9-6-11` - 3:07 a.m. DREAM - I was living in Milwaukee and I met
up with my friend Alyse and we decided to go to the State Fair or a church
fair near there. We decided to meet out there.
On the way to the fair, I met a guy named Daniel and it was romance/lust at
first site for both of us. We decided to go to the fair together after we met.
But on the way there, I was driving on streets that had big cracks in them,
and there were wild lions - mostly females roaming the streets, and I saw an
elephant and a hippopotamus up the street as well. I managed to get past the
I met Daniel at a school on 84th St. (The State Fair is also on 84th
St. in West Allie, WI.
I'm a good driver, but Daniel got mad that I had mistakenly left my car off
of 84th St. and not downtown where I thought I left it.
I was forced to drive through a big black puddle on the road when another car
came at me on the wrong side of the road. This p;uddle which took up most of the
street was probably OIL.
Daniel was now in the back seat of the car and I was driving and I'm a good
driver though others might not think so.
He started yelling, "Stop the car - I smell something. I smell something bad."
His yelling started scaring me, sand I thought he was going to be sick, so I
stopped the car, grabbed the key out of the ignition and go tout, leaving the
all of a sudden, Daniel jumped into the drivers seat, but I was about 6 feet
from the car.
He was acting all crazy in the head, and started yelling at me, "Don't be a
nay sayer! Don't a nay sayer be..... ", but I didn't say Nay -
I made myself wake up and I had my car keys with me. Daniel was NOT going
to drive my car.
NOTE: This particular Daniel was from The Young and the Restless TV show.
The traditionalist view dates Daniel to the 6th century BC. In the
critical view, "there would be few modern biblical scholars ... who would
now seriously defend such an opinion."
biblical critics date the book to the 2nd century BC:
"The arguments for a date shortly before the death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes
in 164 are overwhelming."
Opinions continue to differ, however, in light of apparently early forms of
Aramaic language used in the Aramaic portions.
manuscripts discovered, like the traditional Jewish version, are written
partly in Hebrew and partly in Aramaic,
and consist of a series of six third-person narratives (chapters one to six)
followed by four
apocalyptic visions in the first person (chapters seven to twelve). The
narratives take the form of court tales which focus on tests of religious
involving Daniel and his friends (chapters one, three and six), and Daniel's
interpretation of royal dreams and visions (chapters two, four and five). In
the second part of the book, Daniel recounts his own reception of dreams,
visions and angelic interpretations
Daniel in the
Daniel is elevated to a pre-eminent position under Darius which elicits the
jealousy of other officials. Knowing of Daniel's devotion to his God, these
officials trick the king into issuing an edict forbidding worship of any other
god or man for a 30 day period. Because Daniel continues to pray three times a
day to God towards Jerusalem, he is accused and king Darius, forced by his own
decree, throws Daniel into the lions' den. God shuts up the mouths of the lions
and the next morning king Darius finds Daniel unharmed and casts his accusers
and their families into the lions' pit where they are instantly devoured.
King James Version (KJV)
4Then the presidents and
princes sought to find occasion against Daniel concerning the kingdom; but
they could find none occasion nor fault; forasmuch as he was faithful,
neither was there any error or fault found in him.
5Then said these men, We
shall not find any occasion against this Daniel, except we find it against
him concerning the law of his God.
6Then these presidents and
princes assembled together to the king, and said thus unto him, King Darius,
live for ever.
7All the presidents of the
kingdom, the governors, and the princes, the counsellors, and the captains,
have consulted together to establish a royal statute, and to make a firm
decree, that whosoever shall ask a petition of any God or man for thirty
days, save of thee, O king, he shall be cast into the den of lions.
8Now, O king, establish the
decree, and sign the writing, that it be not changed, according to the law
of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.
9Wherefore king Darius
signed the writing and the decree.
10Now when Daniel knew that
the writing was signed, he went into his house; and his windows being open
in his chamber toward Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three times a
day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime.
11Then these men assembled,
and found Daniel praying and making supplication before his God.
12Then they came near, and
spake before the king concerning the king's decree; Hast thou not signed a
decree, that every man that shall ask a petition of any God or man within
thirty days, save of thee, O king, shall be cast into the den of lions? The
king answered and said, The thing is true, according to the law of the Medes
and Persians, which altereth not.
13Then answered they and
said before the king, That Daniel, which is of the children of the captivity
of Judah, regardeth not thee, O king, nor the decree that thou hast signed,
but maketh his petition three times a day.
14Then the king, when he
heard these words, was sore displeased with himself, and set his heart on
Daniel to deliver him: and he laboured till the going down of the sun to
15Then these men assembled
unto the king, and said unto the king, Know, O king, that the law of the
Medes and Persians is, That no decree nor statute which the king
establisheth may be changed.
16Then the king commanded,
and they brought Daniel, and cast him into the den of lions. Now the king
spake and said unto Daniel, Thy God whom thou servest continually, he will
17And a stone was brought,
and laid upon the mouth of the den; and the king sealed it with his own
signet, and with the signet of his lords; that the purpose might not be
changed concerning Daniel.
18Then the king went to his
palace, and passed the night fasting: neither were instruments of musick
brought before him: and his sleep went from him.
19Then the king arose very
early in the morning, and went in haste unto the den of lions.
20And when he came to the
den, he cried with a lamentable voice unto Daniel: and the king spake and
said to Daniel, O Daniel, servant of the living God, is thy God, whom thou
servest continually, able to deliver thee from the lions?
21Then said Daniel unto the
king, O king, live for ever.
22My God hath sent his
angel, and hath shut the lions' mouths, that they have not hurt me:
forasmuch as before him innocency was found in me; and also before thee, O
king, have I done no hurt.
23Then was the king
exceedingly glad for him, and commanded that they should take Daniel up out
of the den. So Daniel was taken up out of the den, and no manner of hurt was
found upon him, because he believed in his God.
24And the king commanded,
and they brought those men which had accused Daniel, and they cast them into
the den of lions, them, their children, and their wives; and the lions had
the mastery of them, and brake all their bones in pieces or ever they came
at the bottom of the den.
25Then king Darius wrote
unto all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; Peace
be multiplied unto you.
26I make a decree, That in
every dominion of my kingdom men tremble and fear before the God of Daniel:
for he is the living God, and stedfast for ever, and his kingdom that which
shall not be destroyed, and his dominion shall be even unto the end.
27He delivereth and
rescueth, and he worketh signs and wonders in heaven and in earth, who hath
delivered Daniel from the power of the lions.
I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward,
&c.] That is, with his horns, as rams do; these kingdoms using all their
power and strength, wealth and riches, in fighting with and subduing
nations, and pushing on their conquests in all parts here mentioned; to the
west, Babylon, Syria, Asia, and part of Greece; to the north, Iberia,
Albania, Armenia, Scythia, Colchis, and the inhabitants of the Caspian sea;
and to the south, Arabia, Ethiopia, Egypt, and India; all which places were
conquered by Cyrus and his successors. No mention is made of the east,
because this ram stood in the east, facing the west; and at the right and
left were the north and south; and so Cyrus is said to come from the east, (
So that no beast might stand before him:
no, not the first beast, the Babylonian monarchy, which; fell into the hands
of Cyrus; nor any other king or kingdom he and his successors fought
neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand;
or power; Croesus, the rich king of Lydia, and other allies of the king of
Babylon, assisted him against Cyrus, and endeavoured to prevent his falling
into his hands, but all in vain:
but he did according to his will, and became great;
none being able to oppose him, he carried his arms where he pleased, and
imposed what tribute he thought fit, and obliged them to do whatever was his
will; and so became great in power and dignity, in riches and wealth: this
monarchy was very large and extensive, and very rich and wealthy, in the
times of Cyrus and his successors; and especially in the times of Darius,
the last monarch of it, conquered by Alexander, who is described as follows:
God gives Daniel a foresight of the destruction of other kingdoms, which in
their day were as powerful as that of Babylon. Could we foresee the changes that
shall be when we are gone, we should be less affected with changes in our own
day. The ram with two horns was
the second empire, that of Media and Persia. He saw this ram overcome by
a he-goat. This was Alexander the Great. Alexander, when about thirty-three
years of age, and in his full strength, died, and showed the vanity of worldly
pomp and power, and that they cannot make a man happy. While men dispute, as in
the case of Alexander, respecting the death of some prosperous warrior, it is
plain that the great First Cause of all had no more of his plan for him to
execute, and therefore cut him off. Instead of that one great horn, there came
up four notable ones, Alexander's four chief captains. A little horn became a
great persecutor of the church and people of God. It seems that the Mohammedan
delusion is here pointed out. It prospered, and at one time nearly destroyed the
holy religion God's right hand had planted. It is just with God
to deprive those of the privileges of his house who despise and profane them;
and to make those know the worth of ordinances by the want of them, who would
not know it by the enjoyment of them. Daniel heard the time of this calamity
limited and determined; but not the time when it should come. If we would know
the mind of God, we must apply to Christ, in whom are hid all the treasures of
wisdom and knowledge; not hid from us, but hid for us. There is much difficulty
as to the precise time here stated, but the end of it cannot be very distant.
God will, for his own glory, see to the cleansing of the church in due time.
Christ died to cleanse his church; and he will so cleanse it as to present it
blameless to himself.
The eternal Son of God stood before the prophet in the appearance of a man,
and directed the angel Gabriel to explain the vision. Daniel's fainting and
astonishment at the prospect of evils he saw coming on his people and the
church, confirm the opinion that long-continued calamities were foretold. The
vision being ended, a charge was given to Daniel to keep it private for the
present. He kept it to himself, and went on to do the duty of his place. As long
as we live in this world we must have something to do in it; and even those whom
God has most honoured, must not think themselves above their business. Nor must
the pleasure of communion with God take us from the duties of our callings, but
we must in them abide with God. All who are intrusted with public business must
discharge their trust uprightly; and, amidst all doubts and discouragements,
they may, if true believers, look forward to a happy issue. Thus should we
endeavour to compose our minds for attending to the duties to which each is
appointed, in the church and in the world.
FROM JOE MASON: HE WRITES:
I was stopped by a security guard at work, named John. We had
been talking of religious subjects for some months. John had a 16 year
experience, involving an intense study of the Bible. He joined a number of
different churches, but found them lacking. Eventually, he realized that the
Bible was telling him that the churches were the wrong place to be. It is just
him, the Bible, and God, now. John stopped me that day to tell of a coincidence.
His wife had the feeling for several days that they should read
Matthew 24. Then, a relative called and said she had the feeling they
should read Matthew 24. John reread it, and felt it
might be about Matthew 24:15
"So when you see the desolating sacrilege spoken of by the prophet
Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand),"
It continues with verses 16-19,
"then let those who are in Judea
flee to the mountains; let him who is on the housetop not go down to take
what is in the house; and let him who is in the field not turn back to take
John felt this might be refering to the churches, as:
"the holy place." When I got home, I read the
verses. There is a footnote reference to Daniel 9:27,
which I then read:
"And he shall make a strong covenant with many for one
week; and for half of the week he shall cause sacrifice and offering to
cease; and upon the wing of abominations shall come one who makes desolate,
until the decreed end is poured out on the desolator."
This connected so well with my dream-voice message from five
months prior. The "desolator" clearly seems to be the harlot of
Rev. 17, and has the very same meaning as Kali in
the eastern traditions. In those traditions, we are in the Age called, the
"Kali-Yuga," the Age of Iron. It is called "death or destruction creation," and
equated to a seed growing into a plant. The seed is destroyed in the process of
the plant's growth. This is the context, I believe, of the destruction at the
end of the world.
The Iron Age corresponds to the legs of iron in the dream of
Nebuchadnezzar of the frightening image, which Daniel interprets to be ages.
The two olive trees of Rev. 11,
are also called two lampstands and two prophets. I believe this involves a
symbolism related to Joshua (Jesus' name in Greek) and Zerubbabel. They are
mentioned along with the two olive trees in Zechariah 3
and 4. Zerubbabel was a name taken by the Jews when they returned from
Babylon, and literally means, "seed of Babylon."
John believes this is related to the symbolism of the pomegranate, "seeds
divided by partitions." In the Greek myth of Persepone, the pomegranate was"the
food of the dead in Hades." In Zechariah 4:7, it
says that Zerubbabel will make the great mountain into a plain, and bring
forward the top stone. A dream of mine showed a great mountain to be the beasts
of fears. As one ascends, the fears become less and less. At the top, the fears
are gone, and the beasts are extinct, and cannot come back.
Rev. 16:20 says, "And every island fled away, and
no mountains were to be found; .." Islands seem to symbolize our
seperateness and divided state in the time cycle. Babylon was called, "The
Island," because it has waters on three sides, and mountains to the north. In
the Book of Haggai, the prophet has a message for
Zerubbabel, the governor,and Joshua, the high priest. They are told in
verse 2:5 to "fear not."
Verse 2:19 mentions the seed, the vine, the fig
tree, the pomegranate, and the olive tree. The last verse,
2:23, says that Zerubbabel will be made like the Lord's signet ring, on
that day, when heaven and earth shakes. A governor and priest can be interpreted
as the outside and inside self, or the self and The Self. In the Upanashads, the
intellect is the charioteer, and the Rider is the Self, who resides in the Lotus
of the Heart. The Four Living Creatures are also related to a chariot, called
the "Merkabah." This is the Divine Light Vehicle that is descending upon us. You
can find some information at these sites:
The Signet Ring of God is thought by some to be the Tau Cross, an equaled-armed
cross which has several meanings, one of which is the symbolic spiriual baptism
in the sea. Another, is the duality of the verticle and horizontal, or Heaven
and earth. It is also the Cross of Creation, manifestation on the physical
plain. It is related to the Tetragrammation, the four letters of the Divine
Name, or the Name of our Father. In Revelation 14:1,
the 144,000 have their "Father's name written on their
foreheads." There are many indications that The Truth will come at the
end of the cycle. I believe this is represented by the sharp, two-edged sword
that issues from the mouth of the Son Of Man in Rev. 1:16.
I have heard it said that this is Jesus. I think this is so, but it is also the
Christ Consciousness of the many, who form the Body Of Christ. One of the
reasons I say this is because it is said in Rev. 1:15
that his voice was like the sound of many waters. Rev.
17:15, refering to a different context, says, "The
waters that you saw, where the harlot is seated, are peoples and multitudes and
nations and tongues."
The two olive trees/lampstands/prophets of
Rev. 11, seem to refer to the many, and the duality
The inside Self, often symbolized as the
feminine/dreaming/intuitive/right brain self, is growing to match the
male/rational/outside/left brain self. It is like going from a sky with the sun
blocking out the Morning Star, to a Dawning Sunrise, where there are two,
The Iron Age corresponds to the
legs of iron in the dream of Nebuchadnezzar of the
frightening image, which Daniel interprets to be ages. The
two olive trees of...
NOTE FROM DEE: NOTE THE LAST ONE 11:11 OF REVELATION.
THAT IS PROBABLY THE MOST IMPORTANT ONE.
and a half days = 84 hours 70 years =
840 months 23 years =
3-30-03 - DREAM - I went outside in
the backyard and looked up into the sky.
.....It now appears
that the Lord will begin the 70th week of
Daniel (7 years) on Abib
....Uranus has an
84-year orbital period, transiting
through one sign in 7 years....
Modern Ethiopia and its current borders are a result of
significant territorial reduction in the north and expansion in the
south toward its present borders, owing to several migrations and
commercial integration as well as conquests, particularly by
Emperor Menelik II and
Ethiopia, which has Africa's second biggest hydropower
is the source of over 85% of the total Nile water flow and contains
rich soils, but it nevertheless underwent a series of
famines in the 1980s, exacerbated by adverse
geopolitics and civil wars, resulting in the death of hundreds
Slowly, however, the country has begun to recover, and today
Ethiopia has the biggest economy in East Africa (GDP)
as the Ethiopian economy is also one of the fastest growing in the
world. It is a
regional powerhouse in the
Horn and east Africa.
The early 20th century was marked by the reign of Emperor
Haile Selassie I, who came to power after
Iyasu V was deposed. It was he who undertook the modernization
of Ethiopia, from 1916, when he was made a Ras and Regent (Inderase)
Zewditu I and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian
Empire. Following Zewditu's death he was made Emperor on 2 November
Haile Selassie was born from parents of three Ethiopian
Amhara, which are the country's two main ethnic groups, as well
The independence of Ethiopia was interrupted by the
Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation (1936–1941).
During this time of attack, Haile Selassie appealed to the
League of Nations in 1935, delivering an address that made him a
worldwide figure, and the 1935
Time magazine Man of the Year.
Following the entry of Italy into World War II,
British Empire forces, together with patriot Ethiopian fighters,
liberated Ethiopia in the course of the
East African Campaign in 1941. This was followed by British
recognition of full
sovereignty, (i.e. without any special British
privileges), with the signing of the
Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement in December 1944.
During 1942 and 1943 there was an
Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia. On 26 August 1942 Haile
Selassie I issued a proclamation outlawing
Ethiopia had between two and four million slaves in early 20th
century out of a total population of about eleven million
In 1952 Haile Selassie orchestrated the federation with Eritrea
which he dissolved in 1962. This annexation sparked the
Eritrean War of Independence. Although Haile Selassie was seen
as a national hero, opinion within Ethiopia turned against him owing
to the worldwide oil crisis of 1973, food shortages, uncertainty
regarding the succession, border wars, and discontent in the middle
class created through modernization.
Hundreds of thousands were killed as a result of the
forced deportations, or from the use of hunger as a weapon under
The Red Terror was carried out in response to what the government
termed "White Terror", supposedly a chain of violent events,
assassinations and killings carried out by the opposition.
In 2006, after a trial that lasted 12 years, Ethiopia's Federal High
Court in Addis Ababa found Mengistu guilty in absentia of
In the beginning of 1980s, a
series of famines hit Ethiopia that affected around 8 million
people, leaving 1 million dead. Insurrections against Communist rule
sprang up particularly in the northern regions of Tigray and
Eritrea. In 1989, the
Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front (TPLF) merged with other
ethnically based opposition movements to form the
Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF).
Concurrently the Soviet Union began to retreat from building World
perestroika policies, marking a dramatic reduction in aid to
Ethiopia from Socialist bloc countries. This resulted in even more
economic hardship and the collapse of the military in the face of
determined onslaughts by
guerrilla forces in the north. The
Collapse of Communism in general, and in Eastern Europe during
Revolutions of 1989, coincided with the Soviet Union stopping
aid to Ethiopia altogether in 1990. The strategic outlook for
Mengistu quickly deteriorated.
In May 1991, EPRDF forces advanced on Addis Ababa and the Soviet
Union did not intervene to save the government side. Mengistu fled
the country to asylum in Zimbabwe, where he still resides. The
Transitional Government of Ethiopia, composed of an 87-member
Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that
functioned as a transitional constitution, was set up. In June 1992,
Oromo Liberation Front withdrew from the government; in March
1993, members of the
Southern Ethiopia Peoples' Democratic Coalition also left the
government. In 1994, a new constitution was written that formed a
bicameral legislature and a judicial system. The first formally
multi-party election took place in May 1995 in which
Meles Zenawi was elected the Prime Minister and
Negasso Gidada was elected President.
In 1994, a constitution was adopted that led to Ethiopia's first
multi-party elections in the following year. In May 1998, a border
dispute with Eritrea led to the
Eritrean-Ethiopian War that lasted until June 2000. This has
hurt the nation's economy, but strengthened the ruling coalition. On
15 May 2005, Ethiopia held
another multiparty election, which was a highly disputed one
with some opposition groups claiming fraud. Though the
Carter Center approved the preelection conditions, it has
expressed its dissatisfaction with postelection matters. The 2005
EU election observers continued to accuse the ruling party of
vote rigging. In general, the opposition parties gained more than
200 parliamentary seats compared to the just 12 in the 2000
elections. Despite most opposition representatives joining the
parliament, certain leaders of the CUD party, some of which refused
to take up their parliamentary seats, were accused of inciting the
post-election violence that ensued and were imprisoned. Amnesty
International considered them "prisoners
of conscience" and they were subsequently released.
The coalition of
opposition parties and some individuals that was established in
2009 to oust at the general election in 2010 the regime of the
EPRDF, Meles Zenawi’s party that has been in power since 1991,
published its 65-page
manifesto in Addis Ababa on October 10, 2009.
On the basis of Article 78 of the 1994 Ethiopian Constitution,
Judiciary is completely independent of the executive and the
The current realities of this provision are questioned in a report
The Economist in its
Democracy Index published in late 2010, Ethiopia is an
"authoritarian regime", ranking 118th out of 167 countries (with the
larger number being less democratic).
Ethiopia has dropped 12 places on the list since 2006, and the
latest report attributes the drop to the regime's crackdown on
opposition activities, media and civil society before the
2010 parliamentary election, which the report argues has made
Ethiopia a de facto one-party state.
The election of Ethiopia's 547-member constituent assembly was
held in June 1994. This assembly adopted the constitution of the
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 1994. The
elections for Ethiopia's first popularly chosen national parliament
and regional legislatures were held in May and June 1995 . Most
opposition parties chose to boycott these elections. There was a
landslide victory for the
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF).
International and non-governmental observers concluded that
opposition parties would have been able to participate had they
chosen to do so.
The current government of Ethiopia was installed in August 1995.
The first President was
Negasso Gidada. The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister
Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism, devolving
significant powers to regional, ethnically based authorities.
Ethiopia today has nine semi-autonomous administrative regions that
have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under the
present government, some fundamental freedoms, including
freedom of the press, are circumscribed.
Citizens have little access to media other than the state-owned
networks, and most private newspapers struggle to remain open and
suffer periodic harassment from the government.
At least 18 journalists who had written articles critical of the
government were arrested following the 2005 elections on genocide
and treason charges. The government uses press laws governing libel
to intimidate journalists who are critical of its policies.
Zenawi's government was elected in 2000 in Ethiopia's first ever
multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized
by international observers and denounced by the opposition as
fraudulent. The EPRDF also won the 2005 election returning Zenawi to
power. Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both
the opposition and observers from the
European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet
international standards for fair and free elections.
Ethiopian police are said to have massacred 193 protesters, mostly
in the capital
Addis Ababa, in the violence following the May 2005 elections in
Ethiopian police massacre.
The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in
Oromia state the authorities used concerns over insurgency and
terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods
to silence critics following the election, particularly people
sympathetic to the registered opposition party
Oromo National Congress (ONC).
The government has been engaged in a conflict with rebels in the
region since 2007. The biggest opposition party in 2005 was the
Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD). After various internal
divisions, most of the CUD party leaders have established the new
Unity for Democracy and Justice party led by Judge
Birtukan Mideksa. A member of the country's
Oromo ethnic group, Ms. Birtukan Mideksa is the first woman to
lead a political party in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia is divided into nine ethnically based administrative
countries (kililoch, sing. kilil) and subdivided into
sixty-eight zones and two chartered cities (astedader akababiwoch,
sing. astedader akababi):
Addis Ababa and
Dire Dawa (subdivisions 1 and 5 in the map, respectively). It is
further subdivided into 550 woredas and several special
The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states that
can establish their own government and democracy according to the
federal government's constitution. Each region has its apex regional
council where members are directly elected to represent the
districts and the council has legislative and executive power to
direct internal affairs of the regions. Article 39 of the Ethiopian
Constitution further gives every regional state the right to secede
from Ethiopia. There is debate, however, as to how much of the power
guaranteed in the constitution is actually given to the states. The
councils implement their mandate through an executive committee and
regional sectoral bureaus. Such elaborate structure of council,
executive, and sectoral public institutions is replicated to the
next level (woreda).
The regions and chartered cities of Ethiopia, numbered
The nine regions and two chartered cities (in italics) are:
At 435,071 square miles (1,126,829 km2),
Ethiopia is the world's 27th-largest country. It is comparable in
Bolivia. It lies between latitudes
15°N, and longitudes
The major portion of Ethiopia lies on the
Horn of Africa, which is the easternmost part of the African
landmass. Bordering Ethiopia are
South Sudan to the west,
Eritrea to the north,
Somalia to the east, and
to the south. Within Ethiopia is a vast highland complex of
mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the
Great Rift Valley, which runs generally southwest to northeast
and is surrounded by lowlands,
or semi-desert. The great diversity of
terrain determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural
vegetation, and settlement patterns.
Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the
deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the
south to extensive
Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts.
Lake Tana in the north is the source of the
Blue Nile. It also has a large number of
endemic species, notably the
Gelada Baboon, the
Walia Ibex and the
Ethiopian wolf (or
Simien fox). The wide range of altitude has given the country a
variety of ecologically distinct areas, this has helped to encourage
the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.
The predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide
topographic-induced variation. The
Ethiopian Highlands which cover most of the country have a
climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at
similar proximity to the Equator. Most of the country's major cities
are located at elevations of around 2,000–2,500 metres (6,562–8,202
ft) above sea level, including historic capitals such as Gondar and
The modern capital Addis Ababa is situated on the foothills of
Mount Entoto at an elevation of around 2,400 metres (7,874 ft),
and experiences a healthy and pleasant climate year round. With
fairly uniform year round temperatures, the seasons in Addis Ababa
are largely defined by rainfall, with a dry season from
October–February, a light rainy season from March–May, and a heavy
rainy season from June–September. The average annual rainfall is
around 1,200 mm (47.2 in). There are on average 7 hours of sunshine
per day, meaning it is sunny for around 60% of the available time.
The dry season is the sunniest time of the year, though even at the
height of the rainy season in July and August there are still
usually several hours per day of bright sunshine. The average annual
temperature in Addis Ababa is 16
°C(60.8 °F), with
daily maximum temperatures averaging 20–25 °C (68–77 °F) throughout
the year, and overnight lows averaging 5–10 °C (41–50 °F).
Most major cities and tourist sites in Ethiopia lie at a similar
elevation to Addis Ababa and have a comparable climate. In less
elevated regions, particularly the lower lying
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands in the east of the
country, the climate can be significantly hotter and drier. The town
of Dallol, in the
Danakil Depression in this eastern zone, has the world's highest
average annual temperature of 34
Ethiopia has 31
endemic species of mammals.
The African Wild Dog prehistorically had widespread distribution in
Ethiopia; however, with last sightings at
Fincha, this canid is thought to be potentially extirpated
within Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Wolf is perhaps the most researched
of all the endangered species within Ethiopia.
Historically, throughout the African
wildlife populations have been rapidly declining owing to
logging, civil wars, pollution, poaching and other human
A 17-year-long civil war along with severe drought, negatively
impacted Ethiopia's environmental conditions leading to even greater
Habitat destruction is a factor that leads to endangerment. When
changes to a habitat occur rapidly, animals do not have time to
adjust. Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats
expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gas
Ethiopia has a large number of species listed as critically
endangered, endangered and vulnerable to global extinction. To
assess the current situation in Ethiopia, it is critical that the
threatened species in this region are identified. The threatened
species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories (based
Deforestation is a major concern for Ethiopia as studies suggest
loss of forest contributes to soil erosion, loss of nutrients in the
soil, loss of animal habitats and reduction in biodiversity. At the
beginning of the 20th century around 420 000 km² or 35% of
Ethiopia’s land was covered by trees but recent research indicates
that forest cover is now approximately 11.9% of the area.
Ethiopia is one of the seven fundamental and independent centers of
origin of cultivated plants of the world.
Ethiopia loses an estimated 1 410 km² of natural forests each
year. Between 1990 and 2005 the country lost approximately 21 000
Current government programs to control deforestation consist of
education, promoting reforestation programs and providing alternate
raw material to timber. In rural areas the government also provides
non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote
agriculture without destroying forest habitat.
Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the
federal government and local governments to create a system of
Working with a grant of approximately 2.3 million euros the
Ethiopian government recently began training people on reducing
erosion and using proper irrigation techniques that do not
contribute to deforestation. This project is assisting more than 80
Ethiopia was the fastest-growing non-oil-dependent African
economy in the years 2007 and 2008.
In spite of fast growth in recent years, GDP per capita is one of
the lowest in the world, and the economy faces a number of serious
structural problems. There have been efforts for reform since 1991,
but the scope of reform is modest. Agricultural productivity remains
low, and frequent droughts still beset the country.
 The effectiveness of these
policies is reflected in the ten-percent yearly economic growth from
2003–2008. Despite these economic improvements, urban and rural
poverty remains an issue in the country.
Ethiopia is often ironically referred to as the "water tower" of
Eastern Africa because of the many (14 major) rivers that pour off
the high tableland. It also has the greatest water reserves in
Africa, but few irrigation systems in place to use it. Just 1% is
used for power production and 1.5% for irrigation.
Historically, Ethiopia's feudal and communist economic structure
has always kept it one rainless season away from devastating
droughts. Ethiopia has great potential to be a producer, as it is
one of the most fertile countries in Africa. According to the New
York Times, Ethiopia "could easily become the breadbasket for much
of Europe if her agriculture were better organized."[citation
Provision of telecommunications services is left to a state-owned
monopoly. It is the view of the current government that maintaining
state ownership in this vital sector is essential to ensure that
telecommunication infrastructures and services are extended to rural
Ethiopia, which would not be attractive to private enterprises.
constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to
"the state and the people", but citizens may only lease land (up to
99 years), and are unable to mortgage or sell. Renting of land for a
maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure
that land goes to the most productive user.
Agriculture accounts for almost 41 percent of the
gross domestic product (GDP), 80 percent of exports, and 80
percent of the labour force.[citation
needed] Many other economic activities depend
on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of
agricultural products. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale
farmers and enterprises and a large part of commodity exports are
provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector. Principal crops
pulses (e.g., beans),
sugarcane, and vegetables. Recently, Ethiopia has had a
fast-growing annual GDP and it was the fastest-growing
non-oil-dependent African nation in 2007.
Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities, and coffee is
the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is Africa's second
biggest maize producer.
livestock population is believed to be the largest in Africa,
and as of 1987 accounted for about 15 percent of the GDP.[citation
needed] According to a recent UN report the GNP
per capita of Ethiopia has reached $1541 (2009)[citation
needed]. The same report indicated that the
life expectancy had improved substantially in recent years. The life
expectancy of men is reported to be 56 years and for women 60 years.
Ethiopia's major export commodity is coffee, which is claimed to
have originated from the highland parts of the country.
Ethiopia is also the 10th largest producer of livestock in the
world. Other main export commodities are
gold, leather products, and oilseeds. Recent development of the
floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of
the top flower and plant exporters in the world.
Exports from Ethiopia in the 2009/2010 financial year totaled
$US1.4 billion. Neighbouring Kenya with half of Ethiopia's
population exported goods worth US$5 billion during the same period.
Cross-border trade by pastoralists is often informal and beyond
state control and regulation. However, in
East Africa, over 95% of cross-border trade is through
unofficial channels and the unofficial trade of live cattle, camels,
sheep and goats from Ethiopia sold to
Djibouti generates an estimated total value of between US$250
and US$300 million annually (100 times more than the official
This trade helps lower food prices, increase food security, relieve
border tensions and promote regional integration.
However, there are also risks as the unregulated and undocumented
nature of this trade runs risks, such as allowing disease to spread
more easily across national borders. Furthermore, the government of
Ethiopia is purportedly unhappy with lost tax revenue and foreign
Recent initiatives have sought to document and regulate this trade.
With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products
like bags are becoming a big export business, with Taytu becoming
the first luxury designer label in the country.
Additional small-scale export products include cereals, pulses,
cotton, sugarcane, potatoes and hides. With the construction of
various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the
country, Ethiopia also plans to export electric power to its
However, coffee remains its most important export product and with
new trademark deals around the world, including recent deals with
Starbucks, the country plans to increase its revenue from
Most regard Ethiopia's large water resources and potential as its
"white oil" and its coffee resources as "black gold".
The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in
some of the less inhabited regions. Political instability in those
regions, however, has inhibited development. Ethiopian geologists
were implicated in a major gold swindle in 2008. Four chemists and
geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in
connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from
buyers in South Africa. Gold bars from the National Bank of Ethiopia
were found to be gilded metal by police, costing the state around
US$17 million, according to the Science and Development Network webs
Ethiopia has close historical ties with all three of the world's
Abrahamic religions. It was one of the first areas of the world
to have officially adopted
Christianity as the state religion, in the 4th century. It still
Christian majority, with over a third of the population
Ethiopia is the site of the first
hijra in Islamic history and the oldest Muslim settlement in
Until the 1980s, a substantial population of
Ethiopian Jews resided in Ethiopia.
According to the 2007 National Census, Christians make up 62.8%
of the country's population (43.5% Ethiopian Orthodox, 19.3% other
denominations), Muslims 33.9%, practitioners of traditional faiths
2.6%, and other religions 0.6%
This is in agreement with the updated CIA World Factbook, which
states that Christianity is the most widely practiced religion in
Ethiopia. According to the latest CIA factbook figure Muslims
constitute 32.8% of the population.
Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining
both governments' and ecosystems' capacity to provide people with
Urbanization has steadily been increasing in Ethiopia, with two
periods of significantly rapid growth. First, in 1936–1941 during
the Italian occupation of Mussolini’s fascist regime, and from 1967
to 1975 when the populations of urban centers tripled.
In 1936, Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect
major cities, and a dam providing power and water.
This along with the influx of Italians and laborers was the major
cause of rapid growth during this period. The second period of
growth was from 1967 to 1975 when rural populations migrated to
urban centers seeking work and better living conditions.
This pattern slowed after to the 1975 Land Reform program instituted
by the government provided incentives for people to stay in rural
areas. As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were
fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act
was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not
keeping up with population growth over the period of 1970–1983.
This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations,
large villages based on agriculture.
The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there
is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions
more than the reform act.
Urban populations have continued to grow with an 8.1% increase from
1975 to 2000.
Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of
better lives. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to
survive. About 16% of the population in Ethiopia are living on less
than 1 dollar per day (2008). Only 65% of rural households in
Ethiopia consume the
World Health Organization's minimum standard of food per day
(2,200 kilocalories), with 42% of children under 5 years old being
Most poor families (75%) share their sleeping quarters with
livestock, and 40% of children sleep on the floor, where nighttime
temperatures average 5 degrees Celsius in the cold season.
The average family size is six or seven, living in a 30-square-meter
mud and thatch hut, with less than two hectares of land to
These living conditions are deplorable, but are the daily lives of
The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the
landholdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie
fallow, which reduces soil fertility.
This land degradation reduces the production of fodder for
livestock, which causes low milk yields.
Since the community burns livestock manure as fuel, rather than
plowing the nutrients back into the land, the crop production is
The low productivity of agriculture leads to inadequate incomes for
farmers, hunger, malnutrition and disease. These unhealthy farmers
have a hard time working the land and the productivity drops
Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of
Ethiopia suffers from
poverty, and poor
sanitation. In the capital city of
Addis Ababa, 55% of the population lives in slums.
Although there are some wealthy neighborhoods with mansions, most
people make their houses using whatever materials are available,
with walls made of mud or wood. Only 12% of homes have cement tiles
Sanitation is the most pressing need in the city, with most of the
population lacking access to waste treatment facilities. This
contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water.
Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis
Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant
associations owing to their educational opportunities. Unlike rural
children, 69% of urban children are enrolled in primary school, and
35% of those eligible for secondary school attend.
Addis Ababa has its own
university as well as many other secondary schools. The literacy
rate is 82%.
Health is also much greater in the cities.
infant mortality rates, and
death rates are lower in the city than in rural areas owing to
better access to education and hospitals.
Life expectancy is higher at 53, compared to 48 in rural areas.
Despite sanitation being a problem, use of improved water sources is
also greater; 81% in cities compared to 11% in rural areas.
This encourages more people to migrate to the cities in hopes of
better living conditions.
According to the head of the
World Bank's Global HIV/AIDS Program, Ethiopia has only 1
medical doctor per 100,000 people.
World Health Organization's 2006 World Health Report gives a
figure of 1936 physicians (for 2003),
which comes to about 2.6 per 100,000. Globalization is said to
affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving
Ethiopia for a better economic opportunity in the
The Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital in the capital
Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable
diseases caused by poor sanitation and malnutrition. These problems
are exacerbated by the shortage of trained manpower and health
There are 119 hospitals (12 in Addis Ababa alone) and 412 health
centers in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia has a relatively low average life expectancy of 45 years.
Infant mortality rates are relatively very high, as over 8% of
infants die during or shortly after childbirth,
(although this is a dramatic decrease from 16% in 1965) while
birth-related complications such as
obstetric fistula affect many of the nation's women.
HIV is also prevalent in the country.
The other major health problem in Ethiopia is spread of Acquired
Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS has mainly affected poor
communities and women, due to lack of health education, empowerment,
awareness and lack of social well being. The government of Ethiopia
and many private organizations like World health Organization (WHO),
and the United Nations, are launching campaigns and are working
aggressively to improve Ethiopia’s health conditions and promote
health awareness on AIDS and other communicable diseases (Dugassa,
2005). Many believe that sexually transmitted diseases like
gonorrhea result from touching a stone after a female dog
urinates on it and there is a general belief that these diseases are
caused by bad spirits and supernatural causes. Others believe that
eating the reproductive organs of a black goat will help expel the
diseases from those same organ in their body (Kater, 2000). Ethiopia
has high infant and maternal mortality rate. Only a minority of
Ethiopians are born in hospitals; most of them are born in rural
households. Those who are expected to give birth at home have
elderly women serve as midwives assist with the delivery (Kater,
2000) The increase in infant and maternal mortality rate is believed
to be due to lack of women’s involvement in household decision-
making, immunization and social capital (Fantahun, Berhane, Wall,
Byass, & Hogberg, 2007). On the other hand, the “WHO estimates that
a majority of maternal fatalities and disabilities could be
prevented if deliveries were to take place at well-equipped health
centers, with adequately trained staff” (Dorman et al., 2009, p.
A man being tested for
AIDS at an Ethiopian medical clinic.
The low availability of health care professionals with modern
medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services,
leads to the preponderancy of less reliable traditional healers that
use home-based therapies to heal common ailments. One medical
practice that is commonly practiced irrespective of religion or
economic status is
female genital cutting (FGC) or female circumcision, a procedure
by which some of a woman's external genital tissue, such as the
clitoral hood, the clitoris or labia, are removed. According to a
study performed by the Population Reference Bureau, Ethiopia has a
prevalence rate of 81% among women ages 35 to 39 and 62 percent
among women ages 15–19.
Ethiopia’s 2005 Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) noted that the
national prevalence rate is 74 percent among women ages 15–49.
The practice is almost universal in the regions of Dire Dawa, Somali
and Afar; in the Oromo and Harari regions, more than 80% of girls
and women undergo the procedure. FGC is least prevalent in the
regions of Tigray and Gambela, where 29% and 27% of girls and women,
respectively, are affected.
In 2004, the Ethiopian Government enacted a law against FGC. Female
circumcision is a pre-marital custom mainly endemic to Northeast
Africa and parts of the
Near East that has its ultimate origins in
Encouraged by women in the community, it is primarily intended to
deter promiscuity and to offer protection from assault.
About 76% of Ethiopia's male population is also reportedly
The Government of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia is signatory
to various international conventions and treaties that protect the
rights of women and children. Its constitution provides for the
fundamental rights and freedoms for women. There is an attempt being
made to raise the social and economic status of women through
eliminating all legal and customary practices, which hinder women’s
equal participation in society and undermine their social status.
Education in Ethiopia had been dominated by the Orthodox Church
for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early
1900s.The current system follows very similar school expansion
schemes to the rural areas as the previous 1980s system with an
addition of deeper regionalisation giving rural education in their
languages starting at the elementary level and with more budget
allocated to the education sector. The sequence of general education
in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower
secondary school and two years of higher secondary school.
in 2004 school enrollment was below that of many other African
Half the population of Ethiopia are
Tihlo prepared from roasted barley flour is very popular in
and Awlaelo (Tigrai). Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no
shellfish of any kind, as they are forbidden in the
Ethiopian Orthodox Christian faiths. It is also very common to
eat from the same dish in the center of the table with a group of
Speaking after his signing the disputed treaty between
Ethiopia and Italy in 1889, Emperor Menelik II made clear
his position: "We cannot permit our integrity as a
Christian and civilized nation to be questioned, nor the
right to govern our empire in absolute independence. The
Emperor of Ethiopia is a descendant of a dynasty that is
3,000 years old — a dynasty that during all that time has
never submitted to an outsider. Ethiopia has never been
conquered and she never shall be conquered by anyone."Ethiopia Unbound: Studies In Race Emancipation – p.
xxv by Joseph Ephraim Casely Hayford
White, Tim D., Asfaw, B., DeGusta, D., Gilbert, H.,
Richards, G.D., Suwa, G. and Howell, F.C. (2003).
"Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash,
Ethiopia". Nature423 (6491): 742–747.
Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late
Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press, 1991, pp.57.
Taddesse Tamrat, Church and State in Ethiopia: 1270–1527
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972), pp. 5–13.
Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity
(Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), pp. 13.
Ian Mortimer, The Fears of Henry IV (2007), p.111
Girma Beshah and Merid Wolde Aregay, The Question of the
Union of the Churches in Luso-Ethiopian Relations
(1500–1632) (Lisbon: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar
and Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos, 1964), pp.
Girma and Merid, Question of the Union of the Churches,
Girma and Merid, Question of the Union of the Churches,
Girma and Merid, Question of the Union of the Churches,
pp. 91, 97–104.
Girma and Merid, Question of the Union of the Churches,
van Donzel, Emeri, "Fasilädäs" in Siegbert von Uhlig, ed.,
Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha
(Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), p. 500.
Pankhurst, Richard, The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles,
(London:Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 139–43.
John Young. “Regionalism and Democracy in Ethiopia” Third
World Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 2 (June 1998) pp. 192
Ibid; the people subjugated and incorporated were the Oromo,
Sidama, Gurage, Wolayta and other groups. International
Crisis Group. “Ethiopia: Ethnic Federalism and its
Discontents” Africa Report No. 153, (4 September 2009) pp. 2
Great Britain and Ethiopia 1897–1910: Competition for Empire
Edward C. Keefer, International Journal of African Studies
Vol. 6 No. 3 (1973) page 470
International Crisis Group “Ethnic Federalism and its
Discontents” pp. 2
Tekeste Negash. Eritrea and Ethiopia : The Federal
Experience. (Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
Tekeste Negash. Eritrea and Ethiopia : The Federal
Experience. (Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
Tekeste Negash. Eritrea and Ethiopia” pp 14 and ICG “Ethnic
Federalism and its Discontents” pp 2; Italy lost over 4.600
nationals in this battle.
Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (Central Statistics
Agency, 2005), p. 1.
"Female Genital Mutilation in Ethiopia", Africa Department,
^Rose Oldfield Hayes (November
1975). "Female genital mutilation, fertility control,
women's roles, and the patrilineage in modern Sudan: a
functional analysis". American Ethnologist2
^ Herbert L.
Bodman, Nayereh Esfahlani Tohidi, Women in Muslim
societies: diversity within unity, (Lynne Rienner
Publishers: 1998), p. 41.
^ Suzanne G.
Frayser, Thomas J. Whitby, Studies in human sexuality: a
selected guide, (Libraries Unlimited: 1995), p. 257.