THE PUZZLE CHALLENGE

THE VOYNICH MANUSCRIPT

compiled by Dee Finney

and others as noted

8-27-09 To our readers:

I received a book today, by the name of "History is Wrong", written by Erich von Daniken - who is famous for his previous book, "Chariot of the Gods".

In chapter 1, he talks about the Voynich manuscript, with which I was familiar, but the chapter intrigued me to take another look at the information he gives about where the manuscript supposedly came from through history.  No one has been able to date the manuscript (or refused to try to date the manuscript)  and it unknown when or where it originally came from, and besides that no one can decipher what it says, no matter how far technology has come in the age of computers.

The book is named after the Polish-American book dealer Wilfrid M. Voynich, who acquired it in 1912. Currently the Voynich manuscript is stored in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Yale University as item "MS 408". The first facsimile edition was published in 2005.

Here is Wickipedia's description of the manuscript:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript

Most experts assign the book to dates between 1450 and 1520. This estimate is supported by other secondary clues.

The earliest confirmed owner of the Voynich manuscript was Georg Baresch, an obscure alchemist who lived in Prague in the early 17th century. Baresch apparently was just as puzzled as we are today about this "Sphynx" that had been "taking up space uselessly in his library" for many years.[9] On learning that Athanasius Kircher, a Jesuit scholar from the Collegio Romano, had published a Coptic (Ethiopic) dictionary and "deciphered" the Egyptian hieroglyphs, Baresch sent a sample copy of the script to Kircher in Rome (twice), asking for clues. His 1639 letter to Kircher, which was recently located by Rene Zandbergen, is the earliest mention of the manuscript that has been found so far.

Authorship

Many names have been proposed as possible authors of the Voynich manuscript.

Marci's 1665 cover letter to Kircher says that, according to his late friend Raphael Mnishovsky, the book had once been bought by Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia (1552–1612), for 600 ducats—around US$ 30,800 as of 2005. According to the letter, Rudolf believed the author to be the Franciscan friar and polymath Roger Bacon (1214–1294).

Even though Marci said that he was "suspending his judgment" about this claim, it was taken quite seriously by Voynich, who did his best to confirm it. His conviction strongly influenced most deciphering attempts for the next 80 years. However, scholars who have looked at the Voynich manuscript and are familiar with Bacon's works have flatly denied that possibility.[citation needed] Mnishovsky died in 1644, and the deal must have occurred before Rudolf's abdication in 1611—at least 55 years before Marci's letter.

The assumption that Roger Bacon was the author led Voynich to conclude that the person who sold the manuscript to Rudolf could only be John Dee, a mathematician and astrologer at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, known to have owned a large collection of Bacon's manuscripts. This theory is also conveyed by Voynich manuscript scholar Gordon Rugg. Dee and his scrier (mediumic assistant) Edward Kelley lived in Bohemia for several years, where they had hoped to sell their services to the emperor. However, Dee's meticulously kept diaries do not mention that sale and make it seem quite unlikely. If the Voynich manuscript author is not Bacon, the connection to Dee may just disappear. It is possible that Dee himself may have written it and spread the rumour that it was originally a work of Bacon's in the hopes of later selling it.

Dee's companion in Prague, Edward Kelley, was a self-styled alchemist who claimed to be able to turn copper into gold by means of a secret powder that he had dug out of a Bishop's tomb in Wales. As Dee's scrier, he claimed to be able to invoke angels through a shewstone and had long conversations with them—which Dee dutifully noted down. The angel's language was called Enochian, after Enoch, the Biblical father of Methuselah; according to legend, he had been taken on a tour of heaven by angels and had later written a book about what he saw there. Several people (see below) have suggested that, just as Kelley may have invented Enochian to dupe Dee[citation needed], he could have fabricated the Voynich manuscript to swindle the emperor (who was already paying Kelley for his supposed alchemical expertise).
 

A photostatic reproduction of the first page of the Voynich manuscript, taken by Voynich sometime before 1921, showed some faint writing that had been erased. With the help of chemicals, the text could be read as the name "Jacobj `a Tepenece". This is taken to be Jakub Horčický of Tepenec, who was also known by his Latin name: Jacobus Sinapius (1575–1622). He was a specialist in herbal medicine, Rudolph II's personal physician, and curator of his botanical gardens. Voynich, and many other people after him, concluded from this "signature" that Jacobus owned the Voynich manuscript before Baresch and saw in that a confirmation of Mnishovsky's story. Others have suggested that Jacobus himself could be the author. However, the signature of Jacobus does not match any of his other documents.

According to von Daniken, after Voynich's death, and also his wife and secretary were dead, the manuscript was next found in 1912 in a Jesuit college in the Villa Mandragone. The villa had been a Jesuit training center and held an impressive collection of old manuscripts from the library of the Collegum Romanum. The Jesuits, fearing that their library might be plundered, transferred the manuscript to Mandragone in Frascan, north of Rome. That's where Voynich had originally found the manuscript in an old trunk.  No one knew its value.

When Voynich first opened the manuscript, there was a letter stuck between the cover and the first page, written in Latin, by a certain "Johannes Marcus de Cronland" in Prague, and was dated 1666.  The letter stated that the manuscript had belonged to Emporer Rudolph II, who was crowned in 1576 In Prague. Cronland believed the author of the manuscript to be Roger Bacon.

Roger Bacon, lived from 1214-1294 and was known to be a genius.  He wrote about futuristic types of things including flying machines. He eventually joined the Franciscan order but was kicked out for conflicts with his superiors.

Flying machines were well known in ancient texts, from India,  (the Vimanas) and China as far back as 270 A.D. Even the Bible describes King Solomons flying machine.

Who knows what was destroyed in the library of Alexandria which was burned in 47 A.D. and in 391 A.C.  Copies of some of the works have been found in other ancient libraries, but who knows how much was not copied.

Central America has artifacts that look very plane-like dated to 500 C.E. 

The Rama empire of India had such things as far back as 15,000 years ago.

According to books about ancient MU in the Pacific, those peoples also traveled in flying machines. 

So, this technilogy is not new to mankind.

Zechariah Sitchin shows rocket ships in Sumeria and Babylonia prior to the Egyptian empires of the pharoahs.

So, when was the Voyanich document written?  Will we ever know?

Below you will find out original challenge and the names of the people who participated in the challenge to decipher the Voynich manuscript.

 

From: Raphiem | Omtron [mailto:raphiem@omtron.com]
Sent: March 31, 2006 3:13 PM
Participants in the discussion
CodeUFO, norma; vantilburg; greenlysard; jasgrave; esmarties; jraso; susoni; JMason4557@aol.com; Dee777@aol.com; william.downie; c-miller; d.skhane; lggl007
Subject: The Puzzle Challenge

Ok people's, here is the puzzle. You may or may not believe some of the stuff in here, but put it aside and focus on the hidden connections left behind in particular by John Dee and Francis Bacon who translated the KJV of the Bible. Now dou't I believe they left their own clues and marks (ciphers) within the Bible. Sorry there are no real prizes, but ask and I'll see what I can do. Bear in mind, I do believe and know for a fact that Francis Bacon is the mysterious St-Germain of Europe who was actually Shakespeare. But don't let this dissuade you from the puzzle.

 

Bacon, Francis (philosopher) (1561-1626),

St. Germain
The name St. Germain, Sanctus Germanus, means Holy Brother.

Shakespeare
(1564-1616)

text sample

Francis Bacon handwriting?
taken from "The Secret Teachings of All Ages" 
by Manly P. Hall

copy of Voynich text
from sites below
1608 is the earliest definite date for the Manuscript.

 

ST Germain is indeed a mysterious figure
supposedly either thru incarnation or some magic trick or elixir
he was father of jesus (joseph) as well as merlin/taleisin/columba/columbus/bacon
here he makes the jump to the mysterious ST Germain
 

not his brother, john the beloved was supposedly his partner in crime as some in newage know as kuthumi

 John Dee was Kuthumi

At the moment I am trying to work out why the Mound where Princess Tea Tephi was buried was of exact measurement of 60 feet.  As pointed out previously, it comes down to two lots of 3 = 33 (discounting the zero in the Pythagorean cipher system and that of the Gematria).  And TT (for Tea Tephi) is symbolic of Thirty-Three - Freemasonry. 

She was of the Bloodline of the House of Judah/David [Kuthumi] and he great great grandfather was Jeremiah the Prophet [St Germain] who had once been Abraham.  So, yes, she would most probably be of Enki's bloodline if he was St G,.  As St Germain had also been Noah connected with the Ark and Ararat (which in Hebrew is spelled backwards and gives us Tara-Ra) and it is the Gilgamesh version of the Flood that tells us about the 'gods'.
http://www.motherbedford.com/AdamGen01.htm

Johanna

The Ark was made of acacia or shittim wood. It measured about 43 inches (1.1 meters) long, and about 27 inches (0.7 meter) both wide and high. It had 2 gold rings fastened on each side through which poles were inserted to carry it. The poles were to remain in the rings at all times. The lid on the top was called the atonement cover, or "mercy seat." On top of it were two carved cherubim, with their wings spread upward, overshadowing the cover (Exodus 25:10-22)

Two carriers of the ark were killed by touching it, think it may have tipped or become unstable in its motion while being moved, and those who perhaps spontaneously touched the ark to stabilize it were killed by its energy.  Perhaps it had to be grounded on stone or something dense to not be so lethal. It probably was a resonance chamber, capable of very high frequencies. That story in in Old testament: somewhere.

N

After the Israelites finally settled in their promised land, King David prepared to build a permanent temple to God in Jerusalem. While the ark was being transported to the site, an incident occurred that showed that God's instructions concerning the Ark were not to be taken lightly.

According to scripture, the Ark was only to be carried by Levities (a group of Hebrews set apart as temple workers) using the poles. Instead, King David brought it to Jerusalem on a cart drawn by oxen. According to First Chronicles 13:9:

When they came to the threshing floor of Kidon, Uzzah [who was driving the cart] reached out his hand to steady the ark, because, the oxen stumbled. The Lord's anger burned against Uzzah, and he struck him down because he had put his hand on the ark. So he died there before God.

Though mishandling the ark was dangerous, it also seemed to be the focal point of several miracles that assisted the Israelites in times of need. In Joshua 4 the Bible records that when the priests who were carrying the ark stepped into the Jordan River, it immediately stopped flowing, allowing the Israelites to cross on dry land. Also whenever the ark was carried into battle at God's command, the Israelites prevailed.

 

1st Samuel Chapter 4

Generation No. 9

LAMECH9 * (METHUSELAH8, ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHABEEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, SHETH2, ADAM1) Lamech lived 777 years. [Ref: I Chronicles 1 to 8; Luke 3: 23-38]

In the time of Enosh it came to happen that man served the gods, 'and to call on the name of the deity."

The son of Enosh, through whom the pure lineage continued, was Cainan (means little Cain) some scholars take the name to mean "metalsmith".

Cainan's son was Mahalal-El (praiser of god)

He was followed by Jared ("he who descended) his son was Enoch ("consecrated one" who at age 365 was carried aloft by the Deity.

At age 65 Enoch had a son named Mathusaleh "scholars think the name means "man of the missile")

Methusaleh's son was named Lamech, meaning "ho who was humbled".

Child of LAMECH * is:

A. NOAH10 *. (means 'respite")

Generation No. 10

 NOAH10 * {aka Noe} (LAMECH9, METHUSELAH8, ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHABEEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, SHETH2, ADAM1) Noah married Titea. According to tradition, following the Flood, the sons of Noah moved to different parts of the known world. Shem went to and settled in Asia; Ham went to and settled in Africa; and Japheth went to and settled in Europe. [Ref: I Chronicles 1 to 8; Luke 3: 23-38]

Noah was a "Man of Shuruppak" the seventh city established by the Nephilim when they landed on earth.

Children of NOAH * are:

1. SHEM11 *.

2. HAM *.

3. JAPHETH *.

The waters prevailed upon Earth 150 days, when the Deity  caused a wind to pass upon the Earth and the waters were calmed.

In the biblical version, when Noah was 600 years old - his ordeal began on the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month.  (It took only seven days to complete the ark)

In the Sumerian version of the flood, the Deity who helped Noah is Ea/Enki, and Noah's name is Utnapishtim. - son of Ubar-Tutu -

He was not told to save the animals, he was told to save the 'seed' of the animals.

The "south storm" blew for six days and six nights" and on the seventh day it calmed.

 
In the 1920 book Life Understood, which I re-consulted this morning, not having read it for several years it states:
"The early monkish annalists state that Ireland was first inhabited by Cessair, the grand-daughter of Noah [St Germain], who according to Professory Rhys, represented a tribal goddess of the pre-Celtic people.  She and her followers were possibly Atlanteans, who, on the submergence of that continent managed to escape to Ireland.
 
The Prince Heremon whom TT married was known as Eochaid in Ireland and this name continued down through the lineages of the Irish kings.  Heber is also another version, relating to their Hebrew ancestry.
Heremon was the son of Princess Scota (daughter of pharaoh Nectanebus of Egypt).  Scota married Gathelus of Spain otherwise known as Milesian (from which we obtain the word 'mile'). At some stage, Scota and Gathelus visited Ireland - it was known as the invasion of the Milesians - and Scotland was named after her.  Scota was not the daughter of King Zedekiah..
 
 According to 1920 book, Life Understood, Tephi was a family name; Taphath was the daughter of Solomon (I Kings 4 verse 11).  The name 'Tea Tephi' signified 'a tender twig'.  The root 'taph' signifies and infant, and iis the Hebrew word used for 'little one' in numerous places.  'Tea' also means 'little'."
 
However, I believe it is important to bear in mind that specific names given in the Bible had cryptic meanings and the fact that she was known as the Tender Twig in the Bible, and as Tea Tephi in the Annals of the Irish Masters, signifies TT - connected with the Twin pillars of Moses - the Ark of the Covenant and Freemasonry. She was the young 'twig' of the vine of the House of David.  [note: Moses was Ahkenaten; See: http://www.greatdreams.com/moses.htm  ]
 
In the Bible the sister is not named, only mentioned as a princess; also in the Annals of the Irish Masters, she is not named.  However, Scota, as mentioned earlier above, was the mother-in-law of Princess Tea Tephi Mor.
 
Scota's son, Heremon/Eochaid/Heber, was of the tribe of Dan - the Tuatha de Danaan.  There are many gods and goddesses of this tribe, bound up in Irish mythology, including the children of Don/Dan who were regarded as deities in the sky.  Another of the gods of Dan, was Odin who is also Thor in Scandanavian mythology. 'Dan' in Danmark (Denmark) and Scandan... prescribe to where the tribe of Dan left their mark as they travelled towards the British Isles.
 
From: Lynda Brasier

JEREMIAH AND TEA TEPHI
TEA TEPHI. Buried ineradically in the poetry and folk-lore of Ireland is the tale ... The praises of Tea Tephi, daughter of Lughaidh (equivalent in Erse of ...
www.asis.com/~stag/jerrytea.html -

THE CORONATION STONE
Eochaide and Tea Tephi were the complete fulfillment of Jacob's command that Judah ... With the arrival of Tea Tephi, and her subsequent marriage to the ...
www.asis.com/~stag/stone.html

Lost Tribes of Israel
Did he travel there in 583-560 BC from Egypt around the same time of the destruction of Jerusalem, with: the scribe Baruch, Ebed-Melech, Tea Tephi (daughter ...
www.bibleprobe.com/lost.htm

The Ark of the Covenant measured 1 1/2 cubits (one and a half), which today would be 2.5 feet.

But the Egyptian Royal cubit measurement was different, and below it mentions dividing it by 60.

I am probably on a wild goose chase here - but the point I am making is if the Ark of the Covenant - twin pillars of Moses concealed within the Ark of the Covenant were so small, for they had to be in order to fit into the Ark of the Covenant, then why the measurement of her burial place being 60 feet? Was it purely a hint of the Freemasonic connection, or one of latitude.

Downpatrick in Ireland, is 54 degrees North.

St Germain's (Merlin/Columba's) favourite Psalm about Tea Tephi's royal wedding, is Psalm 45. He could have given it any other number, i.e. Psalm 33, but he didn't.

To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil, A Song of loves.

My heart is inditing a good matter: I speak of the things which I have made touching the king: my tongue is the pen of a ready writer.

2 Thou art fairer than the children of men: grace is poured into thy lips: therefore God hath blessed thee for ever.

3 Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty.

4 And in thy majesty ride prosperously because of truth and meekness and righteousness; and thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things.

5 Thine arrows are sharp in the heart of the king’s enemies; whereby the people fall under thee.

Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre.

7 Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

8 All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they have made thee glad.

9 Kings’ daughters were among thy honourable women: upon thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir.

10 Hearken, O daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear; forget also thine own people, and thy father’s house;

11 So shall the king greatly desire thy beauty: for he is thy Lord; and worship thou him.

12 And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift; even the rich among the people shall intreat thy favour.

13 The king’s daughter is all glorious within: her clothing is of wrought gold.

14 She shall be brought unto the king in raiment of needlework: the virgins her companions that follow her shall be brought unto thee.

15 With gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought: they shall enter into the king’s palace.

16 Instead of thy fathers shall be thy children, whom thou mayest make princes in all the earth.

17 I will make thy name to be remembered in all generations: therefore shall the people praise thee for ever and ever.

Given that the Grail family were the Essenes, am using their Gemetria.
(website is http://essenes.net/gemcal.htm)
 
I am looking to see if any particular numbers stand out as common denominators.
 
In Greek alphabet,  T = 300 -discount 0's = 33 i.e. T.T. for Tea Tephi, placed side by side, letters T.T. = 33
T+ T in Greek alphabet = 600 (discount 0) 6 = 2 lots of 3 i.e.33 - Thirty-Three.
Thirty Three comprises of twin capital letters of the letter 'T' which in turn correspond to the Twin Pillars of Moses concealed within the Ark of the Covenant.
 
The princess was buried beneath a mound which measured exactly 60 feet ( drop the 0) and follow same rules we have two lots of 3 - 33.
 
 
Germain = 309 which added = 12 (0's don't count)
Noah = 129 which added 1 + 2 + 9 = 12
 
Ararat = 803 which = 11 (Noah's ark and Mt Ararat)
Eochaid = 101 = 11 (discounting 0) (Eochaid/Heremon married Tea Tephi)
Ephraim (Great Britain) 344 = 11
Columcille (ancient name for St Columba) 344 = 11
Merlin (St Columba) = 335 which = 11
 T +T (for Tea Te phi)  + phi (5) = 11
 
Taliesin (St Columba/Merlin) = 806 (discount 0) = 14, 1 + 4 = 5 (Phi?)
 
In Gemetria, TT = 800 (discount 0's) = 8
Thirty Three = 1646 adds up to 17 and 1+7 = 8
Saint Germain = 1070 (discount 0's) = 8
Mound  = 170 (discount 0) = 8
 
Tender Twig (Ezekiel's riddle about Princess Tea Tephi) = 1877; which adds up to 32, and 3 + 2 = 5 (phi?)
 
Scota - (ancient name for Ireland) = 771, = 18 & 1 + 8 =9
Tea Tephi = 909 (discount 0) = 99, 9 + 9 = 18, 8 + 1 = 9
Scarlet Thread = 18, 1 + 8 = 9
(Ezekiel's story of the princess is called the Scarlet Thread)
Psalm 54 (of her wedding - favourite psalm and probably written by St G.) 5 + 4 = 9
Heremon (otherwise called Eochaid - husband of Princess TTM) = 378; = 18, 1 + 8 = 9
Downpatrick = 1638, = 18, 1 + 8 =9
 
Jeremiah (St G) who took A/C & princess TTM to Ireland = 279 = 18, 1 + 8 = 9
 
 
Dun da Lethglas (old name for Downpatrick) = 842 = 14 & 1 + 4 = 5
Mor (for Tea's other name) = 310 (discount 0) 3 + 1 = 4
Mor also means a mound and she was buried beneath a mound, could be long stretch of imagination, but if we put 5 & 4 together, for the place and the mound, we have 54 degrees which is exactly where Downpatrick is located.
Also bearing in mind St Columba's favourite psalm 45 - about her wedding.  He must have given it the number 45 for a very good reason.  Mention of the Ark of the Covenant always occurs in verses 33, in the Bible. 33 = Thirty Three = TT = Twins Pillars of Moses concealed within the Ark of the Covenant.
 
I am still thinking about 54 degrees north (Downpatrick) where the Mound of Down is, and the fact that St Columba's favourite Psalm was 45 - and it is about her marriage to Prince Heremon of the Tribe of Dan.  I do not believe that that particular psalm is a random number chosen - I believe it is specific. 
 
Clues are as follows:
 
Certain historical figures, possibly the same beings re-incarnating across history know where the Ark of the Covenant) is hidden because they hid it. So we need to bear in mind that they left us clues to decipher.  They are obviously not going to materialize and show us where it is. The importance of the discovery of the Ark of the Covenant hinges on the fact that after it is found, we will gain world peace.
 
The A/C is part of the Freemasonic rituals.
 
There are 33 initiatory degrees in Freemasonry (nothing to do with degrees N.S.E. W. etc.)
 
The Head of Freemasonry is St Germain.
As Sir Francis Bacon, he and Sir John Dee (Kuthumi) translated the Bible into English.
Sir John Dee at that time, was the Grand Master of the Rosicrucians affiliated with Freemasonry.
 
According to the Bible, apart from other items, the Ark of the Covenant was built to house the twin pillars of Moses - which are TT.
Mention of Moses, Aaron (St Germain) who was given charge of the Ark of the Covenant, occurs in 33 in the Bible.
Moses & Aaron were of the tribe of Levi, and Aaron was the first High Priest of the tribe of Levi. 
 
Aaron [St Germain] means a 'box'/'chest'/'sarcophagus "commonly applied to the Ark of the Covenant".
Noah [St Germain] "the Gilgamesh version of the Ark calls it simply ekallu, meaning 'great house' or 'palace'."
 
In Revelation II, verse 19 (which is 1 + 9 = 10, the perfect number of completion), the Covenant Box is mentioned as being discovered and opened. Revelation II could represent twin pillars.  Kuthumi wrote Revelation when he was John the Beloved.
 

According to Peter Dawkins of the Francis Bacon Research Trust, UK., the number 33 is the Elizabethan simple cipher for BACON, (B=2, A=1, C=3, 0=14,
N =13), total 33. (Francis Bacon was St Germain who translated the Bible).

           

The late Alfred Dodd, biographer of Francis Bacon informs us in his book titled Francis Bacon’s Personal Life Story as follows:

Thirty-Three: “‘33’ was the numerical signature of Bacon as well as the Highest Masonic Degree, and the symbols of ‘T.T.’ run like a golden thread throughout the ceremonials of Masonry and Rosicrucianism from the first Masonic Step…’T’ and the ‘33’ candles on the Rosicrucian Altar.”

 
In the Targum Onkelos 33:12 (Aramaric Version of the Bible):
 
 "The beloved of the Lord shall dwell safely by him: the shield shall be over him all the days, and the Shekinah (Ark of the Covenant) will dwell in his land".
Using the Pythagorean method of ciphers (Pythagoras was Kuthumi who reincarnated as John the Beloved)
33 + 12 = 45 and 4 + 5 = 9.
 
The 'beloved of the Lord' was John the Beloved (Kuthumi).  In his incarnation as St Patrick, he built his first church at Saul, near Downpatrick. - Downpatrick is named in his honour. The areas are on Leylines.
 
St Germain in his incarnation as St Columba/Merlin/Taliesin, born in Northern Ireland during the 6th century AD, (which is also 33) prophesied that he would be buried with Patrick (Kuthumi) and St Brigid (Mary of the Gaels - the Lady Portia of St Germain  fame ).  At the time this would have seemed most unlikely. When Patrick died, he was buried on a hill, which overlooks the Mound of Down - Brigid was buried in Leinster in the south of Ireland, and Columba was buried on the island of Iona, Scotland.  However, due to Viking raids, Columba's were taken to Downpatrick and so were Brigid's and they were buried together with St Patrick.
 
Writing under the name of Taliesin, St Columba wrote:
"My prosperity in guiless Iona" (where he established a major centre of Learning of the Ancient Mysteries and where hand written copies of the Bible were done)
"My soul in Derry (where he was born in Northern Ireland)
"And my body beneath the flagstone beneath which are Patrick and Brigid"
 
There has been a Cathedral on the hill for many centuries. They are now buried beneath a flagstone there.  According to F.L. Rawson in his book titled Life Understood (1920), the location of the burial place of the A/C was near the Town Cross.Today, that Town Cross stands in front of the Cathedral on the hill overlooking the Mound of Down.  It was originally a location marker for the town.
 
Going back in time:
In circa 586 BC, St Germain in his incarnation as Jeremiah the Prophet (mentioned in the Bible), prophesied the fall of the Temple of Jerusalem by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. It was in this Temple that the Ark of the Covenant was housed.
 
In his incarnation as David, anointed by the Prophet Samuel (St Germain) as King of the House of Judah, Kuthumi designed the plans for the Temple and before his demise, made his son Solomon (El Morya) promise to build the Temple in which to house the A/C. (Prior to this, is had been house in a tent).
 
King Zedekiah of the House of Judah and his two princely sons were captured and killed by Nebuchadnezzar.  Prior to this event, Jeremiah (St Germain) who was the great great grandfather of the princes, and their sister, Princess Tea Tephi Mor, escorted her along with Jacob's Pillow (which in Ireland became known as the Stone of Destiny - the Coronation Stone of Great Britain), to Ireland.  They also took the A/C. They landed on the North East coast of Northern Ireland (Ulster). (North East is Downpatrick).
 
In the Bible (Ezekiel), there is a riddle about the 'Tender Twig' of the  vine of the House of Judah, the last remaining royal descendant - deciphered in Irish legend, she was the Princess Tea Tephi Mor. 
Tender Twig is also TT.  TT represents not only the Twin pillars of Moses, but also Thirty Three.
 
Tea Tephi is also TT in initials, and also phoenetically TEA TE with Phi added.
So I don't know if the Phi is related....
'Mor' is not a Middle Eastern name - as in having come from Jerusalem.
'Mor' in Gaelic means a 'Mound'.
 
Tara, County Meath, in the southern region of Ireland (which is the Republic of Ireland), was the home of the High Kings of Ireland.  Jeremiah (St Germain) reunited the House of Judah with that of the tribe of Dan, when he conducted the marriage ceremony between Prince Heremon (tribe of Dan) and Princess Tea Tephi Mor, upon Jacob's Pillow (Stone of Destiny which became Britain's Coronation Stone eventually housed underneath the throne in Westminster Abbey).
 
In his incarnation as St Columba, Archdruid High Priest who was the Merlin of the 6th century AD, he wrote many hymns.  His favourite Psalm was number 45.  This is the Royal Wedding of Princess Tea Tephi Mor.
 
5 + 4 = 9.  And mentioned above :
 
In the Targum Onkelos 33:12 (Aramaric Version of the Bible) "The beloved of the Lord shall dwell safely by him: the shield shall be over him all the days, and the Shekinah (Ark of the Covenant) will dwell in his land".
 
Using the Pythagorean method of ciphers (Pythagoras was Kuthumi who reincarnated as John the Beloved)
 
33 + 12 = 45 and 4 + 5 = 9.
 
 
Within the Rosicrucian school of thought there is a lot of instruction about it as it relates to our incarnations. Apparently, if/when we reach the 9th level of the spiral, in our experiences of life, then we have completed our mission for this incarnation. It is also three times three or completeness, the third time around the triangle. This could be the reason we don't recognise (in the Rosicrucian Order) any degrees above the 9th, all a student is permitted to say is that he/she is studying beyond the 9th. Hope this is useful, talk soon.
 
 
Also, the mound (Mor) where I believe the princess is buried beneath, is at Downpatrick, County Down, Northern Ireland, which is 54 degrees north and this is why I believe Psalm 45 is a clue as to the degrees of its location.
 
The princess was buried with the Ark of the Covenant.
 
According to the Bible codes, the Ark of the Covenant is hidden 'North'. 
 
According to the Irish bards of the time, she was buried beneath a mound that measured 60 feet exactly.
 
The Mound of Down (Downpatrick) measures exactly 60 feet in height.
 
Using the Pythagorean method, 0's are not counted, so 60 = two lots of 3 - 33 (as in Freemasonry) and its rites to do with the Ark of the Covenant.
 
In his incarnation as Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Alexander (St Germain) wrote of a dream in which he was taken by a green man (Ireland is known as the Emerald Isle and the tribe of Dan to which Prince Heremon who married the Princess belonged, is allotted the 'Emerald' as their tribal stone in the Bible) - to a distant land.
 
Alexander was taken to the top of a Mount/Mound and there he discovered two large Pillars measuring 60 feet in height.
 
Thus, we have 3 clues of 60 feet - which are obviously clues to its location.
 
So, we are looking at 54 degrees North and a mound which measures 60 feet.
 
As mentioned, this is the exact measurement of the Mound of Down and Downpatrick is 54 degrees North.
 
Although the Princess and her husband ruled from Tara, they later went North and his brothers ruled from Tara.
 
They belonged to the Irish tribe of Dal Fiatach, and its palace was at Dun da Lethglas (later to be called Downpatrick).  This palace which lies beneath the mound with ancient ramparts around it, has never been excavated.
 
It is said to have been as important and as large as Tara.
 
The question is, has it not been excavated because high up members of the Orange Order of the Freemasons know what is located beneath?
 
According to Nostradamus, the Ark of the Covenant was hidden in a field which would have to be excavated.
 
The Mound of Down is in a field.  The field was once Marsh land surrounded by water until 1957-58 when it was reclaimed. (See photos on my website).
 
According to F.L. Rawson in his book titled Life Understood (1920), upon the arrival of the Ark of the Covenant on the North East coast of Ireland:
"...the preliminary service (for the Ark of the Covenant's arrival) was conducted in the underground chapel in the fortress of a chieftain who protected Christianity...the lighting of the chapel in a beautiful way by the Urim and Thummin..."
 
And also, that the Ark of the Covenant was concealed in a sarcophagus in the chapel  in a damp place.  You will see by the photo on the website, that the River runs very close to the Mound and the field - so it is very likely that there is a cavern/tomb beneath.
 
Further in in the book of Ezekiel in the Bible, (and it was Ezekiel who gave us the story of the Princess)
there is mention of the new Temple of Jerusalem.  Jerusalem was also Zion and Britain means the Land of the Covenant and the Land of Zion.  Northern Ireland is part of Great Britain - whereas, Tara in the southern region where some believe the Ark of the Covenant to be hidden, is in the Republic of Ireland.
 
Ezekiel's Temple "the kings built the thresholds and door-posts of their palace right against the thresholds of my Temple, so that there was only a wall between us."
The kings would refer to the Milesians kings - Prince Heremon who married Princess TT Mor was a Milesian -
 
In the Bible Codes, Michael Drosnin wrote referencing the Ark of the Covenant's whereabouts;
"It suggested that we might find more than an obelisk/pillar [of Moses] that the obelisk might be part of a palace or temple, either built to house the code key; or perhaps the Encoder."
 
The Encoder of the Bible refers to himself as the 'Lord of Code'.
St Germain as Sir Francis Bacon, and his tutor Sir John Dee (originator of 007) who translated the Bible into English were both Masters of Ciphers and codes. Therefore, St Germain is the 'Lord of Code' and he was Lord Bacon.
 
Ezekiel 47:  The man led me back to the entrance of the Temple, Water was coming out from under the entrance and flowing east, the direction that the Temple faced.  It was flowing down from under the south part of the Temple past the south side of the altar.  The man then took me out of the temple area by way of the north gate, and led me to the gate that faces east.  A small stream of water was flowing out at the south of the side gate."
 
Discussing the Temple, the authors of the Hiram Key quote from "the eighth chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews which quotes in full the Jeremiah [St Germain] passage which preceded it:
"....an eternal planting, a holy house of Israel [Great Britain] a most holy conclave for Aaron [St Germain] witnesses of Truth and judgment, and chosen by divine favour to atone for the earth, to render the wicked their deserts.  This is the tried wall, cornerstone, whose foundation shall not be shaken nor moved from its place."
 
(Aaron - St Germain was the first High Priest of Levi in charge of the Ark of the Covenant.  Ezekiel stated "All the priests are descended from Zadok: they are the only members of the tribe of Levi who are permitted to go into the Lord's presence to serve him." This is referring to the new Temple which houses the Ark of the Covenant.  Zadok was Samuel the Prophet who anointed David (Kuthumi) as King of the House of Judah).
 
"Whilst all of Freemasonry is concerned with the building of a spiritual temple on the design of Ezekiel's view of Solomon's Temple, the 'address in the north-east corner' immediately comes to mind.
"At the erection of all stately or superb edifices, it is customary to lay the first or foundation stone in the north-east corner of the building.  You, being newly admitted into Freemasonry are placed in the north-east corner of the Lodge, figuratively, to represent that stone..."
 
The Mound of Down lies to the north-east of Cathedral Hill Downpatrick.
"To the south, a stream of water flowed."  The River Quoile near the Mound and field, flows south to Saul.
After the marshes were drained the river became very small  - a stream in parts.
Downpatrick, once called Dun da Lethglas, means the 'Green sided place beside the stream'.
 
Now we return to Ezekiel:
"Then the man took me back to the bank of the river and when I got there I saw that there were very many trees on each bank.  This water flows through the land to the east into the Jordan Valley [do not take this literally - its a clue to the tribe of Dan in Ireland] and to the Dead Sea.  When it flows into the Dead Sea, it replaces the salt water of that sea with fresh water.  Wherever the stream flows, there will be all kinds of animals and fish [this was a future prophecy].  The stream will make the water of the Dead Sea fresh, and wherever it flows, it will bring life.  There will be as many kinds of fish as there are in the Mediterranean Sea.  [So obviously this place is not in the Middle East] but the water in the marshes and ponds along the shore will not be made fresh.  They will remain there as a source of salt.  On each bank of the stream all kinds of trees will grow to provide food."
 
The River Quoile, Downpatrick (see photo on website) was where St Patrick first landed.  

 

c.385–461, Christian missionary, the Apostle of Ireland, b. Bannavem Taberniae (an unknown place in Britain, possibly near the Severn or in Pembroke). He was one of the most successful missionaries in history. In the winter of 432 Patrick landed near Saul and remained until spring, when he went to Tara and gained his first major converts. He defied the pagan priests of Tara by kindling the Easter fire on Slane, a nearby hill. This challenge to paganism created at first indignation, and subsequently respect, in the court of the high king. Tara became Patrick’s headquarters, and with a band of followers he successively converted Meath, Leitrim, Cavan, and W Ireland. Further details of his missions are only generally known.

 

By the 1950

s the flooding in Downpatrick was serious.  The problem was solved in 1957 by the new tidal barrier which was built 2 miles downstream at Hare Island, creating Quoile Pond-age, an area where flood waters can safely gather before being discharged into Strangford Louch at each low tide.
 
Strangford Lough flows east into the Irish Sea which is also known traditionally as the British Mediterranean Sea.
Northern Ireland is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Irish Sea to the East.
 
According to local tourist info:
"The present freshwater lake was created by the construction of a tidal barrier across the estuary of the River Quoile in 1957. 
Ezekiel:  "There will be as many kinds of fish as there are in the Mediterranean Sea.  Wherever the stream flows, there will be all kinds of animals and fish."
 
Tourist info:
"The Quoile is rich in insects, providing food for fish such as rudd and eels.  In turn, these may be eaten by grey herons, cormorants, and grebes.  The Quoile attracts migrating wading birds in the spring and autumn.  In summer, swans and many breeding wildfowl appear."
 
"The resulting dramatic change from salt water to fresh water is illustrated by the succession of developing habitats rich in wild life.  The natural colonization of the former seashore has resulted in the marsh plants growing along the river fringes, with reed-beds, rushy grassland and alder or willow scrub in old muddy bays.  Woodland oak and ash is developing on the higher stony shores.  Periodic flooding maintains distinct zones of vegetation."
 
Ezekiel:
"On each bank of the stream all kinds of trees will grow to provide food."
 
Tourist info:
"Soon after the barrier was built, plants began to grow on the former seashore.  First grasses, then bushes and eventually trees arrived as a natural succession progressed."
 
Ezekiel:
"But the water in the marshes and ponds along the shore will not be made fresh.  They will remain as a source of salt."
 
Along the River Quoile is Salt island and Salt Lough producing 'salt'.
 
The Mound of Down located next to the River Quoile, was once known as the 'fortress in the marsh'.


Mound Of Down

There is much debate concerning this site. Some believe that it was the residence of Celtchar mac Ulthechair, the legendary Iron Age hero of the Ulster Cycle. If this is the case then by the early Christian period it had become the administration centre of the Dal Fiatach Kings. Others believe that both these establishments were located on Cathedral Hill.

You can get to the top via the western end of the mound where there are spectacular views of the Mourne Mountains and the Quoile estuary

 

The Normans built a castle on top of an earlier large egg-shaped manmade earthworks which has a steep bank and wide outer ditch.

This view was taken from an aircraft coming in to land at Belfast City (Harbour) airport in 2005.


Only 6.5 km S of the centre of Belfast , "The Giant's Ring" is an impressive and atmospheric monument,

consisting of a circular bank some 3.5 metres high enclosing a large space some 180 metres in diameter and 2.8 hectares in area.
The henge seems to be one of those monuments erected by the late-Neolithic "Beaker People" of N Britain
who were responsible also for the large free-standing stone circles at Ballynoe and Newgrange,
as well as the stone circle backed by a henge at Lough Gur.

E of the centre of the enclosure is a small passage-tomb whose vestigial passage faces W,
and which may have been erected (with a tumulus) a little before or a little after the henge.

Only 6.5 km S of the centre of Belfast via the Malone Road and Minnowburn Beeches, The Giant's Ring is an impressive and atmospheric monument, consisting of a circular bank some 3.5 metres high enclosing a large space some 180 metres in diameter and 2.8 hectares in area. At least three of the 5 irregularly-spaced gaps in the henge are intentional, and possibly original. The henge seems to be one of those monuments erected by the late-Neolithic "Beaker People" of N Britain who were responsible also for the large free-standing stone circles at Ballynoe and Newgrange, as well as the stone circle backed by a henge at Lough Gur.
E of the centre of the enclosure is a small passage-tomb whose vestigial passage faces W. It may have been erected (with a tumulus) a little before or a little after the henge.
Excavations beyond the bank yielded evidence of more Neolithic activity

 
Michael Drosnin's Bible Codes: "Human nearby in Crypt", "North", "Tongue of Sea [Mouth of River Quoile] which is dead."
"In a field on top of a hill"
All these descriptions apply to Downpatrick and the Mound of Down.
 
Poem by 6th century Bard, St Fintan - pupil of St Germain/Merlin/Taliesin/St Columba - and it is most probably that St Germain was the author leaving us clues:
 
"The wife of Heremon of noble aspect
A rampart was raised around her house
For Tea, the daughter of Lughaid (God's House)
She was buried outside in her mound.
A habitation which was a Dun and a fortress.
[Note: strange that a qualified bard would say dun and fortress - because dun means fortress as in Dun da Lethglas]
The seat of kings it was called.
The princes, descendants of the Milesians.
I am Fintan the Bard
The historian of many tribes
In latter times I have passed my days
At the earthen fort above Temor (Tea Tephi Mor)."
 
King Aedan Mac Gabran (the real King Arthur) was an incarnation of Kuthumi.  His daughter, Princess Gemma married King Cairellus and their residence was at Dun da Lethglas. Fintan the bard became the tutor to their son - so therefore, he literally "passed my days at the earthen fort above Temor (Tea Tephi Mor).
 
"A rampart was raised around her house."
The Mound of Down is surrounded by several ramparts.
 
12th century Irish Bard:
"Where after her death was Tea's monument?
The grave, the great Mergech (Hebrew burial place)
A sepulchre [tomb] which has not been violated.
And she lies beneath this unequalled Tomb,
It is a mystery not to be uttered."
 
As mentioned before, Dun da Lethglas (the 'greensided place beside the stream') was the royal seat of the Dal Fiatach - the tribe to which Princess Tea Tephi and Heremon belonged in Ireland.
 
Info from Irish book.
"The Mound of Down is one of Ireland's major earthworks.  Somewhere underneath the Hill lies a royal site once inhabited by a king and his followers before that.  Its size and appearance are very similar to the fort of the kings of Tara, suggesting that the king was a very powerful ruler. A more recent description showed that the earthwork consists of a mound set within a pear-shaped banked enclosure, and may have been considered as a motte/bailey.  The bailey occupies the whole elevated area enclosed by a bank and shallow ditch.   We believe that much remains to be investigated lying hidden under the topsoil of centuries."
 
"In the 6th century AD it was recorded that there was a great church at Dun da Lethglas (Downpatrick). At that time the town was an important religious and academic centre.  A Dun was a circular fortified enclosure.  The fort takes up a vast extent of ground and comprehends at least three quarters of an English mile within its circuit."
 
Another clue discovered by Michael Drosnin - the Ark of the Covenant was hidden beneath a royal abode - a 'Tel' which is the Hebrew word for 'an ancient archaeological site - a mound of earth covering the remnant of ancient ruins.'
 
The Mound of Down was the headquarters of the Dal Fiatach of the Ulaid, the royal kings of Ulster (descendants of Princess TTM).
 
Info: "It is important to emphasise that the ruling Dal Fiatach supplied the ecclesiastical as well as the secular headship, and that this was likely to have been the chief reason for the choice of Dun da Lethglas as their ecclesiastical centre. "
 
"After St Patrick's death, in circa 493 AD, his remains were carried to Dun da Lethglas, a hill already crowned with the earthworks that enringed the fortress of the Ulaid."
 
"Dun da Lethglas is one of the six royal sites of Ireland named in early literature.  Nothing then is certain about this mysterious Mound and nothing more can be stated about its history until it can be excavated.  Since this earthwork is the largest in the north of Ireland, and is situated beside a town of such historical importance as Downpatrick, showing such potential for information about the past, it is to be hoped that the archaeologists of the Department of the Environment will make this a priority in their forthcoming programme of work." (2000)
 
Story by Taliesin/St Columba/Merlin/St Germain 6th century.
Pwyll goes to the top of a mound which is above a palace.  [So, if the mound is above the palace, then the mound is buried beneath].
The mound had a reputation of somehow being able to cause injury if one came too close to it.
[The Ark of the Covenant is protected by some kind of electrical discharge called Urim and Thummin].
Whilst sitting upon the mound, Pwyll met a princess who materialized from the vicinity of the mound - there had been many sightings of her as an apparition.
 
THE RENNES LE CHATEAU MYSTERY
Behind the mystery is the painting titled Shepherds of Arcadia by Nicholas Poussin.
Using the Pythagorean system, Shepherds of Arcadia adds up to 88. 8 + 8 = 16 and 1 + 6 = 7.
 
Ark of the Covenant adds up to 70 minus 0 = 7.
 
In the Bible the Ark rested on the 7th month
King Solomon built the Temple to house the Ark of the Covenant in 7 years.
 
The Seventh Seal and the Number Seven.
In the Biblical book of Daniel, 12:4, Daniel is told to close the Book and put a seal upon it.
12 +4 = 16, 6 + 6 = 7. 
 
It is reputed that by utilizing mathematical diagrams, the position on the sarcophagus tomb in the painting of the Shepherds of Arcadia, has a hexagram - Seal of Solomon in the centre.  It is at this, that the three shepherds and shepherds are looking.  I believe it is the tomb of Princess TTM containing the Ark of the Covenant.
It was King Solomon (son of King David/Kuthumi) who built the first Temple in which to house the A/C and perhaps the 7th Seal mentioned in Revelation (by Kuthumi) corresponds.
 
"When on the sounding of the trumpet by the 7th angel, the Ark is discovered in Ireland as prophesied in Revelations II, verse 19, 'there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament. (excerpt from Life Understood, 1920)."
 
"Ezekiel 17:22 reads that the 'Tender Twig' [Princess TTM] is to be planted in a place described as 'eminent'.
Her name is derived from the Greek word Temoiria, which in Latin is interpreted 'Conspicio' and every place which is conspicuous and eminent...
Professor O'Riordain of University College, Dublin deals with the anme, giving it its ancient form as Teamhair na Riogh 'Tea Mur', the wall of 'Tea', and again 'a meeting place which is conspicuous and eminent' and in the Book of Leinster ' a place  from which there is a wide view.'
 
Interestingly, (and I only just beginning this research seriously), in Exekiel in the Bible, Princess Tea Tephi Mor is spoken only of as the 'Tender Twig'.  But the initial letters are stil 'TT'.  It is only in Irish legend that she is known as Tea Tephi Mor.  In Gemetria, the value of T T = 600 and Phi (as in Te-phi) is 500 - the 0's are discounted and so the total is 11 - which 'maybe' could refer to the twin pillars of Moses in the A/C.  The verses written about her in Irish legend were during the era of St Germain/St Columba/Merlin/Taliesin, and are attributed to his pupil, St Fintan - but behind St Fintan, would be St G.   I have already mentioned previously that the letters TT represent the twi pillars of Moses in 'Freemasonry'.

Now, ask yourself why a princess from 'Jerusalem' would be given the name of Tea Tephi Mor.

Mor as stated, is Celtic for Mound. None of the biblical names for the families of the Palestine/Jerusalem have her name.

TEA TEPHI MOR
I have always thought it curious that Princess Tea's name was Tephi : Te is still 'T' phoenetically and as mentioned on a previous occasion, TT (her initials) could represent Thirty Three whose verses in the Bible concern the A/C which formulates part of the initiations in Freemasonry.
 
If her name is a cipher, then think of it this way.
Tea = T
Te (for Tephi) = T
So, it is definitely TT
(Mor in Gaelic means a mound)
 
If these clues, then what does the phi represent?
 
Regarding Princess Tea Mor Tephi and the A of the C (and the Stone of Destiny) Her descendant, Fergus Mor (son of Erc) took the Stone of Destiny to Scotland.

Because I also do genealogy, it occurred to me that her name should/could be written as Tea Tephi Mor. I believe there are clues to her name. TT for the twin pillars of Moses = 33, and I discovered when I was writing in the new book about Iona, that Angel's Hill was had a Gaelic name of something for 'fairy' (can't remember it today) Mor.

And then I thought how strange it was that a daughter of Zedekiah, last king of Judah/Jerusalem, should have a Celtic surname of Mor.

 ~~~~~~~~

Raphiem  

You mention, “Behind the mystery is the painting titled Shepherds of Arcadia by Nicholas Poussin”

A friend {author Gary Osborn} kindly placed an article of mine within his website: http://garyosborn.moonfruit.com/

 Go to News, see Revelations with reference to Shepherds of Arcadia, observe the Pyramids in the background

The GP Grand Gallery floor-line length being 1881 {modern day inches} the 1881 obviously a mirror 18-81

Furthermore as is obvious, the number nine be within

The GP base side length being 756 {modern day feet} half of 756 obviously being 378, observe 3078 below {remove the zero}

Nothing concrete at present, given that I have no more than a short while back commenced exploring your email, nonetheless, I trust the enclosed may assist in a little regard

I apologize with reference to the number of digits within a few calculations, however this be necessary to illustrate the “hidden” numbers

 Peace

Derek

 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

{A} 33 ÷ 1881 = 0.017543859649122807

{B} 54 ÷ 0.0175438596491228 = 3078.

{C} Phi x 3078 = 4980.3086173721763427737182761774

{D} 0.6111 x 1881 = 3078 {0.6111 being 5.5 ÷ 9}

{E} 0.6111 ÷ 0.017543859649122807 = 313.5

Therefore Phi ÷ 3078 = 5.256770593 x 1881 x 33 = 32.630352106 x 0.6111 = 19.940770731 ÷ 0.017543859649122807 = 1136.623931708

Thus 1136.623931708 x 54 ÷ 57 ÷ 665.5 = Phi

Subsequently 57 x 665.5 = 37933.5 ÷ 54 = 702.47222 {a cyclic number 2}

As a result 702.47222 x 1881 = 1321350.25 {exactly} this being 1.6363 x 807491.819444 {a cyclic number 4} and this x Phi = 1306549.209498604 this being 1136.623931708 x 1149.5 {exactly}  

The 1149.5 being the square root of 1321350.25 this divided by the exact number required 47816.500002191621145066408550634 = 27.633771813901

Consequently 27.633771813901 x 1.63636 = 45.218899331

As a result 665.5 ÷ 45.218899331 = 14.7172976307

Hence 1136.623931708 ÷ 14.7172976307 = 77.23047805

Accordingly 3249 ÷ 26 = 124.9615384 ÷ 77.23047805 = Phi

Consequently a “near miss” being 47816.5 ÷ 26 = 1839.09615384

As a result 1839.09615384 ÷ 1136.623931708 ÷ 1839.09615384 = 1.618033988 hence Phi correct to nine decimal places

The precise numbers being 47816.500002191621145066408550634 ÷ 26 ÷ 1839.0961539304 = 1136.623931708 this multiplied by the 0.017543859649122807 = 19.940770731 x 0.6111 = 12.1860265 x 33 x 1881 = 756423.226551823  ÷ 467495.263888 {a cyclic number 8}= Phi

Therefore 47816.50000219162162 {a cyclic 162} ÷ 26 x 0.017543859649122807 x 0.6111 x 33 x 1881 = 1223918.4904407124688149688149 this divided by 756423.226551823575266666666666 {a cyclic number 6} = 1.6180339887498948482050 hence Phi correct to 22 decimal places

Derek

Likewise, note the numbers within the previous email

{A} 0.6111 this multiplied by 3004.3636 = 1836 the roofline length {modern day inches} of the Grand Gallery, subsequently obviously 18 + 36 = 54, the floor-line length of 1881 minus 1836 = 45 a mirror 54. otherwise 18 x 36 = 648 = 12 x 54, or else 18 x 81 = 1458 = 27 x 54

The 3004.3636 being the previous 1.6363 x 1836

The previous email 3078 being 33 x 54 = 1782 ÷ 3078 = 0.578947368421052631 although a long cyclic is within, note the number 684 that multiplied by 8.888 = 6080 the British Admiralty “ Sea ” mile furthermore 6080 is the Grand Gallery 1881 x 3.2323. Therefore 0.578947368421052631 x 1881 = 1089 this being a reversed 9801. The numbers 9801 and 8712 are the only four-digit numbers that are integral multiplies of their reversals.

{B} The opening words of the Hebrew Torah: Bereshit Bara obtain the Gematria value 1116 this being the above 0.6111 x 1826.1818 this multiplied by 5.366935483870967741 = 9801 the 5.366935483870967741 x 1116 = 5989.5

{C} within the previous email, we observe 665.5 as a result 5989.5 ÷ 665.5 = 9

This 665.5 commences with Gematria Weapons of god 665 in addition to 665 x 2.8285714 = 1881, as regards the 2.8285714 this multiplied by 133.6363 = 378 {GP half-base side} the 133.6363 x 2.2 = 294 Gematria Church. consequently 665.5 ÷ 665 = 1.00075187969 this multiplied by the “Sea” mile of 6080 = 6084.571428 this being the mile of 5280 x 1.1523809 note the cyclic 523809 given that 5238 is Plato’s number of “fusion” 1746 x 3, therefore 1.1523809 x 1746 = 2012.0571428 that multiplied by 43560 the square feet in one acre  = 87645209.142857 which is the commencing 2.8285714 x 30985680

{D} The 30985680.divided by the seconds in 24 hours 86400 = 358.630555 which is 665.5 x 0.53888 that multiplied by 3240 = 1746

I consider it  be paramount to conclude at this point Raphiem, in view of the fact that the combinations available are literally unlimited, likewise I know not whether this be the category of assistance you seek out in respect of your Puzzle, nevertheless I trust it assists

Peace

Derek

   ~~~~~

Hmm... heck of a lot of background stuff there to absorb.

Couple questions:
You mention Psalm 54 as being about a wedding. What is the source of this psalm? Apparently it's not the Psalm 54 of the KJV Bible because that psalm doesn't say anything about a wedding, at least not that I can see.  [It is 45]

With regard to the following gematria...
<< According to Peter Dawkins of the Francis Bacon Research Trust, UK., the number 33 is the Elizabethan simple cipher for BACON, (B=2, A=1, C=3, 0=14, N =13), total 33. (Francis Bacon was St Germain who translated the Bible).
>>

...how does N=13? Apparently not from the english alphabet, as N would be 14. What, exactly, is the Elizabethan simple cipher?

Just a few initial observations, some of which may or may not have any bearing on the puzzle:

<<
I am still thinking about 54 degrees north (Downpatrick) where the Mound of Down is >>

THE ARK OF THE COVENANT IS HIDDEN FIFTY FOUR DEGREES NORTH OF DOWNPATRICK = 702 = 9

702 = 54 x 13
THIRTEEN = 99 = 54 + 45
FIFTY FOUR = 126 = FORTY FIVE = THE HANDS OF GOD
ONE TWO SIX = 144 = MOUND OF DOWN

144 = each of the following:

THE GOD OF ISRAEL
VOICE OF JEHOVAH
JEHOVAH ETERNAL
GOD IS SELF AWARE

I AM ALPHA AND I AM OMEGA
I AM THAT I AM NOT
THE CHRISTOS
SAINT NICHOLAS
SERPENT OF GOD
BODY OF CHRIST
NOTHINGNESS
MULTIVERSE
MARK OF THE BEAST
PRINCE WILLIAM
SONS OF LIGHT
THE DIVINE CYCLE
REVERSE SIX
CIRCLE OF SOUND
CIRCLE OF STONE
CIRCLE OF TONES
CIRCLE OF NOTES
THE GOLD STONE
THE PHI SCALE NODE
THE NINE CIRCLES
ONE TWO SIX
THE ALPHANUMBER
THE ILLUSION
THE COMPUTER
SQUARE OF FIVE
SQUARE OF NINE
DIVINE SQUARE
GEOMETRIC SHAPE
SIGN OF THE CROSS
NINE IS THE KEY
THE SECRET KEY
THE YAHWEH KEY
JESUS IS NINE
LUCIFER IS NINE
FORTY FOUR
ONE HUNDRED FEET (Interestingly, ONE HUNDRED FORTY FOUR FEET=288=144x2)
THIRTY DEGREE
THE GREEK ALPHABET
FIVE THOUSAND
NINE THOUSAND
GODDESS TEMPLE
STONE TEMPLE
PETER THE ROCK
EARTH TEMPLATE
CROP TEMPLATE
THE LEFT PILLAR (
re "Boaz", the broken left pillar of the Temple of Solomon. BOAZ=44=ABRAHAM. FORTY FOUR = 144)
THE VINE OF DAVID
BRIDE + BRIDEGROOM

THE PERFECT BALANCE
DOUBLE HELIX CODE
THE CODE OF YHVH
THE MUSICAL PHI
PHI IS GOD DIVIDED
COSMIC PORTAL
THE GATE IS OPEN
THE WHITE DOVE
SEVEN WORDS (The first verse of the original Hebrew text of Genesis contains 7 words.)
SIX NUMBERS
TOMB OF STONE
ALCHEMICAL ELIXIR
THE TWO ONES

<<
In the Bible (Ezekiel), there is a riddle about the 'Tender Twig' of the  vine of the House of Judah >>

THE VINE OF THE HOUSE OF JUDAH = 270 = 9


You say "Mor" also means "mound". And you mentioned a possible Rennes le Chateau connection.
Tea Tephi Mound = 151 = the following:

NINE BLUE APPLES = 151 ("Blue Apples" refers to part of the Rennes mystery)
RENNES LE CHATEAU = 151
SOUTH OF FRANCE = 151 (the location of Rennes le Chateau)
JESUS CHRIST = 151
JESUS SANGREAL = 151 (meaning Jesus Bloodline)
VICAR OF CHRIST = 151 (another title for the Pope)
JESUS IS LORD = 151
LORD OF HOSTS = 151
CHRIST THE KING = 151
THE TEMPLE OF GOD = 151 (Rev. 11:19, where the Ark of the Testament was seen)
THE VIRGIN MARY = 151
SAY HAIL MARYS = 151
HOUSE OF MAGDALENE = 151
ISIS THE QUEEN = 151
THE TWELVE BEES = 151
ENERGY OF LIGHT = 151
LIGHT PENTAGRAM = 151
NINE TRIADS = 151
INTERSECTION = 151
THE GRAND CROSS = 151
SERPENT ROPE = 151
MUSICAL TONES = 151
MUSICAL NOTES = 151
MUSICAL STONE = 151
GEOMETRIC LIGHT = 151
THE ALPHABET WHEEL = 151
THE CIRCLE OF TIME = 151
SOPHIA + WISDOM = 151
THE HOLY FATHER = 151
REVOLUTION = 151
A ONE ON BOTH ENDS = 151 (1st portion of a physical description of the number 151)
THE MIDDLE IS A FIVE = 151 (2nd portion of a physical description of the number 151)

You mention the number 54 as possibly significant:
5+4 = 9
FIFTY FOUR = 126 = FORTY FIVE
1+2+6 = 9
FIFTY FOUR DEGREES = 189
1+8+9 = 18 = 9

Regarding the Twin Pillars:
TWIN = 66 (twice 33)
TWIN PILLARS = 153 = 9
The number 153 holds much information in terms of sacred geometry and the vesica piscis.

In the following phrases note the preponderance of gematria values that reduce to 9:
TWIN PILLARS = 153 = HOUSE OF ISRAEL = MARY OF BETHANY
GUARDIAN PILLARS = 162 (ONE SIX TWO = 144)
TWO TEMPLE PILLARS = 216 (TWO ONE SIX = 144)
THE TWIN PILLARS ARE THE GUARDIANS OF MARY MAGDALENE = 477
THE TWIN PILLARS ARE THE GUARDIAN PILLARS = 405
JESUS = 74 (7+4=11)
SEVENTY FOUR IS ELEVEN = 261 = JESUS WAS THE LEFT PILLAR

THE TWO ONES = 144 = BRIDE+BRIDEGROOM
THE TWO ONES ARE THE PILLARS = 288 = 144 x 2
ONE PILLAR WAS THE GROOM TO BE = 288 = 144 x 2
THE MIDDLE IS A FIVE = 151 = BALANCE OF MALE AND FEMALE
JESUS CHRIST = 151
ONE FIVE ONE IS THE MARRIAGE CODE = 270 = JESUS CHRIST+MARY MAGDALENE
FIVE IS MARY MAGDALENE = 189
FIVE IS THE MARRIAGE ALTER = 234
GUARDIANS OF MARY MAGDALENE = 234 = THE VINEYARD OF THE LORD
ONE WAS JESUS = 151
ONE PILLAR WAS CHRIST = 222
ONE PILLAR WAS GOD = 171 = THE WIFE OF JESUS = THE QUEEN OF HEAVEN = TEMPLE OF THE BODY
THE TWO PILLARS ARE THE BRIDE AND GROOM = 360 (complete circle in arc degrees)
ONE PILLAR WAS THE BRIDE = 216
TWO ONE SIX = 144
ONE PILLAR WAS THE GROOM TO BE = 288 = 144 x 2

THE MARRIAGE SACRIFICE = 198 = THE RESURRECTION
THE MARRIAGE WAS SACRIFICED = 225
THE MARRIAGE WAS SACRIFICED FOR THE SALVATION OF MAN = 459
FOUR FIVE NINE = 144
THE MARRIAGE WAS SACRIFICED AT THE HANDS OF JEHOVAH GOD = 441 (reverse of 144)

THE PILLARS ARE THE HANDS OF GOD = 270

MAGDALENE = 62 = QUEEN
WISDOM OF SOLOMON = 207

THE TWIN PILLARS ARE THE GATEWAY TO THE VINYARD OF THE LORD = 594
THE TWIN PILLARS ARE THE GATEWAY TO THE ORCHARD OF POMEGRANATES = 630

TWO PILLARS OF SOPHIA = 234
THE DOORWAY TO WISDOM = 252 = CHRIST CONSCIOUSNESS = ONE HUNDRED FORTY FOUR

THE VINE OF DAVID = 144

MARY MAGDALENE = 119 = VINE OF BLOOD
THE VESSEL OF CHRIST BLOOD = 261

FISH + CHRIST = 119 = MARY MAGDALENE
FISH MAIDEN = 88 = IMMANUEL = IESOUS
FISH MAIDEN + MARY MAGDALENE = 207

CROSS OF LIGHT = 151 = JESUS CHRIST
SIX POINT = 126
SIX POINTED = 135
SIX POINTS OF LIGHT = 222 = ONE PILLAR WAS CHRIST

Margaret Starbird [author of 'The Woman with the Alabaster Jar'] says the six-pointed "cross of light" is a common symbol found as a watermark in the paper of many of the Albigensian religious writings including the
pages of their early Bibles. This was a way of hiding their heretical beliefs from the eyes of the Inquisition.

Cross of Light



Starbird says the Latin word "LUX" was often used in conjunction with the "cross of light" symbol. The Greek spelling, also using three letters, came to be condensed into the single letter "X" and was called by the early Christians as the "sign of the cross". (p.95, The Woman With the Alabaster Jar)

SIGN OF THE CROSS = 144 = BODY OF CHRIST = THE GOD OF ISRAEL = VOICE OF JEHOVAH
The number 144 is said to be associated with the concept of "light".

THE FALL OF THE TEMPLE = 189 = THE BEGINNING AND THE END

THE LEFT PILLAR = 144 (re "Boaz", the broken left pillar of the Temple of Solomon. BOAZ=44. FORTY FOUR = 144) = BRIDE + BRIDEGROOM

THE SECRET OF THE PILLAR = 225
THE SECRET OF THE TWO PILLARS = 351
THE MYSTERY OF THE RIGHT PILLAR = 342 = JESUS CHRIST IS THE RIGHT PILLAR = THE BROKEN MARRIAGE OF JESUS CHRIST
THE LEFT PILLAR IS THE CRUCIFIED CHRIST = 360
THE RIGHT PILLAR IS THE RESURRECTED = 360
THE RIGHT PILLAR IS THE RESURRECTED BODY OF CHRIST = 504
504 - 360 = 144 = THE LEFT PILLAR

Note: Interpreting the above: when the 360 of the Left Pillar is removed from the 504 of the Right Pillar the result is 144, the Left Pillar (the same one that was removed).
THE RESURRECTED BODY OF JESUS CHRIST = 387

THE LEFT PILLAR IS THE BRIDE = 243 = THE BRIDE OF JESUS CHRIST
THE BRIDE WAS LEFT AT THE ALTER OF THE LEFT PILLAR = 432
THE GROOM LEFT = 144

HOUSE OF GENDER BALANCE = 180 (half circle)
THE BALANCE IS OFF = 126
THE UNIVERSE OUT OF BALANCE = 261 = JESUS WAS THE LEFT PILLAR
MARY MAGDALENE WAS THE LEFT PILLAR = 306
261 + 306 = 567

WOUND = 77 = CHRIST

THE POMEGRANATE = 148 = THE LION OF JUDAH

POMEGRANATE ORCHARDS = 216
THE ORCHARD OF POMEGRANATES = 270 =
SACRED BLOOD OF JESUS CHRIST = JESUS CHRIST+MARY MAGDALENE = THE PILLARS ARE THE HANDS OF GOD

Starbird says the pomegranate was a symbol of fertility in ancient religions. She says, "In the Song of Songs, the garden of the Bride and Bridegroom is an orchard of pomegranates." (The woman With The Alabaster Jar, p.92)

JESUS CHRIST AND MARY MAGDALENE WERE REUNITED IN THE ORCHARD OF POMEGRANATES = 729

THE VINEYARD OF THE LORD = 234

"The vineyard of the Lord is the House of Israel, and the men of Judah are his cherished plant." (Isaiah 5:7)

HOUSE OF ISRAEL = 153

234 + 153 = 387

I WILL MAKE YOU INTO FISHERS OF MEN = 351

FISHERS OF MEN = 137 = THE LOST BRIDE = THE DIVINE CHALICE
THE WIFE OF JESUS = 171 = THE QUEEN OF HEAVEN = KING OF HEAVEN = TEMPLE OF THE BODY
YHVH IS WITHIN THE TEMPLE OF THE BODY = 378
MAGDALENE = 62 = QUEEN
BRIDE + BRIDEGROOM = 144
BALANCE OF MALE AND FEMALE = 151 = SOPHIA + WISDOM

THE BRIDE OF JESUS CHRIST = 243
THE BRIDEGROOM OF MARY MAGADALENE = 279 (243+279 = 522)
MARY MAGDALENE THE BRIDE OF CHRIST = 288
MARY MAGDALENE WAS THE BRIDE OF JESUS CHRIST = 405


-Gary-

~~~~~~~~~

Your research is familiar.  I have similar findings, including John Dee and the 007 connection. I will try to locate my research and submit to the group.

Among his many roles, Dee was in charge of security for Queen Elizabeth I.  She would answer his messages with two o’s representing him as the queen’s eyes, and she would trace a right angle around the two eyes to indicate that the queen’s eyes ( Dee) was protected by the Queen, hence the 007.One of John Dee’s top secret agents was a De Phillipes fellow, possibly an ancestor of mine.

Some research points to Francis Bacon as her son.

 I also used to have links to the genealogy from Adam to Jesus to modern day monarchy, which have since been removed from the Internet somehow.  I have since found other web sites but not as complete as the initial once which have disappeared.

I strongly believe that the Ark of the Covenant was moved to either Ireland or France ( Rennes le Chateau).    Joseph brought Mary Magdalene and the Cup ( Sang Real, Holy Grail) to France. He and his descendants,  Aromatherapy and his descendents , the knight of the round table, created the interesting connection between France and Britain (including Ireland).

I have read your material attentively, would you please provide me with your web site so that I can view the Downpatrick burial site?

I will return with more info.

J

  ~~~~~~

Given that the Grail family were the Essenes, am using their Gematria.

(website is http://essenes.net/gemcal.htm)

I am looking to see if any particular numbers stand out as common denominators.

In Greek alphabet,  T = 300 -discount 0's = 33 i.e. T.T. for Tea Tephi, placed side by side, letters T.T. = 33

T+ T in Greek alphabet = 600 (discount 0) 6 = 2 lots of 3 i.e.33 - Thirty-Three.

Thirty Three comprises of twin capital letters of the letter 'T' which in turn correspond to the Twin Pillars of Moses concealed within the  
 Ark of the Covenant.

The princess was buried beneath a mound which measured exactly 60 feet ( drop the 0) and follow same rules we have two lots of 3 - 33.

Germain = 309 which added = 12 (0's don't count)

Noah = 129 which added 1 + 2 + 9 = 12

Ararat = 803 which = 11 (Noah's ark and Mt Ararat)

Eochaid = 101 = 11 (discounting 0) (Eochaid/Heremon married Tea Tephi)

Ephraim (Great Britain) 344 = 11

Columcille (ancient name for St Columba) 344 = 11

Merlin (St Columba) = 335 which = 11

T +T (for Tea Te phi)  + phi (5) = 11

Taliesin (St Columba/Merlin) = 806 (discount 0) = 14, 1 + 4 = 5 (Phi?)

In Gematria, TT = 800 (discount 0's) = 8

Thirty Three = 1646 adds up to 17 and 1+7 = 8

Saint Germain = 1070 (discount 0's) = 8

Mound  = 170 (discount 0) = 8

Tender Twig (Ezekiel's riddle about Princess Tea Tephi) = 1877; which adds up to 32, and 3 + 2 = 5 (phi?)

Scota - (ancient name for Ireland) = 771, = 18 & 1 + 8 =9

Tea Tephi = 909 (discount 0) = 99, 9 + 9 = 18, 8 + 1 = 9

Scarlet Thread = 18, 1 + 8 = 9

(Ezekiel's story of the princess is called the Scarlet Thread)

Psalm 45 (of her wedding - favourite psalm and probably written by St Germain.) 5 + 4 = 9

Heremon (otherwise called Eochaid - husband of Princess TTM) = 378; = 18, 1 + 8 = 9

Downpatrick = 1638, = 18, 1 + 8 =9

Jeremiah (St G) who took A/C & princess TTM to Ireland = 279 = 18, 1 + 8 = 9

Dun da Lethglas (old name for Downpatrick) = 842 = 14 & 1 + 4 = 5

Mor (for Tea's other name) = 310 (discount 0) 3 + 1 = 4

Mor also means a mound and she was buried beneath a mound, could be long stretch of imagination, but if we put 5 & 4 together, for the place and the mound, we have 54 degrees which is exactly where Downpatrick is located.

Also bearing in mind St Columba's favourite psalm 45 - about her wedding.  He must have given it the number 54 for a very good reason.  Mention of the A/C always occurs in verses 33, in the Bible. 33 = Thirty Three = TT = Twins Pillars of Moses concealed within the A/C.  

Gaelic Psalm 45

There's a candle that lets you experience the scent of Jesus, and they've been selling out by the case.

"We see it as a ministry, " says Bob Tosterud, who together with his wife came up with the idea for the candle.

Light up the candle called "His Essence" and its makers say you'll experience the fragrance of Christ.

Bob Tosterud and wife Karen say the formula is all spelled out in Psalm 45.

"It's a Messianic Psalm referring to when Christ returns and his garments will have the scent of myrrh, aloe and cassia," says Karen Tosterud.

Interesting, I would have thought it was a reference to King David, but that's the beauty of metaphor.

The candles are sold via a website and they've sold more than 10,000 so far. The lines from the Psalm that inspired this product are

Your throne, O God, endures for ever and ever, *
a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of your kingdom;
you love righteousness and hate iniquity.
Therefore God, your God, has anointed you *
with the oil of gladness above your fellows.
All your garments are fragrant with myrrh, aloes, and cassia, *
and the music of strings from ivory palaces makes you glad.

Candles are important in our worship - there is a Presence light that burns perpetually in the sanctuary, and there are smaller votive candles in stands on either side. One side is devoted to Mary, with a small prie-dieu (kneeling stand) next to it. The other side is devoted to remembering the dead. During worship there are often a pair of torches that accompany the Gospel in procession.

On Maundy Thursday, a week from today, the Presence light will be taken from its normal position just to the right of the Tabernacle (the small gated enclosed cupboard behind the altar) and moved over to the side altar next to the remembrance votives, and the entire area will be dressed as an Altar of Repose, all in white and surrounded by lilies and other candles.

At Easter, a Paschal candle will be baptized by dipping it in the font, and nails will be pressed into it to form a cross. Candles don't just symbolize Christ for us, they often stand in for Him. Although ours aren't scented, the incense that we occasionally burn will have to do.

From: http://www.holy-innocents.org/archives/cat_main_page.php

 

I am still thinking about 54 degrees north (Downpatrick) where the Mound of Down is, and the fact that St Columba's favourite Psalm was 45 - and it is about her marriage to Prince Heremon of the Tribe of Dan.  I do not believe that that particular psalm is a random number chosen - I believe it is specific. 

Clues are as follows:

Certain historical figures, possibly the same beings re-incarnating across history know where the A/C (Ark of the Covenant) is hidden because they hid it. So we need to bear in mind that they left us clues to decipher.  They are obviously not going to materialize and show us where it is. The importance of the discovery of the Ark of the Covenant hinges on the fact that after it is found, we will gain world peace.  

The Ark of the Covenant is part of the Freemasonic rituals.

There are 33 initiatory degrees in Freemasonry (nothing to do with degrees N.S.E. W. etc.)

The Head of Freemasonry is St Germain.

As Sir Francis Bacon, he and Sir John Dee (Kuthumi) translated the Bible into English.

Sir John Dee at that time, was the Grand Master of the Rosicrucians affiliated with Freemasonry.

According to the Bible, apart from other items, the Ark of the Covenant was built to house the twin pillars of Moses (Ahkenaten)- which are TT.

Mention of Moses, Aaron (St Germain) who was given charge of the Ark of the Covenant, occurs in 33 in the Bible.

Moses & Aaron were of the tribe of Levi, and Aaron was the first High Priest of the tribe of Levi. 

Aaron [St Germain] means a 'box'/'chest'/'sarcophagus "commonly applied to the Ark of the Covenant".

Noah (Utnapishtim)  [St Germain] "the Gilgamesh version of the Ark calls it simply ekallu, meaning 'great house' or 'palace'."

In Revelation II, verse 19 (which is 1 + 9 = 10, the perfect number of completion), the Covenant Box is mentioned as being discovered and opened. Revelation II could represent twin pillars.  Kuthumi wrote Revelation when he was John the Beloved.

According to Peter Dawkins of the Francis Bacon Research Trust, UK., the number 33 is the Elizabethan simple cipher for BACON, (B=2, A=1, C=3, 0=14, N =13), total 33. (Francis Bacon was St Germain who translated the Bible).

The late Alfred Dodd, biographer of Francis Bacon informs us in his book titled Francis Bacon’s Personal Life Story as follows:

Thirty-Three: “‘33’ was the numerical signature of Bacon as well as the Highest Masonic Degree, and the symbols of ‘T.T.’ run like a golden thread throughout the ceremonials of Masonry and Rosicrucianism from the first Masonic Step…’T’ and the ‘33’ candles on the Rosicrucian Altar.”

In the Targum Onkelos 33:12 (Aramaric Version of the Bible):

   "The beloved of the Lord shall dwell safely by him: the shield shall be over him all the days, and the Shekinah (Ark of the Covenant) will dwell in his land".

Using the Pythagorean method of ciphers (Pythagoras was Kuthumi who reincarnated as John the Beloved)

33 + 12 = 45 and 4 + 5 = 9.

The 'beloved of the Lord' was John the Beloved (Kuthumi).  In his incarnation as St Patrick, he built his first church at Saul, near Downpatrick. - Downpatrick is named in his honour. The areas are on Leylines.

St Germain in his incarnation as St Columba/Merlin/Taliesin, born in Northern Ireland during the 6th century AD, (which is also 33) prophesied that he would be buried with Patrick (Kuthumi) and St Brigid (Mary of the Gaels - the Lady Portia of St Germain  fame ).  At the time this would have seemed most unlikely. When Patrick died, he was buried on a hill, which overlooks the Mound of Down - Brigid was buried in Leinster in the south of Ireland, and Columba was buried on the island of Iona, Scotland.  However, due to Viking raids, Columba's were taken to Downpatrick and so were Brigid's and they were buried together with St Patrick.

Writing under the name of Taliesin, St Columba wrote:

"My prosperity in guiless Iona" (where he established a major centre of Learning of the Ancient Mysteries and where hand written copies of the Bible were done)

"My soul in Derry (where he was born in Northern Ireland)

"And my body beneath the flagstone beneath which are Patrick and Brigid"

There has been a Cathedral on the hill for many centuries. They are now buried beneath a flagstone there.  According to F.L. Rawson in his book titled Life Understood (1920), the location of the burial place of the Ark of the Covenant was near the Town Cross. Today, that Town Cross stands in front of the Cathedral on the hill overlooking the Mound of Down.  It was originally a location marker for the town.  

See also: 

IS THE ARK OF THE COVENANT IN ETHIOPIA?
The Etiopians believe that the actual Ark of the Covenant is kept in a chapel ... While the Talmud states that "The Ark of the Covenant is hidden in a ...
www.greatdreams.com/ark2.htm - 

THE ARK OF THE COVENANT
It might give a unified theory of Sirius, Annunaki, Ark of the Covenant, ... Thus Knut, the very Great Pyramid itself, became an Ark of the Covenant. ...
www.greatdreams.com/covenant.htm 

DREAM - THE ARK AND THE WHIRLWIND
They bring me to an Ark and we proceed to enter into the Ark and to descend ... to the hull of the Ark below. There is the sense of being on a journey in ...
www.greatdreams.com/ark.htm - 

SPIRIT SPEAKS ABOUT THE ARK OF THE COVENANT
It is known that you wish to find the Ark of the Covenant. ... There are many copies of the Ark available. Many believe they have the real thing but they ...
www.greatdreams.com/spirit_speaks.htm

Going back in time:

In circa 586 BC, St Germain in his incarnation as Jeremiah the Prophet (mentioned in the Bible), prophesied the fall of the Temple of Jerusalem by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. It was in this Temple that the Ark of the Covenant was housed.

In his incarnation as David, anointed by the Prophet Samuel (St Germain) as King of the House of Judah, Kuthumi designed the plans for the Temple and before his demise, made his son Solomon (El Morya) promise to build the Temple in which to house the A/C. (Prior to this, is had been house in a tent).

King Zedekiah of the House of Judah and his two princely sons were captured and killed by Nebuchadnezzar.  Prior to this event, Jeremiah (St Germain) who was the great great grandfather of the princes, and their sister, Princess Tea Tephi Mor, escorted her along with Jacob's Pillow (which in Ireland became known as the Stone of Destiny - the Coronation Stone of Great Britain), to Ireland.  They also took the Ark of the Covenant. They landed on the North East coast of Northern Ireland (Ulster). (North East is Downpatrick).

In the Bible (Ezekiel), there is a riddle about the 'Tender Twig' of the  vine of the House of Judah, the last remaining royal descendant - deciphered in Irish legend, she was the Princess Tea Tephi Mor. 

Tender Twig is also TT.  TT represents not only the Twin pillars of Moses, but also Thirty Three.

Tea Tephi is also TT in initials, and also phoenetically TEA TE with Phi added.

So I don't know if the Phi is related....

'Mor' is not a Middle Eastern name - as in having come from Jerusalem.

'Mor' in Gaelic means a 'Mound'.

Tara, County Meath, in the southern region of Ireland (which is the Republic of Ireland), was the home of the High Kings of Ireland.  Jeremiah (St Germain) reunited the House of Judah with that of the tribe of Dan, when he conducted the marriage ceremony between Prince Heremon (tribe of Dan) and Princess Tea Tephi Mor, upon Jacob's Pillow (Stone of Destiny which became Britain's Coronation Stone eventually housed underneath the throne in Westminster Abbey).

In his incarnation as St Columba, Archdruid High Priest who was the Merlin of the 6th century AD, he wrote many hymns.  His favourite Psalm was number 45.  This is the Royal Wedding of Princess Tea Tephi Mor.  

5 + 4 = 9.  And mentioned above :

In the Targum Onkelos 33:12 (Aramaric Version of the Bible) "The beloved of the Lord shall dwell safely by him: the shield shall be over him all the days, and the Shekinah (Ark of the Covenant) will dwell in his land".

Using the Pythagorean method of ciphers (Pythagoras was Kuthumi who reincarnated as John the Beloved)

 33 + 12 = 45 and 4 + 5 = 9.

 Within the Rosicrucian school of thought there is a lot of instruction about it as it relates to our incarnations. Apparently, if/when we reach the 9th level of the spiral, in our experiences of life, then we have completed our mission for this incarnation. It is also three times three or completeness, the third time around the triangle. This could be the reason we don't recognise (in the Rosicrucian Order) any degrees above the 9th, all a student is permitted to say is that he/she is studying beyond the 9th. Hope this is useful, talk soon.

 Also, the mound (Mor) where I believe the princess is buried beneath, is at Downpatrick, County Down, Northern Ireland, which is 54 degrees north and this is why I believe Psalm 54 is a clue as to the degrees of its location.

 The princess was buried with the Ark of the Covenant.

 According to the Bible codes, the Ark of the Covenant is hidden 'North'.   

According to the Irish bards of the time, she was buried beneath a mound that measured 60 feet exactly.

The Mound of Down (Downpatrick) measures exactly 60 feet in height.

Using the Pythagorean method, 0's are not counted, so 60 = two lots of 3 - 33 (as in Freemasonry) and its rites to do with the A/C.

In his incarnation as Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Alexander (St Germain) wrote of a dream in which he was taken by a green man (Ireland is known as the Emerald Isle and the tribe of Dan to which Prince Heremon who married the Princess belonged, is allotted the 'Emerald' as their tribal stone in the Bible) - to a distant land.

Alexander was taken to the top of a Mount/Mound and there he discovered two large Pillars measuring 60 feet in height.

Thus, we have 3 clues of 60 feet - which are obviously clues to its location.

So, we are looking at 54 degrees North and a mound which measures 60 feet.

As mentioned, this is the exact measurement of the Mound of Down and Downpatrick is 54 degrees North.

Although the Princess and her husband ruled from Tara, they later went North and his brothers ruled from Tara.

They belonged to the Irish tribe of Dal Fiatach, and its palace was at Dun da Lethglas (later to be called Downpatrick).  This palace which lies beneath the mound with ancient ramparts around it, has never been excavated.

It is said to have been as important and as large as Tara.

The question is, has it not been excavated because high up members of the Orange Order of the Freemasons know what is located beneath?

According to Nostradamus, the Ark of the Covenant was hidden in a field which would have to be excavated.

The Mound of Down is in a field.  The field was once Marsh land surrounded by water until 1957-58 when it was reclaimed. (See photos on my website).

According to F.L. Rawson in his book titled Life Understood (1920), upon the arrival of the A/C on the North East coast of Ireland:

"...the preliminary service (for the Ark of the Covenant's arrival) was conducted in the underground chapel in the fortress of a chieftain who protected Christianity...the lighting of the chapel in a beautiful way by the Urim and Thummin..."

And also, that the Ark of the Covenant was concealed in a sarcophagus in the chapel  in a damp place.  You will see by the photo on the website, that the River runs very close to the Mound and the field - so it is very likely that there is a cavern/tomb beneath.

Further in in the book of Ezekiel in the Bible, (and it was Ezekiel who gave us the story of the Princess)

there is mention of the new Temple of Jerusalem.  Jerusalem was also Zion and Britain means the Land of the Covenant and the Land of Zion.  Northern Ireland is part of Great Britain - whereas, Tara in the southern region where some believe the Ark of the Covenant to be hidden, is in the Republic of Ireland.

Ezekiel's Temple "the kings built the thresholds and door-posts of their palace right against the thresholds of my Temple, so that there was only a wall between us."

The kings would refer to the Milesians kings - Prince Heremon who married Princess TT Mor was a Milesian -  

Her marriage brought both bloodlines back together regarding the scarlet thread. 

            DREAMS OF TWINS AND TWIN GODS - THE DUALITY OF CREATION
               She signaled to the spies by placing a scarlet thread in the window. This was a sign of Zerah of the Scarlet Thread. ...
               www.greatdreams.com/twingods.htm

In the Bible Codes, Michael Drosnin wrote referencing the Ark of the Covenant's whereabouts;

"It suggested that we might find more than an obelisk/pillar [of Moses] that the obelisk might be part of a palace or temple, either built to house the code key; or perhaps the Encoder."

The Encoder of the Bible refers to himself as the 'Lord of Code'.

St Germain as Sir Francis Bacon, and his tutor Sir John Dee (originator of 007) who translated the Bible into English were both Masters of Ciphers and codes. Therefore, St Germain is the 'Lord of Code' and he was Lord Bacon.

Ezekiel 47:  The man led me back to the entrance of the Temple, Water was coming out from under the entrance and flowing east, the direction that the Temple faced.  It was flowing down from under the south part of the Temple past the south side of the altar.  The man then took me out of the temple area by way of the north gate, and led me to the gate that faces east.  A small stream of water was flowing out at the south of the side gate."

Discussing the Temple, the authors of the Hiram Key quote from "the eighth chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews which quotes in full the Jeremiah [St Germain] passage which preceded it:

"....an eternal planting, a holy house of Israel [Great Britain] a most holy conclave for Aaron [St Germain] witnesses of Truth and judgment, and chosen by divine favour to atone for the earth, to render the wicked their deserts.  This is the tried wall, cornerstone, whose foundation shall not be shaken nor moved from its place."

            DREAMS ABOUT PILLARS
               When we arrived, I didn't have a key to the apartment I was going to take over, ... Christopher Knight & Robert Lomas, The Hiram Key: Pharaohs, ...
               www.greatdreams.com/pillars.htm

(Aaron - St Germain was the first High Priest of Levi in charge of the A/C.  Ezekiel stated "All the priests are descended from Zadok: they are the only members of the tribe of Levi who are permitted to go into the Lord's presence to serve him." This is referring to the new Temple which houses the Ark of the Covenant.  Zadok was Samuel the Prophet who anointed David (Kuthumi) as King of the House of Judah).

"Whilst all of Freemasonry is concerned with the building of a spiritual temple on the design of Ezekiel's view of Solomon's Temple, the 'address in the north-east corner' immediately comes to mind.

"At the erection of all stately or superb edifices, it is customary to lay the first or foundation stone in the north-east corner of the building.  You, being newly admitted into Freemasonry are placed in the north-east corner of the Lodge, figuratively, to represent that stone..."

The Mound of Down lies to the north-east of Cathedral Hill Downpatrick.

"To the south, a stream of water flowed."  The River Quoile near the Mound and field, flows south to Saul.

After the marshes were drained the river became very small  - a stream in parts.

Downpatrick, once called Dun da Lethglas, means the 'Green sided place beside the stream'.

Now we return to Ezekiel:

"Then the man took me back to the bank of the river and when I got there I saw that there were very many trees on each bank.  This water flows through the land to the east into the Jordan Valley [do not take this literally - its a clue to the tribe of Dan in Ireland] and to the Dead Sea.  When it flows into the Dead Sea, it replaces the salt water of that sea with fresh water.  Wherever the stream flows, there will be all kinds of animals and fish [this was a future prophecy].  The stream will make the water of the Dead Sea fresh, and wherever it flows, it will bring life.  There will be as many kinds of fish as there are in the Mediterranean Sea.  [So obviously this place is not in the Middle East] but the water in the marshes and ponds along the shore will not be made fresh.  They will remain there as a source of salt.  On each bank of the stream all kinds of trees will grow to provide food."

The River Quoile, Downpatrick (see photo on website) was where St Patrick first landed.  By the 1950

s the flooding in Downpatrick was serious.  The problem was solved in 1957 by the new tidal barrier which was built 2 miles downstream at Hare Island, creating Quoile Pond-age, an area where flood waters can safely gather before being discharged into Strangford Louch at each low tide.

Strangford Lough flows east into the Irish Sea which is also known traditionally as the British Mediterranean Sea.

Northern Ireland is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Irish Sea to the East.

According to local tourist info:

"The present freshwater lake was created by the construction of a tidal barrier across the estuary of the River Quoile in 1957. 

Ezekiel:  "There will be as many kinds of fish as there are in the Mediterranean Sea.  Wherever the stream flows, there will be all kinds of animals and fish."

Tourist info:

"The Quoile is rich in insects, providing food for fish such as rudd and eels.  In turn, these may be eaten by grey herons, cormorants, and grebes.  The Quoile attracts migrating wading birds in the spring and autumn.  In summer, swans and many breeding wildfowl appear."

"The resulting dramatic change from salt water to fresh water is illustrated by the succession of developing habitats rich in wild life.  The natural colonization of the former seashore has resulted in the marsh plants growing along the river fringes, with reed-beds, rushy grassland and alder or willow scrub in old muddy bays.  Woodland oak and ash is developing on the higher stony shores.  Periodic flooding maintains distinct zones of vegetation."

Ezekiel:

"On each bank of the stream all kinds of trees will grow to provide food."

Tourist info:

"Soon after the barrier was built, plants began to grow on the former seashore.  First grasses, then bushes and eventually trees arrived as a natural succession progressed."

Ezekiel:

"But the water in the marshes and ponds along the shore will not be made fresh.  They will remain as a source of salt."

Along the River Quoile is Salt island and Salt Lough producing 'salt'.

The Mound of Down located next to the River Quoile, was once known as the 'fortress in the marsh'.

Michael Drosnin's Bible Codes: "Human nearby in Crypt", "North", "Tongue of Sea [Mouth of River Quoile] which is dead."

"In a field on top of a hill"

All these descriptions apply to Downpatrick and the Mound of Down.

Poem by 6th century Bard, St Fintan - pupil of St Germain/Merlin/Taliesin/St Columba - and it is most probably that St Germain was the author leaving us clues:

"The wife of Heremon of noble aspect  
A rampart was raised around her house  
For Tea, the daughter of Lughaid (God's House)  
She was buried outside in her mound.  
A habitation which was a Dun and a fortress.

[Note: strange that a qualified bard would say dun and fortress - because dun means fortress as in Dun da Lethglas]

The seat of kings it was called.

The princes, descendants of the Milesians.

I am Fintan the Bard

The historian of many tribes

In latter times I have passed my days

At the earthen fort above Temor (Tea Tephi Mor)."

King Aedan Mac Gabran (the real King Arthur) was an incarnation of Kuthumi.  His daughter, Princess Gemma married King Cairellus and their residence was at Dun da Lethglas. Fintan the bard became the tutor to their son - so therefore, he literally "passed my days at the earthen fort above Temor (Tea Tephi Mor).

"A rampart was raised around her house."

The Mound of Down is surrounded by several ramparts.

12th century Irish Bard:

"Where after her death was Tea's monument?  
The grave, the great Mergech (Hebrew burial place)  
A sepulchre [tomb] which has not been violated.  
And she lies beneath this unequalled Tomb,  
It is a mystery not to be uttered."

As mentioned before, Dun da Lethglas (the 'greensided place beside the stream') was the royal seat of the Dal Fiatach - the tribe to which Princess Tea Tephi and Heremon belonged in Ireland.

Info from Irish book.

"The Mound of Down is one of Ireland's major earthworks.  Somewhere underneath the Hill lies a royal site once inhabited by a king and his followers before that.  Its size and appearance are very similar to the fort of the kings of Tara, suggesting that the king was a very powerful ruler. A more recent description showed that the earthwork consists of a mound set within a pear-shaped banked enclosure, and may have been considered as a motte/bailey.  The bailey occupies the whole elevated area enclosed by a bank and shallow ditch.   We believe that much remains to be investigated lying hidden under the topsoil of centuries."

"In the 6th century AD it was recorded that there was a great church at Dun da Lethglas (Downpatrick). At that time the town was an important religious and academic centre.  A Dun was a circular fortified enclosure.  The fort takes up a vast extent of ground and comprehends at least three quarters of an English mile within its circuit."

Another clue discovered by Michael Drosnin - the Ark of the Covenant was hidden beneath a royal abode - a 'Tel' which is the Hebrew word for 'an ancient archaeological site - a mound of earth covering the remnant of ancient ruins.'

The Mound of Down was the headquarters of the Dal Fiatach of the Ulaid, the royal kings of Ulster (descendants of Princess TTM).

Info: "It is important to emphasis that the ruling Dal Fiatach supplied the ecclesiastical as well as the secular headship, and that this was likely to have been the chief reason for the choice of Dun da Lethglas as their ecclesiastical centre. "

"After St Patrick's death, in circa 493 AD, his remains were carried to Dun da Lethglas, a hill already crowned with the earthworks that enringed the fortress of the Ulaid."

"Dun da Lethglas is one of the six royal sites of Ireland named in early literature.  Nothing then is certain about this mysterious Mound and nothing more can be stated about its history until it can be excavated.  Since this earthwork is the largest in the north of Ireland, and is situated beside a town of such historical importance as Downpatrick, showing such potential for information about the past, it is to be hoped that the archaeologists of the Department of the Environment will make this a priority in their forthcoming programme of work." (2000)

Story by Taliesin/St Columba/Merlin/St Germain 6th century.

Pwyll goes to the top of a mound which is above a palace.  [So, if the mound is above the palace, then the mound is buried beneath].

The mound had a reputation of somehow being able to cause injury if one came too close to it.

[The Ark of the Covenant is protected by some kind of electrical discharge called Urim and Thummin].

Whilst sitting upon the mound, Pwyll met a princess who materialized from the vicinity of the mound - there had been many sightings of her as an apparition.

THE RENNES LE CHATEAU MYSTERY

Behind the mystery is the painting titled Shepherds of Arcadia by Nicholas Poussin.

Using the Pythagorean system, Shepherds of Arcadia adds up to 88. 8 + 8 = 16 and 1 + 6 = 7.

Ark of the Covenant adds up to 70 minus 0 = 7

In the Bible the Ark rested on the 7th month

King Solomon built the Temple to house the Ark of the Covenant in 7 years.

The Seventh Seal and the Number Seven.

In the Biblical book of Daniel, 12:4, Daniel is told to close the Book and put a seal upon it.

12 +4 = 16, 6 + 6 = 7. 

It is reputed that by utilizing mathematical diagrams, the position on the sarcophagus tomb in the painting of the Shepherds of Arcadia, has a hexagram - Seal of Solomon in the centre.  It is at this, that the three shepherds and shepherdess are looking.  I believe it is the tomb of Princess TTM containing the Ark of the Covenant.

It was King Solomon (son of King David/Kuthumi) who built the first Temple in which to house the Ark of the Covenant and perhaps the 7th Seal mentioned in Revelation (by Kuthumi) corresponds.

"When on the sounding of the trumpet by the 7th angel, the Ark is discovered in Ireland as prophesied in Revelations II, verse 19, 'there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament. (excerpt from Life Understood, 1920)."

"Ezekiel 17:22 reads that the 'Tender Twig' [Princess TTM] is to be planted in a place described as 'eminent'.

Her name is derived from the Greek word Temoiria, which in Latin is interpreted 'Conspicio' and every place which is conspicuous and eminent...

Professor O'Riordain of University College, Dublin deals with the anme, giving it its ancient form as Teamhair na Riogh 'Tea Mur', the wall of 'Tea', and again 'a meeting place which is conspicuous and eminent' and in the Book of Leinster ' a place  from which there is a wide view.'

Interestingly, (and I only just beginning this research seriously), in Exekiel in the Bible, Princess Tea Tephi Mor is spoken only of as the 'Tender Twig'.  But the initial letters are stil 'TT'.  It is only in Irish legend that she is known as Tea Tephi Mor.  In Gemetria, the value of T T = 600 and Phi (as in Te-phi) is 500 - the 0's are discounted and so the total is 11 - which 'maybe' could refer to the twin pillars of Moses in the Ark of the Covenant.  The verses written about her in Irish legend were during the era of St Germain/St Columba/Merlin/Taliesin, and are attributed to his pupil, St Fintan - but behind St Fintan, would be St G.   I have already mentioned previously that the letters TT represent the twi pillars of Moses in 'Freemasonry'.

Now, ask yourself why a princess from 'Jerusalem' would be given the name of Tea Tephi Mor.

Mor as stated, is Celtic for Mound. None of the biblical names for the families of the Palestine/Jerusalem have her name.

TEA TEPHI MOR

I have always thought it curious that Princess Tea's name was Tephi : Te is still 'T' phoenetically and as mentioned on a previous occasion, TT (her initials) could represent Thirty Three whose verses in the Bible concern the A/C which formulates part of the initiations in Freemasonry.

If her name is a cipher, then think of it this way.

Tea = T

Te (for Tephi) = T

So, it is definitely TT

(Mor in Gaelic means a mound)  

If these clues, then what does the phi represent?

Regarding Princess Tea Mor Tephi and the A of the Covenant (and the Stone of Destiny) Her descendant, Fergus Mor (son of Erc) took the Stone of Destiny to Scotland.

Because I also do genealogy, it occurred to me that her name should/could be written as Tea Tephi Mor. I believe there are clues to her name. TT for the twin pillars of Moses = 33, and I discovered when I was writing in the new book about Iona, that Angel's Hill was had a Gaelic name of something for 'fairy' (can't remember it today) Mor.

And then I thought how strange it was that a daughter of Zedekiah, last king of Judah/Jerusalem, should have a Celtic surname of Mor.

 ~~~~~~~~~

Yes, this will take some time to study. However the error of 54 has  meaning here, Johanna: 54 = Eyes ( re the 007 ).  And the two 0's as letter O #15 = 30, + 7 + 7 = 44...Hidden. The 7 at beginning and end of those 00's of the queen's notation have a sum of 14..7 + 7 = 14.  Maybe this is the clue for 14 for letter "o" of Bacon, as Gary pointed out.

Also, the Bacon Gematria with its 14 = O and 13 = N reminds me of the 27 English Tarot major arcana, where #13 Death, #14 The Hanged Man, #15 The Sun are what I call the Easter sequence of Good Friday / Death, Hanged Man as Saturday, Easter Sunday as The Sun #15. In a circle of these 27 cards, these 3 are at very bottom of the circle. Hanged Man reversed or reversal principle can mean it has the 13 rather than 14 position.  13 + 14 = 27...the alphanumeric 27 completed template of my work. 27 = CODE.

Re 45, 45 = East, Path, Bridge, Chapel.
This reminds me of the 213 stone cubes in Rosslyn Chapel, one of which is an activation device which activated recently. Cube 13 theme. 45 also = GOD DNA, or Heal DNA...refers to Transformation name of Tarot #13 Death...Transformation = 183, and both 13 and 183 are on that cube of 13 graphic R sent to us.

Here is magic square 13 with a magic sum (rows, diagonals, and columns) all add up to 2197



plotted on a circle lookslike this

 

This is a delicious plate full of info to ponder.  More later. N

On Fri, 31 Mar 2006 05:53:03 -0800, "Norma" <norma27@fastmail.fm> said:

Raphiem, there is a theme to these past 2 years which I have been reminding this group & others; that theme is cube 13. And the meaning behind 13 is Transformation, the next biological stage or upgrade for humanity and Earth. It refers to tarot card #13 Death, which is renamed Transformation in new English version. Transformation word sum is 183, the 8 of resurrection symbol / octave separating 13.  In both numbers, a musical scale complete. Cube 13 sum is 2197, and the difference between that sum answer last year when it came into my awareness was 192 years, this year as 191 palindrome.  This 191 as  i,9,1 start or impulse and 9 as completed process, then 1 again suggests a flip-flop effect to this year. This effect has been outpicturing in events, and lives. The cube as volume to a square. 6  sides to a cube, this '06 year. N

On Sat, 01 Apr 2006 04:16:28 -0500, "Johanna Raso" <jraso@videotron.ca> said:
Your research is familiar.  I have similar findings, including John Dee and the 007 connection. I will try to locate my research and submit to the group.

Among his many roles, Dee was in charge of security for Queen Elizabeth I.
She would answer his messages with two o's representing him as the queen's eyes, and she would trace a right angle around the two eyes to indicate that the queen's eyes ( Dee) was protected by the Queen, hence the 007.One of  John Dee's top secret agents was a De Phillipes fellow, possibly an ancestor of mine.

Some research points to Francis Bacon as her son.

FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626)

            Francis Bacon was the son of Nicolas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Seal of Elisabeth I. He entered Trinity College Cambridge 
            at age 12. Bacon later described his tutors as "Men of sharp wits, shut up in their cells of a few authors, chiefly Aristotle, their
            Dictator." This is likely the beginning of Bacon's rejection of Aristotelianism and Scholasticism and the new Renaissance
            Humanism.

            His father died when he was 18, and being the youngest son this left him virtually penniless. He turned to the law and at 23 he was
            already in the House of Commons. His rich relatives did little to advance his career and Elisabeth apparently distrusted him. It was
            not until James I became King that Bacon's career advanced. He rose to become Baron Verulam, Viscount St. Albans and Lord
            Chancellor of England. His fall came about in the course of a struggle between King and Parliament. He was accused of having
             taken a bribe while a judge, tried and found guilty. He thus lost his personal honour, his fortune and his place at court.


 I strongly believe that the AC was moved to either Ireland or France (Rennes le Chateau).    Joseph brought Mary Magdalene and the Cup ( Sang Real, Holy Grail) to France. He and his descendants,  Aromatherapy and his descendents , the knight of the round table, created the interesting connection between France and Britain (including Ireland).
 J

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~`

            This little decrypt cipher here is part of a much larger project which i can not discuss in detail here ... but finding the arc to public domain
            is required for world peace i can't go into here in detail, but the fear is that it already has been found and in the wrong hands ... but if
            bacon was smart enough am sure they would have planted a few false arcs to detract the searches ... am not concerned in finding the 
            ark but if i had to hedge a bet, it would be in ireland at the mound of down ... maybe the hill of tara...
            re: magdalene as sister

            'Lazarus' was a corrupted name for Eleazar. Living at Bethany were Mary Magdalene, her sister Martha, and their brother Lazarus
            (Eleazar).

            He is known in the Bible under various titles, including Simon the Magus, Simon the Magi/Magician, Simon the Zealot etc. He was one 
            of the brothers of Jesus and it does mention in the Bible that Jesus had siblings including sisters.

           His full name was Simon Eleazar and he was one of the high priests in the Temple of Jerusalem, and he was also a zealot/fighter on
           behalf of the Essenes.

           The lineage of the family of the Holy Grail, came through John the Beloved,

           (Kuthumi) - brother of Simon Eleazar/Lazarus etc. and 'Lazarus', John the Beloved (alias Joseph of Arimathea), accompanied Mary, their
           mother, and Martha and Mary Magdalene and servants to Marseilles. Martha and the Magdalene (named Mary after her mother, Mary),
           remained in Marseilles. It is well documented that Joseph of Arimathea and 'Lazarus' accompanied their mother, Mary, to Glastonbury,
           Great Britain.

           In Great Britain, John the Beloved's (J. of Arimathea/Kuthumi), Anna, (named after her grandmother - mother of Mary, whose name was
           Anna), married a Prince of Great Britain and it was from their lineage that all the kings and queens of Britain and Europe are descended.
           And so the Bible is correct in its prophecies about the descendants of the House of David/Judah. And, King David had once been Kuthumi.

          It makes a more interesting story that Jesus married the Magdalene and as far as I am concerned, all those authors have just copied each
          other and run with the story/idea. I am not one of the flock of sheep - I am a 'lone' sheep in this area.

          Theological scholars all appear to agree that Mary of Bethany and Mary the Magdalene were the same person.

          And if this is the case, then in the Bible it tells us that Mary resided with her sister Martha and brother Lazarus (Simon in the Bible) at
          Bethany.

          Therefore, Mary can't be Mary the Mother.

          Also, ancient documents from that period tell of Mary Magdalene remaining in Marseilles, Gaul, and that she died and was buried at St
          Maxim's, Gaul. The church there is dedicated to her. And, Mary, the Mother, was buried at Glastonbury along with her son Joseph of
          Arimathea who was John the Beloved disciple to whom Jesus handed over the responsibility of their mother at the Biblical scene of the
          Crucifixion. At times in the Biblical narratives, he is called John Joseph - obviously given the second name of Joseph after his father -
          Joseph - St Germain.

          Their arrival in Glastonbury was recorded by the Archdruids who greeted the Holy Family. Mary Magdalene joined the Druids at Marseilles.

          At Glastonbury there is the remains of the old church dedicated to Mary and Joseph of Arimathea. It is also a major centre where the
          Mary/Michael Ley lines of Great Britain cross through before moving on down towards Cornwall.

          re:hsn51 read here

          http://www.ken-welch.com/

 

          From: ESMART [mailto:esmarties@btopenworld.com]
          Sent: Sunday, 2 April 2006 7:36 AM
 
          Subject: Re: The Puzzle Challenge
            Hi All.  please guard against corruptions in the headers on forwards, and suggest in order to maintain order, [as this is obviously going to cause much traffic] we
            adopt some index system to the subject line to reflect the context as it develops.
 
           Thanks for sharing this aspect of your research R.. I'm sure we all have some knowledge of the various threads, folklore, legend, readings, topics. However
         very few of us will have any direct contact with the sources or locations, unless we are re-incarnated!  There is a danger is unravelling a tapestry that has been
        constantly reworked over time, re-stitched and parts fabricated.
 
           It would be very helpful to have reference dates and timeframes alongside the events, either real, as in historical or imagined..LOL
 
           And then I thought how strange it was that a daughter of Zedekiah, last king of Judah/Jerusalem, should have a Celtic surname of Mor.
 
          There seems anecdotal evidence to suggest that during the Roman Empires domination of the civilised world a wave of refugees from the Holy Land swept
        westward to the Atlantic.  Some of this migration is historical fact, much of it is not.  Based on this almost legend stories have arisen such as Joseph of Arimathea
          [uncle of Jesus ,, ,or patron whichever is true] having been overseer of the Roman tin mines [rich in natural uranium] in Cornwall, and from this tales of Jesus
          Christ  having  visited as a child. viz [...'and did the Holy Lamb of God, Walk on England's green and pleasant land']  ... indeed in that epoch the British Isles climate
           was very much warmer and comparable to a Mediterranean one, so no great shock to the new arrivals.
 
          At every twist and turn of this woven legend, middle eastern influences were threaded into the pagan, such as the predominantly Goddess theology.  Freemasonry 
          was founded on this marriage of belief systems taken from East and West. I guess we all know this.;))
 
          I saw a short in which you stated unequivocably that Mary Magdelene..
 
       however i hate to tell ya all ... Magdalene was the sister of Jesus .... not his wife!!
 
         I have to ask where is your proof?  Do you know how many brothers he had? Did he have a twin?
 
        How can we know any of this as a certainty?  
 
        I have read and heard so many possible locations for the ARK, and had a few ideas on that myself,  I read a particularily convincing story related by an American
        Jew [dentist] who spent his ill gotten gains on an archaeological adventure in Jerusalem itself, and claimed to have found the Arc in a chasm beneath the
        crucifixion site at Golgotha.  His claim was that the Arc had been split in two by the sacred blood of Christ dripping down the crack, chasm which had been due
        to the earthquake which occurred at the moment of his crossing, recall the tale of the black clouds, tempest, and earth moved.  It was a wonderfully poetic closing
        of the prophetic circle,,, a redemption of the work. It might have been the greatest story untold, or sheer fantasy?
 
       We all know of Hitler's occult quest for Holy relics and his plunders which were trasnported by special train to the Vatican archives. Hitler had area of Rennes LC
       excavated.  I had contact with an American who secretly planned to dig a tunnel under the church at RLC.  The guy was serious and had the means to do it.
       You need to go to RLC to get a grip on the strangeness. It is not a happy atmosphere. I experienced weird stuff there, and then on to a hilltop Nunnery,,, amazing place.
       I could spend a lifetime in those hills,,, I may have done already if I accept this reincarnation that you seem to hold as truth. 
 
       In fact reincarnation is crucial to your trail of clues.  No reincarnation, no validation to your flow of links, the trail stops dead, to the point that your challenge 
       appears  at times to be more a desire to proof reincarnation than the location of the ARK.  So one has to accept reincarnation to validate your clues.
 
       On the abstract..
 
       Regarding Princess Tea Mor Tephi and the Ark of the Covenant (and the Stone of Destiny) Her descendant, Fergus Mor (son of Erc) took the Stone of Destiny 
       to Scotland.
 
      The Stone also known as Stone of Scone, taken to Scotland.  Apparently was stolen and taken as you say by the British Monarch [coronation stone] or annointing 
      stone,  also referred to as the 'foundation stone' or 'corner stone' a rock.  Many metaphorical references biblical and otherwise. The haze about this stone was that 
      the Scots say that the stone stolen from them by the Brits was a replica and they hid the original. Recently the Brit stone was said to have been returned [now housed
       in Scot parliament?] ..but is that a fake of
the fake, and do the Brits still hold the original or a fake up of the original. Double Cross.

       Because I also do genealogy, it occurred to me that her name should/could be written as Tea Tephi Mor. I believe there are clues to her name. TT for the twin pillars 
       of   Moses = 33, and I discovered when I was writing in the new book about Iona, that Angel's Hill was had a Gaelic name of something for 'fairy' (can't remember it
       today) Mor.

       Musing isn't the Egyptian 'first time' of the Gods, 'Zep Tepi', 'Zep Tephi' ? and TT reminds me of the henge and doorway..of course Time Traveller.  Liz will have 
       much to say about the faery queen, the tower, the mound and the maiden in the hill. The fairy tales are legion linking to the Sangrail and chivalry.... and off we fly
       with white horses, unicorns, unravelling as we go, this ball of golden thread.

       Last I heard ...  the ARK was container for the tablets of Moses, but they were not tablets of God fire [laser] chiselled stone, but rather simple scrolls...two scrolls, 
       not 12 tablets.  Do we not have to seperate fact from fiction, and ask what is the ARC.  Is it, was it a communication device, a nuclear fusion or fission powered
       technology, it radiates by all accounts, priests wearing lead APRONS, and accounts of burns and shocks, certainly the texts read so much.  Then there are accounts
        of several ARKS, of non functioning replicas maybe, to foil detection and theft, or to bolster the authority of false claimants to thrones?

       What a can of worms. Shekinah was container for the ARK?  I wouldn't agree with that, but we should agree not to disgree on semantics, for in truth few if any 
       know the absolute truth of any of this which even when all the evidence is gathered is unlikely to to prove conclusively who killed JFK.

       May I ask, you want to find the ARK, or dig up half of Ireland?  More importantly, what for?

       I've known a few archaeologists and they know of many significant sites but have great reluctance to dig for they say if WE with our time limited intellect disturb 
       these sites, there will be nothing left for future generations who may be better equipped than us to understand what they unearth. 

       Interestingly when they dug into Silbury hill expecting to find the treasures of a Saxon King they came across an empty chamber apart from some flints, some 
       white pebbles, and a grain of wheat. When the great Pyramid was excavated they found an empty sarcophagus. Were both tombs raided prior? What do you think!

     Dave

     :)) A leaked Gov doc here, indicates our Gov planning mass graves for up to 350,000 bodies when H5N1 strikes. 

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~`
      Those who win the war write the history books to suit
 
      The question then begs if this is the case and Bacon and Dee translated the bible (assuming it was corrupted prior)
 
      Did they correct and re-instate the truth or did they further corrupt it ??
 
       So, what i am going to say may be looked at as a taboo subject but if  Bacon and Dee did corrupt it and not correct it then are they 
       complicit and if in fact they are supposedly ascended masters then they may be bad guys
 
       This would make all Ascended Masters in the so called 'Newage' circle if any as "bad guys "
 
       If Jehovah the angry god nuked the place and defeated his brother Merlin/Enki etc into retreat and then went about rewriting the books 
       to suit .. then am assuming St Germain as Enki/Merlin/Bacon etc corrected it later when they translated or left clues ciphers
 
       There are words KJV that appear in old testament which do not make any sense i.e. they are out of place
 
        These perhaps are treated as key-cipher words or markers or pointers
 
        Anyway some food for thought ../.R.
 
        PS: sorry guys if you wanted maths stuff, but there is lots of maths here as Bacon/Dee were brilliant maths genius
 
        Psalm 45 mentioned earlier, tells of the marriage between Heremon, the Milesian prince, and the Princess of Judah – Tea Tephi Mor.

        In Psalm 47, 47 + verse 9 = 56; 5 + 6 =11 which could possibly allude to the twin pillars of Moses concealed within the Ark of the      
        Covenant
.  

        Psalm 46, verse 4 is of interest because it is the very next psalm after the Royal Wedding of Princess Tea Tephi Mor and it is of
        significance because it further aids in identifying the location of where the princess was buried. 
In this psalm we are told “There is 
        a river, the streams where of shall make glad the city of
God , the holy place of the tabernacles of the most High.” The ‘tabernacle’
        is related to the Ark of the Covenant.


        According to Steven Sora in his article which appeared in the magazine called Atlantis Rising, (November/December 2005), titled
        Bacon, Shakespeare & the Spear of Athena:
       “Under King James he [Francis Bacon/St Germain] also translated what would be called the King James Version of the Bible.   
       
In Psalm 46 the forty-sixth (46th) word down from the first verse is ‘Shake’ while the forty-sixth (46th) word from the end is ‘Spear’.” 
       
This once again helps us to identify the author, Francis Bacon – St Germain.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

         OK some people are getting a little puzzled to the purpose of the puzzle
 
         As i said it was part of a larger project
 
         i'll let in a little since most of you have been of most help
 
        I'm working with a group to crack the Voynich manscript .... we believe Francis Bacon (aka St Germain) wrote it, some in the group reckon
        Roger Bacon wrote it  and Francis continued it later ,,,
 
        Now without going into great depth since i am only a mushroom at the bottom of the great minds in this project, mainly computer analysis,
        pattern sequencing some in the group  believe  "Tea Tephi Mor" is a link to cracking this manuscript this gave us a clue hence my puzzle
        challenge ...
 
        We only have poor digital graphics version of it but since I know for fact that Roger Bacon and Francis bacon (son of Queen Elizabeth) were
        the same entity (aka St Germain) and his friend John Dee (Khuthumi) were always in the queens court and as was mention 007 was Dee and
        I know they encoded Tea Tephi Mor into book of ezekiel when translating
 
        We believe the location of the Ark of the Covenant will hold further clue's to deciphering the Voynich manuscript
 
       later
       R.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~`

       Raphiem

       I wish you, in addition to your learned colleagues, well in the midst of your penetrating the Voynich Manuscript, given that tis indeed a
       veritable hotchpotch,  replete in the company of esoteric, oft times seemingly asinine, nonetheless possibly consequential allegory  

      Peace

       Derek

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

       From: C Miller [mailto:crichtonmiller@btconnect.com]
       Sent: Sunday, 2 April 2006 9:12 PM
       Subject: Re: The Puzzle Challenge
       I found this a most interesting discussion and an enlightening insight into the maze like view of the undisciplined and confused state of mind
       of the average human being as we, as a species, decline from reason and common sense into the soup of ignorance discussed by Jack
       London in "The Sea Wolf"
       It surprises me not a jot that the masses are still easily controlled by the Rulers/measurers
 
       "Some truths will ever remain mysterious for the slow witted and the foolish; and we need not be afraid to tell them these truths,
        because it is quite certain that they will never understand them."
 
         Eliphas Levi, The Great Secret.
 
         The Ark is a boat and the cross is a measuring device
 
         We may struggle through the twisted myth of his-story and Faery Tales and manipulate the words to suit our own selfish hopes and fears,
         but it will not extend the length of our lives by one second nor relieve the worlds misery of physical and mental suffering by one digit of
         pain.
 
         Crichton

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Hi Norma

An ark is a boat of many both esoteric and practical meanings
It is the most ancient of our vehicles and the most adapted to the awesome forces of Nature
It was our first vehicle of transportation and also our homes in prehistoric times when we traveled earthly seas 
The Sun (RA) and Osiris are seen depicted in arks as they travel the heavenly seas
These forces of Nature from which we need protection are of course order and chaos and are reflected in the concept of the premordial sea .
They govern our very life death and possible rebirth in this place.
Our ancestors did not see time as we do now, but that everything was in the moment, They saw time as cyclical change and not linear like modern man.
To protect against the dangerous changes that they were able to prophesy, they sought refuge in a boat or ark hence the Noah story at the end of the last ice age when 90 percent of flora and fauna including at least two other species of Man were wiped out by the sudden melting of the ice caps and the resulting tsunami's that devastated our planet and raised the sea levels by 300 feet.
Our species (Homo Sapiens) is primarily a seagoing race developing from marginal shore living hunter gatherers at least 180,000 years ago who were able to survive through the start of the last ice age to the end of it, which we are still in to this day. 
After the end of the ice age we found that the species we hunted were in short supply and we began to perfect agriculture
The notion of agriculture brought about a territorial concept leading to wars over turf, which still exists today.
Current territorial wars are over solar energy stored in the ground in the form of oil
But agriculture also removed most of us from the clock of Nature which is the art of measuring the sun and moon against the backdrop of stars and constellations that we now know vaguely as astrology, (Logic of the stars) pursued by the foolish who are out of synchronicity with the motions of our planet It was from the geometry of astrology that all our mathematics used in this group and in science were derived. 
The geometry was measured and calculated by a simple instrument and the only one capable of this work which is now seen as the Christian Icon we know as the Celtic cross, the Wheel cross and Wodens cross, a pre Christian instrument used by our ancient mariner forefathers to find the time, latitude and longitude consisted of a simple protractor, two crossed sticks and a plumbline.
It was used in combination with Draconis which holds the never changing celestial pole of the sun (source of life)
That is why Moses set a Tau cross in the desert with a serpent in bronze to cure the poison of serpents for the Israelites. 
The rubbish we are fed by self deluded minds poisons us now and we need a cure before we sink into madness.
The idea of Scoti, daughter of Ahkenaten fleeing to Ireland and then to Scotland is one such story of displacement of weakened groups from Egypt as were the Essenes who made it to America
They went in arks or B-arks because they knew how to navigate and how to build and use ships (Arks).
Britain became expert sailors because of them and this knowledge led to one of the greatest maritime powers on which it is said that the sun never set.
The protection of the covenant with god, in an ark follows the logic that built Egypt and from which our Bible and all its stories are derived.
The ark of the covenant ,like the Grail is carried in the minds through the generations in reincarnated safety from the barbarian and the half wit.
We will need these skills again soon as the Sun (God) shakes our planet as it did 12500 years ago
Many of us live in indolent separation and have forgotten our bloodline and our roots as sailors, thats all.

Best

Crichton
www.crichtonmiller.com
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The Voynich manuscript! Holy code, Batman! Good luck. Perhaps we'll all need to chip in on a padded room for you when it drives you into the depths of utter insanity.  :-)

-Gary-

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The great flood is a cross cultural story--many cultures on our planet record such an event, and some have a hero / Noah as a nuclear family to carry on the species in their part of the world.

Crichton has excellent research on the cross as an instrument for several functions.  It is a primal form, archetypal,  which occurs first inside the vesica piscis.  Every culture has a means to mark time, place, seasons, cycles. The esoteric & exoteric meanings of both cross and ark are rather broad.  

N
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Notice the 47, 47 below:
47 = Time, Force and is associated with twin pillars.
Verse 9
56 is an 11, thus a 9/11 twin pillar reference.

56 also = Begins. 
56 = April

Spear is also REAPS.

N
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

             Hello Raphiem and all.

            This and the other postings on the Puzzle Challenge subject touch on various parts of my own experiences and studies. I'll relate 
            a few of many connections, restraining them to these parts:

            << At the moment I am trying to work out why the Mound where Princess TT was buried was of exact measurement of 60 feet.  
            As pointed out previously, it comes down to two lots of 3 = 33 (discounting the zero in the Pythagorean cipher system and that of 
            the Gematria).  And TT (for Tea Tephi) is symbolic of Thirty-Three - Freemasonry. >> (snip)

             << Downpatrick in Ireland, is 54 degrees North. >> (snip)

             << Thirty-Three: “‘33’ was the numerical signature of Bacon as well as the Highest Masonic Degree, and the symbols of ‘T.T.’ 
                   run like a golden thread throughout the ceremonials of Masonry and Rosicrucianism from the first Masonic Step…’T’ and 
                   the ‘33’ candles on the Rosicrucian Altar.” >> (snip)

             << 5 + 4 = 9 >> (snip)

             << The question is, has it not been excavated because high up members of the Orange Order of the Freemasons know what is
                   located beneath? >> (snip)


                 << THE RENNES LE CHATEAU MYSTERY
                
Behind the mystery is the painting titled Shepherds of Arcadia by Nicholas Poussin. Using the Pythagorean system, Shepherds 
             of Arcadia adds up to 88. 8 + 8 = 16 and 1 + 6 = 7. >> (snip)

             I created a music wheel that features 33 and 60. Recently I put it online:

             The Crop Circle Music Wheel
             http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/music/joemusic.htm

              The outer wheel is based on the 360 degree circle divided into 60 parts of 6 degrees each. Stonehenge may have had a similar
              suggestion.

              A triangle was "revealed" in the process of finding the various notes on the wheel. There are 11 marks on each side of the triangle,
              for a total of 33.

             The music follows the intervals of the octaves, as the cycles per second. These can be put as fractions, with a common denominator
              of 24.

              You will find other connections, like 54 and numbers related, like 504.
              Gary provided many connections. One relates to 351 + 153 = 504.

              In Carl Munck's system, the coordinate intersect of the Sphinx is 5040. The number 54 shows up in his system in relation to
              Stonehenge. There are 56 Aubrey Holes in a circle, two of which are in the avenue, with two more beyond the circle indicating 54
              and 4.

        
      http://www.greatdreams.com/stnhng2.gif

                  See article:

                  THE CODE OF CARL MUNCK, AND ANCIENT GEMATRIAN NUMBERS - PART FOUR
                  http://www.greatdreams.com/gem4.htm

                  A code of 5 and 4 or 4 and 5 often comes up. One of the connections is to the pyramid. The four corners plus the apex give 5, 
                  and the 4 comes from the 4 sides.

                  Concerning the "Orange Order of the Freemasons," it is interesting to note that the English alphanumerics for "orange" is 60.
                  For some reason the word orange sometimes connects with the Jews. An example was in the movie, "Joe and the
                  Volcano."  (everyone had to drink orange juice)

                  The number 88 is one of those "11" types which often become associated with distances in yards and miles, like 176, 528, and
                  harmonics 1760, 5280.
                  Figuring the 60 part wheel, 88 x 60 = 5280, feet in one mile. Figuring theGematrian Wheel, 88 x 360 = 31680, six miles in feet,
                  and the sub-lunar distance around the New Jerusalem. Some early Christians associated 3168 as Gematria for "Lord Jesus
                  Christ."

                  There are 88 constellations. Mercury has an 88 day orbit. Jimmi Furia's brother John told me he dreamed that the Archangel
                  Michael came and gave him the number 88.

                  That's it for now.

                  Regards,

                 Joe Mason
                 http://www.greatdreams.com/crpcirc.htm

                 http://www.greatdreams.com

                .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                To all

               The gist within my post to Joe being that number be integrated via a blueprint we modern day humankind be no more than
                re-discovering, assuredly not discovering, more candidly re-discovering. We necessitate perceiving via eyes of the Ancients not
               our inflexible oft times clouded via bias and prejudiced eyes

               The 360 divided by 54 = 6.666 of Crichton being a fine situate to commence, given that within the Carl Munck piece I illustrated
               1.111
               Disregard appellations as feet, inches, and volume otherwise whatever we deal with pure number. Where deemed necessary the
               innumerable digits being abridged


              {A} 6.666 is quite obviously the square root of 44.444, which multiplied by 8.1 = 360. We discover that 8.1 is 1.111 x 7.29, why did
              Plato need to mention the number 729 {The Republic 1X} possibly since 729 is the square root of 531441 the Comma of Pythagoras
              being 531441:524288

              {B} 524288 is 99.29696 miles of 5280 the 99.29696 is 1.111 x 89.367272 this being 729 x 0.122588851
              Dividing the Pythagorean limma {256:243} by Gematria Jesus Christ: 2368 obtains 4.448893337 which is the 0.122588851 x
              36.2911739864864 that multiplied by Mr. Malicious 666 = 24169.921875

             {C} The 24169.921875 divided by the seconds in 24 hours 86400 = 0.2797444661458333 that multiplied by 23.8312727 regains the
             commencing 6.666, the 23.8312727 being the Egyptian Cubit of 1.71818 x 13.87005291005291 which is the Eye of Horus fraction
             {64:63} of 1.015873 x 13.65333 that multiplied by 26.3671875 = 360
             The 26.3671875 x 916.666 regains the above 24169.921875 furthermore 916.666 is the Gematria Mary 192 x 4.77430555 which is
             1.111 x 4.296875 {exactly} etc, etc


             I shall finish at this point else I flood the page, nevertheless whilst sections of modern day humankind hear, speak moreover see all,
             they be nigh on deaf, dumb and blind to Ancient echoes of perception. There is much we recognize not, there is much we be
             acquainted with, however as Sir Isaac Newton put in writing

               "A man may imagine things that are false, but he can only understand things that are true"

               In the spirit of Peace and Understanding
               Derek

               ~~~~~~~~

               Well this is my problem Crichton

                Been well verses in earth grid harmonics as some here know me for this fame by my alias over recent years

                My problem yes they knew the earth was round and obviously had some measuring device like your arced cross (protractor) to
                measure but why the damn location, what was so important about it .,.

                Also problem I have is when this was decided the location that is, Greenwhich was not yet decided and have to agree that at one
                time as many others have decided that the Giza pyramid was zero, zero meridian

                 If this is the case then 54 deg of today was not 54 deg of that time considering the G.P was zero zero

                 I believe the location was decided prior earth tilt back in Irelantis, so how is it possible they knew then it would be 54 degrees
                 today

                 Is this a fluke? or perhaps am down the garden path ...

                Thanks
                R.
               
~~~~~~~~

                 “Druidism sprang back to life under the mighty MERLIN [St Germain], whose prophecies became so famous throughout Gaul
                  and Britain, and who forms so conspicuous a character in the Arthurian romances.”

                   “…they [the Druids] consecrated it [the Tau Cross] by cutting upon the right branch in fair characters the word Hesus, upon 
                   the middle stem, the word Taranis, upon the left branch Belinus and over them the word Thaw [Thor].” (Winwood Reade)

                   I don't believe that is the way it seems - I am working through Tara, Taranis, the Cult of Tara  etc.

                   The siblings of Jesus were as follows:

                   1.  John  Joseph the Beloved (Kuthumi) alias Joseph of Arimathea - the 'Secret Disciple of  Jesus'

                   2.  James the Just

                   3.  Simon the Magus (Eleazar/Lazarus) (Disciple of Jesus)

                        (Simon was the earliest Gnostic, and the early priests of Rome considered him 'the father of all heresies)

                        (Joseph (St Germain) died in 15 AD and he was succeeded by Simon Eleazar in the Temple of Jerusalem).

                   4.  Matthew (Disciple of Jesus)

                        (Matthew also was a 'Gnostic')

                        (Mathew's son, was Josephus, born 37-100 AD, who is famous for his Antiquities).

                        (Josephus defected from the Essenes when he married a Roman woman and lived at a palace in Rome.  He later 
                        persecuted his own people by leading raids upon them.  Simon/Eleazar/Lazarus, is also known in the Bible as the
                        Zealot/Patriot - he defended the Essenes against the Romans.

                   5.  Judas  - the betrayer of Jesus

                        (Also known as Annas the Younger High Priest of the Sanhedrin - Temple of Jerusalem who betrayed his brother James 
                        the Just and had him executed in 67 AD) - sibling rivalry.

                        St Germain apart from being 'Zebedee' the Fisher of Men (Ze = Zion, be for Bacon and Dee for Sir John Dee - both being 
                        the translators of the KJ version of the Bible into English), was Annas the Elder High Priest of the Temple of Jerusalem.  
                        He had 5 sons who were Annas High Priests.  Jesus was not one of them. 


                    6. Mary Magdalene

                       (Mary was a 'Gnostic')

                   7. Martha

                   There was another daughter, who is not named - there were 8 in the family altogether.  The one who is not named was married 
                   to Joseph Caiaphus for in Josephus' Antiquities, he states that Caiaphus was the son-in-law of Annas the Elder High Priest 
                   [St Germain/Joseph]

                   R

                   ~~~~~~~~~

                    According to the Freemason, Robert Ambelain, in his work titled Le Martinisme (1946):

                    “In Chapter XXV of Exodus, paragraphs 16 and 17, the Eternal One, having given instructions for the construction of the Ark of the
                     Testimony, a little box two and a half cubits long, and one and a half cubits high and wide, tell us the following:

                     ‘And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee’.

                    “The ‘Testimony’ were the two tablets.  Why this expression?  Because these plaques of stone will be, for Moses and the People, 
                    the decisive proof of the reality of the marvel!  Contemplating the Tablets, Moses, could never, ever, with the procession of time,
                    doubt the basis of his mission…Never would the theurgist be able to believe that he had ever dreamed it!  The ‘Tablets’ would 
                    be there, as a testimonial, through the supernatural imprint they had received, that IVHV had truly manifested, right before the 
                    leader of Israel.”

                   “The text of Exodus explains that they were ‘written on both sides’.  This gives us Ten Commandments distributed on four sides!  
                    This is neither easy nor harmonious.  But if one is willing to acknowledge that they behaved like two stone Pantacles, everything
                    becomes clear.  For all Pantacles have two sides, both engraved with appropriate symbols.”

                   “If two ‘Tablets’ – that is to say, a double Testimony’ were necessary, it is because as Genesis tell us (Chapter I), Elohim is a ‘double’
                    god:  “God made Man in his own image, male and female created he them’.  Hence the expressions of ‘the left hand’ and the ‘right
                    hand’ of God.  This duality is recalled in the two Cherubim which in the words of Chapter XXV of Exodus (18,19), must stretch their
                    wings above the Ark and the Mercy Seat of pure gold which dominated it.  Proof that the presence of the Eternal One, God of Israel,
                    was linked to the two ‘Pantacles’ which  are the two ‘Tablets’, is also in Exodus which tells us:

                    ‘And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark: and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.’

                   ‘And there I will meet with thee and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which
                    are upon the Ark of the Testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel.’ (Exodus XXV,
                     21,22).”

                    “The God of Israel could only be manifested in the Holy of Holies, above the Ark of the Covenant, containing the famous
                     ‘Testimony’…  For there, where the Ark is, there is the Elohim:  ‘Thou shalt make a Sanctuary, and I shall live there among you…’”

                     Exodus 27 verses 34,35:  ‘Put the lid on the Covenant Box.  Outside the Most Holy Place, put the table against the north side of the
                     Tent and the lamp-stand against the south side.’

                     Aaron’s rod (accordingly to Numbers 17, verse 8) produced almond blossoms.  According to Robert Ambelain, the ‘almond (shaked)
                    is the tree of ‘those-who-watch (shakad), that is to say the Angels whom the Book of Enoch calls the ‘Watchers of Heaven’.  It is the
                    Wand the Gods of the Armies of Heaven, the Elohim Sabbaoth, required of its priests.”

                     “In the Book of Jeremiah (1, 11 and 12), the translators have translated this verse in different ways, hesitating to translate shaked
                     (almond) or shaked (watcher).  Sometimes one reads:

                     ‘The word of the Lord came to me with the question:  What do you see, Jeremiah? I see a rod of an almond tree, I replied.  Then 
                     the Lord said to me: Well have you seen, for I am watching to fulfill my word.’”

                     “On other occasions it is translated:

                     ‘I replied: Lord, I see a rod of an almond tree.  The voice replied: Well have you seen.  For I am a Rod which watches for the
                      fulfillment of my Words…’”

                    “Now, the rod which watches is incontestably a Candle.  Around the Christian altar, Candles symbolize the Angels of the Celestial
                    Court, and the two candles which must be made of beeswax (according to the Canon), on either side of the vertical crucifix, are 
                     the two great Archangels [Raphael and Michael].   And the Book of Enoch calls the Angels the ‘Watchers of Heaven’.”  These
                     ‘Watchers’ of heaven would appear to be the Masters of the Great White Brotherhood.

                     Psalm 45 mentioned earlier, tells of the marriage between Heremon, the Milesian prince, and the Princess of Judah – 
                     Tea Tephi Mor.

                     In Psalm 47, 47 + verse 9 = 56; 5 + 6 =11 which could possibly allude to the twin pillars of Moses concealed within the Ark of the
                     Covenant.

                     Psalm 46, verse 4 is of interest because it is the very next psalm after the Royal Wedding of Princess Tea Tephi Mor and it is of
                     significance because it further aids in identifying the location of where the princess was buried.  In this psalm we are told “There 
                     is a river, the streams where of shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacles of the most High.” The ‘tabernacle’
                     is related to the Ark of the Covenant.

                     According to Steven Sora in his article which appeared in the magazine called Atlantis Rising, (November/December 2005), titled
                     Bacon, Shakespeare & the Spear of Athena:

                    “Under King James he [Francis Bacon/St Germain] also translated what would be called the King James Version of the Bible.   
                     In Psalm 46 the forty-sixth (46th) word down from the first verse is ‘Shake’ while the forty-sixth (46th) word from the end is ‘Spear’.” 
                     This once again helps us to identify the author, Francis Bacon – St Germain.

                      It is regarding one of the poems of Taliesin.

                     “I was three periods in the Castle of Arianhod.
                       I have been in an uneasy chair above Caer Sidhe,
                      and the whirling round without motion between three elements.
                      Am I not a candidate for fame, to be heard in song?
                      The first word of the cauldron, when was it spoken?
                      Is it not the cauldron of the chief of Annwm in its fashion…?”

                      (Taliesin/Merlin/St Columba/St Germain, 6th century AD)

                      “A rampart was raised around her house”
                      For Tea, the daughter of Lughaidh (God’s House)
                      She was buried outside in her mound,
                      A habitation which was a Dun and a fortress…”

                      (St Fintan, the Bard, 6th century AD)

                      The ‘elements’ are represented in ‘Alchemy/Magic’ which appear in many of the legends of Merlin and Arthur. i.e. Fire, Air, 
                      Water, Earth, as explained in a previous chapter.  According to C.W, Leadbeater, in his book titled The Hidden Life in 
                      Freemasonry these elements formulate part of the ritual in Freemasonry.

                      George F. Jowett in his book titled Drama of the Lost Disciples was quoted earlier as saying that “the story of the search for the 
                      Holy Grail by the Knights of the Round Table carries a double meaning.”

                      “It is generally believed that the search was for the Cup of the Last Supper…” “On the other hand, the word Grail in old English
                       means ‘elements’. 

                      "Robert Graves, in his book titled the White Goddess questions the relationship of Castle Sidhe to Castle Arianhod, as in, were 
                       they the same place?  According to Robert Graves, the word ‘Sidhe’ [pronounced ‘she’] “is a round barrow fortress belonging 
                       to the prime magicians [Druids] of Ireland.” “…either on an island in the river or the sea where his [King Arthur’s] spirit lived 
                       under the charge of oracular priestesses, but his soul went to the stars and there hopefully awaited rebirth in another king.”

                       She [Princess Tea Tephi Mor] was buried outside in her mound,

                       A habitation which was a Dun and a fortress…” (St Fintan the Bard 6th century AD)

                       ‘Sidhe’ (pronounced ‘shee’) also means a mound.   Robert Graves informs us that the “Sidhe were such skilful poets that even 
                        the Druids were obliged to go to them for spells that they needed;  it seems likely that the original Caer Sidhe where the 
                        Cauldron of Inspiration was housed was a barrow…for these barrows were fortresses with tombs below. 

                        Robert Graves from his book titled The White Goddess was also previously quoted as stating that the uneasy chair is the 
                        ‘perfect chair’ in Caer (Castle) Sidhe - ‘the Elysian fortress’, Isles of the Blessed, where the Cauldron was housed, and according 
                        to John Matthews in his book titled The Household of the Holy Grail (1990) “in the course of literary transmission, the home of 
                        the original Grail story … it is revealed that the Grail Castle is established in Ireland.  The Fisher King dwells on the island in 
                        one of the most beautiful places in the world.”

                        Because the real King Arthur – Aedan Mac Gabran’s daughter, Princess Gemma lived at the royal palace of the Dal Fiatach in 
                        Dun da Lethglas, in the 6th century AD, it may be that was indeed his residence too. 

                        ‘The Castle of the Perfect Ones’, found in the Spoils of Annwm was written by Taliesin/Merlin/St Columba/St Germain in the 
                         6th century, the same period of St Fintan the bard (who was Columba’s student).  A castle is also a palace and as indicated 
                         earlier in this chapter, it was where the Great White Brotherhood (the ‘Perfect Ones’) resided who dwelt in the Land of the 
                         North Wind.

                        The Land of the North Wind refers to Hyperborea.

In Greek mythology, according to tradition, the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived to the far north of Greece. Their land, called Hyperborea, or Hyperboria ("beyond the Boreas (north wind)"), was perfect, with the Sun shining twenty-four hours a day.

The Greeks thought that Boreas, the god of the north wind, lived in Thrace, and therefore Hyperborei was an unspecified nation in the northern parts of Europe and Asia. Alone among the Twelve Olympians, Apollo was venerated among the Hyperboreans: he spent his winter amongst them. For their part the Hyperboreans sent mysterious gifts, packed in straw that came first to Dodona and then were passed from people to people until they came to Apollo's temple on Delos (Pausanias). Theseus and Perseus also visited the Hyperboreans.

In Greek maps from the time of Alexander the Great, Hyperborea, shown variously as a peninsula or island, is located beyond France and has a greater latitudinal than longitudinal extent. Apparently Hyperborea is a combined notion of present day Britain and Norway/Sweden. Other description put in the general area of the Ural Mountains

                         From information contained in Peter Dawkins’ book The Great Vision we learn the following:

                        “It should be noted that when Jesus called James and John ‘Boanerges’, an  Aramaic term meanings ‘sons of Thunder’, he 
                        was referring to the Word of God and to the fact that these two disciple-initiates were indeed initiates, baptized with the Holy
                        Spirit. Similarly when he called Peter and Andrew ‘sons of Jonah’, he was referring to the same Baptism (by IOA, as in Iona, 
                        the Dove and initiateship).  There was in fact a Mystery school operating amongst the Essenes at the time of Jesus, which led
                        suitable candidates through the paths of initiation - Lesser and then Greater.  When an initiate completed the Lesser Degrees 
                        and entered the Greater Degrees, he was referred to as a ‘son of Jonah’, the Dove.” 

                        “Another term was also in current usage, but had become misapplied through its popularization; that is ‘son of the Torah’, 
                        where Torah is the name for the Law or Word of God, equivalent to the Egyptian Tot or Thoth and the Hyperborean Thor (as 
                        in ArThor).”

                        “Except seven, none returned from Caer Vediwid (the Castle of the Perfect Ones)”

                        It would appear that the ‘Castle of the Perfect Ones’ in Taliesin’s poem, refers to the Great White Brotherhood. The ‘Perfect 
                        Ones’ are said to have dwelled in Hyperborea (‘the Land of the North Wind’).  John the Beloved (Kuthumi) who wrote the book 
                        of Revelation in the 1st century AD, refers to a throne and the seven spirits of God:   “…and all around the throne there was a
                        rainbow the colour of an emerald…From the throne came flashes of lightening, rumblings, and peals of thunder.  In front of 
                        the throne seven lighted torches were burning, which are the seven spirits of God.  Also in front of the throne there was what
                        looked like a sea of glass, clear as crystal.” (Excerpts from Revelation 4).  

                       The ‘Seven’ mentioned in Taliesin’s poem, and in Revelation would be the Seven Great Archangels, also referring to the Great
                       White Brotherhood.  In his book titled The Great Vision, Peter Dawkins explains as follows:  “The Seven Great Archangels give
                       form (in terms of thought) to the Seven Rays of Light, which in turn are the vibrational impulses of the Seven Logoi or spiritual
                       Principles.  As one great Thought, they are known as the Seven Spirits – the seven creative modes of the one Holy Spirit…”

                      “The ‘North’ is known as the Place or Seat of Government, and the ‘Mount of Congregation’ of the Lord is in the north, where 
                      the Assembly of the Holy Ones is to be found.”

                      “The ‘north wind’ is the creative Breath of God: and Hyperborea, ‘the land of the north wind’, is the source from which the 
                      north wind comes.”

                      “On earth, Hyperborea has a special relationship to the country of Britain…”    “Esoterically, Britain is the heart-abode of the
                      incarnate Dohv and the principal home-land of the great teachers of humanity from the most ancient times.  The history and 
                      destiny of Britain is connected with this, and this important (but esoteric) fact lies behind the works of Francis Bacon.”

                      The Lords of the Seven Rays were discussed in my book titled Masters of the Mystical Rose A History of the Grail Family.  
                      St Germain, as the Master for the Age of Aquarius, is Head of the Violet or Purple Ray and according the theosophist, C. W.
                      Leadbeater, St Germain has always been recognised as the Head of Freemasonry within the Masonic lodges.

                      In his book titled The Household of The Grail, John Matthews brings up the subject of certain of the Rays stating that the Purple 
                      Ray is of devotional mysticism.  “You must balance the Rays in your training, and you will find in each tradition the elements 
                      which connect it with all the other traditions.”

                      “On the Green Ray – the Celtic nature Ray, you will find the connection with the Purple Ray through Celtic Saints, such as 
                      St Bride
[Brigid], St Columba [St Germain] and many others.  You will find the link with the Hermetic tradition also, through 
                      the Magi Merlin, who is very important, and is the Master of the Celtic Ray in these islands [Great Britain]…you will find the link 
                      with the Celtic tradition through Grail legends and the Arthurian cycle, and with the Hermetic tradition through the Mysteries.”

                     “In the Hermetic tradition you will find the link with Christian aspects through the Rose and the Cross and with the Celtic aspect
                      through Merlin again.”

                      “…and all around the throne there was a rainbow the colour of an emerald.” (Revelation 4)

                       Obviously the ‘emerald’ mentioned in Revelation 4, pertains to the Tribe of Dan who established themselves in Ireland and 
                       whose tribal gemstone as stipulated in the Bible, was the emerald.

                      The  castle/palace of the 'Perfect Ones' was located upon an island where the sacred Mysteries were taught.  This place which
                      could be described as an ecclesiastical centre which was in operation during Taliesin’s time, because that is when he wrote 
                      about it and thus it was in the 6th century AD, i.e. that of ‘Merlin’ and King Arthur.

                      Dun da Lethglas in the North, was once an island (and this is explained further below).

                      Reliable sources verify that Dun da Lethglas (also known as Dun Lethglaise) was indeed the headquarters of the Dal Fiatach of 
                      the Ulaid - the royal kings of Ulster of the tribe of Dalriata who were descended from Princess Tea Mor Tephi and King Heremon,
                      and that what today is known as Cathedral Hill was their ecclesiastical centre.

                      According to the author J. Frederick Rankin, in his book titled Down Cathedral:

                     “It is important to emphasise that the ruling Dal Fiatach supplied the ecclesiastical, as well as the secular headship, and that this
                      was likely to have been the
chief reason for the choice of Dun Lethglaise as their ecclesiastical centre.  The monastery at Dun
                       Lethglaise continued to play an integral part in the prestige of the dynasty.”

                      The place which Ezekiel is describing the new Zion, consists of a river with a stream, marshes and ponds along the shore.  
                      The River Quoile is in parts, a river, and a stream with marshes and ponds hence the term ‘Pond-age’ mentioned above.
                      According to Ezekiel the river flows through the land to the east and he compares it with the Mediterranean Sea, therefore we 
                      know he is not talking of the actual Mediterranean Sea itself.  Northern Ireland is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north
                      and the Irish Sea to the east.  It has previously been mentioned that according to Anthony Wilson, discussing the barony of 
                      Lecale in which Downpatrick is situated: “The shores of the barony are enclosed by the Irish Sea, which has been called ‘The
                      British Mediterranean’.”  “Lecale continued as an island right up to the 18th century when the first attempts began to be made 
                      to drain the marshes and shut out the tidal forces of the sea.”

                      The name of the goddess Arianhod means ‘silverwheel’ and she is regarded as the patron of the bards and of Inspiration 
                      (Annwm).  Arianhod is also known as Ariadne. Her name means ‘most holy’ from the Greek ‘ari’ and adnos.  In mythology, 
                      Ariadne was rescued by the god Dionysus, and after he married her, he placed her wedding garland in the sky as a constellation,
                      the one we know as the Corona Borealis. 

                      This star system appears east of Bootes and lies in the north, resembling a crown hence the name ‘Corona’.  In ancient Arabia 
                      it was called the ‘Bright Dish’. (Reference has been given in previous chapters to Dionysus and the Mysteries).    

                      Upon the subject of Ariadne, it is pertinent here to refer to what was mentioned in the prophecies of Merlin (Taliesin/St Germain)
                      given in the first chapter of our story. 


                     ‘But his gates shall lie hid in the interstices of Ariadne’s crown.’

                      “Ariadne’s crown, which is one of the celestial constellations, who left the world in Saturn’s reign, called the golden age.  
                      Ariadne’s crown here symbolizes the advent of the Golden Age which shall cause wars to cease.”

                      The Golden Age is heralded by St Germain, the Master for the Age of Aquarius and Lord of the 7th Ray which is the 
                      Violet/Purple Ray.

                     ‘Gates’ could mean entrance to a location; ‘Interstice’ means a ‘crevice’ or ‘opening’ which may also pertain to an entrance.  For 
                      all intents and purposes, the cryptic verse by Merlin regarding Ariadne may be referring to the hidden/concealed Ark of the
                      Covenant.  And, the star system of Ariadne is in the north.

                      According to Robert, “I was three periods in the Castle of Arianhod” means that the Castle of Arianhod “is to be in a royal palace
                      awaiting resurrection…”

                      Robert also informs us that the poet, Taliesin, is referring to the fact that he spent time there.   As St Columba/Merlin, Taliesin 
                      would have spent time visiting the palace of the kings of Ulster, descendants of the tribe of Dan, whose royal abode was at Dun 
                      da Lethglas in the north of Ireland. 

                      Robert Graves informs that in Taliesin’s story, “the tribes of Amathaon and Gwydion in the Cad Goddeu encounter, were intent 
                      on keeping the secret of Achren...” and he connects the story the Tuatha de Danaan - the Tribe of Dan to which Prince Heremon,
                      the husband of Princess Tea Tephi Mor belonged.

                      In Taliesin’s story, Pwyll goes ‘to the top of a mound which is above a palace’.

                      “Lord”, said one of the Court, “it is peculiar to the mound that whoever sits upon it cannot go thence without ever receiving 
                      wounds or blows, or else a wonder,” which possibly applies to the Urim and Thummim buried with the Ark of the Covenant.

                      The story then relates that whilst Pwyll sat upon the mound, he met a princess upon a white horse who materialized from the
                      vicinity of the mount.  The story does not enlighten us any further about the secret of the mound for obviously it is not meant to.  
                      The secret is to remain a mystery.

                      However, it is rather fascinating that the mound was ‘above a palace’.  For the mound to be above the palace, it would mean 
                      that the palace was buried beneath the mound.

                      Although we will come to the story of the mysterious Presbyter John [Kuthumi] further on in our story, his legend began 
                      circulating in the 11th century AD. This was a century prior to the advent of the Merlin and Arthurian legends created by Geoffrey 
                      of Monmouth and five hundred years before the founding of Presbyterianism.  Presbyter John stated that his Sceptre was an
                      Emerald and that he was a Christian king who lived in a land of Paradise where at certain times the waters sank, thus permitting
                      access to a sacred shrine in which there hung a silver vessel/cauldron.  The fact that the waters sank, would indicate that the 
                      place would be one of tidal flows and marsh-land. 

                     “There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacles of the most High.”  
                     (Excerpt from Psalm 46)

                     “And before the portals of the cold place, the horns of light [Urim and Thummim?] shall be burning.”

                     (Spoils of Annwm Taliesin/Merlin/St Germain)

                     Ezekiel who gave us the story of the Princess, describes the new Temple of Zion as being near a river which in places also 
                     contains marshes and a stream.  This description adequately fits Downpatrick.  Ezekiel mentions the banks of the river as 
                     does Daniel.

                      R

                      ~~~~~~

                     I can see the dillemma
                    Remember that the earth was always tilted although variations in precession do occur and still are
                    Were it ever not tilted then there would be no seasons, regardless of what the researchers say
                    If there were no seasons there would be no cycles, or weather systems as we know it etc etc
                    All the planets precess as does the sun
                    Life on earth depends on the tilt and it is powered by magnetic force as in NMR and assisted by gravity.
 
Below is a pre Christian Irish cross from the old standing stones at Clonfert

Clonfert

The large stone crosses that dot the landscape of Ireland, as well as Scotland and other parts of Europe that were home to Celtic Christianity are an ongoing reminder of the early Celtic Church. Though each of the sculptures is different, there are some common characteristics. It's hard to say what's the most obvious characteristic of a Celtic, or High Cross: it's size or the ring surrounding the intersection of the cross. Massive is probably the best way to describe the size of many of the crosses that reached more than four metres in height. This one in Clonfert, County Offaly, is not that old, but still built in the old style.

Other Celtic Crosses

 

These people were mariners and navigators by the stars and this was the home ground of Brendan the Navigator who was reputed to sail to America in 500AD Below is an illustration I made for my book showing the type of boat (ARK) in which he traveled the Eastern coasts of Britian and France spreading "Celtic Christianity"


(Graphic missing from e-mail:
Copyright Crichton E M Miller
 
May I suggest you go to www.crichtonmiller.com and follow the link to Ancient Navigation which explains latitude and longitude from a modern perspective without meaning to sound patronising in anyway.
Giza was 0 in longitude only, not in latitude.
The great pyramid and the Bible both indicate its position of latitude at 30.3" degrees north in its numbers and geometry and is  31.15" E from Greenwich
Its location is important because of its relation to the horizon and to the height of the summer solstice sun
Latitude is taken from the equator to the celestial pole and therefore there is no conflict between then and now, latitude remains the same.
This is the knowledge of the Serpent and can only be found in its entirety with the working wheel cross.
 
 Dragon or Serpent Norwegian Church, Copyright Harald M Boehlk 

 

When St Patrick threw the Serpents from Egypt out of Ireland they went to Dan Mark( Denmark) and Norway and became known as the Vikings
This work may be found in Det Norske Pentagram by Harald M Boehlk a good friend of mine and fellow author who investigates the Serpent Churches and has included my research with his, revealing a vast pentagram of round churches that covers Ireland at latitude 66.6 or 66 degrees 10" north

1150/1200 AD

At this time a branch of the Templars build round churches in Bornholm and Cathedral building begins in earnest following buildings techniques discovered during the crusades.

The Turba Philosophorum is translated from Arabic.

In the 12th century the Sword Knights, a branch of the Knights Templar, was established by the Cistercian friar, Theoderik in Riga. These ‘Sword Knights’ were later to become the Teutonic Knights in Germany. The round churches of Osterlars, Nyker, Olsker and Nylars were said to have been built defensively – although there is some debate as to "against what," as the buildings were certainly not built to aid very many people in that case. According to Erling Haagensen in Bornholms Mysterier, all these sites were built upon the familiar Templar sacred geometry.

graphic missing from e-mail

 
This signifies the death of the Serpent cult (wisdom) under the Roman Empire which still exists today as the Church.
It was pushed to the fringes of Europe to die there or go underground by 1000 AD
The last remants were wiped out in the next millenium as the Amerindians succumbed to this Nature loving people who took no more than they needed and treated the world with respect.
 
Best
 
Crichton
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~`

          Cosmic cops...2 angels guarding Eden, 2 cherubim of the Ark of Covenant. In images of the Ark of Covenant, the 2 cherubim are
          angel-like beings at each end of a rectangle shape ark. They face each other as the mirrored X axis, or bilateral symmetry of form.
          Interestingly, there are 2 such large angels guarding this apartment building: each is tall as as the bldg, and they face each other 
          with arma upraised above the roof, their finger tips touching at the peak, like children's "London Bridges" game. Covenant = 94, 
          sum of November...and until last year, there were 4 of us in this side of the bldg with November birthdays--exactly 8 days apart. 
          Nov 5, 13, 21, 29.  94 = Black + White...I am the only Caucasian here in this predominately African American bldg. This group has
          been  / is a soul family from other-whens & other-wheres.

          N

          ~~~~~~~~~

           Hi Norma

           Yes I agree
           The elephant has a dual purpose in the Serangetti
           It lives in symbiosis with the dung beetle(scarab) and the acacia tree.
           It prunes and demolishes acacia with its long trunk and its huge weight
          This fulfills the balance of the acacia not taking ove and blotting out light from above allowing smaller flora and subsequently fauna 
           to exist.  Yet, the acacia depends on the elephant to eat its seeds allowing them to germinate by passing through the elephants gut.

           The dung beetle then assists by rolling the dung with the seed installed into a neat ball and planting it with sufficient nutrients to
           grow.  Only a few acacia seeds germinate because the dung beetle grub is not successful in hatching.
  
           Those acacia seedlings that survive grow into trees and are pruned and felled by the next generation of elephants.
           And so the wheel of life turns each tiny creature(creationist) carrying on generation after generation adapting to design and function
           with its memory of ancestors stored in its DNA
           We are after all only memory
           I look at the whole eco system as an organic creation in localized areas adapted to the environment to keep the balance as opposed
           to individual species with isolated intent
           We humans have forgotten our purpose in my mind and have become a cancer rather than a balancing organism with a mission.

           What is the purpose of Man in this incredible system?

           Best

          Crichton

         
~~~~~~~~

          Merlin = 71 = Thoth
          71 = Temple.

         All this "who was who" can perhaps be understood as a larger soul, with its various aspects or facets as "separate" humans.  A
         Continuum of human / earth experience for whatever the larger soul's purpose.

         N

         ~~~~~~~~~

        Did u say 66deg north latitude ?? in ireland ?? this is all ocean water ???
 
        Did you mean under water ??
 
        Also the current position of Giza as below is given based on Greenwich however Greenwich did not exist back when pyramid was built s
        it would have been zero zero / prime meridian
 
       Now hill of Tara was founded and the princess Tea Tephi Mor buried before Greenwich came into existence
 
       Bacon/Dee translated bible and inserted the psalm 45 before Greenwich existed
 
       So how and why did 54 deg come into being when Greenwich was not yet existed, unless of course the equatorial zero latitude was 
       already set and was not the Giza pyramid ...
 
        Any ancient mariners on this forum ??

        R

        Zero meridian longitude is nice and much harmonics especially if one follows Michael Morton, how ever I found many more harmonics
        when GP is zero zero both longitude and latitude
 
        Anyway happy to accept that zero was only longitude only as Michael Morton pounded it into my head that there could be no other way
 
        R.

        ~~~~~~~~~

        I cant help you, you are not reading what I say.
        I told you that the 66.6 degree line of latitude that you are interested in is in Norway
 
        You are lost, 54 degrees is a line of latitude not a meridian of longitude and therefore has no reference to Giza.
        Prime meridians may be set anywhere around the globe, it just happens that the Egyptians chose Giza and the English chose 
        Greenwich later.
        The only competent ancient mariner here is me through my ancestors going back to the creation of Man
        I own the ancient working cross of navigation in this world and without it you will not find your way on your chosen quest
        For those that have one on their gravestone when they pass over without understanding will not know how to use it to navigate to 
        heaven should they choose to do so.
 
       That is not arrogance, but rather a statement of fact.
       Take my hand, brother, you are drowning in a sea of confusion
 
       With respect
 
      Crichton

      Raphiem, I am uncertain whether this piece will be of assist, however here tis

     {A} 15.59393 x Pi = 48.98980544

     {B} 360 ÷ 48.98980544 = 7.3484676406

     {C} 7.3484676 being the square root of 53.99997666525

     The commencing 15.59393 being 4.824375 x 3.2323 this being the product of dividing the British Admiralty “Sea” mile 6080 by
      1881{Grand Gallery floor-line}

     The 4.824375 x 5157.8080062 = 24883.2 that John Michell maintains to be an Ancient mean Earth circumference in miles. 
      The 5157.8080062 being 54 x 95.514963078 this multiplied by the commencing 15.59393 = 1489.4545 this being the Egyptian foot 
      of 1.14545 x 1300.317460, which is the Rhind Papyrus fraction {256:81} of 3.160493827 x 411.428571 that is the schooldays Pi {22:7} 
      of 3.142857 x 130.9090, this being 40.5 x 3.2323

      Bear in mind the Egyptian foot of 1.14545 is 37.8 ÷ 33 otherwise 756 ÷ 660 or else 3024 ÷ 2640.this obviously being half a mile of 5280

      Alternatively, the commencing 15.59393 x 666 = 10385.56363 this is 1.14545 x 9066.761904 which is the above 1300.317460 x
      6.9727294921875 {exactly} that multiplied by 360 x 54 = 135549.861328125 {exactly}

      The 135549.861328125 being 24883.2 x 5.447444915771484375 {exactly}

      The 5.447444915771484375 being the above 4.824375 x 1.129150390625 {exactly}

      I believe it best to terminate at this point Raphiem, in view of the fact that the interconnections be boundless, furthermore as I 
      have mentioned prior, I know not whether this category of data be the category, you seek out, nevertheless I trust it be a modicum 
      of assist

      P.S. I would presume the word Across may perhaps symbolize Arc and Cross {mere supposition}

    Peace

     Derek  

     ~~~~~~~~~

     Here is prime numbers I plotted round a circle
 
     first a circle divided by 8
     then by 12
     and then strangely by 19 and 20 almost identical
     give shapes of crosses ... all others becoem spiral or erratic
 
     ---- circle/8 plotting primes
 
 
 
    --- circle / 12
 
 
      --- circle / 19 and 20
      Thanks Derek
 
      yes, you are correct ... thank you, thus why i've sort of gone of on a tangent from Crichton's recent post showing me the way of the cross
 
      here is circle / 24 plotting primes
 
      now rotate a little and we could have something close to CM's cross perhaps, maybe .. maybe not ;o))
 

     R

Rotate eastern arm  to 23.4 degrees instead of 30 and you will have the earth's precessional tilt the head of the cross will bisect at 66.6 degrees pointing to the position of Draconis the Serpent
You will then be able to see the seasonal rising and setting points of the Solstice sun as depicted in the cross pattee
The top arm shows the precessional motion that creates life from the Sun through the seasons
The wheel cross pattee below is from the Spencer Family Churchyard and the burial place of Princess Diana
 
 Copyright Crichton E M Miller
 
Best
 
Crichton
Let me show you all on this list the power of the wheel on the cross
It solves several difficult mathematical problems that plagued the Greeks over 2000 years ago but was evident to the Egyptians over 4000 years ago
The Golden Section and squaring the circle, Pi and the construction of a perfect geometrical sphere
This can be done by any child in a few simple moves.
 
 
Bringing Heaven to Earth
 
1. Look at the circumpolar stars and find the celestial pole and the ecliptic pole, The celestial pole is in the first coil of the Serpent constellation Draconis

 Celestial pole and Ecliptic pole 300BC

 
2. Measure angles and tangents between stars and constellations with a wheel cross
 

 Weighted working wheel cross

 
3. Make a drawing and measure the differences in angle between the constellations which are named for recognition.

 

Celestial pole and ecliptic zodiac in the Classical Greek style 300 BC

 
4. Construct a wheel marked in 360 degrees and showing astrological signs in their proper order.
 
 
Working wheel cross hand carved 2005 by N Anderson, Gardenstown, Scotland.
 
5. To simplify matters, take a simple wheel protractor and roll it through 90 degrees.
 
 
6. Mark at 45 degrees to find the centre and lay protractor flat on the base line and mark through the centre.
 
 
7. Draw the angles to form a triangle.
 
 
8. You will see that the angles are 76 x 52 x 52 every time incorporating the Golden Section, to square the circle requires the inverting of the triangle on top of the original.
These are the basics of our mathematics which we rely on today and come from spherical geometry practised by our ancestors allowing them to construct this:
 
 
Of course there is more, much more.
Best
 
Crichton
 
~~~~~~~~~~
 

What I find of interest is your outer rim number 997 in view of the fact that Phi x Pi x 997 = 5067.95408123

Via dividing, 119096.920909 by 5067.95408123 we obtain 23.499999999998

The 119096.920909 being exactly 36845.60990625 x 3.2323 {6080 ÷ 1881} subsequently via dividing the GP volume of 91445760 {756 x 756 x 480 ÷ 3} by this 36845.60990625 we obtain 2481.8631102 somewhat akin to the Ancient Earth mean 24883.2. Therefore 24883.2 ÷ 2481.8631102 = 10.026016301 that multiplied by Gematria founder of the city 1225 = 12281.86996875 {exactly}

The 12281.86996875 multiplied by the Pythagorean limma {256:243} obtains 12938.924740740

At this time we observe a cyclic 740 which is 20 x 37 a, for the most part, significant number to early Christianity, given that 37 x 18 = 666 otherwise 37 x 64 = 2368

Therefore 12938.924740740 ÷ 37 = 349.700668668 that multiplied by 340.568181 regains the above 119096.920909

The 340.568181 being the aforementioned Egyptian foot of 1.14545 x 297.32142857 which is the schooldays Pi of 3.142857 x 94.6022727

The 94.6022727 multiplied by the feet in one mile 5280 = 499500 that is 13500 x 37 etceteras. Seeing as Ancient\Modern day units are but varying ratios of each other, in a manner of speaking, the Egyptian foot in addition to cubit be not the singular options accessible. Curiouser and Curiouser methinks

Peace

Derek


The Voynich Manuscript has been dubbed "The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World". It is named after its discoverer,the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912, amongst a collection of ancientmanuscripts kept in villa Mondragone in Frascati, near Rome, which had been by then turned into a Jesuit College (closed in 1953).

No one knows the origins of the manuscript. Experts believe it is European based on the drawings. They believe it was written in between the 15th and 17th centuries. The manuscript is small, seven by ten inches, but thick, nearly 235 pages.

Its pages are filled with hand-written text and crudely drawn illustrations. The illustrations depict plants, astrological diagrams,
 and naked women.

These illustrations are strange, but much stranger is the text itself, because the manuscript is written entirely in a mysterious, unknown alphabet that has defied all attempts at translation.

It is written in a language of which no other example is known to exist. It is an alphabetic script, but of an alphabet variously reckoned to have from nineteen to twenty-eight letters, none of which bear any relationship to any English or European letter system.

The text has no apparent corrections. There is evidence for two different "languages" (investigated by Currier and D'Imperio) and more than one scribe, probably indicating an ambiguous coding scheme.

Apparently, Voynich wanted to have the mysterious manuscript deciphered and provided photographic copies to a number of experts. However, despite the efforts of many well known cryptologists and scholars, the book remains unread. There are some claims of decipherment, but to date, none of these can be substantiated with a complete translation. The book was bought by H. P. Kraus (a New York book antiquarian) in 1961 for the sum of $24,500. He later valued it at $160,000 but was unable to find a buyer. Finally he donated it to Yale University in 1969, where it remains to date at the Beinecke Rare Book Library with catalogue number MS 408.

It is known (from a letter of Johannes Marcus Marci to Athanasius Kircher dated 1666) that the manuscript was bought by Emperor Rudolph II of Bohemia (1552-1612).

Historically, it first appears in 1586 at the court of Rudolph II of Bohemia, who was one of the most eccentric European monarchs of that or any other period. Rudolph collected dwarfs and had a regiment of giants in his army. He was surrounded by astrologers, and he was fascinated by games and codes and music. He was typical of the occult-oriented, Protestant noblemen of this period and epitomized the liberated northern European prince. he was a patron of alchemy and supported the printing of alchemical literature.

The Rosicrucian conspiracy was being quietly fomented during this same period. To Rudolph's court came an unknown person who sold this manuscript to the king for three hundred gold ducats, which, translated into modern monetary units, is about fourteen thousand dollars. This is an astonishing amount of money to have paid for a manuscript at that time, which indicated that the Emperor must have been highly impressed by it.

Accompanying the manuscript was a letter that stated that it was the work of the Englishman Roger Bacon, who flourished in the thirteenth century and who was a noted pre-Copernican astronomer. Only two years before the appearance of the Voynich Manuscript, John Dee, the great English navigator, astrologer, magician, intelligence agent, and occultist had lectured in Prague on Bacon.

The manuscript somehow passed to Jacobus de Tepenecz, the director of Rudolph's botanical gardens (his signature is present in folio 1r) and it is speculated that this must have happened after 1608, when Jacobus Horcicki received his title 'de Tepenecz'. Thus 1608 is the earliest definite date for the Manuscript.

Codes from the early sixteenth century onward in Europe were all derived from The Stenographica of Johannes Trethemius, Bishop of Sponheim, an alchemist who wrote on the encripherment of secret messages. He had a limited number of methods, and no military, alchemical, religious, or political code was composed by any other means throughout a period that lasted well into the seventeenth century. Yet the Voynich Manuscript does not appear to have any relationship to the codes derivative of Johannes Trethemius, Bishop of Sponheim.

In 1622 and the manuscript passed to the possession of an unidentified individual that left the book in his/her will to Marci. Marci must have known about this manuscript before 1644, as the information concerning the price that the Emperor paid came from Dr. Raphael Missowski (1580-1644) (as mentioned in his letter).

Marci sent the manuscript immediately with the letter to Athanasius Kircher (a Jesuit priest and scholar in Rome) in 1666 who apparently also knew of it and had exchanged letters and transcribed portions with the previous unidentified owner.

Between that time and 1912 (when Voynich discovered it) it is speculated that the manuscript may have been stored or forgotten in some library and finally moved to the Jesuit College at the Villa Mondragone. Marci's letter to Kircher was still attached to the manuscript when Voynich bought it.

In that letter, Marci mentioned the name of Roger Bacon (1214-1292) as a possible author, although no conclusive evidence of authorship is available. A possible link between Rudolph and Bacon is John Dee (an English mathematician and astrologer, collector of Bacon's work) who visited Rudolph's court in 1582-86.

The manuscript has several parts and many illustrations. It seems to be in a code known only to the author and linked to the alchemists of the 12th century - such as Roger Bacon. The women could represent creation and rebirth of consciousness.

Some believe it to be a book about alchemy.


Archeometre

 



Sacred Geometry - Flower of Life - Golden Mean?

 



THE SECTIONS

- Astronomical: zodiac symbols
- Biological: anatomical drawings and human figures (bath drawings)
- Cosmological: circles, stars and celestial spheres
- Herbal A and B: mostly unidentified fantastic plants - shows two languages
- Pharmaceutical: vases and parts of plants
- Recipe: many short paragraphs

 


THEORIES ABOUT THE MANUSCRIPT

- The language was artificial

- The language was coded

- Dr. Leo Levitov, author of Solution of the Voynich Manuscript, presents the thesis that the Voynich is nothing less then the only surviving primary document of the " Great Heresy" that arose in Italy and flourished in Languedoc until ruthlessly exterminated by the Albigensian Crusade in the 1230s. The little women in the baths who puzzled so many are for Levitov a Cathar sacrament, the Endura,'or death by venesection [cutting a vein] in order to bleed to death in a warm bath'. The plant drawings that refused to resolve themselves into botanically identifiable species are no problem for Levitov.

He stated, "There is not a single so-called botanical illustration that does not contain some Cathari symbol or Isis symbol. The astrological drawings are likewise easy to deal with The innumerable stars are representative of the stars in Isis' mantle.

The reason it has been so difficult to decipher the Voynich Manuscript is that it is not encrypted at all, but merely written in a special script, and is an adaptation of a polyglot oral tongue into a literary language which would be understandable to people who did not understand Latin and to whom this language could be read. Specifically, a highly polyglot form of medieval Flemish with a large number of Old French and Old High German loan words."

Many people disagree with his claims stating -

-Some of the symbols used in the Voynich manuscript are similar to symbols in other scripts or notations. In particular, the following similarities have been noticed:

- Alchemical Symbols
- Early Arabic Numerals
- Latin Shorthand Abbreviations
- Beneventan Script

 


 

- René Zandbergen

 


At first reading, I would be tempted to dismiss it all as nonsense: 'polyglot oral tongue' is meaningless babble to the linguist in me. But Levitov is a medical doctor, so allowances must be made. The best meaning I can read into 'polyglot oral tongue' is 'a language that had never been written before and which had taken words from many different languages'. That is perfectly reasonable: English for one, has done that. Half its vocabulary is Norman French, and some of the commonest words have non-Anglo-Saxon origins. 'Sky', for instance, is a Danish word.

So far, so good. There are only twelve consonant sounds. That is unheard of for a European language. No European language has so few consonant sounds. Spanish, which has very few sounds (only five vowels), has seventeen distinct consonants sounds, plus two semi-consonants. Dutch has from18 to 20 consonants (depending on speakers, and how you analyze the sounds.) What is also extraordinary in Levitov's language is that it lacks a g, and BOTH b and p. I cannot think of one single language in the world that lacks both b and p. Levitov also says that m occurs only word-finally, never at the beginning, nor in the middle of a word. That is correct: the letter he says is m is always word-final in the reproductions I have seen of the Voynich MS.

Butno language I know of behaves like that. All have an m (except one American Indian language, which is very famous for that, and the name of which I cannot recall). In some languages, there is a position where m never appears, and that is word-finally, exactly the reverse of Levitov's language." "No European language I know fails to distinguish between singular and plural in its first and third person pronouns (i.e. I vs we, he/she/it vs they)."

We are here in the presence of a Germanic language which behaves very, very strangely in the way of the meanings of its compound words. For instance, viden (to be with death) is made up of the words for 'with', 'die' and the infinitive suffix. I am sure that Levitov here was thinking of a construction like German mitkommen which means 'to come along' ('to with-come').

I suppose I could say Bitte, sterben Sie mit on the same model as Bitte, kommen Sie mit ('Come with me/us, please'), thereby making up a verb mitsterben, but that would mean 'to die together with someone else', not 'to be with death' . Next, the word order in many 'apostrophized' groups of words (but note that a word often consists of just one single letter), is the reverse of that of Germanic.

For instance VIAN 'one way' literally 'way one' is the reverse of Dutch een weg, German ein Weg, and of course, of English 'one way'. Ditto for WIA 'one who', VA 'one will', KER 'she understands' etc. Admittedly the inversion of the subject is quite common in German (Ploetzlish dacht ich: 'Suddenly thought I') but it is governed by strict, clear-cut grammatical rules, conspicuously absent in the two sentences translated on p.31 of the except from his book upon which I am drawing for these comments."

Applying Levitov's rules for translation:

thanvieth = the one way (th = the (?), an = one, vi = way, eth = it) faditeth = doing for help (f = for, ad = aid, i = -ing, t = do, eth = it) wan = person (wi/wa = who, an = one) athviteth = one that one knows (a = one, th = that, vit = know, eth = it.) (Here, Levitov adds one extra letter, A, which is not in the text, getting his ATHAVITEH, which provides the second "one" of his translation) anthviteth= one that knows (an =one, th = that, vit = know, eth = it) atwiteth = one treats one who does it (a = one, t = do, wi = who, t = do, eth = it. .

(Literally: "one does [one] who does it". The first "do" is translated as "treat", the second "one" is again added by Levitov: he inserts an A, which gives him ATAWITETH) aneth = ones (an = one, -eth = the plural ending)

Computer analysis of the Voynich Manuscript has only deepened the mystery. One finding has been that there are two 'languages' or 'dialects' of Voynichese, which are called Voynich A and Voynich B.

The repetitiousness of the text is obvious to casual inspection. Entropy is a numerical measure of the randomness of text.

The lower the entropy, the less random and the more repetitious it is. The entropy of samples of Voynich text is lower than that of most human languages; only some Polynesian languages are as low."

Tests show that Voynich text does not have its low h2 [second order entropy] measures solely because of a repetitious underlying text, that is, one that often repeats the same words and phrases. Tests also show that the low h2 measures are probably not due to an underlying low-entropy natural language.

A verbose cipher, one which substitutes several ciphertext characters for one plaintext character [i.e., 'fuf' for the letter 'f'], can produce the entropy profile of Voynich text.

- Dennis Stallings

 


The Voynich manuscript may be elegant gibberish

December 16, 2003 - Nature Magazine

 

A strange sixteenth-century book may be cunningly crafted nonsense, says a computer scientist. Gordon Rugg has used the techniques of Elizabethan espionage to recreate the Voynich manuscript, which has stumped code-breakers and linguists for nearly a century1.

"I've shown that a hoax is a feasible explanation," says Rugg, who works at Keele University, UK. "Now it's up to believers in a code to produce evidence to support their ideas." He suspects that English adventurer Edward Kelley produced the Voynich to con Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor and collector of antiquities, out of a fortune in gold.

The explanation is plausible, but not conclusive, say Voynich scholars. "It's an excellent piece of work," says Philip Neal, a former medievalist based in London. "I haven't given up hope that the manuscript contains meaning, but this makes it less likely."

The Voynich manuscript is often described as the world's most mysterious book. It is hand-written in a unique alphabet, about 250 pages long, and contains pictures of unrecognizable flowers, naked nymphs and astrological symbols.

The manuscript first appeared in the late 1500s, when Rudolph II bought it in Prague from an unknown seller for 600 ducats - about 3.5 kilograms of gold, worth more than US$50,000 today. The book passed from Rudolph to noblemen and scholars, before disappearing in the late 1600s.

It surfaced again around 1912, when US book dealer Wilfrid Voynich bought it. The manuscript was donated to Yale University after Voynich's death.

No one has worked out whether Voynichese is a code, an idiosyncratic translation of a known tongue, or gibberish. The text contains some features that are not seen in any language. The most common words are often repeated two or three times, for example - the equivalent of English using 'and and and' - giving weight to the hoax theory.

On the other hand, some aspects, such as the pattern of word lengths and the ways in which characters and syllables occur with each other, are similar to real languages. "Many people have believed that it is too complicated to be a hoax - that it would have taken some mad alchemist years to get such regularity," says Rugg.

But this complexity could have been produced easily, Rugg demonstrates, with an encryption device invented around 1550 called a Cardan grille. This is a table of characters. Moving a piece of card with holes cut in it over the table makes words. Gaps in the table ensure different-length words.

Using such grilles on table of Voynichese syllables, Rugg has produced a language with many, although not all, of the manuscript's features. About three months' work would have been enough to produce the entire book, he says.

"It's an interesting angle, but it's too early to say whether it's correct," says Nick Pelling, a computer programmer based in Surbiton, UK, who also studies cryptography and the Voynich.

To prove that the manuscript is a hoax, one would need to produce entire sections using this technique, says Pelling. Tweaking the grilles and tables should make this possible, reckons Rugg.

It seems that the Voynich resists deciphering attempts because its author knew enough about codes to make the text plausible yet hard to crack.

The book appears to contain cross-referencing, just the kind of thing that cryptographers look for. The characters of Voynichese are also ambiguously written, so it is hard to work out how large the alphabet is, and drawing naked figures makes it impossible to date the text by styles of dress.

The chief suspect for producing the book is known to have used Cardan grilles. As well as a cryptographer and inventor of languages, Edward Kelley was a forger, mystic, alchemist, mercenary and wife-swapper. He travelled to Prague to meet with Rudolph in 1584, and may have sold him the manuscript then. Kelley was lost to history after escaping from prison at the end of the sixteenth century.

"If it's a hoax Kelley is the obvious candidate," says Neal. But he adds that Rudolph bought many alchemical texts that are far cruder forgeries than the Voynich manuscript. "Rudolph was easily fooled. If the Voynich was a hoax by Kelley, it looks a bit like overkill," Neal says.




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Voynich MS - Short Tour

An even shorter introduction to the Voynich MS is given in an on-line copy of an article by G.Landini and R. Zandbergen.

Table of contents

1. Introduction
2. Description of the manuscript
3. Origin of the manuscript
4. Known history of the manuscript
5. Past analysis and proposed solutions
6. Analysis of the illustrations
7. Analysis of the writing (script)
8. Analysis of the text

Introduction

Voynich MS The script In 1912, the antiquarian book dealer Wilfrid M. Voynich bought a number of mediaeval manuscripts from an undisclosed location in Europe. Among these was an illustrated manuscript codex of 234 pages, written in an unknown script.

Voynich took the MS to the United States and started a campaign to have it deciphered. Now, almost 100 years later, the Voynich manuscript still stands as probably the most elusive puzzle in the world of cryptography. Not a single word of this 'Most Mysterious Manuscript', written probably in the second half of the 15th Century, can be understood.

Marci Attached to the manuscript was a letter in Latin dated 1666 from Johannes Marcus Marci of Kronland, once rector of the Charles University of Prague, to the learned Jesuit Athanasius Kircher in Rome, offering the manuscript for decryption and mentioning that it had once been bought by Emperor Rudolf II of Bohemia (1552-1612) for 600 gold ducats. The letter further mentioned that it was believed that the author of the MS was Roger Bacon (the Franciscan friar who lived from 1214 to 1294).

Another early owner of the MS was identified by Voynich when, on the lower margin of the first folio, under special illumination, the erased signature of Jacobus de Tepenec was found. Tepenec was one of Rudolf's private physicians and the director of his botanical gardens and he must have owned the manuscript between 1608, when he received his title "de Tepenec", and 1622, when he died. The MS has changed hands sevetal times, and despite some minor gaps in our knowledge its path from the court of Rudolf to its final resting place, the Beinecke Rare book library of Yale University, can be traced fairly accurately.

The MS became famous when, in the 1920's, William Romaine Newbold proposed a spectacular decipherment with which he meant to prove that it was indeed written by Roger Bacon, and that Bacon had not only dreamt of, but actually built microscopes and telescopes. When this 'solution' of the MS was disproven by John M. Manly in 1931, the MS gradually became a pariah in world of mediaeval studies. In the 1940's and 1960's the eminent cryptanalyst William F. Friedman made several valiant attempts at deciphering the MS, aided by groups of experts, but also he did not find any solution.

In 1961 the book was acquired by H. P. Kraus (a New York book antiquarian) for the sum of $24,500. He later valued at $160,000, but unable to find a buyer he donated it to Yale University. Though officially registered as MS 408, it is still best known as the Voynich Manuscript.

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Voynich MS - Long Tour

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Table of contents

1. Introduction
2. Description of the manuscript
3. Origin of the manuscript
4. Known history of the manuscript
5. Past analysis and proposed solutions
6. Analysis of the illustrations
7. Analysis of the writing (script)
8. Analysis of the text

Introduction

  cumque in mea Bibliotheca Sphinx quaedam, Scripturae incognitorum characterum inutiliter occupasset locum, ...
Ex pictura herbarum, quarum plurimus est in Codice numerus, imaginum diversarum, Astrorum, aliarumque rerum, faciem chymicorum arcanorum referentium, conjicio totum esse medicinalem; (1)

When, in 1639, the Prague citizen Georg Baresch wrote to the famous Jesuit scientist Athanasius Kircher that he owned a mysterious book which was written in an unknown script and profusely illustrated with pictures of plants, stars and alchemical secrets, he thought that Kircher would be able to decipher this book for him. He could not have guessed that not only was Kircher unable to do this, but that a long row of vastly more expert codebreakers were equally going to fail. The book has come down to us and even now, more than 360 years later, not a single word from its 234 pages can be understood.
Nor was Baresch the first to attempt in vain to read the MS. Before him, various scientists which the Holy Roman emperor Rudolf II collected at his court may well have tried their hand.

The book is now known as the Voynich manuscript (MS), after its (re)discoverer in 1912. The discovery of the MS by Wilfrid Voynich is best told by himself:

In 1912 [...] I came across a most remarkable collection of preciously illuminated manuscripts. For many decades these volumes had lain buried in the chests in which I found them in an ancient castle in Southern Europe where the collection had apparently been stored in consequence of the disturbed political condition of Europe in the early part of the nineteenth century.

[...]

While examining the manuscripts, with a view to the acquisition of at least a part of the collection, my attention was especially drawn by one volume. It was such an ugly duckling compared with the other manuscripts, with their rich decorations in gold and colors, that my interest was aroused at once. I found that it was written entirely in cipher. Even a necessarily brief examination of of the vellum upon which it was written, the calligraphy, the drawings and the pigments suggested to me as the origin the latter part of the thirteenth century. The drawings indicated it to be an encyclopedic work on natural philosophy.

[...]

the fact that this was a thirteenth century manuscript in cipher convinced me that it must be a work of exceptional importance, and to my knowledge the existence of a manuscript of such an early date written entirely in cipher was unkown, so I included it among the manuscripts which I purchased from this collection.

[...]

two problems presented themselves - the text must be unravelled and the history of the manuscript must be traced.

[...]

It was not until some time after the manuscript came into my hands that I read the document bearing the date 1665 (or 1666) (2) , which was attached to the front cover.

[...]

This document, which is a letter from Joannes Marcus Marci to Athanasius Kircher making a gift of the manuscript to him, is of great significance

[...]

The Prague doctor and scientist Johannes Marcus Marci had been a faithful correspondent to Athanasius Kircher for over 25 years, and shortly before his death he sent the MS to Kircher. In the letter (3) he explains how he had inherited the MS from a close friend, who had tried to decipher this MS till the very end of his life, and had also asked for Kircher's help. He further explains that he learned from one 'Dr. Raphael' how the MS was originally bought by the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II of Bohemia (1552-1612) for 600 ducats, and that it was believed (at least by Raphael) that the MS was written by Roger Bacon.

Voynich wanted to have the mysterious manuscript deciphered and provided photographic copies to a number of experts. However, despite some spectacular claims, none of the proposed solutions has resulted in an acceptable and complete translation. In 1961 the book was bought by H. P. Kraus (a New York book antiquarian) for the sum of $24,500. He later valued it at $160,000 but was unable to find a buyer. Finally, in 1969 he donated it to Yale University, where it remains to date at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library with catalogue number MS 408.

What does the manuscript look like?

The Voynich MS is a compact parchment codex of 6 by 9 inches, with 116 vellum leaves, of which 102 remain. Its limp vellum cover is blank: it does not indicate any title or author. The MS is written in an elegant, but otherwise unknown script. The text appears to be composed of 'words', and for a large part of the MS the text seems to be arranged in short paragraphs. Almost all pages of the MS contain illustrations. Illustrations of similar nature are grouped together in the MS, and thus one may tentatively identify the following sections in the MS (based on these illustrations):

 

What does the Voynich MS say?

Since the MS has not been translated, nobody knows what it says. It is assumed that the text relates to the illustrations, but this is not certain. There have been many suggestions about the historical importance of this MS, ranging between totally opposite extremes. These include:

 

This is by no means a complete list! Most of the proposed solutions of the Voynich MS have been disproved, and the following two fundamental questions remain unanswered:

 

Notes

1
The quote is from Baresch' letter to Kircher.
2
The correct year is 1666.
3
The letter is transcribed and translated here.
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Voynich MS - Analysis Section ( 1/5 )

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Table of contents

1. Introduction
  1.1 Currier languages
  1.2 Entropy
  1.3 Zipf's laws
  1.4 Cluster analysis
  1.5 Other tools
2. Properties of characters
3. Word structure
4. Properties of words
5. Properties of word combinations
6. Search in mailing list archives (to be written)

1. Introduction

It is difficult to present the multitude of analyses that have been performed on the Voynich MS text in an orderly fashion. Some analyses concentrate on the properties and distribution of individual characters, others on those of words and others again on the combinations of words. There are also studies that take into account more than one of the above.
Some analyses are more of a qualitative nature while others are more quantitative, but there is no clear dividing line between the two.

The approach that has been adopted here is to use as the main classification:

but preceding this by an introductory section (this page) which explains the various techniques that can be applied to each of these. The reader is reminded that the analysis of the script of the MS is investigated in a previous section , and another page includes a description of the manuscript transcription effort.

 

Character Analysis
This includes:

Word Analysis
This is split in two parts, in separate sections. The first section treats the so-called word paradigms, a unique property of the Voynich MS 'language', whereby words appear to be 'molded' following some set rules.
The second section includes:

Syntax analysis
This includes:

 

Following now are some sections describing some key topics in the analysis of the Voynich MS text.

(The whole analysis section is still quite incomplete.)

1.1 Currier languages

The first thing any analyst of the Voynich MS will do is to count and make frequency tables of single characters, pairs, triplets, etc. and to do the same with the (apparent) words. When doing this, it appears immediately that some statistical properties are strongly page-dependent. This was already noticed by Th. Petersen (who used all pages), but first reported in detail by Currier (who did not use several parts of the MS for this study).

Currier indicated that the Voynich MS appears to have been written in two languages, which he called A and B. He was careful to point out that these are not necessarily different languages, but could be dialects, subject matter or different encryption, if the MS is indeed written in a code or cipher. Since Currier also detected two handwriting styles (which he called 1 and 2) and found a perfect correlation: all pages in language A were in hand 1 and language B was in hand 2, he concluded that the MS had to be the work of at least two people. In fact he suggested further hands which he called 3, 4, X and Y, but while everyone essentially agreed to his identification of languages A and B and hands 1 and 2, the other hands were not as generally accepted.

Currier presented his findings in detail during a symposium about the Voynich MS which was held on 30 November 1976 and led by Mary D'Imperio. Currier's paper has been converted into electronic form, and the complete file, including all tables, is available in PostScript on a >> page at Jim Reeds' web site (using Stolfi's mirror).

The main properties of Currier's two languages are:

The above shows that the Currier language is evident from criteria based on single characters, character groups and whole words. A particular feature of the Currier languages is that, in general, complete bifolios are written in a single Currier language.

1.2 Entropy

The entropy of the language of the Voynich MS was first studied by Bennett (1976), and when he found rather anomalous values for the Voynich MS text, compared with most European languages (old and new), this became one of the main topics for subsequent investigations. The meaning of entropy is therefore introduced in some detail here. Note that this is not a very formal mathematical introduction, but mainly one aiming at allowing the reader to undertand the various analyses that use it.

Entropy is a quantity that could be interpreted as amount of 'chaos' or unpredictability, in the sense that lower values of entropy are equivalent with higher amounts of order or predictability. If a string of characters has full predictability, it carries no information. Once one knows the first character, one can predict all subsequent ones: one knows everything. The entropy of a piece of text is therefore also a measure of the amount of information it carries. The entropy values used in the study of the Voynich MS text are usually expressed in bits (of information).

This is best elaborated using a simple example.

Imagine someone were to create a string of numbers using a die. He would roll the die, write down the top face number, and repeat this process as long as he wanted to. The number that appears each time (at each event) is a piece of information. The amount of information gained is inversely proportional to the probability of the event. If the die is a perfect 6-face die, then the probability (p) of throwing a '1' is 1/6. The number of bits of information (b) gained at this event is the 2-base logarithm of 1/p, or:

  b = - 2log(p)
On average, the number of bits of information gained at the appearance of each number (which is the entropy, denoted here by a capital H) is the weighted average for each possible outcome:
  H = Sum { p . b }  =  - Sum  { p . 2log(p) }

In our example of a string of text (whether digits or characters) generated by throwing a perfect 6-face die, the entropy on a single-character basis is:

  H(char) = - Sum { 1/6 . 2log( 1/6 ) } = 2log ( 6 )
Had the die not been perfect, but weighted, the six probabilties would not have been all equal 1/6, and the resulting entropy value would have been lower than the above value. (A mathematical proof of this is straightforward but outside the scope of this page). The die is a bit more predictable (has a tendency towards the most probable number) and the entropy is lower.

 

Had the die not had 6 sides but any number N, the maximum entropy (in case all probabilities are equal) would have equalled 2log ( N ).

The main thing to be remembered from the above is that the entropy is a value that can be computed for something which can assume a number of values, and the sum of the probabilities for each of the values is one. One could use the index i to denote each of the values, and p(i) the probability that the 'thing' has value i. The formula for the entropy of this is:

  H =  - Sum  { p(i) . 2log [p(i)] }

For a piece of text, the single-character entropy can be computed using the probabilities of the occurrence of each of the characters of the alphabet. For a text written in an alphabet of 26 characters, this entropy will be less than 2log(26) or 4.xxx, knowing that not all 26 characters will appear equally frequently.

An important distinction is that the single-character entropy of any language can only be approximated by performing the above calculation. Apart from the fact that the entropy will depend on the subject matter and the writing style of the author, it is clear that texts which are not long enough will tend not to show the correct probabilities especially for those characters which occur relatively infrequently.

Entropy can also be computed for words rather than single characters. A text written in a vocabulary of 10,000 words will have a word entropy less than 2log(10000) or less than 13.288, depending on the distribution of the word frequencies. It can furthermore be computed for character pairs. Going back to the example of throwing the die, there are 36 possibilities for a pair of throws. The entropy for this (assuming a perfect die) is 2log(36) which is 2 times 2log(6). It is evident that if the occurrence of the two consecutive events is independent, the 'pair' entropy equals twice the 'single event' entropy.

In natural language, however, the occurrence of a character in a text is not independent from what the previous character was. For example, in English the probability of encountering the character 'u' depends highly on whether the previous character was a 'q' (in which case the probability is essentially 1), another 'u' (in which case it would be very close to zero) or anything else. This introduces the concept of conditional entropy. It can be shown mathematically that the conditional single-character entropy (the entropy of the probability distribution of a single character, given that the preceding one is known) equals the difference between the character pair (=digraph) entropy and the single character entropy. This conditional character entropy is less than the 'normal' character entropy.

A final word should be spent on terminology. Single-character entropy is sometimes called first-order entropy. Character-pair entropy is sometimes called second-order entropy, while the conditional single-character entropy is also sometimes called second-order entropy. The values given for these quantities should remove any doubt about what is meant, since the conditional second-order entropy is always less than the single-character entropy, which is always less than the character pair entropy.

1.3 Zipf's laws

Zipf's law (strictly the first Zipf law) concerns the frequency of words in a piece of text. If one orders the words according to decreasing frequency, i.e. label the most frequent word as nr.1, the second most frequent word as nr.2, etc, and then make a plot of the frequency of this word according to the rank, the result should show a straight line with a gradient of -1, if both scales are logarithmic.

This general statement requires some elaboration:

The straight line in a double-logarithmic scale means that the probability for the item ranked at nr. i equals:

  p(i) = C / i
where C is a constant depending on the number of items N, and it is defined by the fact that the sum of all probabilities has to equal 1. Thus, if a quantity can assume a well-defined number of values, and it strictly obeys Zipf's law, its entropy can be predicted exactly.

 

Following is a table which illustrates this. The first column gives the number of possible values. The second gives the maximum entropy, if all probabilities are equal. The third column gives the entropy if the quantity exactly obeys Zipf's law. For example, the value 26 represents the number of letters in the (Latin) alphabet. If they are all equally frequent (which they are not), the character entropy would equal 4.700. If they exactly followed Zipf's law (which is also not true, but certainly closer to the truth), the character entropy would equal 3.929. The table has been set up for reasonable values of alphabet size, number of digraphs and number of words in a text.

 
  Number     H(max)   H(Zipf)
 
    16       4.000     3.403
    17       4.087     3.470
    18       4.170     3.532
    19       4.248     3.591
    20       4.322     3.647
    21       4.392     3.700
    22       4.459     3.750
    23       4.524     3.798
    24       4.585     3.844
    25       4.644     3.887
    26       4.700     3.929
    27       4.755     3.969
    28       4.807     4.008
    29       4.858     4.045
    30       4.907     4.081
    31       4.954     4.116
    32       5.000     4.149
    33       5.044     4.181
    34       5.087     4.213
    35       5.129     4.243
    36       5.170     4.273
    37       5.209     4.301

   100       6.644     5.310
   200       7.644     5.986
   500       8.966     6.851
  1000       9.966     7.489
  2000      10.966     8.115
  5000      12.288     8.927
10,000      13.288     9.532
20,000      14.288    10.130
50,000      15.610    10.911

(To be completed)

1.4 Cluster analysis

Cluster analyses have been applied in order to find out more about the Currier languages. Typically, this method requires that for each page of the MS a quantitative attribute is found for each page, consisting of a number, or rather a set of numbers. Next, it requires the definition of a 'distance' function which takes any pair of attributes and computes a distance value which should be low if the attributes are similar and high if they are dissimilar. Such quantitative values and their distances can be based on single characters, digraphs or words.

The most difficult task is then to decide, on the basis of the square matrix of distance values, which pages are similar (e.g. written in the same language) and which are not.

1.5 Other tools

To be included:

Home Map Pages Gloss Pics Refs
Next Short Long

Copyright René Zandbergen, 2002
Comments, questions, suggestions? Your feedback is welcome.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~``

The Voynich Manuscript

John Baez

January 30, 2005

The Voynich manuscript is the most mysterious of all texts. It is seven by ten inches in size, and about 200 pages long. It is made of soft, light-brown vellum. It is written in a flowing cursive script in alphabet that has never been seen elsewhere. Nobody knows what it means. During World War II some of the top military code-breakers in America tried to decipher it, but failed. A professor at the University of Pennsylvania seems to have gone insane trying to figure it out. Though the manuscript was found in Italy, statistical analyses show the text is completely different in character from any European language. Here's a sample page:

 

[01]

It contains pictures of various things, including plants, stars...

 

[01]

... and most strangely of all, nude maidens bathing in what looks like some very elaborate plumbing:

 

[01]

An interesting puzzle, no? Let me tell you a bit more about it.

Its recent history

It seems that in 1912, the book collector Wilfrid M. Voynich found this manuscript in a chest in the Jesuit College at the Villa Mondragone, in Frascati. He bought it from the Jesuits, and gave photographic copies to a number of experts to have it deciphered. None of them succeeded. In 1961, he sold it to a rare book expert in New York named H. P. Kraus for the price of $24,500. Kraus later tried to sell it for $160,000, but could not find a buyer. In 1969, he donated it to Yale University. It is now in the Beinecke Rare Book Library at Yale, with catalogue number MS 408. You can see a picture of it at their website. They say it's attributed to Roger Bacon... and indeed, that's one theory, but most experts don't believe this. The story of the Voynich is long and complicated.

Its earlier history

When Voynich found the manuscript, there was a letter in it!

The letter was written by Johannes Marcus Marci of Cronland, and addressed to Athanasius Kircher. It is dated 1666. It says that the manuscript was bought by Emperor Rudolph II for the princely sum of 600 ducats. In flattering language, Marci asks Kircher to attempt to decipher the manuscript. He mentions Roger Bacon as a possible author, although there is no clear evidence for this.

If you don't know these figures, you probably don't realize how interesting this is. Who are these guys, anyway?

 

Emperor Rudolph II

Rudolph II (1552-1612) was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire - which by that time was neither holy, Roman, nor even much of an empire. He moved the imperial court from Vienna to a castle in Prague, in what was then Bohemia. He buried himself in esoteric studies: alchemy, astrology... magico-scientific disciplines of all sorts. Prague became a center for everyone interested in such matters: the infamous British magician John Dee and his henchman Edward Kelley, the monk Giordano Bruno (later burned at the stake for heresy), and even a pair of astrologers by the names of Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler. Rudolph II kept a room of curiosities, the Kunstkammer, full of alchemical manuscripts, rhinoceros horns, exotic minerals, scientific instruments, and the like.

In short: the perfect person to buy something like the Voynich Manuscript!

Athanasius Kircher

Athanasius Kircher (~1601 - 1680) was one of the most learned men of his day. He developed an instrument for measuring the magnetic force of the earth, a device for measuring wind speeds, and he designed and built sundials. He studied earthquakes and volcanos. He was an expert on oriental languages, and translated the Emerald Tablet of Hermes, an Arabic alchemical work, into Latin. He also wrote some very popular books on Egyptian antiquities and hieroglyphs. He was the first to correctly conjecture that Coptic was derived from ancient Egyptian. He even received a large gift from the Pope for translating the hieroglyphs on an Egyptian obelisk! When the Rosetta stone was found, quite a bit later, this translation was found to be completely inaccurate. However, during his lifetime he had a reputation for being able to read any text.

In short: the perfect person to decode the Voynich Manuscript!

Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon (1214-1294) was a Franciscan friar and an early advocate of the experimental method. He worked on optics, and at the request of Pope Clement IV he wrote a series of books which amounted to an encyclopedia of science. He also worked on alchemy. He kept much of his work secret from his fellow Franciscans, but nonetheless, in 1278 they imprisoned him on the charge of "suspected novelties" in his teaching. In his Letter on the Secret Works of Art and the Nullity of Magic, he wrote "The man is insane who writes a secret in any other way than one which will conceal it from the vulgar and make it intelligible only with difficulty even to scientific men and earnest students.... Certain persons have achieved concealment by means of letters not then used by their own race or others but arbitrarily invented by themselves."

In short: the perfect person to have written the Voynich Manuscript!

But the story is not so simple....

(To be continued.)

 


References

The best books to read on the Voynich manuscript are these: There are also some excellent websites:

 


Within that awful volume lies the mystery of mysteries! - Sir Walter Scott

© 2005 John Baez
baez@math.removethis.ucr.andthis.edu

home


Latest update: 2002/10/03      
 

 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Last edited on 2005-05-23 02:11:54 by stolfi

Voynich Manuscript stuff

Who else is out there?

Thanks to Dennis Stallings for many corrections and additions.

Who else is not out there?

What are my feelings about the manuscript?

What is new in here?

Text retouching: [15 jul 04] [updated 22 jul 04] The text on page f1r shows clear evidence of extensive retouching -- and that may hold for many other pages as well.

The third big red weirdo of f1r: [03 jul 04] It is defintely not a big digit "2". Could it be...?

Zbigniew Banasik's theory: [23 may 04] Is the VMS written in the old Manchu language?

The weirdos of f1r: [26 feb 02] [updated 03 mar 2002] Two big red symbols on page f1r are seen from a different angle.

Chinese Theory redux!: [18 jan 02] The Voynichese word length distribution is surprisingly similar to that of Vietnamese and other East Asian languages.

On the VMS Word Length Distribution: [23 dec 00] The distribution of word lengths in the VMS lexicon is quite peculiar, and fits a surprisingigly simple formula.

Special words: [07 feb 98] [rebuilt 10 jul 00] A word-by-word colorized edition of the Vms electronic text (a "best pick" of the Reeds/Landini interlinear file, converted to EVA and slightly corrected). Each Vms page is presented as a separate HTML page. Color is used to highlight "special" words that occur on the page much more often than expected by chance.

A grammar for Voynichese words: [14-jun-00] The latest version of my crust-mantle-core paradigm.

Pictures from an Expedition : [29 May 00] Some pictures of the recent Voynich Club Expedition to Prague, sort of.

The reds of f67r: [15 dec 1999] Are the red colors on pages f67r1 and f67r2 done with the same ink?

Slides from my VMS talk [15 dec 1999] given last July at the Brazilian Mathematics Colloquium in Rio.

VMS Word Coloring Service: [16 Feb 99] A WWW tool that lets you highlight your favorite VMS words in various colors.

The month names: [16 Feb 99] A pencil reproduction of the month names from the "zodiac" pages f70v2--f73v.

The `key-like sequences' [01 Feb 99] collected and discussed.

A full concordance of the VMS [16 Jan 99] based on the interlinear file release 1.6e6 (see below).

Landini's interlinear in EVA, version 16e6: [28 Dec 98] here you can get the interlinear file (interln16.evt) started by Gabriel Landini and Jim Reeds, converted by me to the EVA alphabet, and augmented by John Grove and myself. This new version includes Takeshi Takahashi's new, nearly complete transcription, and is now fully synchronized for your convenience and profit.

The "michiton" text: [07 Nov 98] A pencil rendering of the text on page f116v (the "michiton oladabas" page), for those who haven't got a better reproduction.

Where are the bits? [redone 13 Jul 98][12 Jul 98] Colorized pages of various texts in various languages, including even some VMs pages, that show how much each letter contributes to the conditional entropy hk.

Page scatter plots: [03 Jul 98] based on page-by-page frequencies of words and OKOKOKO elements. Shows conspicuous clustering of the pages into sections, and the relationship between sections.

OKOKOKO, or The fine structure of Voynichese words: [30 mar 98] Another proposal for the basic building blocks of Voynich words. Includes several data files and Unix scripts of possible interest. [Largely superseded by the VMS word grammar]

Enhanced text images: [29 mar 98] Images of Voynichese text, clipped from Jacques Guy's gallery, with enhanced contrast and EVA transcription. Includes all pages posted in GIF form by Ron Carter to this date.

A big list of labels and titles: [01 feb 98] [updated 20 jul 98] A slightly expanded version of John Grove's label collection, with full location codes, in HTML and machine-readable formats.

The Name of the Sunflower: [27 jan 98] An attempt to identify the names of plants by their patterns of occurrence in the herbal pages. Also some colorized Voynich text showing intriguing patterns.

The sunflower story: [17 jan 98] Detailed comparison of real sunflowers (and other related plants), with the thing on page f33v.

Beer bellies: [17 jan 98] A "proof by example" that the prominent tummies seen in some of the "Nymphs" do not mean they are pregnant.

Word occurence maps in EVA: [30 Dec 97] A set of tables showing where each word or phrase occurs in the text. These maps are somewhat similar to my label occurrence maps of [23 Oct 97], but differenet in several key details: they use EVA, pay attention to word spaces, and list most of the words and phrases in the Vms (not just labels).

The Generalized Chinese Theory: [24 Nov 97] I think my recent prefix-midfix-suffix analysis of Voynich words justifies having a second look at Jacques Guy's "Chinese" theory. (This is an update of my note of [21 Nov 97].)

Plots of A×B counts for word components: [22 Nov 97] Inspired by G.Landini's paper, I made some plots comparing the frequencies of prefixes, midfixes, and suffixes in Currier languages A and B. The page also includes plots of unifixes (all-soft words), and word tails (midfix-suffix combinations).

Plots of Rayman's character counts: [20 Nov 97] At Rene's suggestion, I plotted Rayman's counts of distinct characters per page, for each page in the herbal section.

Comparing languages A and B at the sub-word level: [12 Nov 97] This note compares Currier's "language A" and "language B" subsets of the "herbal" section, in terms of the prefix-midfix-suffix paradigm (below).

The prefix-midfix-suffix paradigm: [12 Nov 97] This note describes a simple but surprisingly effective lexical paradigm for the structure of Voynich "words". If we divide the EVA letters in two sets, "soft" and "hard", we can parse almost every word as either a string of "soft" letters, or a single string of "hard" letters with a soft prefix and a soft suffix; and each component seems to be drawn from a rather small repertoire.

Label occurrence maps: [23 Oct 97] Here you will find a set of maps and tables showing how the occurrences and near-occurrences of figure labels are distributed in the running text, across the whole manuscript. (This is a much bigger but disjoint version of the f77v label search mentioned below.) [Largely superseded by the VMS word grammar]

Top-down structural analysis of the Vms: [06 Oct 97] Here is the beginning of a top-down analysis of the Voynich manuscript, focusing mainly on the book itself (as opposed to the historical context and possible authorship). Comments and contributions are desperately welcome...

References to f77v labels in the biological text: [11 Sep 97] The figures on page f77v have labels; I have checked whether those labels occur in the main text of the biological section, with weakly positive results.

The Oresme manuscripts: [07 Sep 97] Here you will find a few samples of 14th century "technical" manuscripts, in abbreviated Latin, with expanded transcriptions and translations. Athough not directly related to the Voynich manuscript, they provide some context as to the use of abbreviation, handwriting styles, scribal variations, etc..

Word occurrence map for the biological section: [16 Aug 97] This map that shows the places where each word is mentioned in the Biological section.

Word pair table [10 Aug 97] Here you will find a table with counts of the occurrences of each pair of consecutive words in the Biological section.

What is old in here?

[01 Aug 97] I once posted a prefix-suffix decomposition for most of the words in the Biological section, using an "error forgiving" alphabet. This item is now obsolete in view of the prefix-midfix-suffix decomposition listed above.

What data am I using?

Practically all my analysis has been based on G. Landini's interlinear compilation of several existing machine transcriptions. Jim Reeds deserves the credit for having edited most of those transcriptions and made them available to the public.

What software am I using?

I have been using standard Unix and GNU tools (grep, gawk, sed, tr, sort, uniq, etc.). I use the C-shell (csh) from within Stallman's Gnu Emacs editor; its "rectangle editing" features are wonderful for rearranging and reformatting the output tables.

When I run some program, I usually record the shell command together with its output and other comments, in a "notebook" file. Besides being good "scientific" (ahem!) practice, the notebook file makes it trivial to re-run the program later on different data, or afer improving the scripts. You may browse my notebooks, old and new, if you like, but be warned---many of the things recorded there are bogus, dead ends, or just plain stupid. In the new notebboks you will also find many of the (Unix) scripts that I have used. Usage instructions are often included as comments at the beginning of each script.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

top-left

Voynich Manuscript
Mailing List HQ
top right

This is the headquarters site for VMs-list, the primary mailing list for scholars attempting to read the enigmatic Voynich Manuscript. The list was started in 1991 by Jim Gillogly (then of the RAND Corporation) and Jim Reeds (then of Bell Labs), and it moved here to voynich.net in December 2002. It is managed by the Majordomo program, which allows you to subscribe and unsubscribe yourself. Send mail to the list administrator, Jim Gillogly, if you need help with the directions.

The tone of the group has been astonishingly civil and mostly scholarly for the thirteen years of the mailing list's existence, despite differences in background (cryptographers, linguists, botanists, astronomers, paleographers, medievalists, historians, astrologers and even a few crackpots -- no, of course I don't mean you); and differences in approach, including half a dozen competing methods of transcribing the Voynich characters.

Jim Reeds has written an introduction to the study of the Voynich Ms. Some images from the Voynich Ms. published by the Beinecke Library on their website are mirrored here.

Mysteries surrounding the Voynich Manuscript have puzzled researchers since the earliest surviving report in the seventeenth century: we have no clear idea of its date, its author, its provenance, the meaning of its script, or even the meaning of its drawings. The first known owner was the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612), who bought it from an unknown seller for 600 ducats. The author of the manuscript was then thought to have been the 13th-century monk and scholar Roger Bacon (1214?-1294?), but this attribution now appears to be much too early.

blue-clip

 

Having passed from Rudolf II's hands through those of nobleman Jacobus Horcicky de Tepenec, alchemist Georg Baresch, professor Johannes Marcus Marci and scholar Athanasius Kircher S.J. (1602-1680), it may have been filed and forgotten amongst Kircher's papers. It finally surfaced in a collection purchased by book dealer Wilfrid Voynich in about 1912. After his death and the death of his wife, author Ethel (Boole) Voynich, it passed to Wilfrid Voynich's secretary and Ethel Voynich's friend Miss Anne M. Nill, who eventually sold it to rare book dealer Hans P. Kraus. Having failed to sell it for his asking price of $160,000 Kraus donated the Voynich Ms. to Yale University, where it currently resides in the Beinecke Library as MS 408.

nymph left
During his lifetime Voynich was coy about the provenance of the manuscript, but after his death and that of his widow, Miss Nill revealed that according to a letter from Ethel the manuscript had been found at the Villa Mondragone, an estate near Frascati, Italy which had been bought by the Jesuit Order in 1866 and turned into the international headquarters of the Ghisleri College, and later converted to a boarding school. In December 2002 Wilfrid Gaye of Sussex called this provenance into question based on documentary evidence from his mother Winifred, the adopted daughter of Wilfrid and Ethel Voynich, but on further checking he found the evidence refers to "a manuscript" rather than specifically identifying this one. nymph right

A more detailed account of the history of the Voynich Ms. may be found at Rene Zandbergen's site. Rafal Prinke has developed a graphical timeline of its ownership and related chronology.

The small (16 by 23 cm) manuscript consists of 102 vellum leaves including several fold-outs, copiously illustrated with water colors. The manuscript was bound and numbered, probably by a later hand than the author's. Fourteen of the numbered leaves are missing; comparing Newbold's careful catalog with Kraus's shows at least six of these disappeared since Voynich obtained the manuscript. No scientific analysis or dating has been reported for the ink, vellum or water colors: although an important signature was found by chance with infra-red light and made legible with chemicals, no concerted effort has been reported to inspect the rest of the manuscript with special lighting or methods.

text sample  The text is written in a neat and clear script which has defied attempts at interpretation by some of the best cryptographic minds available including Athanasius Kircher; noted cryptologist Brig. John Tiltman, head of the British codebreaking establishment at Bletchley Park during World War II; and William F. Friedman, the famous American codebreaker who turned cryptanalysis into a science and led the team that broke the Japanese Purple cipher machine

 

A MHonArc-produced archive for 2000-2005 is available. This is a stopgap archiving operation until list member Nick Pelling has evaluated alternatives that scale well and offer good search capabilities, but for now, since Google is spidering the entire collection frequently we can use it to do our indexing for us. The eventual goal is to have all archives from 1991 on in a searchable database.


Please send suggestions regarding this web page to webmaster@voynich.net.
~~~~~~~~~~~~
 

Voynich Manuscript

Warning: This page is under construction and is always out of date, only occasionally updated. Many of the files referred to in these pages are stored in .Z compressed form, and might not be directly viewable with your Web browser.

So much has already been written about the Voynich Manuscript (or ``VMS,'' for short) that I will keep this brief. The executive summary:

The mysterious VMS is still unread.

Printed information sources

These sources contain the highlights; their bibliographies point to more than you will ever want to know.

I am compiling a bibliography of VMS references more recent than those found in D'Imperio or Brumbaugh. If you know of any, please let me know by email.

Location of VMS; photographic copies

The VMS lives in New Haven, Connecticut, in Yale University's Beinecke Rare Book Room and Library, under the name of MS 408. The Yale web site often has VMS images available, but the details of where they are kept and how to acces them changes often. Currently, a "Free text search" for "Voynich" and "408" works on this web page. Another Yale page of VMS images. Photocopies are available from Yale:

I have prepared a checklist of all printed VMS images you are likely to find in print.

Electronic information sources

Jim Gillogly maintained a publicly accessible collection of Voynich information, much of it taken from the Voynich mailing list's traffic. A copy of that information (accurate as of 17 Jan 1997) is obtainable here. There is the European VMS Transcription project web site.

There is a very informal VMS electronic mailing list, voynich@rand.org, run by Jim Gillogly, founded on 5 December 1991, with a fluctuating level of activity; a must for anyone with an abiding interest in the VMS. To enroll in the list, check here. There is an archive of old mailing list traffic up through the end of 2001. One member, Robert Firth, has been posting an occasional numbered series of notes summarizing his thinking about the VMS.

Progress

What progress has been made since D'Imperio's book?

There is a Postscript Type 1 font (by J. S. Porter; see the test sheet) and a Postscript Type 3 font (by myself) for setting Voynich script. Bruce Grant has prepared a Metafont Voynich font; Martin McCarthy has made his own version of this font available via WEB and via FTP.

Various transcriptions (using some conventional transcription alphabet) have been located; some modest further transcription work has been carried out:

  1. Petersen's hand transcription (made in the late 1930's) has been photocopied and distributed
  2. Currier's partial transcription has been widely distributed; a somewhat corrected and enlarged revised version has been made by members of the Voynich mailing list.
  3. There are the First Study Group (FSG) transcriptions, made by Friedman and friends in the late 1940's, described in my Cryptologia paper. (See files 1609.txt, 1613.txt, FSG.txt, and v2.txt. The minutes of the FSG are interesting to look at, but give no insight into VMS problem. The 1946 ``Carter report'' is worth a visit.)
  4. J. H. Tiltman's transcription of a few pages, made in 1951, also uses the FSG transcription alphabet.
  5. There is the partial Second Study Group (SSG) transcription made by Friedman and friends in the early 1960's.
  6. G. Landini and R. Zandbergen are currently engaged in a long-term EVMT (European Voynich Manuscript Transcription) project which attempts to merge and rectify all previous transcriptions, proofread against Petersen's transcription. The current state of their work, together with detailed explanations of the project, can be found at the EVMT web site.

The physical layout of the folios, the way the fold out pages work, how the folios pair up into bifolia and nest to form quires, etc, has been clarified.

Currier's discovery of two handwriting styles with corresponding textual statistical differences has been popularized and verified.

And public awareness of the VMS has been furthered, as evidenced by the proliferation of VMS web pages and by the appearance of the VMS in works of fiction, for instance, in a recent Indiana Jones novel.

Remaining problems

We lack a good photocopy of the VMS. Maybe Yale will allow someone to prepare a CD-ROM edition.

A high-tech physical and chemical examination of the vellum, of the inks, etc, has not been done, in part because it is not at all clear what questions might be answered by such means.

We lack a clear agreement on the character set of the VMS. On the one hand we have Guy's highly analytic Frogguy transcription alphabet with about 20 symbols, and on the other we have Currier's alphabet with 36, augmented by my list of 50 or 100 rarely occurring ``weirdo'' symbols. What is represented by one weirdo symbol might be represented by the 3 or 4 Frogguy symbols it is analyzed into. The right choice for transcription alphabet is at some unknown place on this analytic/synthetic continuum.

We lack a reliable transcription, in part because it is hard to proofread a transcription from a poor photocopy, and in part because of our uncertainty about the transcription alphabet.

We also lack decisive tests for distinguishing between nonsense babble, crafty cipher, and language.

And we lack a precise intellectual context in which to place the VMS.

Who are the Friends of the Voynich Manuscript?

Here are some of the living experts on the Voynich MS who are not members of the electronic mailing list:

And here are some of the more visible members of the electronic mailing list:

Voynich files

Here is an unsystematic list of various VMS-related files on this site:
Last modified 2 Jan. 2002.

 

Jim Reeds reeds@######.###

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Home      Voynich      Gallery 2

 


The Voynich Gallery

Part 1

Herbal 2v Herbal 3v Herbal 4v Herbal 5v Herbal 6v Herbal 7v Herbal 8v Herbal 9v Herbal 10v Herbal 12v Herbal 15v Herbal 17v Herbal 18v Herbal 19v Herbal 20v Herbal 21v Herbal 22v Herbal 23v Herbal 24v Herbal 26v Herbal 27v Herbal 28v Herbal 29v Herbal 30v Herbal 31v Herbal 32v Herbal 33v
Want more pictures of other undeciphered suff? Go to www.rongorongo.org

These pages were created two years ago, when site maintainance at Geocities was... awkward, and connections were sloooow. And one had only 3Meg of space. So I gave up in September 1998. I don't even think you could use directories and subdirectories back then.

So, this whole site is being restructured, even it is does not look any different yet. More pictures of the Voynich manuscript soon (the pharmaceutical section).

For light refreshments and fun, you ought to visit "Language Made Silly" by Metalleus (a.k.a. Kenneth Miner) and Frogguy (a.k.a. Jacques Guy).

Home      Voynich      Gallery 2


1

Home      Voynich      Gallery 1

 


The Voynich Gallery

Part 2

Herbal 34v Herbal 35v Herbal 36v Herbal 37v Herbal 38v Herbal 39v Herbal 40v Herbal 41v Herbal 42v Herbal 43v Herbal 44v Herbal 45v Herbal 46v Herbal 47v Herbal 48v Herbal 50v Herbal 51v Herbal 52v Herbal 54v Herbal 55v Herbal 56v Herbal 65v Herbal 66v Anatomical 75v Herbal 87r Herbal 87v Herbal 94r

Home      Voynich      Gallery 1


 
 
Strange Artifacts: Voynich Manuscript, the Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World
 

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Introduction

The Voynich Manuscript is considered to be 'The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World'. To this day this medieval artifact resists all efforts at translation. 
It is either an ingenious hoax or an unbreakable cipher.

The manuscript is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912, amongst a collection of ancient manuscripts kept in villa Mondragone in Frascati, near Rome, which had been by then turned into a Jesuit College (closed in 1953).

The Voynich Manuscript is a cipher manuscript, sometimes attributed to Roger Bacon. Scientific text in an unidentified language, in cipher, possibly written in central Europe in the 15th century.

Based on the evidence of the calligraphy, the drawings, the vellum, and the pigments, Wilfrid Voynich estimated that the Manuscript was created in the late 13th century. The manuscript is small, seven by ten inches, but thick, nearly 235 pages. It is written in an unknown script of which there is no known other instance in the world. It is abundantly illustrated with awkward coloured drawings of:

  • unidentified plants; 
  • what seems to be herbal recipes; 
  • tiny naked women frolicking in bathtubs connected by intricate plumbing looking more like anatomical parts than hydraulic contraptions; 
  • mysterious charts in which some have seem astronomical objects seen through a telescope, some live cells seen through a microscope; 
  • charts into which you may see a strange calendar of zodiacal signs, populated by tiny naked people in rubbish bins.

No one really knows the origins of the manuscript. The experts believe it is European  They believe it was written between the 15th and 17th centuries.

From a piece of paper which was once attached to the Voynich manuscript, and which is now stored in one of the boxes belonging with the Voynich manuscript holdings of the Beinecke library, it is known that the manuscript once formed part of the private library of Petrus Beckx S.J., 22nd general of the Society of Jesus.

A sample of untranslatable text from the Voynich manuscript

There is no other example of the language in which the manual is written.
It is an alphabetic script, but of an alphabet variously reckoned to have from nineteen to twenty-eight letters, none of which bear any relationship to any English or European letter system. The text has no apparent corrections. There is evidence for two different "languages" (investigated by Currier and D'Imperio) and more than one scribe, probably indicating an ambiguous coding scheme.

The VM is written in a language of which no other example is known to exist. It is an alphabetic script, but of an alphabet variously reckoned to have from nineteen to twenty-eight letters, none of which bear any relationship to any English or European letter system. 

Apparently, Voynich wanted to have the mysterious manuscript deciphered and provided photographic copies to a number of experts. However, despite the efforts of many well known cryptologists and scholars, the book remains unread. There are some claims of decipherment, but to date, none of these can be substantiated with a complete translation. 


History of the Voynich Manuscript

The book was bought by H. P. Kraus (a New York book antiquarian) in 1961 for the sum of $24,500. He later valued it at $160,000 but was unable to find a buyer. Finally he donated it to Yale University in 1969, where it remains to date at the Beinecke Rare Book Library with catalogue number MS 408.

It is known from a letter of Johannes Marcus Marci,  rector of the University of Prague, to Athanasius Kircher, a Jesuit scholar, dated 1666, that the manuscript was bought by Emperor Rudolph II of Bohemia (1552-1612).

REVEREND AND DISTINGUISHED SIR, FATHER IN CHRIST:

This book, bequeathed to me by an intimate friend, I destined for you, my very dear Athanasius, as soon as it came into my possession, for I was convinced it could be read by no one except yourself.

The former owner of this book asked your opinion by letter, copying and sending you a portion of the book from which he believed you would be able to read the remainder, but he at that time refused to send the book itself. 

To its deciphering he devoted unflagging toil, as is apparent from attempts of his which I send you herewith, and he relinquished hope only with his life. But his toil was in vain, for such Sphinxes as these obey no one but their master, Kircher. Accept now this token, such as it is and long overdue though it be, of my affection for you, and burst through its bars, if there are any, with your wonted success.

Dr. Raphael, tutor in the Bohemian language to Ferdinand Ill, then King of Bohemia, told me the said book had belonged to the Emperor Rudolph and that he presented to the bearer who brought him the book 600 ducats. He believed the author was Roger Bacon, the Englishman. On this point I suspend judgment; it is your place to define for us what view we should take thereon, to whose favor and kindness I unreservedly commit myself and remain,

At the command of your Reverence,
JOANNES MARCUS MARCI,
of Cronland.
PRAGUE, 19th August, 1665 (or I666).

Historically, it first appears in 1586 at the court of Rudolph II of Bohemia, who was one of the most eccentric European monarchs of that or any other period. Rudolph collected dwarfs and had a regiment of giants in his army. He was surrounded by astrologers, and he was fascinated by games and codes and music. He was typical of the occult-oriented, Protestant noblemen of this period and epitomized the liberated northern European prince. He was a patron of alchemy and supported the printing of alchemical literature.

The Rosicrucian conspiracy was being quietly fomented during this same period. To Rudolph's court came an unknown person who sold this manuscript to the king for three hundred gold ducats, which, translated into modern monetary units, is about fourteen thousand dollars. This is an astonishing amount of money to have paid for a manuscript at that time, which indicated that the Emperor must have been highly impressed by it.

Accompanying the manuscript was a letter that stated that it was the work of the Englishman Roger Bacon, who flourished in the thirteenth century and who was a noted pre-Copernican astronomer. Only two years before the appearance of the Voynich Manuscript, John Dee, the great English navigator, astrologer, magician, intelligence agent, and occultist had lectured in Prague on Bacon.

The manuscript somehow passed to Jacobus de Tepenecz, the director of Rudolph's botanical gardens (his signature is present in folio 1r) and it is speculated that this must have happened after 1608, when Jacobus Horcicki received his title 'de Tepenecz'. Thus 1608 is the earliest definite date for the Manuscript.

Codes from the early sixteenth century onward in Europe were all derived from The Stenographica of Johannes Trethemius, Bishop of Sponheim, an alchemist who wrote on the encripherment of secret messages. He had a limited number of methods, and no military, alchemical, religious, or political code was composed by any other means throughout a period that lasted well into the seventeenth century. Yet the Voynich Manuscript does not appear to have any relationship to the codes derivative of Johannes Trethemius of Sponheim.

In 1622 and the manuscript passed to the possession of an unidentified individual that left the book in his/her will to Marci. Marci must have known about this manuscript before 1644, as the information concerning the price that the Emperor paid came from Dr. Raphael Missowski (1580-1644) (as mentioned in his letter).

Marci sent the manuscript immediately with the letter to Athanasius Kircher (a Jesuit priest and scholar in Rome) in 1666 who apparently also knew of it and had exchanged letters and transcribed portions with the previous unidentified owner. Between that time and 1912 (when Voynich discovered it) it is speculated that the manuscript may have been stored or forgotten in some library and finally moved to the Jesuit College at the Villa Mondragone. Marci's letter to Kircher was still attached to the manuscript when Voynich bought it. In that letter, Marci mentioned the name of Roger Bacon (1214-1292) as a possible author, although no conclusive evidence of authorship is available. A possible link between Rudolph and Bacon is John Dee (an English mathematician and astrologer, collector of Bacon's work) who visited Rudolph's court in 1582-86.


Parts of the Manuscript

The Voynich Manuscript is about 6 by 9inches. Some believe it to be a book about alchemy. It contains the equivalent of 246 quarto pages, but may have originally contained not less than 262 pages. 
There are 212 with text and drawings, 33 pages contain text only, and the last page contains the Key. The text is written in an enciphered script, and the drawings are colored in red, blue, brown, yellow, and green. 

The contents of the Manuscript are divided up into 5categories:

  • The first and largest section contains 130 pages of plant drawings with accompanying text, and is called the Botanical division.
  • The second contains 26 pages of drawings, obviously astrological and astronomical in nature.
  • The third section contains 4 pages of text and 28 drawings, which would appear to be biological in nature.
  • The fourth division contains 34 pages of drawings, which are pharmaceutical in nature. 
  • The last section of the Manuscript contains 23pages of text arranged in short paragraphs, each beginning with a star. The last page (the 24th of this division) contains the Key only.

View online pages from the manuscript:


Theories about the Manuscript

To this day the Voynich Manuscript resists all efforts at translation. It is either an ingenious hoax or an unbreakable cipher. The contents and origin of the manuscript have been a matter of continuous and stimulating debate. To name some of the possibilities that have been discussed in the Voynich mailing list forum (modified from a posting by Karl Kluge):

There is an intelligible underlying text:

  • in a natural language
    • Latin, abbreviated Latin,
    • English, German, Norse, 
    • Chinese (in a phonetic script),
    • Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Arabic,
    • "pig Latin" and many others.
  • in a fake natural language like:
    • Enochian
    • Balaibalan
  • in a coded language
    • in cipher (single, multi substitution, etc.)
  • in an artificial language like:
    • Lingua ignota (Hildegarde von Bingen, 1153/54)
    • Arithmeticus nomenclator (anonymous Spanish Jesuit, 1653)
    • Wilkins' (1641)
    • Dalgarno's (1661)
    • Beck's "Universal Character" (1657)
    • Johnston's "Synthetic Language" (1641)

There is no intelligible underlying text

  • glossolalia (something like "writing in tongues")
  • random (i.e. some forgery)
    • psychologically "random" strings
    • mechanically generated random strings

In analytic terms, there are a few particularities worth noting:

  • The 2nd order entropy is too low for an European language using a simple substitution cipher.
  • The text follows roughly the 1st and 2nd  Zipf's laws of word frequencies.
  • The word length distribution is different from Latin (words tend to be shorter than Latin words).
  • Correlation analysis seems to indicate that the spaces are indeed separating "words" as in a natural language.
  • There is some evidence for two different "languages" or dialects (investigated by Currier and D'Imperio) and perhaps more than one scribe, probably indicating an ambiguous coding scheme.
  • The text has very few apparent corrections.
  • The structure of words is extremely rigid.
  • There are many words repetitions (up to 3 times!)
  • Some characters in the "key-like sequences" do not appear anywhere else in the manuscript.

 Source: The European Voynich Manuscript Transcription Project

Computer analysis of the Voynich Manuscript has only deepened the mystery. One finding has been that there are two 'languages' or 'dialects' of Voynichese, which are called Voynich A and Voynich B. The repetitiousness of the text is obvious to casual inspection. Entropy is a numerical measure of the randomness of text. The lower the entropy, the less random and the more repetitious it is. The entropy of samples of Voynich text is lower than that of most human languages; only some Polynesian languages are as low." "Tests show that Voynich text does not have its low h2 [second order entropy] measures solely because of a repetitious underlying text, that is, one that often repeats the same words and phrases. Tests also show that the low h2 measures are probably not due to an underlying low-entropy natural language. A verbose cipher, one which substitutes several ciphertext characters for one plaintext character [i.e., 'fuf' for the letter 'f'], can produce the entropy profile of Voynich text." - Dennis Stallings


Solutions

When the manuscript was first shown to expert cryptologists, they thought that solving it would be easy as the text was composed of "words", some of which were more frequent and occurred in certain combinations (Kahn, 1967). This soon turned out to be a mistake; the text could not easily be converted into Latin, English, German or a host of other languages which might possible be at the base of this document.

A first "solution" was announced in 1919, by William Romaine Newbold (Newbold, 1921), who caused a sensation by claiming that the manuscript did indeed contain the work of Roger Bacon and that Bacon had known the use of the compound telescope and microscope, seeing the spiral structure of the Andromeda galaxy* (!) only visible with modern telescopes and cell structures unknown in the 13th Century. 

What Newbold discovered in the text was absolutely astonishing— enough to gather a lot of attention from the scientific community. The biological drawings in the text were described asseminiferous tubes, the microscopic cells with nuclei, and even spermatozoa. Among the astronomical drawings were the descriptions of spiral nebulae, a coronary eclipse, and the comet of 1273. One of the more baffling things about this was that many of the drawings of plants, and of the galaxies appeared to have been invented. There was no doubt that if Bacon were the author of such a text, he must have had some way of obtaining the information. 

For instance, Newbold's translation of the caption near the drawing of the nebula of Andromeda (which clearly shows its spiral characteristics), gave its location by the following:

"In a concave mirror I saw a star in the form of a snail....between the
navel of Pegasus, the girdle of Andromeda, and the head of Cassiopea".

 

The attempts to crack the code, however, were not over. In 1931, Mrs. Voynich took a photostat copy of the manuscript to Catholic University in Washington where Fr. Theodore Petersen reproduced it photographically and started a complete hand transcription of the manuscript, with a card index to the words, and lists of concordances. The transcription alone was reported to have taken him 4 years. Unfortunately, it is not known what conclusion, if any, he reached.

In 1944, Hugh O'Neill, a renowned botanist at the Catholic University, identified various plants depicted in the manuscript as New-World species, in particular an American sunflower and a red pepper (O'Neill, 1944). This meant that the dating of the manuscript should be placed after 1493, when Columbus brought the first sunflower seeds to Europe. However, the identification is not certain: the red pepper is coloured green and the sunflower identification is equally contested.

Other people involved in the study of the manuscript were prominent cryptologists such as W. Friedman and J. Tiltman, who independently arrived at the hypothesis that the manuscript was written in an artificial, constructed language. This was based on the structure of the "words" as described below. Such artificial languages were devised at least a century after the probable date of the Voynich manuscript. Only the 'Lingua Ignota' of Hildegarde of Bingen (1098-1179) predates the Voynich manuscript by several centuries, but this language does not exhibit the structure observed by Friedman and Tiltman, and it provides only nouns and a few adjectives.

Friedman came to know Petersen who at some time presented his hand transcription and other material to him. After Friedman's death, all the material was moved to the W.F. Friedman collection of the Marshall Foundation. Recently, electronic versions of the transcriptions made by Friedman's groups were produced from the typed sheets and made available on the Internet (Reeds, 1995).

Later acclaimed solutions see in the manuscript a simple substitution cipher which can only decode isolated words (Feely, 1943), the first use of a more or less sophisticated cipher (Strong, 1945; Brumbaugh, 1977), a text in a vowel-less Ukrainian (Stojko, 1978) or the only surviving document of the Cathar movement (Levitov, 1987). No acceptable plaintext has ever been produced though.

Some interesting new insights into the manuscript were provided in the 70's by Prescott Currier, presenting some of his results at an informal Voynich manuscript symposium at the National Security Agency in Washington (D'Imperio, 1978). Basing his findings on the statistical properties of the text, he showed that the manuscript is written in two distinct "languages" which he simply called A and B. Each bifolio was written in one of the two, and bifolios in the same "language" were generally grouped together. Only in the herbal section there is a mixture of A and B folios. Based on the characteristics of the writing, he showed that the manuscript seems to have been written in two distinct "hands", and he even suggested there could be as much as five or even eight different hands. A significant feature is that the hand and language used on each folio are fully correlated. Currier's conclusion was that at least two people were involved in writing the Voynich manuscript, (which he considered a point against the "hoax theory" summarised below), although alternatively, the manuscript could have been written by one person, in two distinct periods.

Due to the lack of success in the decipherment, a number of people have proposed that the manuscript is a "hoax". The manuscript could either be a 16th century forgery, to be sold for a hefty sum to emperor Rudolf II, who was interested in rare and unusual items (Brumbaugh, 1977, deriving from earlier unpublished theories), or a more recent one by W. Voynich himself (Barlow, 1986). The latter is effectively excluded both by expert dating of the manuscript, and by the evidence of its existence prior to 1887.

One problem with the earlier hoax theory is that, as will be shown, certain word statistics (Zipf's laws) found in the manuscript are characteristic of natural languages. In other words, it is unlikely that any forgery from 16th century would "by chance" produce a text that follows Zipf's laws (first postulated in 1935).

Since 1990, a multidisciplinary group of varying size, generally between 100 and 200 individuals, dispersed all around the globe and connected through the Internet, has maintained an electronic mail forum on the decipherment of the Voynich manuscript. This has led to a lively exchange of ideas and the definition of two main goals: a machine readable transcription of the manuscript text and the study of the text through numerical experiments. The following sections relate to these issues.

      Sources: 

      Related Link: Past analysis and proposed solutions

_______________________________________________________

* Another interesting possibility is that the image above is a mirror image representation of our own galaxy, the Milky Way Galaxy...

The mapping of variable stars, neutral hydrogen radio maps and star clusters gives us our current view of the shape of our Galaxy shown above.

 

This picture shows the Milky Way Galaxy with superimposed 
mirror image of the "galaxy" from the Voynich Manuscript. 
The match is not perfect, but too close to be ignored.
Copyright 2003 by World-Mysteries.com

 


Books

Solution of the Voynich Manuscript
by Leo Levitov (Paperback - August 1987)

Described as the most studied and most mysterious manuscript in the world, hundreds of scholars have attacked the Voynich manuscript. Dr. Levitov tells how he broke the text, including his discovery of the word ISIS, a pattern-word. A transliteration of the script symbols is provided.

Dr. Leo Levitov, author of Solution of the Voynich Manuscript, presents the thesis that the Voynich is nothing less then the only surviving primary document of the " Great Heresy" that arose in Italy and flourished in Languedoc until ruthlessly exterminated by the Albigensian Crusade in the 1230s. The little women in the baths who puzzled so many are for Levitov a Cathar sacrament, the Endura,'or death by venesection [cutting a vein] in order to bleed to death in a warm bath'. The plant drawings that refused to resolve themselves into botanically identifiable species are no problem for Levitov. He stated, "There is not a single so-called botanical illustration that does not contain some Cathari symbol or Isis symbol. The astrological drawings are likewise easy to deal with; The innumerable stars are representative of the stars in Isis' mantle. The reason it has been so difficult to decipher the Voynich Manuscript is that it is not encrypted at all, but merely written in a special script, and is an adaptation of a polyglot oral tongue into a literary language which would be understandable to people who did not understand Latin and to whom this language could be read. Specifically, a highly polyglot form of medieval Flemish with a large number of Old French and Old High German loan words. Many people disagree with his claims.

Some of the symbols used in the Voynich manuscript are similar to symbols in other scripts or notations. In particular, the following similarities have been noticed:

  • Alchemical Symbols
  • Early Arabic Numerals
  • Latin Shorthand Abbreviations
  • Beneventan Script

Montaillou: The Promised Land of Error
by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie (Hardcover - June 1978)

Montaillou: The Promised Land of Error by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie (translated by Barbara Bray), 1978, George Braziller, Inc., New York tells about the testimony of peasants meticulously recorded in the Inquisition Register of Jacques Fournier, Bishop of Pamiers in Ariège. In it the Endura is described as a suicidal fast.

"There is no resemblance here to Levitov's claim that Catharism was the antique cult of Isis - and certainly no truth to the picture of the Voynich nymphs' opening their veins to bleed to death in the hot tubs!" - Dennis Stallings (private correspondence)


The Archaic Revival: Speculations on Psychedelic Mushrooms, the Amazon, Virtual Reality, Ufos, Evolution, Shamanism, the Rebirth of the Goddess, and
by Terence K. McKenna, et al (Paperback - May 1992)


The Most Mysterious Manuscript- The Voynich "Roger Bacon" Cipher Manuscript
by Robert S. Brumbaugh (Editor)

The Voynich Manuscript is a mysterious late mediæval text, written in an unknown script in an unknown language or cypher. It reads as if written fluently, not by someone who was painfully calculating each next character, but by someone who understood what he was writing. It looks like a curious herbal or alchemical treatise, full of diagrams of unknown plants, unknown constellations, and elaborate networks of plumbing inhabited by plump, naked, crowned women. The text seems to contain all the redundancies expected in a natural language and then some. It can be traced back as far as the hands of Athanasius Kircher, the Jesuit polymath, who was but the first of many to have tried and failed to read the text.

For a time, this book was the best general overview of the history of the Voynich Manuscript. It still is a good one, though it has been superseded in that regard by Mary d'Imperio's -The Voynich Manuscript: An Elegant Enigma.-

Brumbaugh proposes in this book a partial "solution" that yields texts like ILEXER ILUS YUS PURUS POURLY ILUY YJSUUS PURUS PLUS URICUS. These decipherments have the merit of seeming to read like the repetitious text of the manuscript itself. He interprets this text, though, as "The Elixir is a game, purely, purely a pure game; and European." Even if he has deciphered the script, no doubt you can probably think of other interpretations on your own.

His method of reading seems to involve first turning the script into Arabic numerals, reading those numerals as any of several possible letters in the Latin alphabet. He got this by forcing letters into the script based on his attempts to identify some of the plants in the diagrams, and then attempting to extract a method of reading the characters. His decypherments are occasionally tantalising, but if this is the actual text behind the symbols, there doesn't seem to be much point in further effort. The readings appear to be flawed by the polyvalence of the script he believes he sees.


Voynich Manuscript an Elegant Enigma- An Elegant Enigma (Cryptographic Series , No 27)
by M. E. D'Imperio, M. E. D'Amperio
(Paperback - June 1981)

D'Imperio, a cryptographer, collected and summarized all previous research on the Voynich manuscript in 1978. Sometimes dubbed the "most mysterious manuscript in the world," the Voynich Manuscript (VMS) was written at least 300 years ago (no one is sure quite when) in a fantastic unknown script, in an unknown language, by an unknown author. Given the strange illustrations (duplicated in this book) present in the VMS, it could contain secrets of astrology, alchemy, or ancient herbal knowledge. Now, thanks to the internet, a concerted effort to "crack" the message has been born, and D'Imperio's monograph has become the bible of serious researchers and hobbyists alike. Full of references and historical data related to the VMS, this work is a must for anyone intersted in mysterious history and culture, alchemy, or cryptography.


Letters to God's eye - the Voynich manuscript for the first time deciphered and translated into English
by John Stojko


Related Links 

  • http://www.voynichinfo.com/

    If you're looking for images of the Voynich Manuscript, look no further.
    All images of the Voynich Manuscript are Courtesy Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, which serves as the current caretaker of the Voynich, known as Ms 408 in the Beinecke Collection.

 

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Voynich manuscript

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The Voynich manuscript is written in an unknown script.
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The Voynich manuscript is written in an unknown script.

The Voynich manuscript is a mysterious illustrated book with incomprehensible contents, written some 600 years ago by an unknown author in an unidentified script and unintelligible language.

Over its recorded existence, the Voynich manuscript has been the object of intense study by many professional and amateur cryptographers — including some top American and British codebreakers of World War II fame — who all failed to decipher a single word. This string of failures has turned the Voynich manuscript into the Holy Grail of historical cryptology, but it has also given weight to the theory that the book is simply an elaborate hoax — a meaningless sequence of arbitrary symbols.

The book is named after the Polish-American book dealer Wilfrid M. Voynich, who acquired it in 1912. As of 2005, the Voynich manuscript is item MS 408 in the Beinecke Rare Book Library of Yale University. The first facsimile edition was published in 2005[1].

Contents

Description

By current estimates, the book originally had 272 pages in 17 quires of 16 pages each [2]. Only about 240 vellum pages remain today, and gaps in the page numbering (which seems to be later than the text) indicate that several pages were already missing by the time that Voynich acquired it. A quill pen was used for the text and figure outlines, and colored paint was applied (somewhat crudely) to the figures, possibly at a later date.

Illustrations

The illustrations of the manuscript shed little light on its contents, but imply that the book consists of six "sections", with different styles and subject matter. Except for the last section, which contains only text, almost every page contains at least one illustration. The sections, and their conventional names, are:

The "herbal" section of the manuscript contains illustrations of plants.
Enlarge
The "herbal" section of the manuscript contains illustrations of plants.
  • Herbal: each page displays one plant (sometimes two), and a few paragraphs of text—a format typical of European herbals of the time. Some parts of these drawings are larger and cleaner copies of sketches seen in the pharmaceutical section (below).
  • Astronomical: contains circular diagrams, some of them with suns, moons, and stars, suggestive of astronomy or astrology. One series of 12 diagrams depicts conventional symbols for the zodiacal constellations (two fishes for Pisces, a bull for Taurus, a soldier with crossbow for Sagittarius, etc.). Each symbol is surrounded by exactly 30 miniature women figures, most of them naked, each holding a labeled star. The last two pages of this section (Aquarius and Capricorn, roughly January and February) were lost, while Aries and Taurus are split into four paired diagrams with 15 stars each. Some of these diagrams are on fold-out pages.
  • Biological: a dense continuous text interspersed with figures, mostly showing small nude women bathing in pools or tubs connected by an elaborate network of pipes, some of them clearly shaped like body organs. Some of the women wear crowns.
  • Cosmological: more circular diagrams, but of an obscure nature. This section also has fold-outs; one of them spans six pages and contains some sort of map or diagram, with nine "islands" connected by "causeways", castles, and possibly a volcano.
  • Pharmaceutical: many labeled drawings of isolated plant parts (roots, leaves, etc.); objects resembling apothecary jars drawn along the margins; and a few text paragraphs.
  • Recipes: many short paragraphs, each marked with a flower-like (or star-like) "bullet".

The text

The "biological" section of the manuscript has dense text and illustrations showing nude women bathing.
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The "biological" section of the manuscript has dense text and illustrations showing nude women bathing.

The text was clearly written from left to right, with a slightly ragged right margin. Longer sections are broken into paragraphs, sometimes with "bullets" on the left margin. There is no obvious punctuation. The ductus (the speed, care, and cursiveness with which the letters are written) flows smoothly, as if the scribe understood what he was writing when it was written; the manuscript does not give the impression that each character had to be calculated before being put on the page.

The text consists of over 170,000 discrete glyphs, usually separated from each other by thin gaps. Most of the glyphs are written with one or two simple pen strokes. While there is some dispute as to whether certain glyphs are distinct or not, an alphabet with 20-30 glyphs would account for virtually all of the text; the exceptions are a few dozen "weird" characters that occur only once or twice each.

Wider gaps divide the text into about 35,000 "words" of varying length. These seem to follow phonetic or orthographic laws of some sort; e.g. certain characters must appear in each word (like the vowels in English), some characters never follow others, some may be doubled but others may not.

Statistical analysis of the text reveals patterns similar to natural languages. For instance, the word frequencies follow Zipf's law, and the word entropy (about 10 bits per word) is similar to that of English or Latin texts. Some words occur only in certain sections, or in only a few pages; others occur throughout the manuscript. There are very few repetitions among the thousand or so "labels" attached to the illustrations. In the herbal section, the first word on each page occurs only on that page, and may be the name of the plant.

On the other hand, the Voynich manuscript's "language" is quite unlike European languages in several aspects. For example, there are practically no words with more than ten "letters", yet there are also almost no one- or two-letter words. The distribution of letters within the word is also rather peculiar: some characters only occur at the beginning of a word, some only at the end, and some always in the middle section – an arrangement found in Arabic, but not in the Roman, Greek or Cyrillic alphabets.

The text seems to be more repetitious than typical European languages; there are instances where the same common word appears three times in a row. Words that differ only by one letter also repeat with unusual frequency.

There are only a few words in the manuscript written in Latin script. In the last page there are four lines of writing which are written in (rather distorted) Latin letters, except for two words in the main script. The lettering resembles European alphabets of the 15th century, but the words do not seem to make sense in any language [3]. Also, a series of diagrams in the "astronomical" section has the names of ten of the months (from March to December) written in Latin script, with spelling suggestive of the medieval languages of France or the Iberian Peninsula [4]. However, it is not known whether these bits of Latin script were part of the original text, or were added at a later time.

History

The illustrations in the "biological" section are linked by a network of pipes.
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The illustrations in the "biological" section are linked by a network of pipes.

The history of the manuscript is still full of gaps, especially in its earliest part [5]. Since the manuscript's alphabet does not resemble any known script, and the text is still undeciphered, the only useful evidence as to the book's age and origin are the illustrations — especially the dress and hairstyles of the human figures, and a couple of castles that are seen in the diagrams. They are all characteristically European, and based on that evidence most experts assign the book to dates between 1450 and 1520. This estimate is supported by other secondary clues.

The earliest confirmed owner of the manuscript was a certain Georg Baresch, an obscure alchemist who lived in Prague in the early 17th century. Baresch apparently was just as puzzled as we are today about this "Sphynx" that had been "taking up space uselessly in his library" for many years. On learning that Athanasius Kircher, a Jesuit scholar from the Collegio Romano, had published a Coptic (Ethiopian) dictionary and "deciphered" the Egyptian hieroglyphs, he sent a sample copy of the script to Kircher in Rome (twice), asking for clues. His 1639 letter to Kircher, which was recently located by Rene Zandbergen, is the earliest mention of the manuscript that has been found so far.

It is not known whether Kircher answered the request, but apparently he was interested enough to try to acquire the book, which Baresch apparently refused to yield. Upon Baresch's death the manuscript passed to his friend Jan Marek Marci (Johannes Marcus Marci), then rector of Charles University in Prague; who promptly sent the book to Kircher, his longtime friend and correspondent. Marci's cover letter (1666) is still attached to the manuscript.

There are no records of the book for the next 200 years, but in all likelihood it was kept, with the rest of Kircher's correspondence, in the library of the Collegio Romano (now the Pontifical Gregorian University). It probably sat there until the troops of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy captured the city in 1870 and annexed the Papal States. The new Italian government decided to confiscate many properties of the Church, including the library of the Collegio. According to investigations by Xavier Ceccaldi and others, just before this happened many books of the University's library were hastily transferred to the personal libraries of its faculty, which were exempt from confiscation. Kircher's correspondence was among those books—and so apparently was the Voynich manuscript, as it still bears the ex libris of Petrus Beckx, head of the Jesuit order and the University's Rector at the time.

Beckx's "private" library was moved to the Villa Mondragone, Frascati, a large country palace near Rome that had been bought by the Society of Jesus in 1866 and housed the headquarters of the Jesuits' Collegio Ghisleri.

Around 1912 the Collegio Romano was apparently short of money and decided to sell (very discreetly) some of its holdings. Wilfrid Voynich acquired 30 manuscripts, among them the manuscript that now bears his name. In 1930, after his death, the manuscript was inherited by his widow Ethel Lilian Voynich (known as the author of the novel The Gadfly). She died in 1960 and left the manuscript to her close friend, Miss Anne Nill. In 1961, Anne Nill sold the book to another antique book dealer Hans P. Kraus. Unable to find a buyer, Kraus donated the manuscript to Yale University in 1969.

Theories about authorship

Many names have been proposed as possible authors of the Voynich manuscript. Here are only the most popular ones.

Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon
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Roger Bacon

Marci's 1665 cover letter to Kircher says that, according to his late friend Raphael Mnishovsky, the book had once been bought by Emperor Rudolf II of Bohemia (1552–1612) for 600 ducats — Around €25,000 as of 2005. According to the letter, Rudolf (or perhaps Raphael) believed the author to be the Franciscan friar and polymath Roger Bacon (1214–1294).

Even though Marci said that he was "suspending his judgement" about this claim, it was taken quite seriously by Voynich, who did his best to confirm it. His conviction strongly influenced most decipherment attempts for the next 80 years. However, scholars who have looked at the Voynich manuscript and are familiar with Bacon's works have flatly denied that possibility. One should note also that Raphael died in 1644, and the deal must have occurred before Rudolf's abdication in 1611—at least 55 years before Marci's letter.

John Dee

John Dee
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John Dee

The assumption that Roger Bacon was the author led Voynich to conclude that the person who sold the Voynich manuscript to Rudolf could only be John Dee, a mathematician and astrologer at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, known to have owned a large collection of Bacon's manuscripts. Dee and his scrier (mediumic assistant) Edward Kelley lived in Bohemia for several years where they had hoped to sell their services to the Emperor. However, Dee's meticulously kept diaries do not mention that sale, and make it seem quite unlikely. Anyway, if the Voynich manuscript author is not Bacon, the connection to Dee may just disappear. On the other hand, Dee himself may have written it and spread the rumour that it was originally a work of Bacon's in the hopes of later selling it.

Edward Kelley

Edward Kelley
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Edward Kelley

Dee's companion in Prague, Edward Kelley, was a self-styled alchemist who claimed to be able to turn copper into gold by means of a secret powder which he had dug out of a Bishop's tomb in Wales. As Dee's scrier, he claimed to be able to invoke angels through a crystal ball, and had long conversations with them—which Dee dutifully noted down. The angel's language was called Enochian, after Enoch, the Biblical father of Methuselah; according to legend, he had been taken on a tour of Heaven by angels, and later written a book about what he saw there. Several people (see below) have suggested that, just as Kelley invented Enochian to dupe Dee, he could have fabricated the Voynich manuscript to swindle the Emperor (who was already paying Kelley for his supposed alchemical expertise). However, if Roger Bacon is not the author of the Voynich manuscript, Kelley's connection to the manuscript is just as vacuous as Dee's.

Wilfrid Voynich

Voynich was often suspected of having fabricated the Voynich manuscript himself. As an antique book dealer, he probably had the necessary knowledge and means; and a "lost book" by Roger Bacon would have been worth a fortune. However, the recent discovery of Baresch's letter to Kircher has all but eliminated that possibility.

Jacobus Sinapius

A photostatic reproduction of the first page of the Voynich manuscript, taken by Voynich sometime before 1921, showed some faint writing that had been erased. With the help of chemicals, the text could be read as the name 'Jacobj `a Tepenece'. This is taken to be Jakub Horcicky of Tepenec, who was also known by his Latin name: Jacobus Sinapius. He was a specialist in herbal medicine, Rudolph II's personal physician, and curator of his botanical gardens. Voynich, and many other people after him, concluded from this "signature" that Jacobus owned the Voynich manuscript before Baresch, and saw in that a confirmation of Raphael's story. Others have suggested that Jacobus himself could be the author.

However, that writing does not match Jacobus's signature, as found in a document recently located by Jan Hurich. So it is still possible that the writing on page f1r was added by a later owner or librarian, and is only this person's guess as to the book's author. (In the Jesuit history books that were available to Kircher, Jesuit-educated Jacobus is the only alchemist or doctor from Rudolf's court who deserves a full-page entry, while, for example, Tycho Brahe is barely mentioned.) Moreover, the chemicals applied by Voynich have so degraded the vellum that hardly a trace of the signature can be seen today; thus there is also the suspicion that the signature was fabricated by Voynich in order to strengthen the Roger Bacon theory.

Jan Marci

Jan Marci met Kircher when he led a delegation from Charles University to Rome in 1638; and over the next 27 years, the two scholars exchanged many letters on a variety of scientific subjects. Marci's trip was part of a continuing struggle by the secularist side of the University to maintain their independence from the Jesuits, who ran the rival Clementinum college in Prague. In spite of those efforts, the two universities were merged in 1654, under Jesuit control. It has therefore been speculated that political animosity against the Jesuits led Marci to fabricate Baresch's letters, and later the Voynich manuscript, in an attempt to expose and discredit their "star" Kircher.

Marci's personality and knowledge appear to have been adequate for this task; and Kircher, a "Dr. Know-It-All" who is today remembered more by his egregious mistakes than by his genuine accomplishments, was an easy target. Indeed, Baresch's letter bears some resemblance to a hoax that orientalist Andreas Mueller once played on Kircher. Mueller concocted an unintelligible manuscript and sent it to Kircher with a note explaining that it had come from Egypt. He asked Kircher for a translation, and Kircher, reportedly, produced one at once.

It is worth noting that the only proofs of Georg Baresch's existence are three letters sent to Kircher: one by Baresch (1639), and two by Marci (about a year later). It is also curious that the correspondence between Marci and Kircher ends in 1665, precisely with the Voynich manuscript "cover letter". However, Marci's secret grudge against the Jesuits is pure conjecture: a faithful Catholic, he himself had studied to become a Jesuit, and shortly before his death in 1667 he was granted honorary membership in their Order.

Raphael Mnishovsky

Raphael Mnishovsky, the friend of Marci who was the reputed source of Bacon's story, was himself a cryptographer (among many other things), and apparently invented a cipher which he claimed was uncrackable (ca. 1618). This has led to the theory that he produced the Voynich manuscript as a practical demonstration of said cipher—and made poor Baresch his unwitting "guinea pig". After Kircher published his book on Coptic, Raphael (so the theory goes) may have thought that stumping him would be a much better trophy than stumping Baresch, and convinced the alchemist to ask the Jesuit's help. He would have invented the Roger Bacon story to motivate Baresch. Indeed, the disclaimer in the Voynich manuscript cover letter could mean that Marci suspected a lie. However, there is no definite evidence for this theory.

Anthony Ascham

Dr. Leonell Strong, a cancer research scientist and amateur cryptographer, tried to decipher the Voynich manuscript. Strong said that the solution to the Voynich manuscript was a "peculiar double system of arithmetical progressions of a multiple alphabet". Strong claimed that the plaintext revealed the Voynich manuscript to be written by the 16th century English author Anthony Ascham, whose works include A Little Herbal, published in 1550. Although the Voynich manuscript does contain sections resembling an herbal, the main argument against this theory is that it is unknown where Anthony would have obtained such literary and cryptographic knowledge.

Multiple authors

Prescott Currier, a US Navy cryptographer who worked with the manuscript in the 1970s, observed that the pages of the "herbal" section could be separated into two sets, A and B, with distinctive statistical properties and apparently different handwritings. He concluded that the Voynich manuscript was the work of two or more authors who used different dialects or spelling conventions, but who shared the same script. However, recent studies have questioned this conclusion. A handwriting expert who examined the book saw only one hand in the whole manuscript. Also, when all sections are examined, one sees a more gradual transition, with herbal A and herbal B at opposite ends. Thus, Prescott's observations could simply be the result of the herbal sections being written in two widely separated time periods.

Theories about contents and purpose

The overall impression given by the surviving leaves of the manuscript suggests that it was meant to serve as a pharmacopoeia or to address topics in medieval or early modern medicine. However, the puzzling details of illustrations have fueled many theories about the book's origins, the contents of its text, and the purpose for which it was intended. Here are only a few of them:

Herbal

The first section of the book is almost certainly a herbal, but attempts to identify the plants, either with actual specimens or with the stylized drawings of contemporary herbals, have largely failed. Only a couple of plants (including a wild pansy and the maidenhair fern) can be identified with some certainty. Those "herbal" pictures that match "pharmacological" sketches appear to be "clean copies" of these, except that missing parts were completed with improbable-looking details. In fact, many of the plants seem to be composite: the roots of one species have been fastened to the leaves of another, with flowers from a third.

Sunflowers

Brumbaugh believed that one illustration depicted a New World sunflower, which would help date the manuscript and open up intriguing possibilities for its origin. However, the resemblance is slight, especially when compared to the original wild species; and, since the scale of the drawing is not known, the plant could be many other members of the same family — which includes the common daisy, chamomile, and many other species from all over the world.

Alchemy

The basins and tubes in the "biological" section may seem to indicate a connection to alchemy, which would also be relevant if the book contained instructions on the preparation of medical compounds. However, alchemical books of the period share a common pictorial language, where processes and materials are represented by specific images (eagle, toad, man in tomb, couple in bed, etc.) or standard textual symbols (circle with cross, etc.); and none of these could be convincingly identified in the Voynich manuscript.

Alchemical herbal

Sergio Toresella, an expert on ancient herbals, pointed out that the Voynich manuscript could be an alchemical herbal—which actually had nothing to do with alchemy, but was a bogus herbal with invented pictures, that a quack doctor would carry around just to impress his clients. Apparently there was a small cottage industry of such books somewhere in northern Italy, just at the right epoch. However, those books are quite different from the Voynich manuscript in style and format; and they were all written in plain language.

Astrological herbal

Astrological considerations frequently played a prominent role in herb gathering, blood-letting and other medical procedures common during the likeliest dates of the manuscript (see, for instance, Nicholas Culpeper's books). However, apart from the obvious Zodiac symbols, and one diagram possibly showing the classical planets, no one has been able to interpret the illustrations within known astrological traditions (European or otherwise).

Microscopes and telescopes

This three-page foldout from the manuscript includes a chart that appears astronomical.
This three-page foldout from the manuscript includes a chart that appears astronomical.

A circular drawing in the "astronomical" section depicts an irregularly shaped object with four curved arms, which some have interpreted as a picture of a galaxy that could only be obtained with a telescope. Other drawings were interpreted as cells seen through a microscope. This would suggest an early modern, rather than a medieval, date for the manuscript's origin. However, the resemblance is rather questionable: on close inspection, the central part of the "galaxy" looks rather like a pool of water.

Theories about the language

Many theories have been advanced as to the nature of the Voynich manuscript "language". Here is a partial list:

Letter-based cipher

According to this theory, the Voynich manuscript contains a meaningful text in some European language, that was intentionally rendered obscure by mapping it to the Voynich manuscript "alphabet" through a cipher of some sort—an algorithm that operated on individual letters.

This has been the working hypothesis for most decipherment attempts in the 20th century, including an informal team of NSA cryptographers led by William F. Friedman in the early 1950s. Simple substitution ciphers can be excluded, because they are very easy to crack; so decipherment efforts have generally focused on polyalphabetic ciphers, invented by Alberti in the 1460s. This class includes the popular Vigenere cipher, which could have been strengthened by the use of nulls and/or equivalent symbols, letter rearrangement, false word breaks, etc. Some people assumed that vowels had been deleted before encryption. There have been several claims of decipherment along these lines, but none has been widely accepted — chiefly because the proposed decipherment algorithms depended on so many guesses by the user that they could extract a meaningful text from any random string of symbols.

The main argument for this theory is that the use of a weird alphabet by a European author can hardly be explained except as an attempt to hide information. Indeed, Roger Bacon knew about ciphers, and the estimated date for the manuscript roughly coincides with the birth of cryptography as a systematic discipline. Against this theory is the observation that a polyalphabetic cipher would normally destroy the "natural" statistical features that are seen in the Voynich manuscript, such as Zipf's law. Also, although polyalphabetic ciphers were invented about 1467, variants only became popular in the 16th century, somewhat too late for the estimated date of the Voynich manuscript.

Codebook cipher

According to this theory, the Voynich manuscript "words" would be actually codes to be looked up in a dictionary or codebook. The main evidence for this theory is that the internal structure and length distribution of those words are similar to those of Roman numerals—which, at the time, would be a natural choice for the codes. However, book-based ciphers are viable only for short messages, because they are very cumbersome to write and to read.

Visual cipher

James Finn proposed in his book Pandora's Hope (2004)[6] that the Voynich manuscript is in fact visually encoded Hebrew. Once the Voynich letters have been correctly transcribed, using the EVA as a guide, many of the Voynich words can be seen as Hebrew words that repeat with different distortions to confuse the reader. For example, the word AIN from the manuscript is the Hebrew word for "eye", and it also appears in different distorted versions as "aiin" or "aiiin", to make it appear as though the words are different when in fact they are the same word. Other methods of visual encryption are used as well. The main argument for this view is that it would explain the lack of success that most other researchers have had in decoding the manuscript, because they are based on more mathematical approaches to the decryption. The main argument against it is that such a qualitative encoding places a heavy burden on the talents of the individual decoder, given the multiplicity of possible alternate visual interpretations of the same text. It would be hard to separate how much interpretation is of the genuine text, and how much simply reflects the bias of the original interpreter.

Micrography

Following its 1912 rediscovery, one of the earliest efforts to unlock the book's secrets (and, indeed, the first of many premature claims of decipherment) was made in 1921 by William Newbold of the University of Pennsylvania. His singular hypothesis held that the visible text is meaningless itself, but that each apparent "letter" is in fact constructed of a series of tiny markings only discernible under magnification. These markings, based on ancient Greek shorthand, were supposed to form a second level of script that held the real content of the writing. Using this knowledge, Newbold claimed to have worked out entire paragraphs proving the authorship of Bacon and recording his use of a compound microscope four hundred years before Leeuwenhoek. However, John Manly of the University of Chicago pointed out serious flaws in this theory. Each shorthand character was assumed to have multiple interpretations, with no reliable way to determine which was intended for any given case. Newbold's method also required rearranging letters at will until intelligible Latin was produced. These factors alone ensure the system enough flexibility that nearly anything at all could be "read" in the microscopic markings, which in any case are themselves illusory. Although there is a tradition of Hebrew micrography, it is nowhere near as compact or complex as the shapes Newbold made out. Upon close study, these turn out to be mere artifacts of the way ink cracks as it dries on rough vellum, and an example of pareidolia. Thanks to Manly's thorough refutation, the micrography theory is today disregarded.

Steganography

This theory holds that the text of the Voynich manuscript is mostly meaningless, but contains meaningful information hidden in inconspicuous details—e.g. the second letter of every word, or the number of letters in each line. This technique, called steganography, is very old, and was described e.g. by Johannes Trithemius in 1499. Some people suggested that the plain text was to be extracted by a Cardan grille of some sort. This theory is hard to prove or disprove, since stegotexts can be arbitrarily hard to crack. An argument against it is that using a cipher-looking cover text defeats the main purpose of steganography, which is to hide the very existence of the secret message.

Some people have suggested that the meaningful text could be encoded in the length or shape of certain pen strokes. There are indeed examples of steganography from about that time that use letter shape (italic vs. upright) to hide information. However, when examined at high magnification, the Voynich manuscript pen strokes seem quite natural, and substantially affected by the uneven surface of the vellum.

Exotic natural language

The linguist Jacques Guy once suggested that the Voynich manuscript text could be some exotic natural language, written in the plain with an invented alphabet. The word structure is indeed similar to that of many language families of East and Central Asia, mainly Sino-Tibetan (Chinese, Tibetan, and Burmese), Austroasiatic (Vietnamese, Khmer, etc.) and possibly Tai (Thai, Lao, etc.). In many of these languages, the "words" have only one syllable; and syllables have a rather rich structure, including tonal patterns.

This theory has some historical plausibility. While those languages generally had native scripts, these were notoriously difficult for Western visitors; which motivated the invention of several phonetic scripts, mostly with Latin letters but sometimes with invented alphabets. Although the known examples are much later than the Voynich manuscript, history records hundreds of explorers and missionaries who could have done it—even before Marco Polo's 13th century voyage, but especially after Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to the Orient in 1499. The Voynich manuscript author could also be a native from East Asia living in Europe, or educated at a European mission.

The main argument for this theory is that it is consistent with all statistical properties of the Voynich manuscript text which have been tested so far, including doubled and tripled words (which have been found to occur in Chinese and Vietnamese texts at roughly the same frequency as in the Voynich manuscript). It also explains the apparent lack of numerals and Western syntactic features (such as articles and copulas), and the general inscrutability of the illustrations. Another possible hint are two large red symbols on the first page, which have been compared to a Chinese-style book title, upside down and badly copied. Also, the apparent division of the year into 360 degrees (rather than 365 days), in groups of 15 and starting with Pisces, are features of the Chinese agricultural calendar (jie q`i). The main argument against the theory is the fact that no one (including scholars at the Academy of Sciences in Beijing) could find any clear examples of Asian symbolism or Asian science in the illustrations.

In late 2003, Zbigniew Banasik of Poland proposed that the manuscript is plaintext written in the Manchu language and gave an incomplete translation of the first page of the manuscript [3] [4] [5].

Polyglot tongue

In his book Solution of the Voynich Manuscript: A liturgical Manual for the Endura Rite of the Cathari Heresy, the Cult of Isis (1987), Leo Levitov declared the manuscript a plaintext transcription of a "polyglot oral tongue". This he defined as "a literary language which would be understandable to people who did not understand Latin and to whom this language could be read." His proposed decryption has three Voynich letters making a syllable, to produce a series of syllables that form a mixture of medieval Flemish with many borrowed Old French and Old High German words.

According to Levitov, the rite of Endura was none other than the assisted suicide ritual for people already believed to be near death, famously associated with the Cathar faith (although the reality of this ritual is also in question). He explains that the chimerical plants are not meant to represent any species of flora, but are secret symbols of the faith. The women in the basins with elaborate plumbing represent the suicide ritual itself, which he believed involved venesection: the cutting of a vein to allow the blood to drain into a warm bath. The constellations with no celestial analogue are representative of the stars in Isis' mantle.

This theory is questioned on several grounds. First, the Cathar faith is widely understood to have been a Christian gnosticism, and not in any way associated with Isis. Second, this theory places the book's origins in the twelfth or thirteenth century, which is considerably older than even the adherents to the Roger Bacon theory believe. Third, the Endura ritual involved fasting, not venesection. Levitov offered no evidence beyond his translation for this theory.

Constructed language

The peculiar internal structure of Voynich manuscript "words" has led William F. Friedman and John Tiltman to arrive independently at the conjecture that the text could be a constructed language in the plain—specifically, a philosophical one. In languages of this class, the vocabulary is organized according to a category system, so that the general meaning of a word can be deduced from its sequence of letters. For example, in the modern constructed language Ro, bofo- is the category of colors, and any word beginning with those letters would name a color: so red is bofoc, and yellow is bofof. (This is an extreme version of the book classification scheme used by many libraries — in which, say, P stands for language and literature, PA for Greek and Latin, PC for Romance languages, etc.)

This concept is quite old, as attested by John Wilkins's Philosophical Language (1668). In most known examples, categories are subdivided by adding suffixes; as a consequence, a text in a particular subject would have many words with similar prefixes — for example, all plant names would begin with the similar letters, and likewise for all diseases, etc. This feature could then explain the repetitious nature of the Voynich text. However, no one has been able to assign a plausible meaning to any prefix or suffix in the Voynich manuscript; and, moreover, known examples of philosophical languages are rather late (17th century).

Hoax

The bizarre features of the Voynich manuscript text (such as the doubled and tripled words) and the suspicious contents of its illustrations (such as the chimeric plants) have led many people to conclude that the manuscript may in fact be a hoax.

In 2003, computer scientist Gordon Rugg showed that text with characteristics similar to the Voynich manuscript could have been produced using a table of word prefixes, stems, and suffixes, which would have been selected and combined by means of a perforated paper overlay. The latter device, known as a Cardan grille, was invented around 1550 as an encryption tool. However, the pseudo-texts generated in Gordon Rugg's experiments do not have the same words and frequencies as the Voynich manuscript; its resemblance to "Voynichese" is only visual, not quantitative. Since one can produce random gibberish that resembles English (or any other language) to a similar extent, these experiments are not yet convincing.

Influence on popular culture

A number of items in popular culture appear to have been influenced, at least in part, by the Voynich manuscript.

  • The dangerous grimoire called the Necronomicon appears in H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos fantasy. While Lovecraft likely created the Necronomicon without knowledge of the Voynich manuscript, Colin Wilson published a short story in 1969 called "The Return of the Lloigor", in Arkham House's Tales of the Cthulhu Mythos, wherein a character discovers that the Voynich manuscript is an incomplete copy of the grimoire. Since then, the fictional Necronomicon has been repeatedly identified with this real mystery by other authors.
  • The Voynich manuscript is central to the plot of Brad Strickland’s The Wrath of the Grinning Ghost, part of the Johnny Dixon series begun by author John Bellairs.
  • The Codex Seraphinianus is a modern work of art created in the style of the Voynich manuscript.
  • The contemporary composer Hanspeter Kyburz wrote an orchestra piece based on the Voynich manuscript, thus reading it as a musical score.
  • The plot of Il Romanzo di Nostradamus by Valerio Evangelisti features the Voynich manuscript as a work of black magic, against which the famous French astrologer Nostradamus will fight all his life.
  • In the computer game Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon, the Voynich manuscript is the center of a plot involving "Neo-Templars". The manuscript predicts very harmful catastrophies that will happen in near future of the Earth, such as floods and very powerful earthquakes.
  • In the computer game Radiata Stories, the Voynich manuscript is one of the books in the Vareth Institute.
  • In his books Ilium and Olympos Dan Simmons describes headless cyborg-like creatures called voynix.

See also

References

Articles

  • Manly, John Mathews (1921), "The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World: Did Roger Bacon Write It and Has the Key Been Found?", Harper's Monthly Magazine 143, pp.186-197.
  • Manly, John Matthews (1931). “Roger Bacon and the Voynich MS”. Speculum 6 (3): 345-391.
  • McKenna, Terence, "The Voynich Manuscript", in his The Archaic Revival (HarperSanFrancisco, 1991), pp.172-184.

Books

  1. Le Code Voynich, the whole manuscript published with a short presentation in French, ed. Jean-Claude Gawsewitch, (2005) ISBN 2350130223.
  2. William Poundstone. Labyrinths of Reason: Paradox, Puzzles, and the Frailty of Knowledge. ISBN 0-385-24271-9.
  3. Sean B. Palmer (2004), "Notes on f116v's Michitonese" [1]
  4. Sean B. Palmer (2004), "Voynich Manuscript: Months" [2]
  5. Voynick MS - Long tour: Known history of the manuscript
  6. James E. Finn (2004). Pandora's Hope: Humanity's Call to Adventure : A Short and To-the-Point Essential Guide to the End of the World, PublishAmerica. ISBN 1-4137-3261-5.
  • Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone (2005). The Friar and the Cipher: Roger Bacon and the Unsolved Mystery of the Most Unusual Manuscript in the World, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0767914732.
  • Gerry Kennedy, Rob Churchill (2004). The Voynich Manuscript, London: Orion. ISBN 075285996X.
  • Mario M. Pérez-Ruiz (2003). El Manuscrito Voynich (in Spanish), Barcelona: Océano Ambar. ISBN 8475562167.
  • John Stojko (1978). Letters to God's Eye, New York: Vantage Press. ISBN 0533041813.
  • Robert S. Brumbaugh (1978). The Most Mysterious Manuscript: The Voynich 'Roger Bacon' Cipher Manuscript, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0809308088.
  • M. E. D'Imperio (1978). The Voynich Manuscript: An Elegant Enigma, Laguna Hills, Calif.: Aegean Park Press. ISBN 0894120387.
  • Leo Levitov (1987). Solution of the Voynich Manuscript: A liturgical Manual for the Endura Rite of the Cathari Heresy, the Cult of Isis, Aegean Park Press. ISBN 0-89412-148-0.
  • William Romaine Newbold (1928). The Cipher of Roger Bacon, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript"
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  • Discussion
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    Folio

    Folio 33v

     

    The Voynich Manu

    The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World

    (1) Description

    "The Voynich Manuscript, which has been dubbed 'The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World', is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912, amongst a collection of ancient manuscripts kept in villa Mondragone in Frascati, near Rome, which had been by then turned into a Jesuit College (closed in 1953)."
         - Jacques Guy

    "From a piece of paper which was once attached to the Voynich manuscript, and which is now stored in one of the boxes belonging with the Voynich manuscript holdings of the Beinecke library, it is known that the manuscript once formed part of the private library of Petrus Beckx S.J., 22nd general of the Society of Jesus."
         - René Zandbergen, G. Landini, "Some new information about the later history of the Voynich Manuscript". See "Voynich MS history after 1600" for the most current info.

    "The manuscript counted at least 116 folios, of which 104 remain. The folio size is 6 by 9 inches, but some folios are two or three times that size and are folded. There is one large composite of six times this size (18 by 18 inches). Both the illustrations and the script of the manuscript are unique. As long as the script cannot be read, the illustrations are the only clue about the nature of the book. According to these illustrations, the manuscript would appear to be a scientific book, mostly an illustrated herbal with some additional sections."
         - Gabriel Landini and René Zandbergen, "A Well-kept Secret of Mediaeval Science: the Voynich manuscript, Aesculapius July 1998
    Folio 78r

    Folio 78r (detail)

    "Wilfrid Voynich judged it [the Voynich Manuscript] to date from the late 13th century, on the evidence of the calligraphy, the drawings, the vellum, and the pigments. It is some 200 pages long, written in an unknown script of which there is no known other instance in the world. It is abundantly illustrated with awkward coloured drawings. Drawings of unidentified plants; of what seems to be herbal recipes; of tiny naked women frolicking in bathtubs connected by intricate plumbing looking more like anatomical parts than hydraulic contraptions; of mysterious charts in which some have seem astronomical objects seen through a telescope, some live cells seen through a microscope; of charts into which you may see a strange calendar of zodiacal signs, populated by tiny naked people in rubbish bins."
         - Jacques Guy

    "Prof. Sergio Toresella wrote a paper on 'alchemical herbals' that resemble the VMs in having pictures of fantasy plants and written spells, enchantments, and incantations (although in easily understood plaintext)."
         - Dennis Stallings, "Voynich mini-FAQ"

    "Dating at least to 1586, the manuscript is written in a language of which no other example is known to exist. It is an alphabetic script, but of an alphabet variously reckoned to have from nineteen to twenty-eight letters, none of which bear any relationship to any English or European letter system. The manuscript is small, seven by ten inches, but thick, nearly 170 pages. It is closely written in a free-running hand and copiously illustrated with bizarre line drawings that have been water-colored: drawings of plants, drawings of little naked ladies appearing to take showers in a strange system of plumbing (variously identified as organs of the body or a primitive set of fountains), and astrological drawings - or what have been interpreted as astrological drawings. Since the Voynich Manuscript is at the Beinecke Rare Book Room at Yale [catalogue number MS 408], it is accessible to any serious scholar."
         - Terence McKenna, The Archaic Revival

    "Nobody knows, but the many illustrations suggest some kind of alchemy book, that somebody may have wanted to keep secret. The manuscript has several parts identified from the illustrations (although there is no guarantee that these are the subject matter of the sections):

    • a Herbal section (mostly unidentified and fantastic plants),
    • an Astronomical section (with most zodiac symbols),
    • a Biological section (with some 'anatomical' drawings and human figures),
    • a Cosmological section (with circles, stars and celestial spheres),
    • a Pharmaceutical section (with vases and parts of plants) and
    • a Recipes section (with many short paragraphs).
    Folio 11r

    Folio 11r (detail)

    In addition there are:
    • pagination and gathering (signature) numbers,
    • several 'key-like' sequences throughout the book,
    • some old German writing (most probably added later),
    • names of the months in the astronomical section (probably added later)
    • a few instances of extraneous writing (different from the rest of the manuscript)
    • text not in 'Voynich script' in the last folio reading something like 'michiton oladabas...' suggesting a key to decryption...
      - G. Landini and R. Zandbergen, The European Voynich Manuscript Transcription ProjectHome Page

    "An expert in alchemy, Adam McLean, has ruled out the possibility that the VMs is a primarily alchemical text."
         - Dennis Stallings, "Voynich mini-FAQ"

    "...At the time when the Voynich manuscript was thought to have originated - the late medieval or early Renaissance period-the craft of cryptography was still relatively unsophisticated. Many medieval ciphers were just exercises by idle monks in the margins of otherwise straightforward manuscripts: words written backward, or with the vowels replaced by dots."
    "The evolution of European cryptograms was largely driven by the need to conceal sensitive information. The Italian city-states and the Vatican were pioneers in the genre; in 1379, Clement VII, the first of the Avignon popes, had separate cryptographic systems constructed for each of twenty-four correspondents. Other ciphers were used to conceal alchemical and magical writings, which their authors considered too powerful - or too incriminating - to fall into the wrong hands."
         - Lev Grossman, "When Words Fail: The Struggle to Decipher the World's Most Difficult Book", Lingua franca, April 1999

    "In a well-known text on medieval paleography, list members [of the Voynich list server] have found embellishments of letters in a note that are dead ringers for the VMs' 'gallows letters'. The date of the VMs is most likely the late 1400's because of the script's similarity to a "humanist hand" style that only saw use during several decades of the 1400's, and because the nymphs' hairstyles point to 1480-1520."
         - Dennis Stallings, "Voynich mini-FAQ"

    (2) Ruldoph's Collection

    "The man is insane who writes a secret in any other way than one which will conceal it from the vulgar and make it intelligible only with difficulty even to scientific men and earnest students."
    "Certain persons have achieved concealment by means of letters not then used by their own race or others but arbitrarily invented by themselves."
         - Sir Rober Bacon, Letter on the Secret Works of Art and the Nullity of Magic

     
    Folio 67r

    Folio 67r (detail)

    "Historically, it [the VMs] first appears in 1586 at the court of Rudolph II of Bohemia, who was one of the most eccentric European monarchs of that or any other period. Rudolph collected dwarfs and had a regiment of giants in his army. He was surrounded by astrologers, and he was fascinated by games and codes and music. He was typical of the occult-oriented, Protestant noblemen of this period and epitomized the liberated northern European prince. he was a patron of alchemy and supported the printing of alchemical literature. The Rosicrucian conspiracy was being quietly fomented during this same period."
    "To Rudolph's court came an unknown person who sold this manuscript to the king for three hundred gold ducats, which, translated into modern monetary units, is about fourteen thousand dollars. This is an astonishing amount of money to have paid for a manuscript at that time, which indicated that the Emperor must have been highly impressed by it. Accompanying the manuscript was a letter that stated that it was the work of the Englishman Roger Bacon, who flourished in the thirteenth century and who was a noted pre-Copernican astronomer."
    "Only two years before the appearance of the Voynich Manuscript, John Dee, the great English navigator, astrologer, magician, intelligence agent, and occultist had lectured in Prague on Bacon."
         - Terence McKenna, The Archaic Revival

    A number of years later, according to Sir Thomas Browne, Dee's son, Arthur, spoke of a mysterious book that his father owned - a "booke containing nothing butt Hieroglyphicks, which booke his father bestowed much time upon: but I could not heare that hee could make it out".

    "The manuscript somehow passed to Jacobus de Tepenecz, the director of Rudolph's botanical gardens (his signature is present in folio 1r) and it is speculated that this must have happened after 1608, when Jacobus Horcicki received his title 'de Tepenecz'. Thus 1608 is the earliest definite date for the Manuscript."
         - Dennis Stallings, "Voynich mini-FAQ"

    "Codes from the early sixteenth century onward in Europe were all derived from The Stenographica of Johannes Trethemius, Bishop of Sponheim, an alchemist who wrote on the encripherment of secret messages. He had a limited number of methods, and no military, alchemical, religious, or political code was composed by any other means throughout a period that lasted well into the seventeenth century. Yet the Voynich Manuscript does not appear to have any relationship to the codes derivative of Johannes Trethemius, Bishop of Sponheim."
         - Terence McKenna, The Archaic Revival

    (3) Recent Attempts at Decipherment (1944-1986)

    "There have been many more attempts [at decipherment] that did not result in publication because the would-be solvers honestly admitted to defeat...In 1944, from among specialists in languages, documents, mathematics, botany, and astronomy then doing war work in Washington, William F. Friedman [a cryptologist famous for breaking the ultrasecret Japanese PURPLE cipher] organized a group to work on the problem."
         - David Kahn, The Codebreakers

     
    Folio 83v

    Folio 83v (detail)

    "From a cryptanalytic point of view, the challenges they faced were highly technical. Among them was the task of arriving at a standardized method of transcribing the Voynich alphabet, which is more difficult than it sounds. Many of the Voynich characters are identical but for tiny variations and embellishments that may or may not have any significance. The danger of reading two similar characters as one-equivalent to confusing the letter o with a zero-or treating one slightly variable letter as several was unavoidable. Nevertheless, the study group managed to perform a few statistical analyses on samples of the Voynich text using early IBM tabulating and sorting machines."
    "Some intriguing facts emerged. First, the analysis determined that the text of the Voynich manuscript is highly repetitive. In places, the same word appears two or three times in succession, and words that differ by only one letter also repeat with unusual frequency. Overall, the vocabulary of the Voynich text is smaller than it should be, statistically speaking, and although in general the words are unusually short compared to Latin and English, there are, upon close inspection, almost no one- or two-letter words. Intriguingly, Friedman saw a similarity between this statistical profile and that of a synthetic, universal language created by the seventeenth-century philosopher John Wilkins, something like a proto-Esperanto."
         - Lev Grossman, "When Words Fail: The Struggle to Decipher the World's Most Difficult Book", Lingua franca, April 1999

    "Unfortunately, by the time they [the Washington team] had, working after hours, completed the task of transcribing the text into symbols that tabulating machines could process, the war was over and the group disbanded...."
         - David Kahn, The Codebreakers

    "In 1976 Captain Prescott Currier gave a paper in which he showed that, judging from the handwriting, the Voynich Manuscript must have been written by at least two different people, and that the two texts differed markedly in the frequency distribution of their letters and combinations."
         - Jacques Guy

    "The discovery of the two 'languages' in the Herbal Section was the principal reason for transcribing and indexing this material. It was hoped that by application of comparative techniques to the Herbal A and B texts, ostensibly dealing with identical subject matter, some clue to the nature of the two 'systems of writing' might be forthcoming. The results were completely negative; there was no sign of parallel constructions or any other evidence that was useful in this regard. It was impossible not to conclude that (a) we were not dealing with a 'linguistic' recording of data and (b) the illustrations had little to do with the accompanying text. Study of other sections of the Manuscript where 'A' and 'B' texts are found has produced nothing to alter this conclusion. Further, it has so far proved impossible to categorize or to classify grammatically any series of 'words' or to discern any use patterns that that would suggest any recognizable syntactic arrangement of the underlying text. Perhaps even more important, I have been unable to identify 'words' or individual symbols in either language' to which I could assign even tentative numerical values. It seems quite incredible to me that any systems of writing (or a simple substitution thereof) would not betray one or both of the above features."
         - Captain Prescott H. Currier (USN Ret.)

    "Captain Currier received an A.B. in Romance Languages at George Washington University, and a Diploma in Comparative Philology at the University of London. He began his cryptologic career in 1935, and was called to active duty with the Navy in 1940. He has served in many distinguished capacities in the field, and from 1948 to 1950, was Director of Research, Naval Security Group. Since his retirement in 1962, he has continued to serve as a consultant. His interest in the Voynich manuscript has been of very long standing, and he has devoted an impressive amount of rigorously scientific analytic effort to the problem in recent years."
         - New Research on the Voynich Manuscript: Proceedings of a Seminar

    "There have been several purported breaks, including one rather recent one, but none has been widely accepted....Mary D'Imperio, author of The Voynich Manuscript: An Elegant Enigma (1978), [is] the most detailed and scholarly study to date of this document (reprint available from Aegean Park Press). It uses Prescott Currier's notation, which is described in her monograph."
         - Jim Gillogly

    "Due to the lack of success in the decipherment, a number of people have proposed that the manuscript is a 'hoax'. The manuscript could either be a 16th century forgery, to be sold for a hefty sum to emperor Rudolf II, who was interested in rare and unusual items (Brumbaugh, 1977, deriving from earlier unpublished theories), or a more recent one by W. Voynich himself (Barlow, 1986). The latter is effectively excluded both by expert dating of the manuscript, and by the evidence of its existence prior to 1887."
    "One problem with the earlier hoax theory is that, as will be shown, certain word statistics (Zipf's laws) found in the manuscript are characteristic of natural languages. In other words, it is unlikely that any forgery from 16th century would 'by chance' produce a text that follows Zipf's laws (first postulated in 1935)."
         - Gabriel Landini and René Zandbergen, "A Well-kept Secret of Mediaeval Science: the Voynich manuscript, Aesculapius July 1998

    (4) A Cathar Manuscript?

    Levitov's Decipherment
    Folio 82r

    Folio 82r (detail)

    "...Dr. Leo Levitov, author of Solution of the Voynich Manuscript [1987], presents the "thesis that the Voynich is nothing less then the only surviving primary document of the "Great Heresy" that arose in Italy and flourished in Languedoc until ruthlessly exterminated by the Albigensian Crusade in the 1230s."
    "The little women in the baths who puzzled so many are for Levitov a Cathar sacrament, the Endura, 'or death by venesection [cutting a vein] in order to bleed to death in a warm bath'. The plant drawings that refused to resolve themselves into botanically identifiable species are no problem for Levitov: 'Actually, there is not a single so-called botanical illustration that does not contain some Cathari symbol or Isis' symbol.' The astrological drawings are likewise easy to deal with: 'The innumerable stars are representative of the stars in Isis' mantle'.'
    "Levitov's strong hand is translation. He asserts that the reason it has been so difficult to decipher the Voynich Manuscript is that it is not encrypted at all, but merely written in a special script, and is 'an adaptation of a polyglot oral tongue into a literary language which would be understandable to people who did not understand Latin and to whom this language could be read.' Specifically, a highly polyglot form of medieval Flemish with a large number of Old French and Old High German loan words."
         - Terence McKenna, The Archaic Revival

     

    "The person who is knowledgeable about aid, knows there is only one way to treat agonizing pain. He treats each one by putting them through the Endura. It is the one way that helps Death. Not everyone knows how to assist the one with pain. The one who is with death, and does not die will have pain. But those who have such pain of death, need his help. He understands the need. He is also aware that the person who needs help does not know that he needs it. We all know that everyone of them needs help and each of us will be available to help."
         - Voynich Manuscript (as translated by Levitov)

    "There is fortunately one fragmentary record of Albigensian belief which has survived....I refer to the Cathar Ritual of Lyons which is now well know having been published in 1898 by Mr. F. C. Conybeare."
         - A. E. Waite, Holy Grail

    "The excerpt is the ritual of consolamentum, which is...the baptism with the Holy Spirit by laying on of hands that made one a full Cathar."
         - Dennis Stallings (private correspondence)

    Criticism of the Cathar Theory
    Dennis Stallings pointed out that there are other reliable records of Catharism. Montaillou: The Promised Land of Error by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie (translated by Barbara Bray), 1978, George Braziller, Inc., New York tells about the testimony of peasants meticulously recorded in the Inquisition Register of Jacques Fournier, Bishop of Pamiers in Ariège. In it the Endura is described as a suicidal fast.

    "There is no resemblance here to Levitov's claim that Catharism was the antique cult of Isis - and certainly no truth to the picture of the Voynich nymphs' opening their veins to bleed to death in the hot tubs!"
         - Dennis Stallings (private correspondence)

    "Waite goes on to mention that part of the Lyons Codex contains 'certain prayers for the dying'. The codex is in the langue d'oc. Does it resemble the Voynich material? We are not told."
         - Terence McKenna, The Archaic Revival

    "I could never secure a copy of Levitov's book, and had to rely entirely on pp.21-31, of which Michael Barlow, who had reviewed Levitov's book in Cryptologia, had sent me photocopies. Levitov's understanding of the Cathar religion and its rites, from what I could piece together from the review in Cryptologia, and which are central to his decipherment of the Voynich manuscript which he claims is a Cathar prayer book, is, to say the least, rather at odds with what Fernand Niel wrote in his Albigeois et Cathares (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1955)."
         - Jacques B.M. Guy, On Levitov's Decipherment of the Voynich Manuscript

    "The language was very much standardized. It was an application of a polyglot oral tongue into a literary language which would be understandable to people who did not understand Latin and to whom this language could be read."
         - Dr. Leo Levitov, Solution of the Voynich Manuscript

    "At first reading, I would be tempted to dismiss it all as nonsense: 'polyglot oral tongue' is meaningless babble to the linguist in me. But Levitov is a medical doctor, so allowances must be made. The best meaning I can read into 'polyglot oral tongue' is 'a language that had never been written before and which had taken words from many different languages'. That is perfectly reasonable: English for one, has done that. Half its vocabulary is Norman French, and some of the commonest words have non-Anglo-Saxon origins. 'Sky', for instance, is a Danish word. So far, so good."
    "...There are only twelve consonant sounds. That is unheard of for a European language. No European language has so few consonant sounds.
    Spanish, which has very few sounds (only five vowels), has seventeen distinct consonants sounds, plus two semi-consonants. Dutch has from18 to 20 consonants (depending on speakers, and how you analyze the sounds.) What is also extraordinary in Levitov's language is that it lacks a g, and BOTH b and p. I cannot think of one single language in the world that lacks both b and p. Levitov also says that m occurs only word-finally, never at the beginning, nor in the middle of a word. That is correct: the letter he says is m is always word-final in the reproductions I have seen of the Voynich MS. But no language I know of behaves like that. All have an m (except one American Indian language, which is very famous for that, and the name of which I cannot recall). In some languages, there is a position where m never appears, and that is word-finally, exactly the reverse of Levitov's language."
    "No European language I know fails to distinguish between singular and plural in its first and third person pronouns (i.e. I vs we, he/she/it vs they)."

    "...We are here in the presence of a Germanic language which behaves very, very strangely in the way of the meanings of its compound words. For instance, viden (to be with death) is made up of the words for 'with', 'die' and the infinitive suffix. I am sure that Levitov here was thinking of a construction like German mitkommen which means 'to come along' ('to with-come'). I suppose I could say Bitte, sterben Sie mit on the same model as Bitte, kommen Sie mit ('Come with me/us, please'), thereby making up a verb mitsterben, but that would mean 'to die together with someone else', not 'to be with death' . Next, the word order in many 'apostrophized' groups of words (but note that a word often consists of just one single letter), is the reverse of that of Germanic. For instance VIAN 'one way' literally 'way one' is the reverse of Dutch een weg, German ein Weg, and of course, of English 'one way'. Ditto for WIA 'one who', VA 'one will', KER 'she understands' etc. Admittedly the inversion of the subject is quite common in German (Ploetzlish dacht ich: 'Suddenly thought I') but it is governed by strict, clear-cut grammatical rules, conspicuously absent in the two sentences translated on p.31 of the except from his book upon which I am drawing for these comments."

    Applying Levitov's rules for translation:

    thanvieth = the one way (th = the (?), an = one, vi = way, eth = it)
    faditeth = doing for help (f = for, ad = aid, i = -ing, t = do, eth = it)
    wan = person (wi/wa = who, an = one)
    athviteth = one that one knows (a = one, th = that, vit = know, eth = it.)
    (Here, Levitov adds one extra letter, A, which is not in the text, getting his ATHAVITEH, which provides the second "one" of his translation)
    anthviteth= one that knows (an =one, th = that, vit = know, eth = it)
    atwiteth = one treats one who does it (a = one, t = do, wi = who, t = do, eth = it. .

    (Literally: "one does [one] who does it". The first "do" is translated as "treat", the second "one" is again added by Levitov: he inserts an A, which gives him ATAWITETH) aneth = ones (an = one, -eth = the plural ending)

    "Levitov's translation of the above is: 'the one way for helping a person who needs it, is to know one of the ones who do treat one'."
         - Jacques B.M. Guy, On Levitov's Decipherment of the Voynich Manuscript

    "A complete translation of the more than 200 pages waits in the wings - a long, arduous and possibly unrewarding task."
         - Dr. Leo Levitov, Solution of the Voynich Manuscript

     

    (5) The Current State of Research

    "In 1991 a loose international collective of researchers drawn largely from outside the academy coalesced around an email list devoted to the manuscript. 'It's very orderly,' says Jim Reeds, a list member and statistics Ph.D. who works in an AT&T laboratory. 'Everyone is listened to politely, even the crackpots.' Together the members maintain a massive archive of Voynich-related information; the network is spread out over dozens of interlinked Web sites that offer images of the manuscript, large chunks of transcribed text, a concordance, and even Voynich fonts. Recently, discussion has focused on the cipher's repetitiveness; several members have argued that it can be explained by a 'verbose' cipher, one that substitutes several cipher letters for each letter in the plaintext."
    Folio 88r

    Folio 88r (detail)


    "The collective has also renewed the effort to produce a valid machine-readable transcription of the Voynich manuscript. Gabriel Landini, who lectures at the University of Birmingham's School of Dentistry, and René Zandbergen, a systems analyst in the German aerospace industry, are now working to consolidate and reconcile all the existing transcriptions into one single version; they will then transcribe the rest of the Voynich text to produce one definitive computer file from which conclusive statistical results can be obtained."
         - Lev Grossman, "When Words Fail: The Struggle to Decipher the World's Most Difficult Book", Lingua franca, April 1999

    "Computer analysis of the Voynich Manuscript has only deepened the mystery. One finding has been that there are two 'languages' or 'dialects' of Voynichese, which are called Voynich A and Voynich B. The repetitiousness of the text is obvious to casual inspection. Entropy is a numerical measure of the randomness of text. The lower the entropy, the less random and the more repetitious it is [i.e., aaaaaa]. The entropy of samples of Voynich text is lower than that of most human languages; only some Polynesian languages are as low."
    "Tests show that Voynich text does not have its low h2 [second order entropy] measures solely because of a repetitious underlying text, that is, one that often repeats the same words and phrases. Tests also show that the low h2 measures are probably not due to an underlying low-entropy natural language. A verbose cipher, one which substitutes several ciphertext characters for one plaintext character [i.e., 'fuf' for the letter 'f'], can produce the entropy profile of Voynich text."

    "The low entropies of the VMs text could be the results of a writing system that uses several letters for one sound, and from the paradigms that the majority of words of the text follow. Tests on known texts show that the "A" and "B" languages may simply be due to different subject matter, different authors, or one author over a long period of time."
         - Dennis Stallings, "Voynich mini-FAQ"

    (See "Understanding the Second-Order Entropies of Voynich Text" for details.)

    "One could devise many character substitutions with dummy spacing, apply it to a text, and obtain a new texts that reasonably fits the statistics of the VMS, but that alone is not a proof of decipherment. At least we now know that it is possible to simply code a plaintext and explain a reduction of h2 as observed in the Voynich Manuscript. "
         - G. Landini, "The 'dain daiin' hypothesis", 9 July 1998

    For example, taking a Latin phrase (from the Vulgate Bible):
              in principio creavit Deus caelum et terram
    then substituting " dain " for the letter "n" and " daiin " for "m", the phrase becomes:
              i dain pri dain cipio creavit deiis caelii daiin et terra daiin

    A comparison of the amount of information contained in each 'word' of the Stars section of the Voynich MS (using the Curva alphabet) with the words in Genesis chapters 1-25 (Vulgate) and De Bello Gallico (Latin) revealed: "The apparent words in the Voynich Ms appear to be really words. They are as varied as the words in Latin texts of a similar length. "The first and second character of Voynich words (using the Curva alphabet) have lower entropy than in Latin. The Voynich words contain more information from the third character onwards (in the conditional sense). "The word-initial statistics of Voynichese are matched by one example of an artificial language (which postdates the VMs by at least one and a half centuries). "The statistics of Voynichese and a Mandarin text written in the Pinyin script (using a trailing numerical character to indicate tone) are very different. "A word game to translate Latin to Voynichese must:
              Increase predictability of word starts
              Make words shorter
              Maintain the length of the vocabulary."
         - René Zandbergen , "From digraph entropy to word entropy in the Voynich MS"

     
    To access folios now available from the Yale Digital Library, click here.
    Then type "Voynich" into the search engine.

     
    Other Voynich Sites
    Catharism, Levitov, and the Voynich Manuscript - Dennis Stallings
         How historical evidence contradicts Levitov's claim of decipherment
    European Voynich Manuscript Translation Project [EVMT]
         An erudite article about the manuscript with a comprehensive list of links
    The Most Mysterious Manuscipt in the World - Takeshi Takahashi
         A Voynich site in Japanese with a translation of this page
    Stolfi's Voynich Stuff
         Analysis of text and drawings, enhanced text images, comparison manuscripts
    The Voynich Gallery
         Black and white photos of pages with drawings of herbal plants
    The Voynich Manuscript - Dennis Stallings
         Mini-FAQ, primary web sites, images of the manuscript, other articles
    Voynich Manuscript - Jim Reeds
         Printed and electronic sources, photographic copies, and AT&T Voynich files
    The Voynich Manuscript - René Zandbergen
         Well-researched info on history, studies, page by page description and more

     

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~`

    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation written by a professional astronomer.

    2002 August 26
    See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
 the highest resolution version available. The Mysterious Voynich Manuscript
    Credit: Yale University ; Digital Copyright: B. E. Schaefer (U. Texas)

    Explanation: The ancient text has no known title, no known author, and is written in no known language: what does it say and why does it have many astronomy illustrations? The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume is known most recently as the Voynich Manuscript, after its (re-)discoverer in 1912. Pictured above is an illustration from the book that appears to be somehow related to the Sun. The book labels some patches of the sky with unfamiliar constellations. The inability of modern historians of astronomy to understand the origins of these constellations is perhaps dwarfed by the inability of modern code-breakers to understand the book's text. The book remains in Yale's rare book collection under catalog number "MS 408."

    Tomorrow's picture: Divided Planet

     


    < | Archive | Index | Search | Calendar | Glossary | Education | About APOD | >

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (USRA)
    NASA Technical Rep.: Jay Norris. Specific rights apply.
    A service of: LHEA at NASA/ GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    Voynich Manuscript Bibliography

    Jim Reeds

    This page is under construction. If you have additions or corrections to suggest, please send me email. Many older items shamelessly taken from Brumbaugh, D'Imperio, Galland, and Shulmans' bibliographies; more recent ones from traffic on the voynich@rand.org mailing list and from personal communications from (among many others) Rene Zandbergen, Gabriel Landini, Denis Mardle, Dennis Stallings, and especially from Brian Smith.

    I include non-fiction works that directly refer to the Voynich MS or to the life of W. M. Voynich, but exclude general works such as biographies of John Dee, Roger Bacon, etc, and surveys of such topics as Renaissance Hermeticism, paleography, etc.

    Since this is largely a compilation of others' bibliographies I have not seen all the items listed, and cannot vouch for their accuracy. (The comment ``not seen'' means ``not seen by me.'')

    This bibliography is broken into two sections:

    Manuscripts

    Including samizdat items. Items with WFF numbers are in the William F. Friedman collection of the George Marshall Library in Lexington, Virginia.
    1. ``The Voynich ``Roger Bacon'' Cipher Manuscript.'' Beinecke Rare Book Library, Yale University: MS 408. Supplementary material in folders and boxes labelled A - N.
    2. Positive photocopies of ff. 1-56 of Voynich MS. British Library MS Facs 461.
    3. Positive photocopies of miscellaneous folios of Voynich MS, misc. VMS correspondence of R. Steele, 1921, and misc. VMS articles. (Contains: 68r1/68r2, 65v/66r, 78v/79r, 107v/108r, 108v/111r, 111v/112r, 112v/113r, 1r, and 116v. Correspondence includes letters to Steele from W. Voynich, W. Newbold, and from A. W. Pollard. Articles include: clipping from Morning Post newpaper, 26.9.21, ``Astrological Anagrams: the Diary of Roger Bacon,'' clipping from Daily Chronicle newspaper, n.d., ``Key to Cypher in historic MS. / America's new light on Roger Bacon / 600 years' mystery,'' pencilled draft of article by Steele, photostat of typed lecture notes by Newbold (?), copy of J. Manly's Harper's article, copy of Louis Cons 4 Feb 1922 article.) British Library MS Facs 439.
    4. Brumbaugh, Robert S. Letter to Louis Kruh, 17 October 1978. In Kruh collection.
    5. Brumbaugh, Robert S. ``Voynich Newsletter.'' Various issues: February 1978, 6 page typescript. November 1978, 7 page typescript. January 1980, 7 page typescript. [In Kruh collection.]
    6. Carter, Albert H. ``Some Impressions of the Voynich Manuscript.'' Unpublished notes, 10 September 1946. WFF 1614.
    7. Carton, Raoul. ``The Cipher of Roger Bacon.'' 55 page typescript, translated from French by E. L. Voynich. In N.Y. Academy of Medicine Library. 1930. [Not seen.]
    8. Currier, Prescott. ``Voynich MS Transcription Alphabet; Plans for Computer Studies; Transcribed text of herbal A and B Material; Notes and Observations.'' Unpublished communications to John H. Tiltman and M. D'Imperio. Darimascotta, Maine. [Not seen.]
    9. D'Imperio, M. E. ``Structure of Voynich Text Groups: A Statistical Model.'' 2 page typescript, 1978.
    10. D'Imperio, M. E. ``An Application of Cluster Analysis and Multiple Scaling to the Question of `Hands' and `Languages' in the Voynich Manuscript.'' 28 January 1992. [Confirms Currier's findings. Not seen; in Gillogly collection. From abstract: ``This paper is an extensively revised and updated version of an earlier paper in an in-house technical journal, dated 20 June 1978. It includes corrected and expanded data sets.'']
    11. D'Imperio, M. E. ``Some Ideas on the Construction of the Voynich Script.'' 3 page typescript, January 1992.
    12. D'Imperio, M. E. ``Odd Repetitions or Near Repetitions in the Text.'' January 1992.
    13. Firth, Robert. ``Notes on the Voynich Manuscript.'' Numbered series of essays: 1-24, 1991-1995.
    14. Friedman, William F. Two ``First Study Group'' transcription alphabet sheets. WFF 1609.1.
    15. Friedman, William F. ``First Study Group'' transcription alphabet sheet. WFF 1609.2.
    16. Friedman, William F., Mark Rhoads, et al. Minutes of the ``Voynich Manuscript Research Group,'' 1944-45. National Cryptologic Museum, VF 10-8.
    17. Friedman, William F., et al. Printout of transcription, onto 131 printout sheets, ca. 1944-46. WFF 1609.
    18. Friedman, William F., et al. Printout of partial transcription, ca. 1944-46 Unnumbered item in Friedman Collection.
    19. Friedman, William F., et al. Printout of partial transcription, ca. 1944-46. Unnumbered item in NSA Historical Records Collection.
    20. Friedman, William F., et al. Printout of partial transcription, Second Study Group, ca. 1963. WFF 1609.3 [Close to illegible.]
    21. Friedman, William F., et al. Correspondence with RCA Corp. about activities of ``Second Study Group,'' 1963. WFF 1609.4.
    22. Guy, Jacques B. M. ``The distribution of letters c and o in the Voynich Manuscript: Evidence for a real language?'' April 1994.
    23. Krischer, Jeffrey P. The Voynich Manuscript Harvard University term paper, 1969. [Once, but no longer, listed in Gordon McKay Library catalogue.]
    24. Panofsky, Erwin. ``Answers to Questions for Prof. E. Panofsky.'' Letter to William F. Friedman, March 19, 1954. Correspondence between Friedman, Panofsky, and J. v. Neumann. Letters from Richard Salomon to Erwin Panofsky and Gertrud Bing. WFF 1614.
    25. Petersen, Theodore C. ``Notes to Mr. Tiltman's [1951] Observations on the Voynich Cipher MS.'' Unpublished. 23 April 1953.
    26. Petersen, Theodore C. Hand Transcript and Concordance of the Voynich Manuscript and Other Working Papers. In the Friedman Collection, George Marshall Library, Lexington, Virginia.
    27. Puckett, Frances M. Partial transcription of ff.111v-114r, in WFF 1613.
    28. Strong, Leonell C. Collection of letters, notebook entries, and worksheets. In a private collection.
    29. Tiltman, John. ``Interim Report on the Voynich MS.'' Personal communication to William F. Friedman, 5 May 1951. 2 page typescript. In NSA Historical Records Collection. Copy in WFF 1615.13.
    30. Tiltman, John. Partial transcription, 1951. In NSA Historical Records Collection.
    31. Tiltman, John. Biography of T. C. Petersen. WFF 1615.
    32. Tiltman, John. ``The Voynich MS'' Script of an address presented at the Baltimore Bibliophiles. 4 March 1951. [Not seen; date looks wrong. Cited by D'Imperio. Almost certainly the 1967 Baltimore Bibliophiles address.]
    33. Voynich, Wilfrid; Voynich, Ethel, and Nill, A. M. Notes concerning the history of the cipher manuscript. Voynich Archives, Library of the Grollier Club of New York, 1917-196?. [Not seen, unless identical with Beinecke MS 408 B.]

    Printed Books and Articles

    1. Altick, Richard D. The Scholar Adventurers. New York: The Free Press, 1966. [First ed. in 1950. Has discussion of VMS and Manly's refutation on pp.200-206.]
    2. ``Antique Books Worth $500,000.'' Chicago Sunday Tribune. 10 Oct 1915, sec II, p 1, col 5. [Exhibit of WMV's books at the Art Institute of Chicago. A few paragraphs describe the VMS. ``The manuscript is from the hand of Roger Bacon...was bought by Emperor Rudolf...and at the end of the sixteenth century passed into the hands of King Ferdinand of Bohemia.'' Not seen.]
    3. ``Art Works Worth $1,500,000 Arrive to Escape War.'' Chicago Daily Tribune. 9 Oct 1915, p 1, Col 2. [Exhibit of WMV's books at the Art Institute of Chicago which includes ``a work by Roger Bacon in cipher to which the key has never been discovered.'' Not seen.]
    4. Ashbrook, Joseph. ``Roger Bacon and the Voynich Manuscript'' Sky and Telescope, April, 1966, pp.218-219. [Debunks Newbold.]
    5. Barlow, Michael. ``The Voynich Manuscript -- By Voynich?'' Cryptologia 10(October 1986) pp.210-216.
    6. Michael Barlow. Review of Levitov. Cryptologia 12(1988).

       

    7. Barthelemy, Pierre. ``L'indéchiffrable manuscrit Voynich résiste toujours au décryptage'' Le Monde. 20 December 2000. [Two page summary of position, similar to Grossman's article in flavor, but shorter. Quotes Guy and Reeds.]
    8. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library: a guide to its collections. New Haven: Yale University Library, 1994. [Not seen. Short description and picture of 39v.]
    9. Bennett, William Ralph Scientific and Engineering Problem Solving with the Computer Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1976. [Contains a chapter on VMS.]
    10. Bird, J. Malcom. ``The Roger Bacon Manuscript: Investigation into its History, and the Efforts to Decipher it.'' Scientific American Monthly 3(June 1921): 492-96.
    11. Blunt, Wilfrid and Sandra Raphael. The Illustrated Herbal, London: Thames and Hudson, in association with the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1979. [Discussion of VMS, with several good illustrations of VMS leaves.]
    12. Booklist. Review of Brumbaugh's Most Mysterious Manuscript. 74 (1 July 1978) p 1647. [Single paragraph summary. Not seen.]
    13. Boston Transcript. Review of Newbold's Cipher of Roger Bacon. 30 June 1928, p 2. [Not seen, item taken from index.]
    14. Brooke, Tucker. ``Doctor mirabilis.'' Yale Review 19 (1929) p.207-8. [Review of Newbold. Not seen.]
    15. Brumbaugh, Robert S. The World's Most Mysterious Manuscript. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1977. [Survey of scholarship; advances own theory of 16th century hoax. Many wretched illustrations.
    16. Brumbaugh, R. S. ``Botany and the Voynich `Roger Bacon' Manuscript Once More.'' Speculum 49(1974), 546-48.
    17. Brumbaugh, R. S. ``The Solution of the Voynich `Roger Bacon' Cipher.'' Yale Library Gazette 49(1975): 347-55.
    18. Brumbaugh, R. S. ``The Voynich `Roger Bacon' Cipher Manuscript: Deciphered Maps of Stars.'' Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 39(1976): 139-50.
    19. Bull. Art Inst. Chicago IX (1915) p.100. [Not seen.]
    20. Carton, Raoul. ``Le Chiffre de Roger Bacon.'' Révue d'Histoire de la Philosophie 3 (1929): pp.31-66, 165-79. [Not seen.]
    21. Casanova, Antoine, Méthodes d'analyse du langage crypte: une contribution a l'étude du manuscrit de Voynich: These pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de l'Universite Paris 8.  March 19, 1999.  Contient des images noirs-et-blancs de f77v, f33v, f79v, f69r, f34r, f105v, et f105r.  Discute les idees des etudiant du Manuscrit, des membres actuels du e-mail liste Voynich y inclus.
    22. Child, James R. ``The Voynich Manuscript Revisited.'' NSA Technical journal 21 (1976): pp.1-4. [Norse.]
    23. Choice. Review of Brumbaugh's Most Mysterious Manuscript. 15 (October 1978): p.1080. [Single paragraph summary. Not seen.]
    24. Cons, Louis. ``Un manuscrit mystérieux: Un traité scientifique du treizième siècle, attribué a Roger Bacon.'' L'Illustration 159 (Number 4118, 4 Feb 1922) p. 112. [Copy in BL Facs 439.]
    25. Cons, Louis. ``Newbold's Trail.'' [Review of Newbold.] Saturday Review of Literature 5 (Oct. 27, 1928), p.292. [Not seen.]
    26. ``Cipher Debunked but not Decoded.'' New York Times, Tuesday, 6 May 1975, sec 2, p.37, cols. 7-8.
    27. Corrales, Scot. ``The Books of the Damned: Fact or Fiction?'' FATE July, 2000. [Not seen. Rehash selection from Brumbaugh and D'Imperio. Good color image of f.78r; mentions Landini and Zandbergen.]
    28. Daiger, Michael. ``The world's most unusual manuscript.'' Occult, Jan. 1976. [Not seen.]
    29. D'Imperio, M. E. ``The Voynich Manuscript: A Scholarly Mystery.'' Manuscripts. 29,2 (Spring 1977), pp.85-93. 29,3 (Summer 1977), pp.161-173. 30,1 (Winter 1978), pp.34-48. [Not seen. Three part article. Parts about physical history of the manuscript, about attempts at decipherment, and about Brumbaugh's, Currier's, and Child's work, respectively.]
    30. D'Imperio, M. E. ``An Application of Cluster Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling to the Question of ``Hands'' and ``Languages'' in the Voynich Manuscript.'' National Security Agency Technical Journal. 23, 3 (Summer 1978), pp. 59-75. [Unclassified article. Confirms Currier's findings.]
    31. D'Imperio, M. E. ``An Application of PTAH to the Voynich Manuscript.'' National Security Agency Technical Journal. 24, 2 (Spring 1979), pp. 65-91. [Only seen in abridged ``redacted'' form, with occasional secret passages obliterated. Hidden Markov models fitted to Voynich text. Author's conclusions: ``(1) The plain text directly underlying the Voynich text is probably not a natural language written in an alphabet, like English or Latin. (2) The Voynich text probably does not involve any form of simple substitution or alphabetic plain text like English or Latin. (3) The Voynich text does not directly represent a variably spelled or `impressionistic' approximation of a natural language like English or Latin, as claimed by Brumbaugh. (4) The words of the Voynich text do not appear to act like code groups in a known code which includes groups for grammatical endings.'']
    32. D'Imperio, M. E. The Voynich Manuscript--An Elegant Enigma. National Security Agency, 1978. Aegean Park Press, 1978?
    33. D'Imperio, M. E., editor. New Research on the Voynich Manuscript: Proceedings of a Seminar Washington, D.C.: Privately printed pamphlet, 30 November 1976.
      Partial contents:
    34. Drucker, Johanna. The Alphabetic Labyrinth New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995.
    35. Ephron, H. (Pseud. ``DENDAI'') ``A burning question in re the Voynich MS (slightly revised).'' The Cryptogram. 43(1977). March-April, pp.22,46-48; May-June,pp.49,51-52,72. [Discussion; suggests G. Bruno is author.]
    36. Feely, Joseph M. Roger Bacon's Cipher: The Right Key Found Rochester, NY., 1943. [Not seen.]
    37. Friedman, W. F., and E. S. Friedman. ``Acrostics, Anagrams, and Chaucer.'' Philological Quarterly 38(1959), pp.1-20.
    38. Friedman, Elizebeth S. `` `The Most Mysterious Manuscript' Still an Enigma.'' The Washington Post, 5 August 1962, sec. E, pp. 1,5.
    39. Garland, Herbert. ``The Mystery of the Roger Bacon Cipher MS.'' Bookman's Journal and Print Collector (London) 5, (October 1921), pp.11-16. [Not seen.]
    40. Garland, Herbert. ``Notes on the Firm of W. M. Voynich.'' Library World. 34 (April 1932) pp.225-8. [Mostly biography of Voynich but includes paragraph on VMS and picture of lower half of 78v. Not seen.]
    41. Garland, Herbert. ``A Literary Puzzle Solved?'' Illustrated London News 160, (20 May 1922), pp.740-742. [Not seen.]
    42. Gilson, Étienne. (Review of Newbold's The Cipher of Roger Bacon.) Révue critique d'histoire et de littérature (Paris) 62 (August 1928) pp.378-383. [Not seen.]
    43. Grossman, Lev. ``When words fail: The struggle to decipher the world's most difficult book.'' Lingua Franca 9, No. 3 (April, 1999), pp. 9-15. [Current status of problem, reports interviews with Landini, Reeds and Zandbergen. Illustrations of VMS pages and portraits of Voynich, Newbold, and Brumbaugh.]
    44. Guy, J. B. M. ``Voynich Revisited.'' Letter to the editor. Cryptologia, 15(1991), pp.161-166. [Rebuts Barlow's speculation that Voynich faked it.]
    45. Guy, J. B. M. Statistical Properties of Two Folios of the Voynich Manuscript. Cryptologia, 15(1991), pp.207-218. [Applies Sukhotin's vowel-finding algorithm to VMS text.]
    46. Guzman, Gregory S. Review of Brumbaugh's ``Most Mysterious Manuscript.'' Historian 42 (November 1979) p 120-1. [Uncritical summary. Not seen.]
    47. Harnisch, Larry (Pseud. ``AR-MYR''), ``The Voynich Manuscript.'' The Cryptogram. 43(1976) May-June,pp.45,62-63; July-August, pp.69,74-77.
    48. James, Peter J. and Nick Thorpe. Ancient Inventions. New York : Ballantine Books, 1994. [Not seen. Said to have a VMS illustration near p.511.]
    49. Jay, Mike. ``Maze of madness.'' Fortean Times (UK) Jan., 2000 (= issue 130). [Not seen. A few illustrations, fair summary of problem. Publisher's web page blurb: ``MIKE JAY investigates the Voynich Manuscript. An nigmatic fraud or the world's most enigmatic code?'']
    50. The Hartford Courant newspaper of Hartford, Connecticut. ``The Mystery of Manuscript 408.'' October 12, 1999. [Includes color images of several folios. Quotes Bennett and Reeds.]
    51. Johnson, Charles. Review of Newbold's ``Cipher of Roger Bacon.'' English Historical Review 44 (Oct 1929) pp. 677-8. [Critical of Newbold, guesses 15c Italian source for VMS. Not seen.]
    52. Kahn, David. ``The Secret Book.'' Newsday. 26 June 1962.
    53. Kahn, David. The Codebreakers. New York: Macmillan, 1967. [Discussion on pp.863-872, 1120-1121.]
    54. Kent, Roland G. ``Deciphers Roger Bacon Manuscripts.'' Pennsylvania Gazette. 19 (May 27, 1921) pp.851-853. [``Official'' summary of Newbold's work from his credulous colleague. Includes photo of f67r1. Not seen.]
    55. Knox, Sanka. ``700-Year-Old Book For Sale; Contents, In Code, Still Mystery.'' New York Times, 18 July 1962, p 27, col 2. [Kraus auction. Includes picture of 85/86r4. Not seen.]
    56. Kraus, H. P. A rare book saga -- The autobiography of H. P. Kraus. New York: Putnam's, 1978.
    57. Kraus, H. P. Catalogue 100. Thirty-five manuscripts: including the St. Blasien psalter, the Llangattock hours, the Gotha missal, the Roger Bacon (Voynich) cipher ms. New York: H.P. Kraus, 1962. [Beautiful reproductions of several leaves of VMS.]
    58. Kruml, Milan. ``Voynicuv rukopis.'' Mlady svet. 1995, no. 35, 24 August 1995. Prague. [Seen in electronic form: http://cech.cesnet.cz/htbin/encode/MS/texts/MS953500.html. Odd survey in a childrens' magazine.]
    59. Landini, G., and R. Zandbergen. ``A Well-kept Secret of Medieval Science: the Voynich Manuscript.'' Aesculapius. No. 18, July 1998, pp. 77-82. [Survey of the problem; discussion of statistics of the EVA transcription, Zipf's law, etc.]
    60. Levitov, Leo. Solution of the Voynich Manuscript: A Liturgical Manual for the Endura Rite of the Cathari Heresy, the Cult of Isis. Laguna Hills, California: Aegean Park Press, 1987.
    61. Liebert, Herman W. ``The Beinecke Library Accessions 1969.'' Yale Library Gazette, 44 (April 1970). [Not seen. Describes Kraus's gift of VMS on pp.192-3.]
    62. ``Lovecraft and the Voynich Manuscript.'' INFO Journal, #48 [ca. 1984]. [The International Fortean Organization's INFO Journal. Not seen.]
    63. Dr. R. Loeser. ``Roger Bacons Chiffremanuskript.'' Die Umschau. 26 (1922), pp.115-117.
    64. Manly, John M. [?]. ``Roger Bacon's Cypher manuscript.'' American[?] Review of Reviews 64 (July 1921) pp.105-6. [Not seen.]
    65. Manly, John M.. ``The Most Mysterous Manuscript in the World.'' Harper's Monthly Magazine 143(July?, 1921): 186-97. [Not seen. Title uncertain.]
    66. Manly, John M. ``Roger Bacon and the Voynich Manuscript.'' Speculum 6 (July 1931): 345-91. [Refutes Newbold.]
    67. Massie, Mitford C. The Roger Bacon or R. R. Dee Chess-Code. Press of Fremont Payne, Inc, 1934. [Not seen. Not about the VMS, according to Brian Smith.]
    68. McKaig, Betty. ``The Voynich Manuscript--Cipher of the Secret Book.'' (Interview with Leonell Strong). North County Independent, Oct. 7, 1970. Reprinted courtesy Independent Newspapers, Inc., San Diego, California. [Not seen.]
    69. McKenna, Terence K. The Archaic Revival: speculations on psychedelic mushrooms, the Amazon, virtual reality, UFOs, evolution, Shamanism, the rebirth of the goddess, and the end of history. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. [Not seen.]
    70. McKenna, Terence K. ``Has the World's Most Mysterious Manuscript Been Read at Last?'' Gnosis Magazine, 7 (Summer 1988) pp.48-51. [Mildly favorable review of Levitov.]
    71. McKeon, Richard. ``Roger Bacon.'' [Review of Newbold.] The Nation 127 (August 29, 1928) pp.205-6. [Review of Newbold.]
    72. Moses, Montrose J. ``A Cinderella on Parchment: The Romance of the New 600 Year-Old Bacon Manuscript.'' Hearst's International 1921, pp.16-17, 75. [Not seen.]
    73. Newbold, William Romaine. The Cipher of Roger Bacon, edited with foreword and notes by Roland Grubb Kent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; London, H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1928.
    74. Newbold, William R. ``The Cipher of Roger Bacon.'' Proceedings of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Philadelphia, pp 431-74. Philadephia, 1921. Read April 20, 1921.
    75. New York Times. 26 Mar 1921, p 6, col 1. 27 Mar 1921, sec II, p 1, col 1. 21 Apr 1921, p 3, col 1. 22 Apr 1921, p 13, col 1. [Not seen. All on Newbold's findings.]
    76. New York Times. ``Roger Bacon's Formula Yields Copper Salts, Proving Newbold Secret Cipher Translation.'' 2 Dec 1926, p 5, col 4 with follow-up articles 3 Dec, p 22, col 4 and12 Dec, sec XX, p 12, col 6. [Not seen. More Newboldism.]
    77. New York Times. ``Will Orders Sale of Bacon Cipher.'' 15 Apr 1930, p 40, col 1. [Not seen. About Voynich's will.]
    78. New York Times. ``Cipher Debunked But Not Decoded.'' 6 May 1975, p 41, col 7. [About Brumbaugh's Yale Library Gazette decipherment and general background. Includes picture of 33v. Not seen.]
    79. Newsom, Eugene. A Split in the Mystery Curtain. Pampflet. 20 pages. 1995. [Tommaso Campanella wrote it.]
    80. O'Neill, Hugh. ``Botanical Remarks on the Voynich MS.'' Speculum 19 (1944): 126.
    81. OPollak, Michael. ``Can't Read It? You Can Look at the Pictures.'' New York Times. 16 Sept. 1999, p. G11.
    82. Poundstone, William. Labyrinths of Reason. New York: Doubleday, 1988.
    83. Pratt, Fletcher. Secret and Urgent. New York: Bobbs Merrill, 1939. [Discussion of VMS on pp.30-38.]
    84. Publishers' Weekly. ``Kraus Marks Anniversary With Catalog of Treasures.'' 181 (25 June 1962) pp. 39-40. [Kraus auction with a single paragraph about VMS. Not seen.]
    85. Jim Reeds. ``William F. Friedman's Transcription of the Voynich Manuscript.'' Cryptologia 19 (1995) pp.1-23.
    86. Review of ``The Cipher of Roger Bacon (Newbold)'' Quarterly Review of Biology (Baltimore, Md.) 3 (December, 1928) pp.595-596. [Not seen.]
    87. Seymour De Ricci. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Mss in the United States and Canada. 1937 (Kraus reprint, 1961). 2 vols. [Not seen. VMS: v.2, pp.1845-1847.]
    88. ``The Roger Bacon Manuscript.'' Scientific American 124 (May 7, 1921) p.362.
    89. ``The Roger Bacon Manuscript: What It Looks Like, and a Discussion of the Possibilities of Decipherment'' Scientific American 124 n.22 (May 28, 1921) p.421[?], 432, 439, 440.
    90. Roberts, R. J. and Andrew G. Watson, eds. John Dee's Library Catalogue. London: The Bibliographical Society, 1990. [Claim the folio numbers in the VMS are by John Dee's hand.]
    91. Jose Ruysschaert. Codices Vaticani Latini 11414 - 11709. Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, 1959. [Not seen. Describes the MSs acquired by the Vatican from the Collegium Romanum, and mentions that W. Voynich bought a number of them which have been transferred to various American libraries, including the VMS.]
    92. Salomon, Richard. Review of Manly's Critique of Newbold's Decipherment. Bibliotek Warburg, Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliographie zum Nachleben der Antike 1 (1934),p.96. [Not seen.]
    93. Sarton, George. Review of Manly's Critique of Newbold's Decipherment. Isis 4 (October 1921) p 404. [Short support of Manly. Not seen.]
    94. Sarton, George. Review of Newbold's Cipher of Roger Bacon. Isis 11 (1928) pp. 141-5. [Critical of Newbold's decipherment, even more so of those who were taken in by it. Not seen.]
    95. Schaefer, Bradley E. The Most Mysterious Astronomical Manuscript: Baffled researchers are looking for astronomical clues to help decipher a medieval manuscript. Sky & Telescope 100, 5 (November, 2000). [Emphasizes the astronomical and astrological aspects of the VMS. Nice reproductions of all the existing Zodiac pages.]
    96. Sebastian, Wencelas. ``The Voynich manuscript; its history and cipher.'' Nos Cahiers,Montreal, 2(1937), pp.47-69. [Not seen.]
    97. The Secular Spirit: Life and Art at the End of the Middle Ages. Exhib. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975) p.203 (with illus.) and color pl. 9. [Not seen.]
    98. Seymour, Ian. ``Thirteenth Century Magic Glass.'' Astronomy Now. June 1992. p.59. [Thinks Bacon saw spiral in M31.]
    99. Shailor, Barbara A. Catalog of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Binghamton, NY: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1984. [Not seen. Volume 2 said to contain a nice description and history of the MS and associated materials at Yale and a plate of 100r.]
    100. Shailor, Barbara A. The medieval book. (Medieval Academy Reprints for Teaching, 28). Toronto: University of Toronto Press in association with the Medieval Academy of America, 1991. [Brief mention of VMS on p.105.]
    101. Shepherdson, Nancy ``Mystery codes.'' Boys' Life. November 1997. 87, no. 11, p.42. [Not seen.]
    102. Shuker, Dr. Karl P. N. The Unexplained: an Illustrated Guide to the World's Natural and Paranormal Mysteries Carlton Books Ltd. c1996. ISBN 1-85868-186-3 [Not seen. Has color photographs of f16v, f17r, and a closeup of a flower on f16v.]
    103. Smyth, Frank. ``A script full of secrets.'' The Unexplained, no date [1982?], pp. 1381-1385. [Not seen.]
    104. Smyth, Frank. ``The uncrackable code.'' The Unexplained, no date [1982?], pp. 1418-1420. [Not seen. Both Smyth papers well written and illustrated, according to Denis Mardle.]
    105. Smyth, Frank. ``A script full of secrets'' and ``The uncrackable code,'' reprinted in Mysteries of Mind, Space & Time: The Unexplained, pp. 3062-3069. Westport, Connecticut: H. S. Stuttman, Inc., 1992. [Originally published in The Unexplained in the UK. Has color images of f16v, f17r, f33v, f34r, f68r1, f69r, the bottom six of the nine rosettes in f85/86, f83v, f84r, and a detail of f78r.]
    106. Sowerby, E. M. Rare People & Rare Books. Constable, 1967; Williamsburg: The Bookpress, 1987. [Contains reminiscences, biographical details, and a photograph of W. M. Voynich.]
    107. Steele, Robert. ``Luru Vopo Vir Can Utriet.'' Nature 121 (11 Feb. 1928), pp.208-9. [About Bacon ``gunpowder cipher,'' not VMS.]
    108. Steele, Robert. ``Science in medieval Cipher.'' Nature 122 (13 October 1928), pp.563-65. [Acerbic review of Newbold.]
    109. Stojko, John. Letters to God's Eye: The Voynich Manuscript for the first time deciphered and translated into English New York: Vantage Press, 1978. [Non Cathari sed Khazari.]
    110. Stojko, John; edited by Dovhich, Vitality. Poslannya Oriyan Khozapam: Pam'yatka Drevn'oyi Ukrayins'koyi Movy i Publytsystyky ``Rukopys Voyinycha''. Pershe Ukrayins'ke Vydannya. Vypushcheno Koshtom Ahentstva ``Tak'spravy''. Kyjiv 7503. (c)Indoyevropa, 1995. (Epistles from Ora's Camp to the Khozars: A Memoir of the Ancient Ukrainian Tongue and Writing: ``The Voynich Manuscript''. First Ukrainian Edition. Released (on authority) of the agency ``From the Right.'' Kiev (issue number) 7503. Copyright Indoyevropa, 1995.) [Unauthorized 29 page abridged translation, augmented with modern Ukrainian version of Stojko's decipherements.]
    111. Stokley, James. ``Did Roger Bacon Have a Telescope?'' Science News Letter 14 (Sept. 1, 1928), pp.125-26, 133-34. [Not seen.]
    112. Strong, Leonell C. ``Anthony Askham, the author of the Voynich Manuscript.'' Science, n.s. 101 (15 June 1945): 608-9. [Folio f78, put into English: ``When skuge uf tun'c-bag rip, seo oogon kum sli of se mosure-issue ped-stans sku-bent, stokked kimbo-elbow crawknot.'']
    113. Strong, Leonell C. and McCawley, E. L. ``A Verification of a Hitherto Unknown Prescription of the 16th Century.'' Bulletin of the History of Medicine (Baltimore, Md.) 21(November-December 1947), pp.898-904. [On f93: ``I up a bol koten wet with oil spindl, compound honei, a pine recin spagges gains piler ose firm, err-stirt. Wanne orgie ebb, so koten bee remov'd.'']
    114. Sunday Times (London). 24 Apr 1921, p.15. [Not seen. Presumably about Newbold.]
    115. Theroux, Michael. ``Deciphering `The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World' The Final Word?'' Borderlands 50(1994), pp.36-43. [Believes Newbold was right.]
    116. Thorndike, Lynn. ``The ``Bacon'' Manuscript.'' Letter. Scientific American 124 (June 25, 1921) p.509.
    117. Thorndike, Lynn. Review of Newbold's Cipher of Roger Bacon. American Historical Review, 34(1929): 317-19[318?]. [Not seen.]
    118. Tiltman, John. The Voynich Manuscript: ``The most mysterious manuscript in the world.'' Baltimore: Baltimore Bibliophiles, 1967. [Not seen. Unclear what relation it has to following entry.]
    119. Tiltman, John. ``The Voynich Manuscript, `The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World.' '' NSA Technical Journal 12(July 1967) pp.41-85. [Similar in outline to D'Imperio's book, but leaner. Many poorly reproduced illustrations.]
    120. Times [Newspaper of London]. ``The Voynich Collection of Unknown Books.'' 23 Jul 1906, p 4 col 6. [Puff piece for WMV; not seen.]
    121. Times [Newspaper of London]. ``Books not in the British Museum Sale.'' 19 Oct 1907, p 7 col 3. [Puff piece for WMV; not seen.]
    122. Times [Newspaper of London]. ``Catalog of Prints and Rare Books.'' 8 Jul 1913, p 15 col 4. [Puff piece for WMV; not seen.]
    123. Times [Newspaper of London]. ``Export of English Furniture and Pictures.'' 24 Feb 1916, p 11 col 5. [Mentions WMV's success in exporting books to America. Not seen.]
    124. Times [Newspaper of London]. ``Cathedral Library Thefts: Old Volumes Traced.'' 11 May 1916, p 4 col 1. [Disputed ownership of book in WMV's possession. Not seen.]
    125. Times [Newspaper of London]. ``Mr. W. M. Voynich.'' 22 Mar 1930, p 17 col 2; 25 Mar p 21 col 2; 26 Mar p 18 col 4. [Obituary. Not seen.]
    126. Toresella, Sergio. ``Gli erbari degli alchimisti.'' [Alchemical herbals.] In Arte farmaceutica e piante medicinali -- erbari, vasi, strumenti e testi dalle raccolte liguri, [Pharmaceutical art and medicinal plants -- herbals, jars, instruments and texts of the Ligurian collections.] Liana Saginati, ed. Pisa: Pacini Editore, 1996, pp.31-70. [Profusely illustrated. Fits the VMS into an ``alchemical herbal'' tradition.]
    127. Von Schleinitz, Otto. ``Die Bibliophilen W. M. Voynich.'' Zeitschrift fur Bucherfreunde, 10 (1906/7) pp.481-7. [Not seen. Contains information about Voynich's life.]
    128. Voynich, Wilfrid M. ``A Preliminary Sketch of the History of the Roger Bacon Cipher Manuscript.'' Proceedings of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Philadelphia, pp.415-30, Philadelphia, 1921. Read 20 April 1921.
    129. ``Voynich Manuscript. Botanical Clue, Evidence indicating Roger Bacon could not have written the Voynich manuscript...'' Science News Letter July 29, 1944, p.69. [O'Neill's sunflower.]
    130. ``Voynich Manuscript Translated.'' INFO Journal, #56 [ca. 1988.] [The International Fortean Organization's INFO Journal. Not seen.]
    131. Peter Way. Codes and Ciphers. London: Aldus, 1974. [Perfunctory discussion, wretched illustrations.]
    132. Weekly World News [Newspaper] Mar. 7, 2000, pp.4-7. [Not seen. Interview with Mike Jay, author of VMS article in Fortean Times.]
    133. Werner, Alfred. ``The Most Mysterious Manuscript.'' Horizon, 5(January, 1963), pp.4-9.
    134. Westacott, E. Roger Bacon in Life and Legend. New York: [Publisher?], 1953. [Not seen; has chapter on ``The Cipher of Roger Bacon.'']
    135. Wickware, Francis Sill. ``The Secret Language of War.'' Life 19 (26 November 1945) pp. 63-70. [Only one sentence mentions the VMS, calling it ``possibly the only unbreakable code'' which provoked Strong to write an angry letter to the editor. Not seen.]
    136. Williams, Robert L. ``A Note on the Voynich Manuscript.'' Cryptologia, 23 (October, 1999), pp. 305-309. [Author thinks the initial letter distribution is like that of Greek, but speculates the text is meaningless.]
    137. Wilson, Colin. The encyclopedia of unsolved mysteries. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1988. [Not seen.]
    138. ``The World's Most Baffling Manuscript.'' Parade Magazine. Feb. 21, 1982.
    139. Wrixon, Fred B. Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication, New York: Black Dog and Leventhal, c1998. [Not seen. A brief summary. Has a drawing of f100r.]
    140. Zandonella, Catherine. ``Book of riddles.'' >New Scientist 17 November 2001, 36-39. [Serious. More concise than Grossman; quotes Stolfi, Landini, Zandbergen and Guy.]
    141. Zimansky, Curt A. ``William F. Friedman and the Voynich Manuscript.'' Philological Quarterly 49(1970): 433-42.

    Last modified 17 December 2001.

     

    Jim Reeds #####@########.###.###

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    The Voynich manuscript

    Another twist in the tale

    Jan 8th 2004
    From The Economist print edition

    A possible explanation for the world's most enigmatic book


    Worth 600 ducats of anybody's money!

    THE Voynich manuscript, once owned by Emperor Rudolph II in 16th-century Bohemia, is filled with drawings of fantastic plants, zodiacal symbols and naked ladies. Far more intriguing than its illustrations, however, is the accompanying text: 234 pages of beautifully formed, yet completely unintelligible script.

    Modern scholars have pored over the book since 1912, when Wilfrid Voynich, an American antiquarian, bought the manuscript and started circulating copies in the hope of having it translated. Some 90 years later, the book still defies deciphering. It now resides at Yale University.

    The manuscript is written in “Voynichese”, which consists of strange characters, some of which look like normal Latin letters and Roman numerals. Some analysts have suggested that Voynichese is a modified form of Chinese. Others think it may be Ukrainian with the vowels taken out. But Voynichese words do not resemble those of any known language. Nor is the text a simple transliteration into fanciful symbols: the internal structure of Voynichese words, and how they fit together in sentences, is unlike patterns seen in other languages.

    Another possibility is that the text is written in code. But the best efforts of cryptographers over the past 30 years have failed to crack it. This resilience is unusual, given that other ciphers from the period have yielded their secrets.

    On the other hand, the text could just be gibberish and the book—which may have been passed off to Emperor Rudolph as the work of Roger Bacon, a 13th-century natural philosopher, in exchange for the princely sum of 600 gold ducats—a grand hoax. But Gabriel Landini, a Voynichese enthusiast at the University of Birmingham, in England, argues against this theory. Given the complex structure of Voynichese words, writing hundreds of pages of internally consistent gibberish would be a tough task for a fraudster to pull off.

    But perhaps not an impossible one. Gordon Rugg, a computer scientist at Keele University, in England, thinks he may be one step closer to an explanation of how the text might have been created. In a paper published in the January issue of Cryptologia, he uses low-tech 16th-century methods, rather than 20th-century computing, to generate text resembling that in the book.

    If the Voynich manuscript is a fraud, then one plausible suspect is Edward Kelley, an Elizabethan con-artist. So Dr Rugg borrowed one of Kelley's techniques. He used a grid of 40 rows and 39 columns to create a table which he filled in with Voynichese syllables. He then placed a grille—a piece of cardboard with three squares cut out in a diagonal pattern—on top of the table, and started forming words by reading off the syllables as he moved the grille across columns and down rows. The result was words with the same internal patterns as Voynichese. Dr Rugg and his team are now writing software to create dozens of tables and grilles in an attempt to reproduce other linguistic patterns in the manuscript. If their findings hold up, it would mean that the regularity of Voynichese is no longer an argument against the manuscript being an elaborate hoax.

    Of course, this does not prove that the manuscript is nonsense—an impossible thing to demonstrate, in any case, since failure to find meaning in the text does not make it meaningless, but simply beyond current methods of decoding. Indeed, Dr Landini believes that the Voynich manuscript might yet yield to massive computing power. If it does, most people expect to find a work of modest historical interest, rather than the secret of life. As with most puzzles, the thrill of solution lies in the process, rather than the product.

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    Dee