is revealed. It is not the difference in dogma or ritual which is the cause, but the "pretention to equality" or "the negation of hierarchy".


In Latter-day Saint theology, Cain is considered to be the quintessential Son of Perdition, the father of secret combinations (i.e. secret societies and organized crime), as well as the first to hold the title Master Mahan meaning master of [the] great secret, that [he] may murder and get gain.


In Mormon folklore — a second-hand account relates that an early Mormon leader, David W. Patten, encountered a very tall, hairy, dark-skinned man in Tennessee who said that he was Cain. The account states that Cain had earnestly sought death but was denied it, and that his mission was to destroy the souls of men.[ The recollection of Patten's story is quoted in Spencer W. Kimball's The Miracle of Forgiveness, a popular book within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[49] This widespread Mormon belief is further emphasized by an account from Salt Lake City in 1963 which stated that "One superstition is based on the old Mormon belief that Cain is a black man who wanders the earth begging people to kill him and take his curse upon themselves (M, 24, SLC, 1963)."

In culture


  • As the first murderer and first murder victim in the Bible, Cain and Abel have often formed the basis of tragic drama. In the classic poem Beowulf, the monstrous Grendel and his mother are believed to be descended from Cain. Lord Byron rewrote and dramatized the story in the play "Cain", viewing Cain as symbolic of a sanguinary temperament, provoked by Abel's hypocrisy and sanctimony.
  • In Dante's Purgatorio (early 14th century), Cain is remembered by the souls in Purgatory in Canto XIV (14).
  • Cain was traditionally considered to have red hair; the expression "Cain-coloured beard" is used in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor (1602). In addition, Shakespeare also references Cain and Abel in Act III Scene iii of Hamlet when Claudius says, "It hath the primal eldest curse upon't/ A brother's murder!" (Lines 40-41), and in Act V, Scene i when Hamlet and Horatio are standing with the Gravedigger, who digs up a skull and Hamlet says "And yet this knave jowls it to the ground/as if it were Cain's jawbone, that did the first murther!".


  • Baudelaire is more sympathetic to Cain in his poem "Abel et Caïn" in the collection Les Fleurs du mal (1857), where he depicts Cain as representing all the downtrodden people of the world. The poem's last lines exhort, "Race de Caïn, au ciel monte/Et sur la terre jette Dieu!" (In English: "Race of Cain, storm up the sky / And cast God down to Earth!")
  • Thomas Hardy in The Mayor of Casterbridge the protagonist Henchard compares himself in his suffering to Cain. (1886)
  • Hermann Hesse briefly discussed the story of Cain and Abel from an unorthodox point of view in his novel Demian (1919) where he also referred to the gnostic group called the Cainites.
  • In Thornton Wilder's play The Skin Of Our Teeth (1942), it is stated that Henry Antrobus' real name is Cain and he accidentally killed his brother Abel with a stone.
  • John Steinbeck's novel East of Eden (1952) retells the Cain and Abel story in the setting of the late 19th and early 20th century western migration towards California.
  • There is a Stephen King short story titled Cain Rose Up (1968), in which a college student goes on a killing spree while ruminating on the story of Cain and Abel.
  • In the DC Comics (Vertigo division) universe, Cain and Abel are a pair of fictional characters based on the Biblical Cain and Abel. Cain is constantly killing off his brother, despite the fact they are both immortals.
  • Kane and Abel (1979) is a modern adaptation, a 1979 novel by British author Jeffrey Archer.
  • In Ishmael (1992), Daniel Quinn puts forth the idea of the story of Cain and Abel being an allegory describing the conflict between agricultural and pastoral peoples in the Fertile Crescent.
  • In A Time for Everything (2004) by Karl Ove Knausgård, the story of Cain and Abel is retold with a focus on Cain. In this version, God's favouring of Abel is simultaneously a curse for sneaking into Eden past the Cherubs guarding the gate. It is suggested that Abel in fact wants Cain to kill him, or at least this is what Cain believes—though he later regrets his act, and takes his punishment willingly.
  • In 2009 Portuguese writer José Saramago wrote a novel entitled Cain (2009), which tells an alternative version of the murder of Abel and the life of Cain afterwards.
  • Fantasy author Karl Edward Wagner wrote a series of novels and stories about an immortal red-bearded warrior named Kane, who is modeled on the biblical Cain.
  • Author Sylvia Day writes of Cain and Abel in her paranormal/fantasy Marked series titled Eve of Destruction (2009) set in modern times.


  • In the 2009 movie Year One, the two main characters, Zed and Oh, meet Cain and Abel shortly after leaving their home forest, and witness Cain kill Abel. Cain then tells them that they have to escape with him or else risk being blamed for Abel's death, and then sells them into slavery. Zed and Oh meet Cain again later in the movie in Sodom, where Cain is a guard and apologizes for selling them into slavery, also convincing them to join the guard as well. Cain eventually is present at Zed and Oh's trial, where he reads the charges against them (slipping in the murder of Abel), and fights with the king in the final battle.
  • In the 2012 Syfy Channel original movie "Boogeyman", the Boogeyman is revealed to be Cain, cursed to live forever with the guilt of killing his brother. In the film, he captures people to act as a "replacement" for his dead brother, who commit themselves to be responsible for Cain, and keep him from killing more.
  • In the 1991 movie "New Jack City" the line "Am I my brother's keeper" is repeatedly asked

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Genesis 10

New International Version (NIV)

The Table of Nations


10 This is the account of Shem, Ham and Japheth, Noah’s sons, who themselves had sons after the flood.


The Japhethites


The sons[a] of Japheth:

Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshek and Tiras.

The sons of Gomer:

Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah.

The sons of Javan:

Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittites and the Rodanites.[b] (From these the maritime peoples spread out into their territories by their clans within their nations, each with its own language.)

The Hamites


The sons of Ham:

Cush, Egypt, Put and Canaan.

The sons of Cush:

Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteka.

The sons of Raamah:

Sheba and Dedan.

Cush was the father[c] of Nimrod, who became a mighty warrior on the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; that is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.” 10 The first centers of his kingdom were Babylon, Uruk, Akkad and Kalneh, in[d] Shinar.[e] 11 From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir,[f] Calah 12 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah—which is the great city.

13 Egypt was the father of

the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, 14 Pathrusites, Kasluhites (from whom the Philistines came) and Caphtorites.

15 Canaan was the father of

Sidon his firstborn,[g] and of the Hittites, 16 Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, 17 Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, 18 Arvadites, Zemarites and Hamathites.

Later the Canaanite clans scattered 19 and the borders of Canaan reached from Sidon toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and then toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboyim, as far as Lasha.

20 These are the sons of Ham by their clans and languages, in their territories and nations.

The Semites

21 Sons were also born to Shem, whose older brother was[h] Japheth; Shem was the ancestor of all the sons of Eber.

22 The sons of Shem:

Elam, Ashur, Arphaxad, Lud and Aram.

23 The sons of Aram:

Uz, Hul, Gether and Meshek.[i]

24 Arphaxad was the father of[j] Shelah,

and Shelah the father of Eber.

25 Two sons were born to Eber:

One was named Peleg,[k] because in his time the earth was divided; his brother was named Joktan.

26 Joktan was the father of

Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29 Ophir, Havilah and Jobab. All these were sons of Joktan.

30 The region where they lived stretched from Mesha toward Sephar, in the eastern hill country.

31 These are the sons of Shem by their clans and languages, in their territories and nations.

32 These are the clans of Noah’s sons, according to their lines of descent, within their nations. From these the nations spread out over the earth after the flood.


  1. Genesis 10:2 Sons may mean descendants or successors or nations; also in verses 3, 4, 6, 7, 20-23, 29 and 31.
  2. Genesis 10:4 Some manuscripts of the Masoretic Text and Samaritan Pentateuch (see also Septuagint and 1 Chron. 1:7); most manuscripts of the Masoretic Text Dodanites
  3. Genesis 10:8 Father may mean ancestor or predecessor or founder; also in verses 13, 15, 24 and 26.
  4. Genesis 10:10 Or Uruk and Akkad—all of them in
  5. Genesis 10:10 That is, Babylonia
  6. Genesis 10:11 Or Nineveh with its city squares
  7. Genesis 10:15 Or of the Sidonians, the foremost
  8. Genesis 10:21 Or Shem, the older brother of
  9. Genesis 10:23 See Septuagint and 1 Chron. 1:17; Hebrew Mash.
  10. Genesis 10:24 Hebrew; Septuagint father of Cainan, and Cainan was the father of
  11. Genesis 10:25 Peleg means division.

The Time of Peleg
[Home] [Contacts] [Comparisons]


In this comparative study, doctrine is not in question; but historical fact and clarity are. It deals with the event that took place during the days of Peleg, a descendant of Shem. The versions compared are divided into four categories. They are as follows:

  1. A geological division;
  2. A demographic division;
  3. Either type, depending on interpretation; and
  4. Two different descriptions.
Three non-Bible sources are quoted. The differences appear to have arisen from the interpretations of the translators. The passages are from Genesis 10: 25 and 1 Chronicles 1: 19. For the serious Bible student, there probably is no problem in determining what actually happened. For the person who does little studying and is confined to any one version, there can be a problem.

Versions Compared


AB Amplified Bible
HBME The Holy Bible in Modern English
IB Interlinear Bible
IV Inspired Version
KJV King James Version
KTC Knox Translation
LB Living Bible
LXX The Septuagint
MNT Moffatt New Translation
NBV New Berkeley Version
NCV New Century Version
NJB New Jerusalem Bible
NJPS New JPS Version
SGAT An American Translation (Smith-Goodspeed)
TEV Today's English Version

Genesis 10: 25
1 Chronicles 1: 19

A Geological Division

HBME ...; and to Heber were born two sons, the name of the first, Peleg; because in his days the Continent was split up; and his brother's name was Joktan.
Footnote: "Peleg" means "split" in Hebrew. "Joktan" means in the Hebrew "Lessened," probably referring to the "lessening" of the original continent by the "splitting" away of the American continents. See Prof. C. A. L. Totten's works upon this great geological convulsion. If we take a map of the two Americas, in Mercator's projection, and cut out the Atlantic, the indentations of the Eastern Americas and Western Europe and Africa fit into place. -- F. F.
...; and to Eber were born two sons. The name of the first Peleg, -- for in his days the earth was split in two. And the name of the other was Joktan.
Footnote: "Peleg" or "Phleg" or "Fleg" in Hebrew was "Split or slit off." This probably refers to the splitting off of the American Continents from Europe and Africa. "Yaktan." "Lessened." To commemorate the lessening of the primeval single mass of land. -- F. F.

A Demographic Division

AB To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg [meaning division], because [the inhabitants of] the earth were divided up in his days, and his brother's name was Joktan.
To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, because in his days [the population of] the earth was divided [according to its languages], and his brother's name was Joktan.
LB Two sons were born to Eber:
      Peleg (meaning "Division," for during his lifetime the people of the world were
            separated and dispersed), and Joktan (Peleg's brother).
Eber had two sons: Peleg (which means "Divided," for it was during his lifetime that the people of the earth were divided into different language groups), and Joktan.
MNT Two sons were born to Eber, one called Peleg (Division) because the inhabitants of the earth were divided up in his day, and his brother called Joktan.
Two sons were born to Eber, one called Peleg (Division) because the inhabitants of the earth were divided up in his day, and his brother called Joktan.
TEV Eber had two sons: one was named Peleg, because during his time the people of the world were divided; and the other was named Joktan.
Footnote: PELEG: This name sounds like the Hebrew word for "divide."
Eber had two sons; one was named Peleg, because during his time the people of the world were divided, and the other was named Joktan.
Footnote: PELEG: This name sounds like the Hebrew word for "divide."

Either Geological or Demographic

IB And two sons were born to Eber; the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.
And to Eber were born two sons. The name of the one was Peleg because in his days the earth was divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.
IV ... And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one, Peleg, the other Joktan. And Peleg was a mighty man, for in his days was the earth divided.
[NOTE: This passage is recorded as Genesis 10: 15-16.]
And unto Eber was born two sons; the name of the one was Peleg; because in his days the earth was divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.
KJV And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.
And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg; because in his days the earth was divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.
KTC Heber had two sons; one was called Phaleg, Division, because in his time the territory was divided up, and his brother's name was Jectan.
..., who had two sons; one was called Phaleg, Division, because in his time the territory was divided up, and his brother's name was Jectan.
LXX And to Heber were born two sons, the name of the one, Phaleg, because in his days the earth was divided, and the name of his brother, Jektan.
NBV Eber had two sons, one was named Peleg, because in his day the earth was divided; and his brother was called Joktan.
..., who had two sons: one called Peleg, because it was during his days that the earth was divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.
Footnote: [Peleg] -- "Division," probably referring to the confusion of languages at Babel [Gen. 11: 1-9].
NJPS Two sons were born to Eber: the name of the first was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided; and the name of his brother was Joktan.
Two sons were born to Eber: the name of the one was Peleg (for in his days the earth was divided), and the name of his brother, Joktan.
SGAT To Eber were born two sons, the name of the one being Peleg [division] (for in his time the world was divided), and the name of his brother Joktan.
And to Eber were born two sons, the name of the one was Peleg, because in his days the earth was divided, and the name of his brother was Joktan.

Two Different Descriptions

NCV Eber was the father of two sons -- one named Peleg, because the earth was divided during his life, and the other was named Joktan.
Footnote: Peleg -- This name sounds like the Hebrew word for "divided."
Eber had two sons. One was named Peleg, because the people on the earth were divided into different languages during his life. Peleg's brother was named Joktan.
Footnote: Peleg -- This name sounds like the Hebrew word for "divided."
NJB To Eber were born two sons: the first was called Peleg, because it was in his time that the earth was divided, and his brother was called Joktan.
To Eber were born two sons; the first was called Peleg, because it was in his time that the earth was divided into two districts, and his brother was called Joktan.

Other Sources


Antiquities of the Jews, by Josephus: (I. x. 4)
"Heber beget Joctan and Phaleg: he was called Phaleg, because he was born at the dispersion of the nations to their several countries; for Phaleg, among the Hebrews, signifies division."

Smith's Bible Dictionary: (page 496)
The following is an explanation for the name Peleg, which means division, or part. "The only incident connected with his history is the statement that 'in his days was the earth divided,' an event embodied in the meaning of his name -- 'division.' The reference is to a division of the family of Eber himself, the younger branch of which (the Joktanids) migrated into southern Arabia, while the elder remained in Mesopotamia."

Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible:
In the Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, word #776, 'erets, has the following definition: "the earth (at large, or partitively a land): -- X common, country, earth, field, land, X nations, way, + wilderness, world."



In the first group, it was definitely a geological division which took place. Since Peleg was born just over one hundred years after the flood, why is there no mention of the process of the division of land taking place until this time? The water had long previously receded. Details of this process can be found elsewhere on the Internet. Although there is a possibility that the interpretation made by the translator has truth in it, I feel that other translators have come closer to telling what actually occurred.

In the second group, it was definitely a demographic division that took place. The story of the dispersion from the tower at Babel is described in Genesis 11. The passage which we are examining occurs in the previous chapter. Another genealogical list immediately follows the story of Babel in chapter 11. Although long time spans are often recorded in one chapter, the demographic division is a possibility.

In the third group, either explanation is possible. Thus, the reader of only one version can decide that one is correct, according to the way that the passage is understood.

In the fourth group, there is a difference in translations in the two accounts. This discrepancy may be confusing, but may help the reader to decide one way.

The definition in Strong's Exhaustive Concordance is of little help in clarifying what really was divided. However, the reader may be inclined to accept the geological division from what Strong said.

Smith is clear that it was a demographic division. However, he may have limited the dispersion too much when he refers to Eber's family only.

Josephus is clear that it was people who were divided, implying the time of the time of the confusion of languages at the tower of Babel. He states that Peleg was born at the time of the dispersal, thus, the reason for his so being named. There is a lack of clarity elsewhere as to the timing of his birth.

What was divided -- the whole earth, a nation of people, or the family of Eber? You decide. A simple statement, when transferred from one language and culture to another language and culture, can take on more than one meaning. The differences are not the fault of the original writers, but of copyists and translators.





children of the Bible

Isaac and Ishmael

Author unknown. Edited by Stephen Ross

Far away in the East is a country formerly called Canaan, and near to it is another, still known as Arabia. At the part where these two lands join is a long and wide desert. Only a few trees and shrubs grow in this barren spot. There are no flowing rivers or broad streams of water. In some places a little stream slowly moves along in winter, but it dries up in summer. The heat of the sun burns up nearly all the grass; yet there are a few places where water and pasture are found. To these spots the shepherds of that region bring large flocks of sheep and goats, which quietly feed around the dark looking tents.


Nearly four thousand years ago, a good man named Abram, lived in this part of the world. He was rich, though his riches did not consist in houses and lands, or in gold and jewels, but in sheep and cattle. His house was a tent. This was the best kind of dwelling for him as he often made long journeys with his flocks from place to place. He could easily take down his tent, and put it up again as he went about the country.


Abram, or Abraham as he was afterwards called, was not born in Canaan; God brought him from his own land to live there. Abraham trusted God and the Bible tells us that "he was called the Friend of God." God promised him that from his family or race the Saviour was to come. This was the great promise of God, and through it the greatest of all blessings was to be given to sinful man. It is said in the New Testament that Abraham saw, or foresaw, the day of Jesus, and was glad. He was glad there was a Saviour for his own soul, who would be a Saviour for all those who would believe in Him, in every age.



Abraham had two sons; one named Ishmael, and the other Isaac. Though these brothers had the same father, they did not have the same mother; Ishmael was the son of Hagar, and Isaac the son of Sarah. As Ishmael was much older than his little brother, he ought to have been kind to him, and set a good example. But he did not love him and was so full of spite that he mocked his brother Isaac. Perhaps he called him ill names, because he knew it had been promised to his father that he should be the father of a great nation.


Grieved by the bad conduct of his eldest son, and at the urging of his wife Sarah, Abraham sent the boy and his mother Hagar away. We do not know that he would have done so if God had not told him that He would take care of them, and also make this son the forefather of numerous tribes of people.

It was early in the morning when Ishmael and his mother were sent away from the tent of Abraham. A leathern bottle of water and some bread were given to them. They must have felt very sorry when they left such a good home as they had long enjoyed. The grief of Ishmael must have been the greater, as he knew it was his bad conduct which had led to their being sent away.


The outcast mother and her boy went toward the desert. As she was a native of Egypt she may have thought she could reach that country, and live among her own people. She had not traveled many miles before she came to a wild part of the country. What could she now do? She had lost her way, and went up and down the desert, and could find no one to guide her. In that part of the world there were no roads or paths, and the way was rough and painful, and the heat great.


At last they had drunk all the water from the bottle, and they could see no well or river from which they could again fill it. Ishmael was now weary with walking, and faint from thirst and the heat of the sun. He could not go on any farther. How sad was the state of the poor mother and her boy! In her distress, she cried, "Let me not see the death of the child." So she laid him under a shrub, and "sat down over against him, a good way off." She could not help him, but would not leave him to perish alone. Ishmael must now have known how foolish and wicked his conduct had been. He knew that he had brought himself and his mother into all this affliction, and he must have wished that they were once again in Abraham's tent. Sin will always bring us into trouble.


As the lad lay weeping and moaning, a voice was heard by Hagar. Where could it Hagar and Ishmael have come from? Could she be mistaken in the sound? No; in the stillness of the solitude an angel spoke to Hagar. He had been sent by

 God to comfort her in her distress.


"Fear not," said he; "for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is."


And "God opened her eyes," so that she saw a well not far off from where she sat. With new strength she rose from the ground, and with joy took her bottle to the well. Do not we think we see her, as soon as it is filled, hastening to her son, and before she tastes a drop herself, pressing it to his lips? See how she bathes his forehead with some of the cooling water, and, as she finds him revive, how gently she raises him in her arms and kisses him! When they were revived, they again filled their bottle for their journey, and went on their way. From that time "God was with the lad; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer."


There is no further account of the early days of Isaac and Ishmael in the Bible. But there are lessons to be learned from this account of these two brothers:


1. God can see us in every place. "For the ways of man are before the eyes of the LORD, and He pondereth all his goings." Proverbs 5:21. His eye is as much upon us in a desert as when we are sitting by our own fireside. Also, when we are brought into trouble by our own folly and sin, we may still pray to God. Wherever we are, as we cry out to the Lord, His ear will listen to our prayers, and His hand is ready to afford His gracious help. "Call upon Me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me." Psalm 50:15.

2. God is displeased with those children who vex and mock their brothers and sisters. If there be an ill behaved child in a family, he makes others unhappy besides himself. We should all try to live together in love and peace; and elder children should set a good example for the younger. The way for a family to be happy is to love God, obey His Word and be kind one to another. The servant of the Lord should not strive nor speak evil of others, but whether young or old we should be kind to and love one another. "Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice: And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you." Ephesians 4:31-32.


When Isaac grew up to be quite a tall, strong youth, a very strange and wonderful thing happened to him. God came and spoke to Abraham, his father, and told him to take Isaac and go on a three day journey to a mountain, and there on the top to offer Isaac as a sacrifice.


You remember how much Abraham loved Isaac. He loved him more than words can tell. But Abraham loved God even more than he did his own son Isaac. Abraham was very sad, and could not make out what God meant by bidding him to do such a dreadful deed. But God had told him to do it, and that was enough for Abraham for his trust was in God. He knew that whatever God told him to do must be right.


The Bible tells us the story of what took place in very lovely and simple words.


"And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place God had told him. Then on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off. 


"And Abraham said unto his young men, Abide ye here with the ass; and I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to you. Abraham and Isaac And

 Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went both of them together.


"And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering? And Abraham said, My son, God will provide Himself a lamb for a burnt offering: so they went both of them together.


"And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. And the angel of the LORD called unto him of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I. And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from Me. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son." Genesis 22:1-14.


In old days, when anything wonderful took place, men named the spot in such a way as to tell what had been done there. So Abraham, glad and joyful as he was, called the name of the place where God had tried him, and found that at His command he was willing to give up even his dear son Isaac, Jehovah-jireh. These Hebrew words mean, the Lord will see, or will provide.


On the spot where Abraham built his altar and was about to kill Isaac, hundreds of years later the great and beautiful temple, was built: first by Solomon, then by Zerubbabel, and last of all rebuilt by wicked King Herod. Not far from that temple, Jesus on Mount Calvary was offered as the one great sacrifice for the sins of the whole world. You remember the hymn—


On a hill far away stood an old rugged cross,
   The emblem of suffering and shame;
And I love that old cross where the dearest and best
   For a world of lost sinners was slain.


The Lord Jesus obeyed His Father's will and was "obedient unto death, even the death of the cross." And Isaac, as we just read, was obedient to his father, Abraham. So children today should obey God's Word and be obedient to their parents: "Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is right." Ephesians 6:1.


Copied and edited by Stephen Ross for from The Children of the Bible. Chicago: Moody Press, [ca. 1900].





IT had indeed been a shining road of happiness which Rebekah had trod since she had left her far distant home to become the wife of Isaac, and perhaps the greatest happiness of all had come when her twin babies were born, and they told her that God had sent her two little sons.


Now, although the babies were twins they were not in the least alike, and the older they grew the more different they became. Esau, the elder, was a big strong boy, fond of working in the open air, a keen [20] hunter, loving all kinds of out-of-door sports. He was rough-looking, too, beside his smooth-faced, gentle brother Jacob, who was a thoughtful, quiet boy, quite content to do indoor work, and caring very little for rough games or the excitement of hunting.


It was Jacob who was his mother's favourite. She had always loved him best. It displeased her to think that Esau with his rough ways and rough looks was to be lord of all, was to have his father's blessing as well as the birthright, and that Jacob, her quiet, beautiful boy, should have nothing. There was always an echo in her heart of God's words, "the elder shall serve the younger."


But if his mother loved Jacob best, it was on Esau that all his father's hopes and love were fixed. Isaac delighted in the wild adventures and strength of his hunter son. He loved the strong hairy hands which were so skilful in the use of weapons, and the rough looks of his son only filled him with pride. When Esau entered he brought with him the wild fragrance of the woods and hills which clung even to his clothes, and it rejoiced his father's heart.


In many ways it was Jacob who was the cleverer of the two boys; but it was this very cleverness which sometimes led him into crooked ways and taught him to take a mean advantage of his brother. So one day, when Esau had been out hunting and came home hungry and faint, Jacob offered him food, a dish of red pottage cooked and ready, if for it he would give up his birthright. Esau was too hungry and too careless to think what that meant. He did not indeed deserve the birthright if he was willing to give it away so easily. But he only thought how hungry he was, and that he might die if he did not have food, and so Jacob's crooked plan was successful.


Now, although Jacob had managed to get the birthright, there was something else he wanted, something which his mother, too, thought of day and night. Whichever of the two sons received their father's bless ing he it was who would be master of all, who would inherit all the good things, and carry on the family name. It was of this blessing that Jacob and his mother thought continually, and at last the time came when it must be decided once for all.


Isaac had grown very old and knew he had not much longer to live, and he called Esau, his beloved elder son, and told him to go out hunting and to prepare some venison for him, the special dish which he loved.


"Make me savoury meat, such as I love," he said, "that my soul may bless thee before I die."


[21] Rebekah, listening at the tent door, knew what that meant. She watched Esau set out to do his father's bidding, and then she called quickly to Jacob. There was not a moment to be lost. He must go at once to the flock that was feeding in the field close by, and bring her two kids. She would make of them the savoury meat, and he would then take the dish to his father and pretend that he was Esau. The poor old father was almost blind now; he would not be able to tell the difference.

But Jacob hesitated. He did not think it was a safe plan. Suppose that his father should touch him and feel his smooth skin. Why, he would know at once that it was not Esau.


"Go and do as I tell thee," said his mother. He might leave it all to her; she had planned everything. And after cooking the food, she took the hairy skins of the kids and put them on Jacob's hands and on his neck; and she dressed him, too, in some of his brother's clothes. Then she sent him in quickly to his father, with the smoking dish of savoury meat in his hands.


The blind old father could not see who it was, he could only stretch out groping hands to feel if this was really his son Esau. Somehow he had an uneasy idea that the voice did not sound like Esau's voice.


"Come near, I pray thee, that I may feel thee, my son," he said, "whether thou be my very son Esau or not."


Those groping hands felt carefully over Jacob's hairy neck and hands. Yes, it must be Esau, but he would make quite sure.

"Art thou my very son Esau? "he asked.


And Jacob answered, "I am."


The food was eaten, and again Isaac called his son to come near to him, and as Jacob bent down to kiss him the old man smelt the sweet earthy fragrance of Esau's borrowed clothes. That smell was a delight to him, and he blessed his son with a wonderful blessing.


"See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the Lord hath blessed," he began, "therefore God give thee of the dew of heaven and the fatness of the earth."



Jacob was to be lord of all. The blessing was his now, and no one could take it away. He had only been just in time; the blessing was scarcely ended, and he had only just left the tent, when Esau came hurrying in.

Then the trick was discovered.


"Thy brother hath come with subtilty and taken away thy bless- [22] ing," said Isaac, trembling with grief. And when he heard that, there burst from Esau an exceeding bitter cry.


Surely that cry must have hurt his mother's heart, surely Jacob must have hated his own mean ways when he heard that terrible cry of grief.


Already his crooked ways were bringing their punishment. He dared not stay any longer in his home, but must flee away into a distant land, to his mother's people, where he would be safe from Esau's anger.


Alone in the desert, with only a stone for his pillow, he dreamed that God's angels came down the golden stairs of heaven to bring him a message of comfort; but there was little comfort for one who was banished from home, and who knew that he deserved his punishment. He repented sorely now, and God forgave him and allowed him to enjoy the blessing; but all his life he suffered for his deceit, and paid in sorrow for the evil he had done.






Brothers of Jesus

Jewish Christianity
"The Sermon on the Mount" by Carl Bloch (1834–1890)
John the Baptist · Simon Peter
Twelve Apostles · James the Just
Simeon of Jerusalem · Jude · Paul
Ancient groups
Cerinthians · Ebionites · Elcesaites
Essenes · Nazarenes · Nazoraeans
Judaizers · Legalists
Pauline Christianity
Recent groups
Hebrew Christian movement
Messianic Judaism · Saint Thomas Christians
Split of Christianity and Judaism
Paul and Judaism · Marcionism
Christian anti-semitism · Constantine
Gospel of Matthew · Epistle of James
Clementine · Didache · Liturgy of St James
Jewish-Christian gospels
of the Ebionites · the Hebrews · the Nazoraeans
Aramaic of Jesus · Yeshua (name)
Council of Jerusalem · Expounding of the Law
Sabbath · Quartodecimanism · Noahide laws

The brothers of Jesus is a designation based upon the New Testament's description of James, Joseph (Joses), Judas (Jude) and Simon as "brothers" of Jesus Christ. Also mentioned, but not named, are "sisters" of Jesus. Some scholars argue that these brothers, especially James, held positions of special honor in the early Christian church. Antidicomarianites and many critical scholars claim that these "brothers" and "sisters" refer to the biological children of Mary and Joseph. Followers of the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox traditions, as well as some Anglicans and Lutherans, accept the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary and therefore reject the claim that Jesus had blood siblings. They maintain that these "brothers" and "sisters" received this designation on account of their close association with the family of Jesus, but are actually either cousins or children of Joseph from a previous marriage.


In the third century blood relatives of Jesus, without explicit reference to "brothers" or "sisters", were called the desposyni, from the Greek δεσπόσυνοι, plural of δεσπόσυνος, meaning "of or belonging to the master or lord". The term was used by Sextus Julius Africanus, a writer of the early 3rd century.


Jesus' brothers and sisters


The Gospel of Mark  (6:3)[ and the Gospel of Matthew (13:55–56)] are cited as evidence that James, Joseph (Joses), Judas, and Simon were the sons of Mary and of Joseph. Another verse in the Epistle to the Galatians,[7] which says that James, "the Lord's brother", was the head of the congregation in Jerusalem, is taken to mean that James was the son of Mary and Joseph. Some scholars go on to claim that Jesus' relatives may have held positions of authority in the surrounding area.


That the children were children of both Mary and Joseph was accepted by some members of the early Christian church, including Tertullian. The orthodox later labelled upholders of this view as "Antidicomarianites" ("Anti-Mary"), when it was represented by Bonosus (bishop), Jovinian, and various Arian teachers such as Photinus. When Helvidius proposed it in the 4th century, Jerome, apparently representing the general opinion of the Church, maintained that Mary remained always a virgin; he held that those who were called the brothers and sisters of Jesus were actually children of her sister, another Mary, whom he considered the wife of Clopas.[9][10] The terms "brothers" and "sisters" as used in this context are open to different interpretations,[11] and have been argued to refer to children of Joseph by a previous marriage (the view of Epiphanius of Salamis), Mary's sister's children (the view of Jerome), or children of Clopas, who according to Hegesippus was Joseph's brother,[12] and of a woman who was not a sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus (a modern proposal).[9] Certain critical scholars say that the doctrine of perpetual virginity has obscured recognition that Jesus had siblings.


As church leaders


According to Robert Funk, the Gospel of Mark shows that Jesus' mother and brothers were at first sceptical of Jesus' ministry but later became part of the Christian movement. The biblical citation that Saint James ("the Lord's brother") presided over the Jerusalem church after the apostles dispersed is built on to presume that other kinsmen of Jesus' also exercised some leadership among neighbouring Christian communities. Christian communities were expelled from Jerusalem by the Jews with the founding of Aelia Capitolina (c.131).Traditionally it is believed the Jerusalem Christians waited out the Jewish–Roman wars (66–135) in Pella in the Decapolis. The Jerusalem Sanhedrin relocated to Jamnia sometime c.70.


At an earlier stage James is said to have been granted a special appearance by the resurrected Jesus. When Saint Peter, a leader of the church in Jerusalem left, it was James who became the principal authority and was held in high regard by the Jewish Christians. Hegesippus reports that he was executed by the Sanhedrin in 62.[18]

Sextus Julius Africanus's refer


"For the relatives of our Lord according to the flesh, whether with the desire of boasting or simply wishing to state the fact, in either case truly, have handed down the following account... But as there had been kept in the archives up to that time the genealogies of the Hebrews as well as of those who traced their lineage back to proselytes, such as Achior the Ammonite and Ruth the Moabitess, and to those who were mingled with the Israelites and came out of Egypt with them, Herod, inasmuch as the lineage of the Israelites contributed nothing to his advantage, and since he was goaded with the consciousness of his own ignoble extraction, burned all the genealogical records, thinking that he might appear of noble origin if no one else were able, from the public registers, to trace back his lineage to the patriarchs or proselytes and to those mingled with them, who were called Georae. A few of the careful, however, having obtained private records of their own, either by remembering the names or by getting them in some other way from the registers, pride themselves on preserving the memory of their noble extraction. Among these are those already mentioned, called Desposyni, on account of their connection with the family of the Saviour. Coming from Nazara and Cochaba, villages of Judea, into other parts of the world, they drew the aforesaid genealogy from memory and from the book of daily records as faithfully as possible. Whether then the case stand thus or not no one could find a clearer explanation, according to my own opinion and that of every candid person. And let this suffice us, for, although we can urge no testimony in its support, we have nothing better or truer to offer. In any case the Gospel states the truth." And at the end of the same epistle he adds these words: "Matthan, who was descended from Solomon, begat Jacob. And when Matthan was dead, Melchi, who was descended from Nathan begat Eli by the same woman. Eli and Jacob were thus uterine brothers. Eli having died childless, Jacob raised up seed to him, begetting Joseph, his own son by nature, but by law the son of Eli. Thus Joseph was the son of both."

Eusebius of Caesarea, Historia Ecclesiae, 1:7:11, 1:7:13–14


Eusebius has also preserved an extract from a work by Hegesippus (c.110–c.180), who wrote five books (now lost except for some quotations by Eusebius) of Commentaries on the Acts of the Church. The extract refers to the period from the reign of Domitian (81–96) to that of Trajan (98–117), and includes the statement that two Desposyni brought before Domitian later became leaders of the churches:


There still survived of the kindred of the Lord the grandsons of Judas, who according to the flesh was called his brother. These were informed against, as belonging to the family of David, and Evocatus brought them before Domitian Caesar: for that emperor dreaded the advent of Christ, as Herod had done.

So he asked them whether they were of the family of David; and they confessed they were. Next he asked them what property they had, or how much money they possessed. They both replied that they had only 9000 denaria between them, each of them owning half that sum; but even this they said they did not possess in cash, but as the estimated value of some land, consisting of thirty-nine plethra only, out of which they had to pay the dues, and that they supported themselves by their own labour. And then they began to hold out their hands, exhibiting, as proof of their manual labour, the roughness of their skin, and the corns raised on their hands by constant work.


Being then asked concerning Christ and His kingdom, what was its nature, and when and where it was to appear, they returned answer that it was not of this world, nor of the earth, but belonging to the sphere of heaven and angels, and would make its appearance at the end of time, when He shall come in glory, and judge living and dead, and render to every one according to the course of his life.


Thereupon Domitian passed no condemnation upon them, but treated them with contempt, as too mean for notice, and let them go free. At the same time he issued a command, and put a stop to the persecution against the Church.

When they were released they became leaders of the churches, as was natural in the case of those who were at once martyrs and of the kindred of the Lord. And, after the establishment of peace to the Church, their lives were prolonged to the reign of Trajan.

Eusebius of Caesarea, Historia Ecclesiae, 3:20


Degree of consanguinity between Jesus and his brothers


The New Testament names James the Just, Joses, Simon, and Jude as the brothers (Greek adelphoi) of Jesus (Mark 6:3, Matthew 13:55, John 7:3, Acts 1:14, 1 Corinthians 9:5.


The etymology of the word "brother" (adelphos) originally comes from "of the same womb" ("a-delphys"), though, in New Testament usage, the Christian and Jewish meaning of "brethren" is wider. However, in Christian tradition there is disagreement from an early date over whether the Greek term adelphos referred to by these narratives are full brothers, half brothers, or merely stepbrothers. According to some scholars the most natural inference from the New Testament is that the adelphoi were children of Mary and Joseph born after Jesus. Tertullian, possibly Hegesippus, and Helvidius accepted this view.  In reference to this it is occasionally noted that James (Jacob Iakobos) as oldest of the brothers takes the name of Joseph's father (also James, Iakobos in the Solomonic genealogy of Jesus in Matthew), when in Bible times the grandson occasionally gets the name of the grandfather.


The term "brother" (adelphos) is distinct in Greek from "cousin" (anepsios), and the second-century Christian writer Hegesippus distinguishes between those who were "cousins" of Jesus (anepsioi) and his "brothers."


Relationship of Jesus' siblings to Mary


By the 3rd century the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary was well established and defended by Hippolytus, Eusebius and Epiphanius, important early Christian theologians. Much of the church therefore did not accept that Mary could have had any children apart from Jesus. Eusebius and Epiphanius held that these men were Joseph's sons from (an unrecorded) former marriage Jerome, another important early theologian, also followed the perpetual virginity doctrine, but argued that these adelphoi were sons of Mary's sister, whom Jerome identified as Mary of Cleopas. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church mentions that a modern scholar, whom it does not identify, has proposed that these men were the sons of Clopas (Joseph's brother according to Hegesippus) and Mary, the wife of Cleopas (not necessarily referring to Jesus' mother's sister).


The official Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox doctrine is that Mary was a perpetual virgin; this view was also held by many of the early Protestants, including Luther and Zwingli, as well as John Wesley, the 18th century Methodist leader. Indeed, the majority of early Christians seem to have left this doctrine completely unquestioned. The Roman Catholic Church, following Jerome, conclude that the adelphoi were Jesus' cousins, but the Eastern Orthodox, following Eusebius and Epiphanius, argue that they were Joseph's children by his (unrecorded) first wife.


Modern Protestants view the adelphoi as Jesus' half-brothers or do not specify, since the accounts in the Gospels do not speak of Mary's relationship to them but only to Jesus.


In the Book of Genesis, all the other sons of Jacob are repeatedly called brothers of Joseph, although they were children of different mothers.  Similarly, in the Second Book of Samuel Tamar is described as a sister both of Amnon and of Absalom, though these were David's sons by different mothers.


A small number of early groups, notably some Ebionites, rejected belief in the virgin birth of Jesus and held that Joseph was the biological father of Jesus, making the brothers of Jesus full brothers.


Scholars of the Jesus Seminar suggest that the doctrine of Mary's perpetual virginity has impeded recognition that Jesus had full brothers and sisters.


Family trees and pedigrees


Aside from the genealogies of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke and Gospel of Matthew, there have been several presentations of theories about a family tree of Jesus' immediate nuclear family:


In a book produced by Augsburg Fortress, the official publishing house of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America,


John J. Rousseau and Rami Arav present the following diagram of relationships in line with their view that the brothers and sisters mentioned were children of Joseph and Mary, whom they believe to have had marital relations in the at least twelve years that Joseph lived after the birth of Jesus, although the Luke 2 account of their journey to the temple when Jesus was twelve makes no mention of other children in the caravan.

        |                                        |
        |                                        |
 Mary=Joseph                                   Cleopas=another Mary
     |                                                |
     |______________________________________          |
     |    |     |     |     |      |      |           Simeon
     |    |     |     |     |      |      |           d. 106
    Jesus James Joses Simon Sister Sister Jude
          d.62                             |
            |                            Menahem
          Jude                           ____|____
            |                            |        |
         Elzasus                       James     Zoker
            |                                 ?
          Nascien                             |
                                      Bishop Judah Kyriakos

James Tabor's theor


The following represents James Tabor's attempted reconstruction. The view has not found wide support among other scholars.

                          Matthat bar Levi
        Eleazar                   |
        |                     Heli/Eliakim
        |                           |
        Matthan             ________|____________
        |                   |                   |
        |                   |                   |
    Mary + GOD         = Joseph (1st) =   Clophas (2nd)
          |                                     |
          |              _______________________|___________
          Jesus          |      |     |      |      |     |
          5 BCE- CE 28.  |      |     |      |      |     |
                       James  Jose  Judas  Simon  Mary  Salome
                          d.CE 62     |   d.CE 101
                                 |         |
                                 |         |
                             Zechariah   James
                           alive in the reign of Domitian

Interpersonal relationship with Jesus in the New Testament

According to the Synoptic Gospels, and particularly the Gospel of Mark, Jesus was once teaching a large crowd near the home of his own family, and when this came to their attention, his family went to see him and "they" (not specified) said that Jesus was "... out of his mind."

Then he went home; and the crowd came together again, so that they could not even eat. When his family heard it, they went out to restrain him, for people were saying, ‘He has gone out of his mind.’

Mark 3:20–21 NRSV


And he comes back home, and the crowd gathers again, to the point where they couldn't even eat a meal. Hearing of that, his folks came out [from Nazareth] intending to take him away, saying, 'He's gone mad!'

—Mark 3:20–21 (Andy Gaus, Unvarnished New Testament, 1991)


And He came home, and the crowd gathered again, to such an extent that they could not even eat a meal. When His own people heard of this, they went out to take custody of Him; for they were saying, 'He has lost His senses.'

Mark 3:20-21 New American Standard Bible


In the narrative of the Synoptic Gospels, and of the Gospel of Thomas, when Jesus' mother and adelphoi are outside the house that Jesus is teaching in, Jesus tells the crowd that whoever does what God wills would constitute his mother and adelphoi. According to Kilgallen, Jesus' answer was a way of underlining that his life had changed to the degree that his family were far less important than those that he teaches about the Kingdom of God. The Gospel of John states that Jesus' adelphoi did not believe in him, because he would not perform miracles with them at the Feast of Tabernacles.

Some scholars have suggested that the portrayal in the Gospel of Mark of the initial rejection of Jesus by his family may be related to the tension between Paul of Tarsus and Jewish Christians, who held Jesus' family in high regard, for example at the Council of Jerusalem.


In popular culture


The idea of Jesus having relatives features in the following tales:


  1. ^ Paul the Apostle refers to James as "the Lord's brother" (Galatians 1:19) and as a "pillar" alongside Cephas and John (Galatians 2:9)
  2. ^ Julius Africanus, The Epistle to Aristides, p. 242
  3. ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
  4. ^ a b Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998.
  5. ^ 6:3
  6. ^ Matthew 13:55-56
  7. ^ Galatians 1:19
  8. ^ "Jerusalem." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  9. ^ a b c "Brethren of the Lord" Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  10. ^ John Painter, Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition (University of South Carolina Press, 2004), page 326.
  11. ^ Raymond Edward Brown, Paul J. Achtemeier. Mary in the New Testament: A Collaborative Assessment by Protestant and Roman Catholic Scholars. Paulist Press, 1978 ISBN 0-8091-2168-9 pp. 65-68
  12. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History, Book III, ch. 11.
  13. ^ a b Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Mark," p. 51-161
  14. ^ Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "What do we really know about Jesus" p. 527–534.
  15. ^ a b "Jerusalem." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. 2005
  16. ^ Galatians 1:19
  17. ^ 1 Corinthians 15:7
  18. ^ a b "James, St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. 2005
  19. ^ The original text can be found at Bibliotheca Augustana
  20. ^ The original text of this passage too can be found at Bibliotheca Augustana
  21. ^ Cited in "brethren of the Lord." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  22. ^ Tragedy and civilization: an interpretation of Sophocles 1999 p184 Charles Segal - 1999 "word for "brother," adelphos, from a- ("same," equivalent to homo-) and delphys ("womb," equivalent to splanchna)."
  23. ^ a b c d e f "brethren of the Lord." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  24. ^ Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics 1927 Part 4 - Page 653 "In later times, but still within the period covered by the Bible, the grandson often gets the name of the grandfather."
  25. ^ Brother of Jesus p94 Hershel Shanks, Ben Witherington - 2004 p254-255 "(Matthew 13.55-56) There was indeed a word for cousin in Greek, anepsios, and it is never used of James or the other siblings ... how the second-century Christian writer Hegesippus distinguishes between those who were cousins of Jesus (anepsioi) ..."
  26. ^ A Short Life of Christ p58 Everett F. Harrison - 1968 -"In opposition to Helvidius, Jerome (Hierony- mus, hence the name Hieronymian for his view) insisted that the brethren were kinsmen, specifically first cousins, being sons of Mary's sister, namely, that Mary who was the wife of Clopas "
  27. ^ e.g., Origen's Commentary on Matthew, §10.17
  28. ^ See quotations from Luther's works in Martin Luther on Mary's Perpetual Virginity
  29. ^ "I firmly believe that [Mary], according to the words of the gospel as a pure Virgin brought forth for us the Son of God and in childbirth and after childbirth forever remained a pure, intact Virgin" (Zwingli, Ulrich; Egli, Emil; Finsler, Georg; Zwingli-Verein, Georg; Zürich (1905). "Eini Predigt von der ewig reinen Magd Maria.". Huldreich Zwinglis sämtliche Werke (in German) 1. C. A. Schwetschke und Sohn. p. 385. Retrieved 2008-07-01. 
  30. ^ "I believe that He was made man, joining the human nature with the divine in one person; being conceived by the singular operation of the Holy Ghost, and born of the blessed Virgin Mary, who, as well after as before she brought Him forth, continued a pure and unspotted virgin" (The Works of the Rev. John Wesley p. 112)
  31. ^ "So James, according to this view, would be Jesus' younger half-brother." Witherington, Ben III, "Jesus' Extended Family," Bible Review, 19:3, pg.30–31. In addition, the Nelson Study Bible (NKJV) lists the traditional authors of the Epistles of James and Jude as "James, the half brother of Jesus, traditionally called "the Just"" (pg 2102) and "Jude the brother of James and the half brother of the Lord Jesus" (pg. 2156). The term "half brother" is used to denote parentage, not genetics. In this view, the other brothers and sisters listed in the Gospel passages would have the same relationship to Jesus. However, some Protestants reject the term "half brother" because it is too specific; the Gospel accounts refer to these relatives as brothers and sisters of Jesus, without specifying their parents, and refer to Mary only in relation to Jesus.
  32. ^ For instance, in 16 of the 36 verses of the chapter Genesis 37
  33. ^ 2 Samuel 13
  34. ^ 2 Samuel 3:2-3
  35. ^ John J. Rousseau, Rami Arav, Jesus and His World (Fortress Press 1995 ISBN 978-0-80062903-8)
  36. ^ Frontline, "Jesus' Family Tree"
  37. ^ Wilson, A. N. [Jesus: A Life. 1992. New York: Norton & Co.] has hypothesized that the negative relationship between Jesus and his family was placed in the Gospels (especially in the Gospel of Mark) to dissuade early Christians from following the Jesus cult that was administered by Jesus’ family. Wilson says: “… it would not be surprising if other parts of the church, particularly the Gentiles, liked telling stories about Jesus as a man who had no sympathy or support from his family (p. 86).” Butz (2005) [Butz, Jeffrey. The brother of Jesus and the lost teachings of Christianity. 2005. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions.] is more succinct: “… by the time Mark was writing in the late 60s, the Gentile churches outside of Israel were beginning to resent the authority wielded by Jerusalem where James and the apostles were leaders, thus providing the motive for Mark’s antifamily stance… (p. 44).” Other prominent scholars agree (e.g., Crosson, 1973 [Crosson, John Dominic. “Mark and the relatives of Jesus”. Novum Testamentum, 15, 1973]; Mack, 1988 [Mack, Burton. A myth of innocence: Mark and Christian origins. 1988. Philadelphia: Fortress]; Painter. 1999 [Painter, John. Just James: The brother of Jesus in history and tradition. 1999. Minneapolis: Fortress Press)."

Further reading

  • Kilgallen, John J., A Brief Commentary on the Gospel of Mark, Paulist Press, 1989.
  • Tabor, James D., The Jesus Dynasty, Simon & Schuster, 2006.

External links




The Prodigal Son - Story Summary:

The story of the Prodigal Son, also known as the Parable of the Lost Son, follows the parables of the Lost Sheep and the Lost Coin. Jesus is responding to the Pharisees' complaint: "This man welcomes sinners and eats with them."

Jesus tells the story of a man who has two sons. The younger son asks his father to give him his portion of the family estate as an early inheritance. Once received, the son promptly sets off on a long journey to a distant land and begins to waste his fortune on wild living. When the money runs out, a severe famine hits the country and the son finds himself in dire circumstances. He takes a job feeding pigs. He is so destitute that he even longs to eat the food assigned to the pigs.

The young man finally comes to his senses, remembering his father. In humility, he recognizes his foolishness, decides to return to his father and ask for forgiveness and mercy. The father who had been watching and waiting, receives his son back with open arms of compassion. He is overjoyed by the return of his lost son! Immediately the father turns to his servants and asks them to prepare a giant feast in celebration.


Meanwhile, the older son is not one bit happy when he comes in from working the fields and discovers a party going on to celebrate his younger brother's return. The father tries to dissuade the older brother from his jealous rage explaining, "You are always with me, and everything I have is yours."

Points of Interest from the Story:

• Typically, a son would receive his inheritance at the time of his father's death. The fact that the younger brother instigated the early division of the family estate showed a rebellious and proud disregard for his father's authority, not to mention a selfish and immature attitude.

• Pigs were unclean animals. Jews were not even allowed to touch pigs. When the son took a job feeding pigs, even longing for their food to fill his belly, it reveals that he had fallen as low as he could possibly go. This son represents a person living in rebellion to God. Sometimes we have to hit rock-bottom before we come to our senses and recognize our sin.

• The father is a picture of the Heavenly Father. God waits patiently, with loving compassion to restore us when we return to him with humble hearts. He offers us everything in his kingdom, restoring full relationship with joyful celebration. He doesn't even dwell on our past waywardness.

• Reading from the beginning of chapter 15, we see that the older son is clearly a picture of the pharisees. In their self-righteousness, they have forgotten to rejoice when a sinner returns to God. Bitterness and resentment keeps the older son from forgiving his younger brother. It blinds him to the treasure he freely enjoys through constant relationship with the father.

Questions for Reflection:

Who are you in this story? Are you a prodigal, a pharisee or a servant? Are you the rebellious son, lost and far from God? Are you the self-righteous pharisee, no longer capable of rejoicing when a sinner returns to God? Maybe you've hit rock-bottom, come to your senses and decided to run to God's open arms of compassion and mercy? Or are you one of the servants in the household, rejoicing with the father when a lost son finds his way home?








The Aftermath Dream and Events

by Dee Finney

7-30-2001 - THE DREAM -

I was trying to write a story about a flower. I was thinking the flower had
a 5-4 code whch has spiritual symbolism.  (flower code explained)

I scrolled down the page and saw a sort of bush. It had 5 branches on it, but
no flowers.

I then had a vision within the dream. It was rather a tall rectangle with some
kind of design around the edges that looked like 'black roses' with a white
center and a wild looking black lion standing upright on two feet.

NOTE: I believe The 'black rose' represents the 5-4 code.  
(It has 5 letters and 4 letters in the two words)

Note also that the first verse of The Book of Ezekiel says that his vision
took place in the fourth month, on the fifth day of the month. It is possible
that the date was given to symbolize the 5-4 code, in terms of the day and
 (explanation given below in the flower code)

After I woke up I remembered having seen a video the other day which
was made a couple of days after the death of Princess Diana. In the photo
was Queen Elizabeth making a speech on behalf of Princess Diana, and
behind her a banner or flag with this same upright lion in the center of the
flag.  All day I thought the upright beast was a dragon, but when I finally
found the flag, which was Princess Diana's official flag, I could see why I
was confused.
Princess Diana's Lion looks very dragon-like.


The color black symbolism:  Sable or black - Constancy, sometimes grief.

The black Rose symbolism:  The Rose Croix symbolism which is also black.

The symbolism of the Five Branches on the Bush: As heir to the heir of the
throne, Prince William’s label given to him on his 18th birthday has three
points. Other grandchildren of the monarch have labels with branches of  
five points. Note that in the  dream, the branches had no flowers on them,
thus never bloom.

From Sean David Morton:

The current British royal family are imposters. The House of Windsor is a fraud. They are Asiatic/Mongols who usurped the true power of the Stewart clan in recent times, and in ancient times conspired with the Roman Catholics to commit Regicide and Theocide by murdering King Dagobert and his son Sigisbert. Sigisbert escaped with his sister to carry on the bloodline  Even the flag of the Windsor's and the Prince of Wales is the Red Dragon which shows their descendence from CHINA, whose symbol is the same red dragon.

Windsor Castle is used by Queen Elizabeth II as her official residence and a flag flies above the castle when she is in residence. The State Apartments are the formal rooms which are used for ceremonial, official and state occasions

The "Birthright " of the Queen Mother, the mother of Elizabeth II, has been questioned since her birth, when it was widely known in England, that she was quite possibly the true daughter of one of the King's maids. All British birth certificates must be filed within 9 days of birth. The Queen Mum's was not filed for nearly 3 months, while a debate raged in the palace. The official excuse was that the Royal Family had simply "Forgot".

But the lineage of Lady Diana Spencer goes back to Charles II of the House of Stewart. The Stewarts are *TRUE* royalty, being direct descendents of The House of David of Judah, and Jesus and Mary the Magdalene. So, Diana's sons, William and Harry, have three-quarters true nobility in their blood, and everyone in England knows that Diana was of "Bluer" blood, and closer to the Royal Lineage than Charles or the rest of his Imposter Family.

St. George's cult in England began when the Crusaders returned from the Holy Land with tales of how King Richard "the Lionheart" had fought under his banner at the Siege of Antioch in 1098 and won a great victory. He became the "knight in shining armour" to which every young Englishman aspired. His tales of heroism became legendary and his exploits were gradually transferred from Palestine to England.

His most famous legend tells how he rescued a princess by slaying a dragon on a Berkshire hill. This fire-breathing monster had been terrorising the local townsfolk who had attempted to appease it with the daily sacrifice of a live sheep. When this tact failed, they turned to the local maidens. When the king's beautiful daughter was chosen for this fate, she went to her doom dressed as a bride. At the very last minute, St. George appeared on a white charger and won the day.

Over the centuries, St. George has been associated with six British kings. His cross, red on white, is flown as the flag of England. His emblem, the rose, which comes from Persia, is the symbol of the British Empire. And King George VI, during the Second World War, created the George Cross and George Medal as decorations for gallantry, second only to the Victoria Cross.

The beasts in St. George's Hall, Windsor Castle, were a Golden Wedding present to the Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh from the City of London. In the foreground can be seen a unicorn wearing a royal coronet as a collar, a lion royally crowned is in the background. The use of the lion and unicorn as supporters to the royal arms dates back to the accession of James VI (of Scotland) and I (of England) in 1603. (To the right can be seen part of the equestrian figure of the King's Champion. The Champion used to ride in to the Coronation Banqet in Westminster Hall to throw down his gauntlet and challenge anyone to deny the new sovereign. This ceremony ceased after George IV's coronation in 1821)

What are The Queen's Beasts?

Heraldic beasts have been depicted since medieval times as supporters in coats of arms, and carved stone figures of such creatures were widely used to decorate castles, palaces and public buildings, particularly in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. One example is the series of King's Beasts mounted on the bridge leading to the entrance of Hampton Court Palace - originally placed there to celebrate Henry VIII's marriage to Jane Seymour, the beasts were demolished in William III's reign and subsequently replaced in 1909. The figures on the bridge today date from 1950.

For the coronation of The Queen in 1953, a special series of ten heraldic beasts was devised and created to illustrate her ancestry. The beasts were 6 feet tall, and positioned at Westminster Abbey to mount guard over the place of The Queen's crowning. A set of The Queen's Beasts was carved in stone and these can be seen in the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.

The ten beasts, and the shields they hold, portray The Queen's royal ancestry. The are: the lion of England supporting the royal arms of the United Kingdom; the griffin of Edward III holding the badge of the Royal House of Windsor; the falcon of the Plantagenets bearing the golden fetterlock badge of the House of York; the black bull of Clarence supporting the royal arms used from 1405 to 1603; the white lion of Mortimer holding a badge with the white rose of York; the Beaufort yale (a heraldic antelope able to swivel its horns to counter an attack from any side), representing the House of Lancaster, bearing a crowned portcullis badge; the greyhound of Richmond supporting a Tudor rose badge; the red dragon of Wales supporting the arms of the princes of North Wales; the unicorn of Scotland holding a shield of the old royal arms of Scotland; and the white horse of Hanover supporting the royal arms used from 1714 until 1800.

Other examples of royal heraldic beasts can be seen at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, where 76 beasts of 14 different types are represented; known as the Windsor Beasts, they decorate the Chapel roof. Among the fourteen different types, there are six beasts unique to this Windsor series: the white swan of Bohun holds the arms of Bohun (the family of Henry IV's first wife Mary); the white hart of Richard II supports a shild depicting a badge of broom-pods (planta genista - a pun on the name Plantagenet); a silver antelope, wearing a golden circlet and chained, bears the arms of France and England quartered; the black dragon of the Earls of Ulster supports the red cross on gold of the de Burgh family, from whom the Yorkist kings were descended; and the unicorn of Edward III and the hind of Edward V hold vanes (a type of flag) rather than shields.

What is a Dragon?

Prince William's Heraldry - (received on his 18th birthday)
L O N D O N, July 10 — British royals mark their coming of age a bit differently than the rest of the world.

Rather than showing off a driver’s license as proof of maturity and almost all-grown-up status, a royal displays a coat of arms.

And when the coat of arms of 18-year-old Prince William was unveiled Sunday, the son of the late Princess Diana made his first mark on the traditions of the royal family.

The Prince asked that a small, red scallop shell be incorporated into the design of his personal coat of arms. The shell has been a motif in the coats of arms of Diana’s ancestors, the Earls Spencer, since the 16th century, and was used by Diana in her own coat of arms.

Every member of the royal family gets to choose a way to personalize the royal arms a little bit. It’s called a “mark of difference.”

But William’s little shell is a big deal. Traditionally, the chosen mark of difference is derived from the symbols of the father’s side of the family, not the mother’s.

“It is a welcome innovation to incorporate maternal symbols into the royal family’s arms and it is something that Prince William and his family wanted to do,” said Peter Gwynne-Jones, who is responsible for royal heraldry. “In the fullness of time, Prince William’s arms will change, as the Prince of Wales’s shall, but a precedent has been set here that others in the royal family may well follow.”

The shell design appears four times in the coat of arms for the future king, wherever the “label” appears: on the shield, on the necks of the lion and the unicorn supporting the shield, and on the neck of the small lion device above the shield.

As heir to the heir of the throne, William’s label has three points. Other grandchildren of the monarch have labels with branches of five points.

Prince William’s arms also incorporate aspects of the royal arms used by his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, and those of his father, Prince Charles. Both Charles and the Queen have approved William’s coat of arms, and a royal license is being drawn up to officially grant it to the Prince.


Information excerpts taken from:


by Joe Mason

On October 30, 1990, I awoke from dreaming, and "knew" the meaning of the interlocking rings in a circle I had seen. The flower-like shape was a symbol of the Soul, or Oversoul. Each "petal," with a face inside, represents a reincarnational or "focus" personality sent out into space-time. The arrangement beautifully symbolizes the fully integrated Oversoul, the condition that is reached after the reincarnational cycle is finished. The personalities merge into one being, similar to the concept of Nirvana, except their individual personalities are fully retained.

The Oversoul "flowers" are themselves part of another, larger "flower," or circle of hoops, forming a greater "flower" of consciousness. The relationship of "flowers" continues up to the One Great Flower, of the All, or Creative Source.

A paradox exists that is nearly impossilbe for us to understand in our space-time reality, as it is somewhat of an illusion. In the greater reality, there is no time, so the reincarnational personalities all exist in the eternal Now.

The New Jerusalem was seen in a vision by St. John (Revelation 21) near the beginning of the Age of Pisces about 2,000 years ago. It represents the divine order of the heavens made apparent on earth. The diagram was first published in John Michell's "City of Revelation" and is further examined in books such as "The New View over Atlantis" and "The Dimensions of Paradise." It is the underlying plan of Stonehenge, built almost 4,000 years ago near the beginning of the Age of Aries, and versions of it appear in eastern mandalas, Gothic cathedral rose windows and other symbols of the universe worldwide.

This is "The New Jerusalem Plan," according to John Michell -

   After I  learned about The New Jerusalem Plan,  I thought about the similar patterns that came to me. The twelve-pointed star is formed by four overlapping triangles. The diagram of the pyramid, as viewed from above, and corresponding to the quintuplet set of crop circles, also had four triangles . . . the four faces of the pyramid. By changing the shape of the triangles, based on the perspective of the viewer, the four triangles could also be put into a Teutonic Cross. I remembered that a twelve-pointed star and a Teutonic Cross had been found by dowsing within crop circle formations. The basic pattern of The New Jerusalem Plan had also been found within a crop circle formation.

I later found page 73 in The Sacred Symbols of Mu with these depictions -

(Note the comparison of these Teutonic Crosses
with those of Great Britain Royalty and the Knights Templar)

James Churchward explains -  

"The Pyramid Cross. Line 1 - A group of Crosses among Niven's collection of Mexican tablets is especially interesting. I have called them the Pyramid Crosses because they are designed on the lines of a pyramid. They are the cosmogony of a pyramid illustrated by a cross.

The four arms are composed of four triangles corresponding with the four sides of a pyramid.

The points of these triangles are covered with the monotheistic symbol of the Deity.

The base of a pyramid is square; the four triangles brought together form a square. The pyramid is built on astronomical lines; so is the Cross.

Ezekiel's Four Living Creatures

Another breakthrough came to me many months later, in 1992. I read several references to Ezekiel's vision of the Four Living Creatures, including the idea that the four creatures represent the Zodiac signs corresponding to the positions of the solstices and equinoxes during the Age of Taurus. I opened my Bible, and read the verses. I felt that coincidence was at work again, as the description seemed to fit with my drawing of the pyramid formed by the four triangles based on the Barbury Castle crop formation. But, in my illustration, I had not drawn in the central circle with rings within the triangles. These seemed to correspond to the "four wheels" described by Ezekiel. I then drew in the circles with rings inside each of the four triangles -

By reading the first page of Ezekiel, and comparing it to the illustration, one can see the connections. I will relate the comparisons that came to mind as I read the verses of Ezekiel -

1:4 As I looked, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, and a great cloud, with brightness round about it, and fire flashing forth continually, and in the midst of the fire, as it were gleaming bronze. And from the midst of it came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance: they had the form of men, but each had four faces, and each of them had four wings.

Comparison: The segments within each triangle can be viewed as wing-like. The central circle in the illustration contains four overlapping circles, perhaps corresponding to the "four faces." Another possibility is this - each triangle may represent a tetrahedron, a three-sided pyramid shape. The three sides plus the bottom (another triangle) has "four faces."

1:7 Their legs were straight, and the soles of their feet were like the sole of a calf's foot; and they sparkled like burnished bronze. Under their wings on their four sides they had human hands. And the four had their faces and their wings thus: their wings touched one another; they went every one straight forward, without turning as they went.

Comparison: The "four sides" could also suggest tetrahedrons. The "wings touched one another," just as the corresponding wing-like shapes in the illustration "touch." The last part of the verse seems to indicate that the shape retains its form as it moves.

1:10 As for the likeness of their faces, each had the face of a man in front; the four had the face of a lion on the right side, the four had the face of an ox on the left side, and the four had the face of an eagle at the back. 11Such were their faces. And their wings were spread out above; each creature had two wings, each of which touched the wing of another, while two covered their bodies.

Comparison: As I mentioned, the four living creatures are thought to represent Zodiac signs. I first read about the idea in 1990, in Joseph Campbell's The Inner Reaches Of Outer Space. A photograph is shown on page 77 of a "chimeral cherub," a large limestone carving. It is a portal guardian from the palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud, Assyria, 833-859 BC. The chimeral cherub combines the body of a bull, feet of a lion, wings and breast of an eagle, and a human head wearing a miter with six horns. Ezekiel lived during the late 6th century BC, and was located in the area of Babylon, so it is likely that he was familiar with this symbolism. The four living creatures correspond to the Zodiac signs during the Age of Taurus in this way -

Lion = Leo - summer solstice
Ox = Taurus - spring equinox
Eagle (which later became Scorpio) = autumnal equinox
Man = Aquarius, the Water Bearer - winter solstice

The same four triangles in The New Jerusalem Plan design, when viewed as a Zodiac, represent three Zodiac signs each, with the same "four living creatures" above included in each, that is, one tip of each triangle touches the corresponding Zodiac signs . . . which are represented by the circles in my three illustrations.

The image of "two wings" that are "spread out above," could be similar to the Teutonic Cross design. In my drawing of the Teutonic Cross shape, the "wings" do not touch. However, the description seems similar.

1:12 And each went straight forward; wherever the spirit would go, they went, without turning as they went. 13In the midst of the living creatures there was something that looked like burning coals of fire, like torches moving to and fro among the living creatures; and the fire was bright, and out of the fire went forth lightning. And the living creatures darted to and fro, like a flash of lightning.

1:15 Now as I looked at the living creatures, I saw a wheel upon the earth beside the living creatures, one for each of the four of them. As for the appearance of the wheels and their construction: their appearance was like the gleaming of a chrysolite; and the four had the same likeness, their construction being as it were a wheel within a wheel. When they went, they went in any of their four directions without turning as they went. The four wheels had rims and they had spokes; and their rims were full of eyes round about.

Comparison: The idea that the shape is "full of eyes," may correspond to the ancient glyph of the eye within the triangle, as "The Monotheistic Deity looking out from Heaven." It is quite similar to other ancient glyphs with the circle and ring within a triangle, representing "The Monotheistic Deity in Heaven." The expression, "His Eye is on the sparrow" (or bird), may be a clue. A bird's eye has no lid, so it is round, a circle with ring.

1:19 And when the living creatures went, the wheels went beside them; and when the living creatures rose from the earth, the wheels rose. Wherever the spirit would go, they went, and the wheels rose along with them; for the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels. When those stood, these stood; and when those rose from the earth, the wheels rose along with them; for the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels.  

1:22 Over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, shining like crystal, spread out above their heads. And under the firmament their wings were stretched out straight, one toward another; and each creature had two wings covering its body. And when they went, I heard the sound of their wings like the sound of many waters, like the thunder of the Almighty, a sound of tumult like the sound of a host; when they stood still, they let down their wings. And there came a voice from above the firmament over their heads; when they stood still, they let down their wings.

Comparison:  Again, the image of the two "wings" of each creature "stretched out straight" could be similar to the Teutonic Cross design. Standing "still" and letting "down their wings," seems similar to lowering the bases of the triangles to form the pyramid . . . or perhaps, the capstone of the pyramid. Such imagery is said by some to represent Christ's return. It brings to mind the pyramid symbol placed on American money. The triangle with the eye inside is suspended above the flat-topped pyramid. According to Joseph Campbell, this is the Eye of the Holy Spirit. He also made this observation:  

"One cannot but think of representations in European medieval art of Christ of the Second Coming, surrounded by four figures symbolizing the evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John - namely, a man, a lion, a bull, and an eagle, . . . "

The words, "the sound of many waters" also appear in Revelation 1:15, in describing the voice of the son of man. The harlot of Revelation 17:1 is seated upon "many waters." The "waters" where the harlot is seated is explained in Revelation 17:15 as "peoples and multitudes and nations and tongues." Assuming a consistency in the verses, it seems clear that "many waters" refer to all the people of the earth. This fits well, I believe, with the idea that the four living creatures are connected with the twelve Zodiac signs, because every person on the earth is born "under" one of these signs. The son of man in Revelation 1:15, then, may well represent many people speaking in the future. Revelation 1:16 says, ". . . from his mouth issued a sharp two-edged sword."

The verses of Ezekiel that follow speak of the throne above the firmament, with a human form seated upon it. A bright rainbow was round about the throne.

Revelation 4 also speaks of the four living creatures, the throne and the rainbow. In Saint John's vision, the rainbow appeared like emerald. Each of the four living creatures have six wings. Revelation 4:4 gives additional information -

Round the throne were twenty-four thrones, and seated on the thrones were twenty-four elders, clad in white garments, with gold crowns upon their heads.

There are a number of hints that these symbols represent subatomic particles. James Churchward wrote that the Chinese "Great Y" has the same meaning as the circle with ring inside the triangle. In Dali's "cosmic dream," that helped inspire him to paint Christ of Saint John of the Cross, the circle within the triangle represented the nucleus of the atom and the unity of the universe.

by Salvador Dali


I later found a diagram in Sufi, Expressions of the Mystic Quest, that is quite similar to the painting by Dali above.

It is part of several that represent how creation is created. It is said that the "why" of creation is "For Knowledge of Self." The Divine is Infinite and Knowledge of Self is part of Its Infiniteness. The "How" of creation is diagrammed as shown above. Creation begins with the One point, and becomes the line labeled, "Knowledge of Self." The top circle of the line is "Knower." The line is "knowledge." The bottom circle of the line is "Known." The second glyph, which looks like an upside-down "Y," is labeled "Active Agent." The top arm of the upside-down "Y" is "Knowledge of Self," which is the same as the top glyph, the line. The left arm of the upside-down "Y" is "Command." The right arm is "Will." The third glyph, the plane triangle, is labeled "Passive Recipient." The top, left, and right points of the triangle are "thingness, obeying" and "hearing." The bottom glyph combines the upside-down "Y" -shape within the triangle.

In The Book of Knowledge, The Keys of Enoch, Dr. Hurtak wrote that the Eye of YHWH (God) is within each pyramid of Light. Various triangle-tetrahedron shapes are illustrated in the book, including tetrahedral shapes on Mars, and a tetrahedral-like depiction on a map of the world, at Giza.  

When the four triangles are placed together in the pyramid shape, as in my illustration, it looks similar to platinum crystals under a powerful microscope -  


The Four Living Creatures and the Sri Yantra

After I read Ezekiel's vision, I took a photocopy of my illustration of the pyramid design, and drew in the four "wheels," that is, a circle with two rings drawn upon each of the four triangles. That is the illustration above. As I gazed upon the new drawing, I suddenly realized that incredible coincidence had struck again. When viewed diagonally, the shape had the same arrangement of nine circular areas as the other designs I had drawn earlier.  It has the same basic layout as my nine chits in the diamond arrangement, that had proven so very coincidental. (See the linked articles above)

I then realized the illustration also had the 5-4 code, as I originally suspected from the Dali painting, Animated Still Life, and which proved to be true of the Sri Yantra in terms of its upward and downward triangles. In the above illustration, the quintuplet of circles are the 5, and the "wheels" are the 4. The circles mark the four corners and apex of the pyramid, and the four "wheels" mark the four sides.

The first verse of The Book of Ezekiel says that his vision took place in the fourth month, on the fifth day of the month. I wondered if it could be that the date was timed to give the 5-4 code, in terms of the day and month.

My original feeling about Dali's Animated Still Life was that it symbolised how physical reality is created by thought forms. After I drew the pyramid shape, based of the triangular crop formation, I noticed that a four-pointed star could also be derived from it. This shape was also within one of my drawings of the four couples around a square. I realized that the pattern is quite similar to the designs on the the right side of the table in Dali's painting.

The left side of the table is covered by a white tablecloth. The right side seems to show what lies under the white tablecloth, that is, a pattern of creation.

       More Shocking News About Diana's Death

          It was recently reported the shocking revelation that at the time of her death in 1997, Princess Diana was being bugged
          by our largest spy agency, the NSA, which does electronic eavesdropping. Sources say they were probably monitoring
          Diana's friendship with controversial financier Teddy Forstmann. A British investigation into her death reveals more
          incredible facts that Americans have never heard.

          In the Independent, Guy Davis writes that the report shows that "there was no cover-up, no murder plot, and no
         sabotage." The Princess was killed when her car, which was being driven by a drunk Henri Paul while they were chased
         by several paparazzi photographers, crashed into a pillar in the Pont d'Alma tunnel. She wasn't wearing a seatbelt.
         This is all known, but some surprising new facts have also been revealed.

         The father of Diana's lover Dodi, Mohammed Fayed, has long asserted that the British secret service murdered Diana
         because she was pregnant with his child, who would have been half-Muslim. But during an autopsy, no evidence of Diana
         being pregnant was found and the blood in the car did not reveal the hormone levels of a pregnant woman. Also, Diana's
         close friend Rosa Monckton says that ten days before, when she and Diana were on holiday together, the princess told
         her that her period had started.

        Monte Carlo jeweler Alberto Repossi claimed that Dodi and Diana purchased an emerald and diamond engagement ring
        worth several hundred thousand dollars a few weeks before their deaths. Although he said he had security camera footage
        and a receipt to prove this, he later recanted his statement.

        Lord Stevens, who is in charge of the investigation, interviewed Prince Charles and Diana's butler Paul Burrell about a
        note that was written by Diana 10 months before her death, which said, "My husband is planning an 'accident' in my car,
        brake failure and serious head injury, to make the path clear for him to marry." But the crash was caused by Henri Paul
        driving too fast, not by brake failure. HOWEVER, it has now been revealed that Henri Paul was secretly working for the
        French intelligence services at the time of the crash, and there is evidence he may have been working for the British
        secret service as well. But it's not likely that Paul would have conspired in a plot that led to his own death. He was not
        known to be an alcoholic, but a post-mortem examination of his body shows that his blood alcohol level was over the
        legal limit.

        Despite the fact that there were over 14 closed-circuit cameras in the Pont d'Alma tunnel where the crash occurred,
        none of them recorded the fatal crash. Sources say they were either switched off or faced towards the wall—but why
        would this be the case? Also, one driver got a speeding ticket 15 minutes before the crash, so the cameras were
        working then.

        Pedestrians and ther drivers reported seeing a white Fiat Uno crash into the Mercedes containing Diana and Dodi as
        their car entered the tunnel. Traces of white paint were found on the wrecked Mercedes, and part of a bumper and
        tail light were found nearby, but despite a huge database search of over 100,000 cars, the car and driver were never
        found. HOWEVER, the French photographer James Andason, who had been stalking Dodi and Diana, owned a white
        Fiat Uno. This was sold and repainted a few days after the crash. Like Henri Paul, HE WAS ALSO BEING PAID BY THE
        BRITISH SECRET SERVICE. He said he had not been in Paris that night, but he could not be questioned again, because
        three years later, the burned remains of his body were found in an abandoned car in the south of France.

     Princess Diana Bugged by US Gov.

       A new British investigation into the the August 31st, 1997 death of Princess Diana and Dodi Fayed reveals that the National
       Security Agency (NSA) was secretly bugging Diana's phone when their car crashed in a tunnel in Paris while they were being
       chased by photographers. The crash killed them both.

       The report shows that the blood of their driver, Henri Paul, tested as being more than three times over the French limit for
       drunken driving. This indicates that the cause of the crash is probably due to Henri Paul's reckless driving, but it DOESN'T
       explain why the NSA was involved. It has been discovered that they were listening in on Diana's cell phone conversations,
       WITHOUT the approval of the British secret service. However, Jason Bennetto writes in the Independent that the CIA has
       told British intelligence that her "final conversations while staying at the Ritz hotel did not reveal anything that might explain
       her death."

       The NSA denies that they ever listened in on Diana's calls.


       A report on the inquest into the death of Princess Diana that was being prepared by UK Metropolitan Police Commissioner
       Lord Stevens has been delayed after Royal Coroner Michael Burgess stepped down, claiming an excessive workload.

       Prior to her death, Princess Diana claimed in a letter that her husband, Prince Charles, was planning to kill her, and Mohammed
       al Fayed, her lover's father, has questioned previous conclusions that the deaths of the Princess and his son, Dodi al Fayed, were
       the result of an auto accident.

       Lady Elizabeth Butler-Sloss has taken over the inquiry, and will review documents relating to the deaths. She has been a High
       Court and Appeals Court Judge, and President of the Family Division, and is greatly respected within the British judiciary.

       There is public concern that crucial elements of the case have not yet been revealed, and it is hoped that Lady Butler-Sloss will
       convene a jury to investigate the case. However, it seems likely that her appointment will lead to a decision not to do so, a decision
       that the Royal Coroner may have been unwilling to make.

       Diana was a troubled and remarkable woman with a wide range of interests, and a deeply alive human being with a passion for the
       welfare of humankind.


     Why Diana's Death is Still a Mystery

        There have been years of speculation about why a U.K. investigation of the death of Princess Diana in 1997 has not yet taken place.
        In the Independent, Terry Kirby quotes a police source in France, who has read the 6,000 page official French report on the car crash,
        as saying, "I can tell you she was pregnant…There was a cover-up of sorts."

        This information feeds the conspiracy theorists who claim the crash was set up by the English monarchy, who would have been
        embarrassed if it came out that Diana was having Dodi Fayed's baby.

        Most of the French report, compiled by French official Herve Stephan, has never been made public. Now Royal coroner Michael
        Burgess has announced that inquests into the deaths of Dodi and Diana will begin on January 6th. However, he doesn't have to make
        his own report public, either.

        Before we get too critical, we should remember that many details about the JFK assassination have still not been released to the


      Was Princess Di Murdered? MI6 Agent Speaks Out

            In the January issue of Nexus Magazine, there is a sworn statement by Richard Tomlinson, a former MI6 officer, stating
         that British Intelligence is hiding important information about Princess Diana’s death.

         According to his story, in 1992 he was working in Eastern Europe as part of an operation trying to smuggle advanced
         Soviet weaponry out of the disintegrating Soviet Union. Meetings between agents working on this operation were often
         held at the Ritz Hotel, in Paris, from which Diana and her lover, Dodi Al Fayed, took their fatal limousine ride. In
         intelligence documents he saw while working on the Soviet operation, he noted that one of their paid informants was a
         security officer who worked at the Ritz, Henri Paul, who drove the car that crashed, killing Diana and Dodi, as well as
         himself. This means that the driver, once thought to be only an employee of Dodi’s father, who owned the Ritz, was
         actually an undercover British spy as well.

         Tomlinson remembers reading a file describing a plan to assassinate the then Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic by
         crashing his limousine. The plan was to cause Milosevic’s limo to crash in a tunnel, because the concrete walls meant
         that the crash would be violent enough so that there would be no survivors. A tunnel would also reduce the possibility
         of casual witnesses. It was suggested that one way to cause the crash would be to disorient the driver by using a
         strobe flash gun, which has been used by MI6 to disorient enemy helicopter pilots and terrorists. This scenario is
         remarkably similar to the circumstances and eyewitness accounts of the crash that killed Princess Diana.

         Richard Tomlinson states that while in the British Intelligence Service, he learned there were links between MI6 and
         the Royal Household. MI6 routinely looks for and reports any terrorist threats against the Royal Family and asks other
         agencies, like the CIA, to keep an eye on them during foreign trips. The Princess of Wales did not like to have
         bodyguards with her, so they often requested this type of help on her trips abroad. He also learned that one of the
         photographers who routinely followed Diana was a part-time member of MI6.

         After he testified before the French judge who was investigating the crash, Tomlinson was arrested in his Paris hotel
         at gunpoint and received a broken rib in the scuffle. He was taken to French Intelligence Headquarters and interrogated
         for 38 hours. After his release, his laptop computer was confiscated and passed it on to MI6.

         In August 1998, he boarded a flight from New Zealand, headed for Australia, where he was going to give a TV interview
         about the Diana incident. While waiting for takeoff, he was told that his travel papers were not in order and that he would
         have to leave the plane. When he got back to his hotel, the New Zealand Intelligence Service took him into custody and
         again took his computer.

         He was also scheduled to be interviewed on NBC TV in the U.S. When he arrived at JFK airport, he was told to surrender
         his passport and was taken into custody. He was kept handcuffed for seven hours while being photographed and
         fingerprinted, then he was served with deportation papers and put on a plane home. The immigration officers he
         dealt with openly admitted they were acting under orders from the CIA.

         He is now illegally banned from entering France in order, he feels, to prevent him from giving further testimony.

         After the unexplained assassination of John F. Kennedy, most of us in the U.S. wouldn’t be too surprised by accusations
         that a rebel Princess like Diana was gotten out of the way.

        Source: Nexus, Dec. 2000-Jan. 2001 issue.



King Arthur Database

The Templar-Illuminati Connection

Elanor of Aquataine




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Royal Links

The British Monarchy
Unofficial Royal Family pages
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Canadian Monarchist ONLINE
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The Stolen Child of Edward III and Wallace Simpson
The Dream Connection to the Eclipse of Aug. 11, 1999

The Meanings Behind The Symbols

Royalty and Nobility





Fear not: I am the first and the last:

I am He that lives, and was dead;

and behold, I am alive for evermore. Amen;

and have the keys of hell and of death.

Revelation 1:17, 18



The Symbolism and Spiritual Significance of the Number Three