compiled by Dee Finney


8-28-09 - DREAM SNIPPET - after helping a dog dig a large hole out in the woods that he could lay in, I was holding a book in my hands, looking at the last page in the book.  It had the author's name - (unremembered)- the date 1972   and a book recommendation -  under the category  non-Orwell Zebra films - this had a picture of a cartoon zebra under it.

NOTE: How does one interpret such a short piece of dream that you can't let go of?  One always wonders if you are going in the right direction.  If I haven't, I'll probably dream of this again or maybe a reader will write to me and give me some hints.

Dee Finney

with 1972 -

without Orwell -

Philip K. Dick - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In 1972, Dick donated his manuscripts and papers to the Special ... He referred to the "transcendentally rational mind" as "Zebra", "God" and, ... The film will bear the title of Dick's unfinished novel The Owl in Daylight, ..... a French film based on Dick's non-science-fiction novel Confessions of a Crap Artist. ...

  1. Phillip K Dick - Astrological Heroes and villains -

    Dick in the novel rather than in the film, makes it clear that whilst some ... highly fallible and non-heroic – more like anti-heroes in so far that they are no ..... In 1972, Dick donated his manuscripts and papers to the Special ... He referred to the "transcendentally rational mind" as "Zebra", ... -

NOTE:  The author of the book I had in my hands was not Phillip K. Dick

  1. Cheryl Ladd: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article

    David Ladd is an actor who appeared in the film A Dog of Flanders in the 1960s. .... crossing;*Zebra crossing — referred to in the U.S. as a "crosswalk";. ... that aired on American Broadcasting Company from 1972 until 1976. ... The series starred David Janssen as Harry Orwell, a San Diego cop forced into ...
  2. Dr. Seuss biography, information, news, links, pictures (pics) and ...

    [George Orwell] [Sidney Sheldon] [John Steinbeck] [HISTORICAL FICTION] .... Dr. Seuss's non-military films from around this time were also .... This was later rendered (with no apparent political content) as the Wumbus of On Beyond Zebra (1955). .... The Lorax: a 1972 animated television special by Friz Freleng for ...
  1. Matisse Et Son Modele Barbara (Pal/Region 2) DVD Movie

    5th Dimension Greatest Hits On Earth CD (1972) ... KANGAROO JACK, a Jerry Bruckheimer-produced film, is a fun-filled, action-packed ... Closed Captioned; Soundtrack English RACING STRIPES: A cute zebra foal gets separated from ... turned the world into an Orwellian wasteland devoid of freedom, privacy, and choice. ...
  1. Film is Truth - Film List

    Allegro Non Troppo (1976) DVD Alley Cats, The (1965) VHS 'Allo 'Allo!: Series 1 (1982) DVD ...... Four Times That Night (1972) DVD (DVD incl. with 5 Dolls for an August Moon) ...... Ice Station Zebra (1968) DVD Ice Storm, The (1997) VHS/DVD ...... Orwell Rolls in His Grave (2003) DVD Osama (2003) DVD ...

A reader supplied this link:

Phillip K Dick topic posted Fri, May 8, 2009 - 1:22 PM by  Nexus7

Here is an article I wrote about the chart of Phillip K Dick once.

Do Androids Dream Electric Sheep?

An Astrological Analysis of the Face Behind


This article first appeared in the Astrological Association newsletter, more moons ago than I care to recount. Here, I have tidied it up a little, but otherwise this does not deviate much from the original. You can view a copy of the chart here.

It is always fascinating to see the chart of a writer whose stories have been read and re-read by many, with great pleasure and interest. Here, I will examine the natal chart of science-fiction writer, Philip K. Dick. I shall be looking at this in connection with one or two of his best-known novels. One of these - Do Androids Dream Electric Sheep?, was the inspiration for the film, BladeRunner.

According to his biography, Divine Invasions, Philip K. Dick was born at noon, in Chicago on 14.12.1928, although this is corrected elsewhere to 12.15. He died at the age of 53, but not before producing a staggering proliferation of stories, some of which he completed in one go, working from day into night. It is well known that he abused many drugs throughout the 60's. His emotional life was stormy, and he divorced several times. He is considered by some to have been a literary genius.

The main plot of Do Androids Dream Electric Sheep, is this. Rick Deckard, the protagonist of the tale, is a bounty hunter. He is employed to track down and eliminate renegade humanoid robots who have escaped from Mars' colonies, and now masquerade as human beings. He is befriended by a young girl, Rachael Rosen. She turns out to be an android, whose mission is specifically to seduce bounty hunters, in order to neutralise them. Once able to empathise with androids, most bounty hunters are unable to kill them. (Here, the film deviates from the hook, by turning the story into a Hollywood romance; none is intended in Dick's novel, as we shall see).

In fact, the only way to distinguish androids from humans is through the administration on each suspect of a series of psychological tests, which look for the capacity for empathy. However intelligent the androids, they are unable to empathise, and this is contrasted with some of earth's inhabitants. Many of these are brain damaged in this future world because of the effects of dust from radiation, of a future war. The dust has killed off most of the animals, so that they now have a disproportionate value for most humans. Deckard, in fact, has to make do with a pet electric sheep, as he cannot afford an authentic one.

Dick in the novel rather than in the film, makes it clear that whilst some androids may engender our sympathy, they are evil because they have no soul. Thus, the readers can easily feel revulsion towards the androids in the chapter where they pull the legs off a spider, just to see if the creature can still move without them. And again, when Rachael kills Deckard's authentic new pet.

In a typical Dickian manoeuvre, however (many of Dick's novels are called 'reality games'), Deckard has his own humanity called into question when one of his own quarry makes him fear that he too, may be an android. There is real poignance at the end when Deckard discovers in the dust-ridden desert, what he believes to be a real toad. This is only for his wife to show him that it, like his electric sheep, is a fake.

Brian Aldiss, in Trillion-Year-Spree, suggests that robots as a fictional device symbolise in modern, fragmented 20th-Century life, depersonalisation, or the fear of this. Dick is very clear on this.

In one of his non-fiction essays, 'the Human and the Android', he explicitly states that 'android' is synonymous with 'schizoid,' a condition for which Dick tells us he has no sympathy. He suggests that the state of depersonalisation is close to being the root of all evil, because it tempts us to see the organic and fragile as ultimately replaceable, just like his electric sheep. That perhaps is why the need to defend the authentic from the mechanical becomes a personal crusade forDick's protagonist, Deckard, as the latter states in the novel; 'as long as the humanoid robot is there to kill its masters/make love/sing in operas as a counterfeit, the more my (killing) skills will be needed.'

Deckard, like Dick himself, appears to be a champion for truth and authenticity, qualities that clearly seem to be somehow under threat in his novel. How are these themes reflected in Dick's chart?

It comes as no surprise to find a strong Uranian theme in his natal chart, with that planet rising in Aries in his 1st House - making an almost irresistible pun through the title, electric sheep! The Moon and Venus are in Aquarius. Uranus and Aquarius seem to appear frequently in the charts of science-fiction writers H. G. Wells is the first to come to mind with his Moon rising in Aquarius, Jules Verne, Aquarius Sun Sign, and Arthur C. Clarke, of 2001 fame, who also has Uranus on his ascendant.

This all makes sense, as science-fiction might be defined as that branch of literature which speculates on how the future might turn out, extrapolating on trends in society already happening. Uranus in astrology is traditionally about the future, as well as those discoveries and inventions which might either raise the consciousness of humanity in readiness for better things, or which might also, like Prometheus's gift of fire, be misused by a collective awareness not ready for it. This latter fear that our creature inventions might rise up and destroy us, is what Asimov called the 'Frankenstein complex'. Clearly, Dick does not share Asimov's more sanguine belief in the benefits that more technology might ultimately bring us.

Frankenstein apart, this is perhaps because it can also be recognised that Uranian progress and technology can also have the effect of sundering us from our roots and connections with nature - or perhaps the fully organic. In this light, Dick's novels can be seen to anticipate the world of future shock where everything comes to have its inbuilt obsolescence and disposability. Thus in Dick's novel, androids, whilst capable of replacing both animals and humans, only have a lifespan of four years, whilst better models are created all the time.

Liz Greene in her book Relating, suggests that the Uranian principle can not only sunder us from our roots, but may also 'rip away the fabric of what he (the individual) has previously identified as his reality, often in a highly painful way.' Indeed, Dick's novel could be seen to be about the terror experienced when reality for his protagonist can be pulled from under his feet, like the proverbial carpet. This terror is to do with the threat which comes from the encroaching loss of authentic being, and depersonalisation, which the android represents.

The grimness in Dick, however, cannot simply be attributed to the uranian theme in his chart. He also has a 9th House Sun/Mercuryl/Saturn stellium in Sagittarius, close to his MC.

If we take the Sun to represent the main protagonist - the hero - of any novel, then it seems to describe Rick Deckard well enough. Sagittarius is a truth seeker, and has no time for a counterfeit. Neither is he afraid to use violent action in order to eliminate the counterfeit: here, this seems to give him the crusading spirit, whilst the chart ruler, Mars, on his IC square Uranus, does not make him afraid to kill. What seems to make Deckard's heroic quest that much more urgent, however, is the Sun's proximity to Saturn. The Sun and Saturn are tradiditionally adversaries, so that the will to be, the Sun, now has to fight against that is leaden and entropic in Saturn and many of his stories repeat the idea of an ever-encroaching kipple of dust.

In fact, most of his main characters are very definitely highly fallible and non-heroic – more like anti-heroes in so far that they are no strangers to failure. One of his books, ’A Scanner – Darkly’ is actually a paeon to all the contemporaries he knew, who paid for their desire for fun with drugs in full, with their health and sanity. It is also worth bearing in mind that Dick’s life was also, far from easy: he suffered the usual artist’s dilemma between being true to his own vision and having to conform to current ideas about what sold. At various points in his life he suffered dire poverty and was fond of recounting of the times he was forced to live on dog food to survive.

It is for this reason that Dick is often seen as a pessimist. Yet these heroes are given a certain dignity with Dick, even when their actions seem to be most futile, as with Deckard, where he is seen to be scrabbling in the dust which to engulf everything in a ruined world, for whatever crumbs of authenticity he can find. In this later novels, such as in the Valis series, Dick takes this Sagittarian search for some kind of saving knowledge further, where he seeks God (but with tongue-in-cheek humour), and flirts with Gnostic ideas.

If Saturn is pitted against the Sun in Dick's chart, so it also appears to challenge Mercury. Mercury, to a large degree representing perception, seems for Dick, to provide only the flimsiest of reality constructs. Deckard, for instance, is not always free from the fear that he might not be an android himself. With these observations in mind, I now want to look at another of Dick's short stories, in order to demonstrate how this 9th House Mercury-Saturn link appears to underline Dick's desire to discover an inner truth which might lie beyond the usual powers of perception.

In The Electric Ant, a man wakes up in hospital, only to be told that he has been discovered he is not a man, but a humanoid robot. He is told that instead of a heart, there is a kind of cassette spool in his chest instead that programmes his reality for him. Not liking the idea of this, our hero decides to tamper with this spool. His tampering achieves a few hallucinations and a period of nothingness, after which he is brought round along with a ticking oft, by a mechanic. The second time he tries this, he succeeds in killing himself along with his personal secretary. She, like Tinkerbell, only existed - it turns out- as long as the spool of her boss was working. This rather Kafka-esque, or Laingian ontological security, seems to be catching in a lot of Dick's novels as far as his other characters go.

If Mercury and Saturn are at loggerheads in Dick's chart, then so does the latter seem to be with Uranus. Dick in real life is known to have been fairly radical in his thinking, with little time for Establishment. Nevertheless, in keeping with Sun and Saturn together at his MC, powerful father figures will keep emerging in his novels - father figures who seem to need to be destroyed if his besieged and puny solar hero figures are to free themselves.

This process seems to be at work in his novel, The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch. Palmer Eldritch is an evil character who succeeds in ensnaring all the main characters of the story, into a solipsistic loop of self-deception through his drug, Chew-Z. This is so he might immortalise himself and become a god at his victim's expense. He appears again and again through his stigmata, which, as Palmer Eldritch is a cyborg, include a steel hand, steel teeth and false eyes, within the hallucinations of his subjects.

This story especially seems to reflect Dick's interest in Gnosticism. He seems to have felt himself to be engaged with an inner struggle against a tyrannical, demiurgic god-figure, who is derived from earlier experiences with his father. The Sagittarian stellium in the 9th with Saturn surely can't speak louder than that, although Uranus, as a technological monster in Palmer Eldritch, may yet prove to be the bigger archon. Saturn and Uranus are both tyrants in mythology -Uranus the father is castrated by Saturn, who is only to produce in turn, the equally oppressive system of the Establishment. Mythologically-minded astrologers suggest that the potentially violent conflict between these planets can only be reconciled through the Feminine, namely through Aphrodite or Venus, who is created out of Uranus's semen, after his castration. Perhaps the trouble with this is that Venus here only forms a sextile with Uranus, but not with Saturn. It is in wide conjunction with the Moon, and all this seems to do for Dick is to make the Enemy, the android, seductive: Deckard, remember, finds it most difficult to kill the females, especially the attractive ones. In another non-fiction essay, The Dark-Haired Girl, Dick confesses to have frequently been drawn to a very streetwise kind of young woman, who is every bit as cold, detached and schizoid as his heartless female androids. In fact, in one of hisnovels, ’We can build you,’ one of his android characters, Abraham Lincoln’s double, is given a good deal more sympathetic qualities than the girl who masterminded his design.

Neither do we now have to look very far for the nature of the seemingly Uranian nature of the terror, which can be perceived in Do Androids Dream Electric Sheep. The depersonalisation of Brian Aldiss's robots seems to be the same as that of the existential angst to be found in the characters described in R. D. Laing's books, which also have a lot to say on the schizoid condition, with its struggle against encroaching unrealness and the loss of a sense of personal authenticity. Again, it seems to be no accident that R. D. Laing's chart also revealed the presence of Uranus on the Ascendant and an Aquarian Moon. It may be worth noting here that Dick's natal chart - judging it without the benefits of a real working knowledge of either midpoints or harmonics - does not appear to be an especially well-integrated one. His Moon, save a wide 135 aspect, is almost unaspected, and only the Sun of his Sagittarian planets has some wide aspects from Mars and Neptune.

Perhaps his worlds are so threatened by the evil of his androids, entropic wastelands and archon figures, just because he was, at some level, aware of his own android qualities. Perhaps this is why he emphasises the importance of our own human capacities to be able to care for ourselves and for animals. This is why originally I believed that the time taken from Divine Invasions was correct, as this gives him a Pisces ascendant (which also goes a long way to describe Dick as a drug user), whereas a later one could give him an Aries Ascendant. Perhaps, however, the sextiles from Jupiter and Neptune to his Cancer Mars, along with the trine from Jupiter to his 6th House Neptune, in themselves provide the necessary balance to his chillier, Uranian/Saturnine qualities. They also provide a happier solution to the violence advocated by the Mars Uranus square - that the ills of this world can be rectiffied by warmth and kindness.

Whatever conclusions may be drawn from looking at this chart, it does seem to remain true that Dick was able to find a voice for all his preoccupations within Ilis novels, that he had something valid to say to us, both for now - and for the future.
  • Re: Phillip K Dick

    Sun, May 10, 2009 - 3:14 PM
    Whatever would I do without astrothemes?

    Here is some more blurb on him:

    Biography of Philip K. DICK
    Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. In addition to his dozens of published novels, Dick wrote approximately 121 short stories, many of which appeared in science fiction magazines. At least eight of his stories have been adapted for film.

    Foreshadowing the cyberpunk sub-genre, Philip K. Dick brought the anomic world of California to many of his works, exploring sociological and political themes in novels which were often dominated by monopolistic corporations and authoritarian governments. In his later works, Dick addressed the nature of drug use, paranoia and schizophrenia, religious experience and theology, drawing upon his own life experiences in novels such as A Scanner Darkly and VALIS.

    His novel The Man in the High Castle bridged the genres of alternative history and science fiction, earning a Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1963. Flow My Tears, The Policeman Said, a novel about a celebrity who awakens in a parallel universe where he is completely unknown, won the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for best novel in 1975. "I want to write about people I love, and put them into a fictional world spun out of my own mind, not the world we actually have, because the world we actually have does not meet my standards," Dick wrote of these stories. "In my writing I even question the universe; I wonder out loud if it is real, and I wonder out loud if all of us are real." Dick spent most of his career as a writer in near-poverty.

    Dick's stories have been adapted into popular films such as Blade Runner, Total Recall, A Scanner Darkly, Minority Report, Imposter and others. In 2007 Dick became the first science fiction writer to be included in The Library of America series (#173).

    Common themes
    Dick's stories typically focus on the fragile nature of what is "real" and the construction of personal identity. His stories often become surreal fantasies as the main characters slowly discover that their everyday world is actually an illusion constructed by powerful external entities (such as in Ubik ), vast political conspiracies, or simply from the vicissitudes of an unreliable narrator.

    "All of his work starts with the basic assumption that there cannot be one, single, objective reality," writes science fiction author Charles Platt. "Everything is a matter of perception. The ground is liable to shift under your feet. A protagonist may find himself living out another person's dream, or he may enter a drug-induced state that actually makes better sense than the real world, or he may cross into a different universe completely."

    "I used to dig in the garden, and there is nothing fantastic or ultradimensional about crab grass... unless you are an sf (science fiction) writer, in which case you are viewing crab grass with suspicion. What are its real motives? And who sent it in the first place?" Philip K Dick, We can remember it for you wholesale, Notes, 1987, Orion.

    Alternate universes and simulacra were common plot devices, with fictional worlds inhabited by common, working people, rather than galactic elites. "There are no heroes in Dick's books," Ursula K. Le Guin wrote, "but there are heroics. One is reminded of Dickens: what counts is the honesty, constancy, kindness and patience of ordinary people." Dick made no secret that much of his ideas and work were heavily influenced by the writings of C.G. Jung, the Swiss founder of the theory of the human psyche he called "Analytical Psychology" (to distinguish it from Freud's theory of psychoanalysis). Jung was a self-taught expert on the unconscious and mythological foundations of conscious experience and was open to the Reality underlying mystical experiences. The Jungian constructs and models that most concerned Dick seem to be the archetypes of the collective unconscious, group projection/ hallucination, synchronicities, and personality theory. Many of Dick's protagonists overtly analyze reality and their perceptions in Jungian terms (see Lies Inc.), while other times, the themes are so obviously in reference to Jung their usage needs no explanation. Dick's self-named "Exegesis" also contained many notes on Jung in relation to theology and mysticism.


    Early life
    Philip Kindred Dick and his twin sister, Jane Charlotte Dick, were born six weeks premature to Dorothy Kindred Dick and Joseph Edgar Dick in Chicago. Dick's father, a fraud investigator for the United States Department of Agriculture, had recently taken out life insurance policies on the family. An insurance nurse was dispatched to the Dick household. Upon seeing the malnourished Philip and injured Jane, the nurse rushed the babies to hospital. Baby Jane died enroute, just five weeks after her birth (January 26, 1929). The death of Philip's twin sister profoundly affected his writing, relationships, and every aspect of his life, leading to the recurrent motif of the "phantom twin" in many of his books.

    The family moved to the San Francisco Bay Area. When Philip turned five, his father was transferred to Reno, Nevada. Dorothy refused to move, and she and Joseph were divorced. Joseph fought her for custody of Philip but did not win it. Dorothy, determined to raise Philip alone, took a job in Washington, D.C. and moved there with her son.

    Philip K. Dick was enrolled at John Eaton Elementary School from 1936 to 1938, completing the second through the fourth grades. His lowest grade was a "C" in written composition, although a teacher remarked that he "shows interest and ability in story telling." In June 1938, Dorothy and Philip returned to California.

    Dick attended Berkeley High School, Berkeley, California. He and Ursula K. Le Guin were members of the same high school graduating class (1947), yet were unknown to each other at the time. After graduating from high school he briefly attended the University of California, Berkeley as a German major, but dropped out before completing any coursework. At Berkeley Phil befriended poet Robert Duncan. He claimed to have been host of a classical music program on KSMO Radio in 1947. From 1948 to 1952 he worked in a record store. In 1955, Dick and his wife, Kleo Apostolides, received a visit from the FBI. They believed this resulted from Kleo's socialist views and left-wing activities. The couple briefly befriended one of the FBI agents. Dick himself regarded Communism as a control system equivalent to fascism.

    Early writing career
    Dick sold his first story in 1952. From that point on he wrote full-time, selling his first novel in 1955. The 1950s were a difficult impoverished time for Dick. He once said, "We couldn't even pay the late fees on a library book."

    He published almost exclusively within the science fiction genre, but dreamed of a career in the mainstream of American literature. During the 1950s he produced a series of nongenre, non-science fiction novels. In 1960 he wrote that he was willing to "take twenty to thirty years to succeed as a literary writer." The dream of mainstream success formally died in January 1963 when the Scott Meredith Literary Agency returned all of his unsold mainstream novels. Only one of these works, Confessions of a Crap Artist, was published during Dick’s lifetime.

    Recognition and success
    In 1963, Dick won the Hugo Award for The Man in the High Castle. Although he was hailed as a genius in the science fiction world, the mainstream literary world was unappreciative, and he could publish books only through low-paying science fiction publishers such as Ace. Even in his later years, he continued to have financial troubles.

    In the introduction to the 1980 short story collection "The Golden Man," Dick wrote: "Several years ago, when I was ill, Heinlein offered his help, anything he could do, and we had never met; he would phone me to cheer me up and see how I was doing. He wanted to buy me an electric typewriter, God bless him—one of the few true gentlemen in this world. I don't agree with any ideas he puts forth in his writing, but that is neither here nor there. One time when I owed the IRS a lot of money and couldn't raise it, Heinlein loaned the money to me. I think a great deal of him and his wife; I dedicated a book to them in appreciation. Robert Heinlein is a fine-looking man, very impressive and very military in stance; you can tell he has a military background, even to the haircut. He knows I'm a flipped-out freak and still he helped me and my wife when we were in trouble. That is the best in humanity, there; that is who and what I love."

    In 1972, Dick donated his manuscripts and papers to the Special Collections Library at California State University, Fullerton where they are archived in the Philip K. Dick Science Fiction Collection in the Pollak Library. It was in Fullerton that Philip K. Dick befriended science fiction writers K. W. Jeter, James Blaylock, and Tim Powers.

    The last novel published during Dick's life was The Transmigration of Timothy Archer.

    Visions and psychological problems
    In his boyhood, around the age of thirteen, Dick had a recurring dream for several weeks. He dreamt he was in a bookstore, trying to find an issue of Astounding Magazine. This issue of the magazine would contain the story titled "The Empire Never Ended", which would reveal the secrets of the universe to him. As the dream recurred, the pile of magazines he searched grew smaller and smaller, but he never reached the bottom. Eventually, he became anxious that discovering the magazine would drive him mad (as in Lovecraft's Necronomicon or Chambers' The King in Yellow, promising insanity to the reader). Shortly thereafter, the dreams ceased, but the phrase "The Empire Never Ended" would appear later in his work. Dick was a voracious reader of religion, philosophy, metaphysics, and Gnosticism, ideas of which appear in many of his stories and visions.

    On February 20, 1974, Dick was recovering from the effects of sodium pentothal administered for the extraction of an impacted wisdom tooth. Answering the door to receive delivery of extra analgesic, he noticed that the delivery woman was wearing a pendant with a symbol that he called the "vesicle pisces". This name seems to have been based on his confusion of two related symbols, the ichthys (two intersecting arcs delineating a fish in profile) that early Christians used as a secret symbol, and the vesica piscis.

    After the deliverywoman's departure, Dick began experiencing strange visions. Although they may have been initially attributable to the medication, after weeks of visions he considered this explanation implausible. "I experienced an invasion of my mind by a transcendentally rational mind, as if I had been insane all my life and suddenly I had become sane," Dick told Charles Platt.

    Throughout February and March of 1974, he received a series of visions, which he referred to as "two-three-seventy-four" (2-3-74), shorthand for February-March 1974. He described the initial visions as laser beams and geometric patterns, and, occasionally, brief pictures of Jesus and of ancient Rome. As the visions increased in length and frequency, Dick claimed he began to live a double life, one as himself, "Philip K. Dick", and one as "Thomas", a Christian persecuted by Romans in the 1st century A.D. Despite his history of drug use and elevated stroke risk, Dick began seeking other rationalist and religious explanations for these experiences. He referred to the "transcendentally rational mind" as "Zebra", "God" and, most often, "VALIS". Dick wrote about the experiences in the semi-autobiographical novels Valis and Radio Free Albemuth.

    In time, Dick became paranoid, imagining plots against him by the KGB and FBI. At one point, he alleged they were responsible for a burglary of his house, from which documents were stolen. He later came to suspect that he might have committed the burglary against himself, and then forgotten he had done so. This experience is mirrored in the Bob Arctor-Agent Fred character in A Scanner Darkly.

    Dick himself speculated as to whether he may have suffered from schizophrenia. Mental illness was a constant interest of Dick's, and themes of mental illness permeate his work. The character Jack Bohlen in the 1964 novel Martian Time-Slip is an "ex-schizophrenic". The novel Clans of the Alphane Moon centers on an entire society made up of descendants of lunatic asylum inmates. In 1965 he wrote the essay titled Schizophrenia and the Book of Changes.

    Drug use was also a theme in many of Dick’s works, such as A Scanner Darkly and The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch. Dick was a drug user for much of his life. According to a 1975 interview in Rolling Stone , Dick wrote all of his books published before 1970 high on amphetamines. "A Scanner Darkly was the first complete novel I had written without speed," said Dick in the interview. He also experimented briefly with psychedelics, but wrote The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch, which Rolling Stone dubs “the classic LSD novel of all time,” before he had ever tried them.

    He occasionally wrote under pen names, most notably Richard Philips and Jack Dowland. The surname Dowland refers to composer John Dowland, who is featured in several works. The title Flow My Tears, The Policeman Said directly refers to Dowland's best-known composition, Flow My Tears. In the novel The Divine Invasion, the 'Linda Fox' character is an intergalactically famous singer whose entire body of work consists of remakes of John Dowland compositions. Also, some protagonists in Dick's short fiction are named 'Dowland'.

    The short story "Orpheus with Clay Feet" was published under the pen name "Jack Dowland". The protagonist desires to be the muse for fictional author Jack Dowland, considered the greatest science fiction author of the 20th century. In the story, Dowland publishes a short story titled "Orpheus with Clay Feet", under the pen name "Philip K. Dick".

    In the semi-autobiographical novel VALIS, the protagonist is named "Horselover Fat"; "Philip", or "Phil-Hippos", is Greek for "horselover", while "dick" is German for "fat".

    Although he never used it himself, Dick's fans and critics often refer to him familiarly as "PKD" (cf. Jorge Luis Borges' "JLB"), and use the comparative literary adjectives "Dickian" and "Phildickian" in describing his style and themes (cf. Kafkaesque, Orwellian).

    Marriages and children
    Dick married five times, and had two daughters and a son; each marriage ended in divorce.

    May 1948, to Jeanette Marlin (lasted six months)
    June 1950, to Kleo Apostolides (divorced 1959)
    1959, to Anne Williams Rubinstein (child: Laura Archer, born February 25, 1960) (divorced 1964)
    1966, to Nancy Hackett (child: Isolde, "Isa") (divorced 1972)
    April 18, 1973, to Leslie (Tessa) Busby (child: Christopher) (divorced 1977)


    Philip K. Dick Android in the Nextfest Exhibition at Navy PierPhilip K. Dick died in Santa Ana, California, on March 2, 1982. He had suffered a stroke five days earlier, and was disconnected from life support after his EEG had been consistently isoelectric since losing consciousness. After his death, his father Edgar took his son's ashes to Fort Morgan, Colorado. When his twin sister, Jane, died, her tombstone had both their names carved to it, with an empty space for Dick's death date. Brother and sister were eventually buried next to each other.

    Dick was "resurrected" by his fans in the form of a remote-controlled android designed in his likeness. The android of Philip K. Dick was impanelled in a San Diego Comic Con presentation about the film adaptation of the novel, A Scanner Darkly. In February 2006, an airline misplaced the android, and it has not yet been found.

    Biographical film
    On 8 August 2006, actor Paul Giamatti announced that his company, Touchy Feely Films, plans to produce a biopic about Dick, with the permission of Isa Dick Hackett, PKD's daughter, through her company Electric Shepherd Productions. Tony Grisoni, who wrote the screenplays for films such as Terry Gilliam's Tideland and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, is writing the film scrip
  • Re: Phillip K Dick

    Sun, May 10, 2009 - 3:20 PM
    ...and here's the chart. Atrothemes making his Ascendant definitely Aries, (do androids dream elctic sheep) not Pisces.

    Love th bit about his android double being rebuilt. Womder if that dream electic sheep too...

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Alistair MacLean

Alistair MacLean
Born April 28, 1922(1922-04-28)
Glasgow, Scotland
Died February 2, 1987 (aged 64)
Munich, Germany
Nationality Flag of ScotlandScottish
Education University of Glasgow
Occupation Author and teacher

Alistair Stuart MacLean (28 April 1922 - 2 February 1987; Scottish Gaelic: Alasdair MacGill-Eain) was a Scottish novelist who wrote successful thrillers or adventure stories, the best known of which are perhaps The Guns of Navarone and Where Eagles Dare, both having been made into successful films. He also wrote two novels under the pseudonym Ian Stuart.


MacLean was the son of a minister, and learned English as his second language after his mother tongue, Scottish Gaelic. He was born in Glasgow but spent much of his childhood and youth in Daviot, ten miles south of Inverness.

He joined the Royal Navy in 1941, serving in World War II with the ranks of Ordinary Seaman, Able Seaman, and Leading Torpedo Operator. He was first assigned to PS Bournemouth Queen, a converted excursion ship fitting for anti-aircraft guns, on duty off the coasts of England and Scotland. From 1943, he served on HMS Royalist, a Dido-class light cruiser. On Royalist he saw action in 1943 in the Atlantic theatre, on two Arctic convoys and escorting carrier groups in operations against Tirpitz and other targets off the Norwegian coast; in 1944 in the Mediterranean theatre, as part of the invasion of southern France and in helping to sink blockade runners off Crete and bombard Milos in the Aegean Sea (during this time MacLean may have been injured in a gunnery practice accident); and in 1945, in the Far East theatre, escorting carrier groups in operations against Japanese targets in Burma, Malaya, and Sumatra. (MacLean's late-in-life claims that he was captured by the Japanese and tortured have been dismissed by both his son and his biographer as drunken ravings. [Webster p. 191]) After the Japanese surrender, Royalist helped evacuate liberated POWs from Changi Prison in Singapore.

MacLean was released from the Royal Navy in 1946. He then studied English at the University of Glasgow, graduating in 1953, and then worked as a school teacher in Rutherglen.

While a university student, MacLean began writing short stories for extra income, winning a competition in 1954 with the maritime story "Dileas". The publishing company Collins asked him for a novel and he responded with HMS Ulysses, based on his own war experiences, as well as credited insight from his brother Ian, a Master Mariner. The novel was a great success and MacLean was soon able to devote himself entirely to writing war stories, spy stories and other adventures.

In the early 1960s, MacLean published two novels under the pseudonym "Ian Stuart" in order to prove that the popularity of his books was due to their content rather than his name on the cover. They sold well, but MacLean made no attempt to change his writing style and his fans may easily have recognized him behind the Scottish pseudonym. MacLean's books eventually sold so well that he moved to Switzerland as a tax exile. From 1963–1966, he took a hiatus from writing to run a hotel business in England.

MacLean's later books were not as well received as the earlier ones and, in an attempt to keep his stories in keeping with the time, he sometimes lapsed into overly improbable plots. He also struggled constantly with alcoholism, which eventually brought about his death in Munich in 1987. He is buried a few yards from Richard Burton in Céligny, Switzerland. He was married twice and had three sons with his first wife.

MacLean was awarded a Doctor of Letters by the University of Glasgow in 1983.

Style of writing

Compared to other thriller writers of the time, such as Ian Fleming, MacLean's books are exceptional in one way at least: they have an absence of sex and most are short on romance because MacLean thought that such diversions merely serve to slow down the action. Nor do the MacLean books resemble the more recent techno-thriller approach. Instead, he lets little hinder the flow of events in his books, making his heroes fight against seemingly unbeatable odds and often pushing them to the limits of their physical and mental endurance. MacLean's heroes are usually calm, cynical men entirely devoted to their work and often carrying some kind of secret knowledge. A characteristic twist is that one of the hero's closest companions turns out a traitor.

Nature, especially the sea and the Arctic north, plays an important part in MacLean's stories, and he used a variety of exotic parts of the world as settings to his books. Only one of them, When Eight Bells Toll, is set in his native Scotland. MacLean's best books are often those in which he was able to make use of his own direct knowledge of warfare and seafare, such as HMS Ulysses which is now considered a classic of naval fiction.

Stylistically, MacLean's novels can be broken down into four periods:

  1. HMS Ulysses through to The Last Frontier. These featured third-person narratives and a somewhat epic tone, and were mostly set during World War II. The Last Frontier contained overt philosophical and moral themes that were not well received. MacLean then switched gears to —
  2. Night Without End through to Ice Station Zebra. These all featured first person (and sometimes unreliable) narration laced with a dry, sardonic, self-depreciating humour, and were all set in contemporary times. These are MacLean's most intensely plotted tales, masterfully blending thriller and detective elements. MacLean then retired from writing for three years, returning with —
  3. When Eight Bells Toll through to Bear Island, a varied collection that still maintained a generally high quality, with some books harking back to each of the first two periods but usually taking a more cinematic approach (not surprising since he began writing screenplays during this time).
  4. The Way to Dusty Death to the end. There were no more first-person stories, and his prose is thought to have often sagged, with excessive dialogue, lazily described scenes, and under-developed characters. All the books sold reasonably well, but MacLean never regained his classic form.

Certain themes are repeated in virtually all of MacLean's novels. For example, they typically feature a male character who is depicted as physically and morally indestructible (for instance, Carrington in HMS Ulysses; Andrea in The Guns of Navarone); such characters are also often described as having an almost inhuman tolerance for alcohol consumption (for instance, the Count in The Last Frontier; Jablonsky in Fear is the Key). Other minor traits or actions also turn up in every book, such as the cliche of characters shaking their heads in order to come to their senses after receiving a blow to the head. "Mediterranean" or Latin American characters are almost always depicted as criminals (as with Gregori in The Satan Bug, Miguel and Tony Carreras in The Golden Rendezvous, and so forth).

Altogether, MacLean published 28 novels and a collection of short stories, as well as books about T. E. Lawrence and James Cook.

MacLean also wrote screenplays, some of them based on his novels and others later novelized by other writers. Around 1980, he was commissioned by an American movie production company to write a series of story outlines to be subsequently produced as movies. He invented the fictitious United Nations Anti-Crime Organization (UNACO), and the books were later completed by others. Among these are Hostage Tower by John Denis and Death Train by Alastair MacNeill. Some of these works bear little resemblance to MacLean's style, especially in their use of gratuitous sex and violence.

Many of MacLean's novels were made into films, but none completely captured the level of detail and the intensity of his writing style as exemplified in classics such as Fear is the Key; the two most artistically and commercially successful film adaptations were The Guns of Navarone and Where Eagles Dare.

After his death, the popularity of his work saw a decline, and, according to, as of 2006 none of his novels are in print in the U.S. However, most are currently still in print in paperback in the UK.

List of works

A collection of MacLean's fiction works from 1955 to 1971, published by Heron Books (London) in the mid-1970s


Year Title Notes
1955 HMS Ulysses  
1957 The Guns of Navarone  
1957 South by Java Head  
1959 The Last Frontier in the USA The Secret Ways
1959 Night Without End  
1961 Fear is the Key  
1961 The Dark Crusader in the USA The Black Shrike (as Ian Stuart)
1962 The Golden Rendezvous  
1962 The Satan Bug as Ian Stuart
1962 All about Lawrence of Arabia Non-fiction
1963 Ice Station Zebra  
1966 When Eight Bells Toll  
1967 Where Eagles Dare  
1968 Force 10 From Navarone  
1969 Puppet on a Chain  
1970 Caravan to Vaccarès  
1971 Bear Island  
1972 Alistair MacLean Introduces Scotland Non-fiction, edited by Alastair Dunnett
1972 Captain Cook Non-fiction
1973 The Way to Dusty Death  
1974 Breakheart Pass  
1975 Circus  
1976 The Golden Gate  
1977 Seawitch  
1977 Goodbye California  
1980 Athabasca  
1981 River of Death  
1982 Partisans  
1983 Floodgate  
1984 San Andreas  
1985 The Lonely Sea Collection of short stories
1986 Santorini  

UNACO books by other authors

Year Title Notes
1980 Hostage Tower by John Denis
1981 Air Force One is Down by John Denis
1989 Death Train by Alastair MacNeill
1989 Night Watch by Alastair MacNeill
1990 Red Alert by Alastair MacNeill
1991 Time of the Assassins by Alastair MacNeill
1992 Dead Halt by Alastair MacNeill
1993 Code Breaker by Alastair MacNeill
1995 Rendezvous by Alastair MacNeill
1997 Prime Target by Hugh Miller
1998 Borrowed Time by Hugh Miller

Golden Girl Series by other authors

Year Title Notes
1992 Golden Girl by Simon Gandolfi
1993 Golden Web by Simon Gandolfi
1994 Golden Vengeance by Simon Gandolfi

Movies with Screenplay Contribution

Year Title Notes
1968 Where Eagles Dare book author/screenplay
1970 Puppet on a Chain book author/screenplay
1971 When Eight Bells Toll book author/screenplay
1975 Breakheart Pass book author/screenplay

Other Movies

Year Title Notes
1961 The Secret Ways book author
1961 The Guns of Navarone book author
1965 The Satan Bug book author
1968 Ice Station Zebra book author
1972 Fear Is the Key book author
1974 Caravan to Vaccares book author
1977 Golden Rendezvous book author
1978 Force 10 from Navarone book author
1979 Bear Island book author
1980 The Hostage Tower story
1989 River of Death book author
1993 Death Train story
1995 The Way to Dusty Death book author
1995 Night Watch story

 Notes on the books

  • Force 10 from Navarone, MacLean's only sequel, picks up from where the film version of The Guns of Navarone leaves off, not his original novel. The book anticipates the much lighter works of MacLean's later years, and seems to be more of a tossed-off "pastiche" of his other works, occasionally descending into nearly farcical humour.
  • MacLean's only other use of inter-novel continuity is a police character from Puppet on a Chain reappearing in Floodgate.
  • MacLean wrote the novel and screenplay of Where Eagles Dare at the same time. In effect it was commissioned by Richard Burton, who wanted to make a "boy's own" type adventure film that he could take his son to see. The book and screenplay differ markedly in that, in the book, Smith and Schaffer at times go out of their way not to kill anyone, whereas in the film they basically shoot anything that moves. In fact, the film contains Clint Eastwood's highest on-screen body count. Also, in the book, Schaffer is considerably more talkative than Eastwood's laconic interpretation.
  • Where Eagles Dare and Guns of Navarone have similar plots; the "MacLean Formula" used in both is as follows: impregnable fortress which requires a commando team to be sent in; one of the team is not what he/she seems; betrayal in a public place; barricade a door for the getaway; mountain climbing; escape by jumping into water; good guys win. Amazingly, all these contrivances seem to work quite well.
  • There have been reports of a "lost" MacLean novel titled Snow on the Ben, but it appears to be by a different Ian Stuart (refer ISBN 0-7089-6503-2).
  • MacLean's chief female characters are frequently named Mary, or a variation thereupon (Marie, Maria). They are usually described as intelligent, whether they are professionals like the hero or not. Some are exceptionally adept at the spy game; more come through strongly despite a lack of experience. A few seem puzzlingly incapable. MacLean's characterization of these is a key, although subtle, plot point.
  • A number of MacLean's chief male characters are named John. In a few of his mid-period books, his male protagonists have "savagely scarred" faces that they believe render them unattractive to women; they are usually proven wrong by book's end.
  • The lead female character dies in a few of the early to mid period books. The male lead protagonist always survives and is successful in countering the odds.
  • His villains become more stereotypical and self-referential over time, usually featuring a coldly competent and ruthless mastermind paired with a hulking, brutishly powerful subordinate.
  • Exceptions to the little-romance rule include one novel where the protagonist is rewarded for his labors by winning the love of the beautiful daughter of a millionaire, and conversely another which ends with its protagonist committing murder to avenge the death of his beloved. In other books, the romantic angle is in the past, as the hero's wife has been killed in a road accident by a "drunken driver".
  • In several books (most notably the Navarone books, Partisans, Circus) MacLean gives his usual cynical hero two assistants: a smaller man who is highly gifted with one particular weapon (knives, explosives), and a very large, immensely strong man who has intelligence equal to the protagonist, smokes foul-smelling cigars or cigarettes, and is often the hero's best friend.
  • MacLean was known to reuse plot devices, characterizations, and even specific phrases. For example, the description "huddled shapelessness of the dead" occurs in some form in several stories.
  • Clive Cussler plagiarized (or paid homage to) MacLean's Ice Station Zebra in his Raise the Titanic! and MacLean's The Secret Ways in his The Mediterranean Caper. Fans of other thriller authors, such as Len Deighton, Dale Brown, and Tom Clancy, will find plenty of foreshadowings of their favorite authors' work in MacLean's own novels.
  • The cover of Alistair MacLean novel features in the Bollywood classic film Aradhana, during the scene of the classic song "Mere Sapno Ki Rani"



Ice Station Zebra (novel)


Ice Station Zebra  
The cover of the 1965 UK paperback edition of: Ice Station Zebra
1965 UK paperback cover
Author Alistair MacLean
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre(s) Thriller Novel
Publisher Collins
Publication date 1963
Media type print (hardcover)
Pages 276 pp.
OCLC 844681
Preceded by The Satan Bug
Followed by When Eight Bells Toll


Ice Station Zebra (ISBN 0-00-616141-3) is a 1963 thriller novel written by Scottish author Alistair MacLean. This was the last of MacLean's classic sequence of first person narratives which began with Night Without End, and represented a return to that earlier novel's Arctic setting. After completing this novel, whose plotline parallels real-life events during the Cold War, MacLean retired from writing for three years. In 1968 it was adapted into a film of the same name.

Plot summary

Drift Ice Station Zebra, a British meteorological station built on an ice floe in the Arctic Sea, has suffered a catastrophic oil fire; men have died and shelter and supplies have been destroyed. The survivors are holed up in one hut with little food and heat. If help does not reach them, they will quickly die.

The (fictional) American nuclear-powered submarine USS Dolphin is dispatched on a rescue mission. Just before it departs, the mysterious Dr. Carpenter, the narrator, is sent to accompany it. Carpenter claims that he is necessary as an expert in dealing with frostbite and other deep-cold medical conditions.

At first, the submarine's Captain Swanson is suspicious of Carpenter, even though he receives an order from Chief of Naval Operations of the US Navy instructing him to obey Carpenter's every command except where crew safety is at stake. Swanson tells Carpenter he is still inclined to refuse. Carpenter is thus forced to reveal that this is not simply a rescue mission; the station is actually a highly-equipped listening post, keeping watch for nuclear missile launches from the Soviet Union. Hearing this, Swanson allows Carpenter to come along.

Soon the Dolphin is under the Arctic ice pack, searching for a place to surface and attempt to contact Zebra, whose radio signals are becoming weaker by the hour. Eventually finding a place where the ice is thin enough to break through, the Dolphin establishes tenuous radio contact, and gets a bearing on their position. But Zebra is too far away to attempt to reach on foot, so the submarine re-submerges, hoping to get closer. Carpenter confides to the Captain that the commander of the station is his brother.

After a tense, desperate search, the Dolphin finds open water and surfaces just five miles from the station. Carpenter, Executive Officer Hansen, and two crewmen make the perilous journey through an Arctic storm on foot, taking with them as many supplies as they can. Zabrinski, one of the crewmen, breaks his ankle on the way. After a harrowing trek they reach Zebra. Devastation awaits them. Three of the eight huts and almost all supplies have been destroyed by a widespread oil fire. Eight men are dead - burnt to a crisp. Eleven men are alive, but barely. While the victims are being tended to, Carpenter does some investigating on his own.

Unable to make radio contact, Carpenter and Hansen leave Zabrinski and the other crewman to attend to the survivors. After nearly getting lost in the terrible storm of blowing ice, Carpenter and Hansen finally return to the Dolphin, bearing news of their findings, as well as the relatively thin ice nearer to Zebra. Dolphin submerges and heads for Zebra. The ice there is still too thick to break with the sub's sail, so Swanson decides to blow a hole in the ice with a torpedo. Unbeknownst to him, someone had tampered with the wiring of the indicators which indicated the open/close status of the outer tube doors. When the crew attempts to load a torpedo into one of the tubes, a torrent of water rushes through the inner door, killing an officer and sending Dolphin into a nearly catastrophic fall. Only by heroic measures is Dolphin able to save herself.

After successfully breaking through the ice with a torpedo, fired from an un-sabotaged tube, Dolphin finally emerges just two hundred feet from Zebra. The sick men are treated, but some of them are still too ill to be carried to the sub. Carpenter does some more investigating. He finds that the fire at Zebra was no accident; it was a cover to hide that three of the dead men, one of whom was his brother, were murdered. Carpenter already knows why; the only question is who? Swanson also has a look around and finds no trace of the sophisticated listening equipment Carpenter had claimed was Zebra's purpose — Carpenter had lied again. Meanwhile, Carpenter found a loaded gun in the petrol tank of a tractor, where the petrol would keep it from freezing, as well as food, batteries and a powerful radio hidden in the hut being used as a morgue.

Finally the survivors are all brought aboard, Zebra is abandoned, and Dolphin heads back, but not without several further incidents. The ship's doctor is knocked into a coma. Carpenter himself is severely hurt in another apparent accident. Then a fire breaks out in the engine room and the sub is forced to shut down its nuclear reactor. Without power for air purification or heating, Dolphin looks set to become a frozen tomb trapped under the ice pack. Only the ingenuity of Commander Swanson and the dedication of the crew saves the ship.

Carpenter announces that the fire was no accident. He reveals to the Captain that he is an MI6 officer. Carpenter's real mission is to retrieve photographic film from a reconnaissance satellite (see Corona) that has photographed every nuclear weapons installation in the U.S. The film, ejected from the satellite, had landed near Zebra. Carpenter's brother had been meant to retrieve it, but Russian agents killed him. The two Russian agents are amongst the survivors from Zebra. Carpenter finally reveals their motives, methods, and the men. The film is now in American hands, and the agents on their way to the gallows.

Noticeable humour

Dr. Benson, the ship's doctor, is assigned by Commander Swanson to show Dr. Carpenter around the Dolphin. Introducing Carpenter to the head cook of the ship, Benson refers to him as "my arch enemy," for he perpetually subverts Benson's lectures on healthy eating with hearty, tasty, and plentiful food.

While preparing to fire a torpedo at the ice cap, Hansen orders a crewman to check if there is water in the torpedo tube. Opening the test cock, he checks and reports to Hansen, "Clean as a whistle and dry as a bone." Hansen says resignedly to Dr. Carpenter, "That's not the way he was taught."

 Background and origin of plot

USS Skate
Corona spy satellite

The novel was influenced by the heightened atmosphere of the Cold War, with its escalating series of international crises such as the U-2 incident; West Berlin; unrest in Hungary, Indochina and Latin America; and the Cuban missile crisis.

The novel exploits contemporary fascination with the under-the-ice exploits of such American nuclear-powered submarines as Nautilus, Skate, Sargo and Seadragon. MacLean may have been anticipating the excitement of his British readers regarding the upcoming commissioning of the HMS Dreadnought, the Royal Navy's first nuclear submarine. Also, MacLean may have been influenced by press reports about the nuclear-powered submarine USS Skate visiting Ice Station Alpha, located on Ice Island T-3 in the Arctic, on 14 August 1958, as part of the International Geophysical Year (IGY).[1]. It should be noted that, at the time that the novel was published, under-the-ice operations by U.S. Navy nuclear-powered submarines were prohibited until SUBSAFE measures had been implementated following the loss of the USS Thresher.[2]

Ice Station Zebra also uses the accelerating Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union as the backdrop for the novel, and may have been directly inspired by news accounts from April 17, 1959, about a missing experimental Corona satellite capsule (Discoverer ll) that inadvertently landed near Spitsbergen on April 13 and may have been recovered by Soviet agents.[3][4] In 2006 the National Reconnaissance Office declassified information stating that "an individual formerly possessing CORONA access was the technical advisor to the movie" and admitted "the resemblance of the loss of the DISCOVERER II capsule, and its probable recovery by the Soviets" on Spitsbergen Island, to the book by Alistair MacLean.[1]

Finally, MacLean even mentions the newly-operational Soviet nuclear-powered icebreaker Lenin by involving the ship in an aborted attempt to reach the survivors at Drift Ice Station Zebra.

Film adaptation

The novel was later very loosely adapted into the 1968 John Sturges film of the same name starring Rock Hudson. The most obvious changes involved the names of the novel's characters:

  • The nuclear submarine Dolphin became the USS Tigerfish (SSN-509).
  • The British spy Dr. Carpenter was renamed David Jones, portrayed by Patrick McGoohan.
  • Commander Swanson was changed to Commander Ferraday, portrayed by Hudson.

Additional characters were added, including a U.S. Marine platoon trained in Arctic warfare:

Much of the novel's characterization involving the submarine's crew found was jettisoned in favor of these new cinematic creations. Also all characters from the Ice Station Zebra in novel were removed. They were claimed to have died in the fire, notably two main villains who had caused the fire in the first place. Also removed were all references to Dr. Carpenter's brother.

Beyond the name change, the film's submarine has a design similar to the first nuclear-powered submarine, the Nautilus, rather than the more streamlined, teardrop-shaped vessel, either the contemporaneous Skipjack or Permit design, that was described in the novel. In the movie, the fire on the drift Ice Station was explained away as accidental.

Unlike the film, the novel shows little overt Soviet interest in recovering the lost spy satellite other than a spy ship disguised as a fishing trawler waiting outside Holy Loch when the Tigerfish sets sail. The novel's climax of a fire onboard the submarine is replaced with the nearly fatal flooding of the forward torpedo room prior to the film's intermission. The film's new climax involves a superpower confrontation between Soviet paratroopers and the American marines at Ice Station Zebra itself, but concludes on a much more ambiguous note than the novel, reflecting the perceived thaw in the Cold War following the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Popular culture

The novel is referenced in "The Leadership Breakfast," the eleventh episode of the second season of The West Wing. In the opening scene, Josh and Sam are trying to make a fire in the Mural Room fireplace because the building's heat isn't working. As he's piling wood into the fireplace, Josh says, "It's like Ice Station Zebra in here."

The novel is parodied in the Sealab 2021 third season episode, "Frozen Dinner." The Sealab crew must rescue scientists aboard Ice Station Zebra, a research station on top of an ice flow. The ice flow has turned upside down and trapped the two men, while the Sealab crew tries to rescue them in a submarine. While the scientists immediately turn to cannibalism, the Sealab sub (led by a German crew resembling that from Das Boot) predictably fumbles the rescue.


  1. ^ Williams. Submarines Under Ice, p. 133 - 141
  2. ^ Polmar and Moore. Cold War Submarines, p. 156
  3. ^ Chronology of Spy Satellites @
  4. ^ Taubman, Secret Empire, p. 287.


  • Norman Polmar and K.J. Moore. Cold War Submarines: The Design and Construction of U.S. and Soviet Submarines (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, Inc., 2004) ISBN 1-57488-530-8
  • Phil Taubman. Secret Empire: Eisenhower, the CIA, and the Hidden Story of America’s Space Espionage (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2003) ISBN 0684856999
  • Marion D. Williams. Submarines Under Ice: The U.S. Navy's Polar Operations (Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1998) ISBN 1-55750-943-3

External links


Images: Vostok : JPG (22 k)
Vostok High Resolution: LZW compressed TIF (5 M)
Vostok High Resolution Bird's Eye View: TIF (3.8 M)
QuickTime : MOV (1.6 MB)

Please give credit for these images to:
NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center
Scientific Visualization Studio

SVS Director: Dr. Horace Mitchell
SVS Contact Person: Alex Kekesi
Web Curator: Lori Perkins

Subj: vostok 4 - info
Date: 3/1/01 2:20:50 AM Pacific Standard Time
From:    (Harry Mason)
Hi Kent,
Just two extra points re Vostok story. I have just read the story in the Antarctic Sun
I quote from there :-
"The evidence is a huge magnetic anomaly on the east coast of the lake's shoreline. As the first SOAR flight crossed over to the lake's east side, the magnetometer dial swung suddenly. The readings changed almost 1,000 nanotesla from the normal 60,000 nanoteslas around Vostok. A tesla is the standard measure of magnetism. Studinger typically finds anomalies of 500-to-600 nanotesla in places where volcanic material has poured out of the ground

"When we first saw this huge magnetic anomaly, that was very exciting," Studinger said.

Usually magnetic anomalies are much smaller and it takes some effort to distinguish the anomaly from normal daily changes in the magnetic field. In this case there was no confusion.

"This anomaly is so big that it can't be caused by a daily change in the magnetic field," Studinger said.

The anomaly was big in another way, encompassing the entire Southeast corner of the lake, about (65 b 46 miles) 105 km by 75 km. The size and extremity of the magnetic anomaly indicated the geological structure changes beneath the lake, and Studinger guessed it might be a region where the earth's crust is thinner.

To create the type of topography found at Lake Vostok, the earth's crust was probably stretched, thinning one to three percent as it pulled taut, Studinger said."

I deal with interpreteting aeromagnetic imagery daily in my mineral exploration work here in OZ. The huge size and intensity of the above mentioned magnetic anomaly strongly suggests a very large ultrabasic complex is present below this section of lake Vostok in the continental crustal rock surface ie at the old land surface -pre ice level. This would fit with the apparently tensional pull-apart rifted tectonic style of the lake geo-environment and would probably represent a major mantle derrived plume of ultrabasic intrusives along the lines of Prof Careys Expanding Earth diapirs - this fits the stretched crust model noted by Studinger above. As such it would also fit Prof. Gold's hypothesis that there is a substantial - possibly world climate dangerous amount if released - volume of  methane (as hydrate at the expected temperatures ???) plus oil and other exotic gas (He, X, etc) component to the hot water lake - sourced from the Mantle-Core along the upwelling structural plumbing. The reported "ice boils" could easily be composed of gaseous plumes frozen into the ice - arrested as it were in their upwards progress - initially as hotwater gas mixtures but cooled by the surrounding ice until their water content froze and they could no longer melt (ie. rise) through the ice above them. As such these ice boils could represent fascinating analogies with granite intrusive plumes in mountain belts - both "boils" rise due to their heat melting above rock (ice) layers whiulst their lower density relative to enclosing rocks causes a gravity gradient and drives their upward motion until they crystalise (freeze).

The ice "dunes" look like flat ice folded under stress - also analagous to folds in sediments in mountain belts around the planet - possibly due to gravity sliding away from the upwelling diapir of lake vostok ???

Re the two women sking across the ice shelf scenario - they were interviewed on Australian ABC news a few days ago after being dropped off at an Australian Antarctic base by the US "rescue" team. I saw this news segment. They stated they personally requested airlift as their progress had been slower than anticipated and they were in danger from rapidly advancing winter storms. Once these hit you are isolated from air or ground rescue for months. They appeared quite relaxed but wistful about their need for rescue - did not appear "got at" but who knows ??? I have previously seen the most outrageous lies propagated by our ABC TV News over the AUM sect and Banjawarn Station Sarin Nerve gas stories. My personal field research interviewed the Banjawarn Station people (indigenous and white) and uncovered a huge series of lies aired knowingly by the ABC - so who knows on this Antarctic scenario ???

Also just read your Atlantis TV story URL's  - are they describing real events - or just make believe - if real then it certainly looks like a major cover up is in progress on a recovery mission of some sort down there at "Ice Station Zebra" !!!!!!!! The mind boggles as to what is really going on - perhaps the lid almost got blown on early Mars Lander tests that actuallly got up there in the 1960's - a la Alternative 3 !!!!

Looking forward to more info on your site as this one unfolds ...................




Dear Duncan and David Kingston,
A friend has found NASA Press Release 01-24 from Feb 21-2001 which I copy
Dear Duncan, and David Kingston,
Just another point about the "Space Mapping Mission of Antarctica Aborted Due to NSA Over-Ride" story.
The letter states that "The linked photo at the end was released by NASA in Jan 2001 seemingly by mistake. It is no longer available from the official archive"  !!!
Yet take a look at this reproduction of an official NASA web site of the EXACT SAME radarsat image and the attached section (58.1Kb jpg) image I just cut out today (1-03-2001 - 2.00pm) from the Vostock High Resolution Bird's Eye View Tif (3.8Mb) that I downloaded from
Further a close inspection reveals a road running diagonally from SW to NE across the lake (smoothed out on Anons original jpg - but just visible there also) that originates at a camp site in the SW corner of the lake with a NNW trending "airstrip" ??? The road continues NE off of the field of the image. I suspect that the image provided by anon has incorrectly labelled the SW airstrip and camp as the "Magnetic Anomaly" and has most certainly placed Vostok Station (Russia) with an arrow pointing where there is nothing but Ice. Incidentally elsewhere in NASA literature Vostok Station is said to be situated at the southern end of the lake and if NASA followed convention with it's image orientation then Vostok Station is where the airstrip-camp site show in the SW part of the lake. In otherwords who ever wrote up the story line did NOT know much about the correct location of things around lake vostok.
Also the Russians have drilled down 3600 metres since the lake discovery in the 1970's (to some 400 metres ??? above the liquid lake surface) with preserved ice cores being sent to Montana State University a few years ago. These have been analysed and they found various gases locked up in the ice (including methane).
Due to the above errors about the so called missing (removed) image and the location of sites around Lake Vostok I am inclined to place a very large red flag against this anon post. Do you have any corroborative data for the original premise of NSA Over-Ride and the removal from stage of Debra Shingteller..................
Harry Mason
"SPACE MAPPING MISSION CATCHES ANTARCTICA IN MOTION".............................. Personally I would like to see some more backing for the original press conference - but I still feel the letter has a ring of truth about it ???? Have you got any more info ???
[]On Behalf Of
Sent: Thursday, 22 February 2001 0:10
To: undisclosed-recipients:;

David E. Steitz
Headquarters, Washington, DC            February 21, 2001
(Phone:  202/358-1730)

Rosemary Sullivant
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA
(Phone:  818/354-0747)

RELEASE:  01-24


     Antarctica may appear to be a land frozen in time, but it certainly is not still. Glaciers plow down the continent's
center to the sea, icebergs snap off and crash into the ocean, and great rivers of ice snake through the ice sheet, evidence of a dynamic relationship between this remote continent and global climate.

A joint NASA and Canadian Space Agency mission now provides a more comprehensive view of how the Antarctic ice sheet moves and changes and may help answer some fundamental questions about this mysterious place at the end of the world, including whether the ice sheet is advancing or retreating.

The initial mapping campaign, the 1997 Antarctic Mapping Mission, resulted in the first high-resolution radar satellite map of the continent. The second phase, the Modified Antarctic Mapping Mission, completed last November, once again charted Antarctica with space-based imaging radar. This second mission gives scientists a way to see how the continent has changed over the past three years as well as a wealth of new information on the movement of the most active region, the outer half of the ice sheet.

"The 1997 map became a benchmark for studying changes on the continent and also revealed fascinating features, including enormous ice streams in East Antarctica, that we had never seen before. We expect to find even more surprises from this second, even more detailed map that will help us unravel some of the mysteries behind how our global environment behaves," said Dr. Ghassem Asrar, Associate Administrator for NASA's Office of Earth Sciences, Washington, DC.

For the new mission, the Canadian Space Agency's RADARSAT-1 satellite trained its imaging radar on the outer half of the continent twice during each of three consecutive 24-day periods, ending last Nov. 14. "The mission was a
challenge for us because we had to accurately navigate the satellite to within a few hundred meters of its nominal track on each orbit," said Rolf Mamen, Director General of Space Operations at the Canadian Space Agency.

Precise navigation and data from the six passes make it possible to create detailed topographic maps and to measure
the speed of the moving glaciers. "Most of the Antarctic ice sheet moves imperceptibly slowly but nevertheless surely," says science team member Dr. Frank Carsey of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.

"This mission gives us an overall snapshot of how the ice moves and how it is changing. By measuring the extent and
velocity of the moving ice and estimating its thickness, we can estimate how much ice may be lost into the ocean from
Earth's largest storehouse of freshwater," Carsey added. "These calculations are important for understanding
Antarctica's contribution to the present rate of sea-level rise of about two millimeters, or the thickness of a dime, a

Mission scientists are now developing velocity maps showing the direction and speed of the ice. They have already created the first-ever complete velocity maps of the spectacular Lambert Glacier, a sinuous ice stream more than 500 kilometers (311 miles) long, which reaches speeds of more than one kilometer (about two-thirds mile) a year once the ice spreads onto the Amery Ice Shelf.

They are also beginning to create a new map of Antarctica to compare with the one made in 1997. The process of turning the radar images into map-quality mosaics will take about a year to complete.

"We already can see several glaciers along the Antarctic Peninsula coastline where the ice edge has retreated over 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) in just three years. But this is not the whole story. We also see places where the ice sheet is advancing, such as the Amery Ice Shelf. The Antarctic Ice Sheet is huge, and this is the first time we have the data to study and compare ice sheet behavior around the entire continent," says mission principal investigator Dr. Kenneth Jezek, of Ohio State University's Byrd Polar Research Center. "These data will help us determine whether the local changes we see represent expected, episodic behavior or whether they represent regional trends driven by changing climate. "

More information on the mission is available on the Internet
Images associated with this release are available at:


                            * * *

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----- Original Message -----
Sent: Wednesday, February 28, 2001 12:42 AM
Subject: Fascinating Info Re Lake Vostock

----- Original Message -----
From: Nexus Magazine-UK
Sent: Monday, February 26, 2001 3:21 PM


EDITOR DISCLAIMER: yet unable to confirm authenticity of JPL source
2/24/01 6:23:56 PM Pacific Standard Time
This was sent to me. Where it came from I don't know yet. ANON
David E. Steitz
Headquarters, Washington, DC
February 21, 2001
Phone: 202/358-1730)
Rosemary Sullivant
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA
Phone: 818/354-0747)
RELEASE: 01-24

In a brief announcment today, NASA and the JPL terminated all further study of Lake Vostok in S. Antarctica. In an apparent slip of confidentiality, spokeswoman Debra Shingteller alluded to "National Security Issues" allowing the NSA to assume full control of what had been an International effort to explore a huge, under-ice lake near the Russian Vostok research station. Ms. Shingteller was immediately led away from the podium, and an aid responded to the many further questions with the same answer: "the project has been halted due to environmental issues", and that no further releases were pending. The large crowd of press corp. were left clamoring as the officials left the stage. Ms. Shingteller has not responded to repeated attempts at contact.

The above is a report from an official JPL PR rep. who attended the announcement. The following is part of a letter written to an editor of Scientific American Magazine (who has requested anonimity). The linked photo at the end was released by NASA in Jan 2001 seemingly by mistake. It is no longer available from the official archive.
Approximately 300 miles from the South Pole there is a lake, a very large lake. It is Lake Vostok. It is also located over 3/4 mile beneath the Continental Ice Sheet. The best photos of Lk Vostok are from space, where the outline is clearly visible. Current ice-penetrating radar studies indicate that the water is up to 2000 ft deep in places, and has an over-arching dome up to 1/2 mile high. Estimates for filtered light at the lake surface indicate something like "continuous first morning light" during Antarctica's summer months. Thermograph imaging proposes an amazing 50-degree average water temperature with "hot spots" near 65 degrees. This can only be attributed to subsurface geothermal heat sources. At 300 miles long, and 50 miles wide, the encapsulated atmosphere should have the ability to cleanse itself through interaction with the lake, and possibly... plant life.

Also proposed as a possible route for atmospheric interaction with the lake's environment are what are being labeled "geothermal boils". These are thousands of bubbles in the ice sheet located in the some 200 sq. miles of "ice dunes" discovered by the late Russian scientist Ivan Toskovoi who was stationed at Vostok research base until his disappearance in March 2000. The surveyed bubbles range from a few to several hundred feet in diameter.
Quite possibly just as exciting as all of the data related so far, is the discovery through Magnetic Imaging that there is an extremely powerful source of magnetic energy located at the North end of the lake's shoreline. As of this writing, no one has suggested an explanation for the magnetic "anomaly".
As recently as February 2000, at least two international teams were planning separate probes of the lake. Both consisted of fairly similar robotic sensors that would have been lowered through shafts(to be drilled). The team based at Cambridge University, London were sponsored by the UK and US governments, and backed by NASA technology. For reasons not clear, both programs have been shelved indefinitely, with NASA going so far as to deny any involvement, and both governments citing "environmental concerns". An independent source that visited Norway's research base some 150 miles to the East stated that a large amount of new equipment and personnel have been arriving at Russia's Vostok Station over the last six months. This is interesting considering Russia's current financial situation.
A final note is a verified dispatch out of Casey Station(AU). The pair of women adventurers who were attempting to ski across the continent last month, and were extracted by plane during the last leg of their trip, did NOT request the intervention. Over the protests of the Australian crew at Casey, the two were airlifted via an extraordinary 48 hour flight by a USN Special Forces team out of American Samoa. According to the dispatch the women were insistent on reporting something unusual they had seen. The latest news reports have the pair resting in "seclusion".
LAKE VOSTOK : A Curiosity or a Focus for Interdisciplinary Study?
The Lost World of Lake Vostok  Radio Echo Sounding of Ice
Deciphering Mysteries of Past Climate From Antarctic Ice Cores
Antarctica's Lake Vostok  Exploring Lake Vostok  Scientists say Antarctic lake worth a look-see

Frozen Time Capsule From Lake Vostok Arrives At Montana State University
Bacteria May Thrive in Antarctic Lake The frosty plains of Europa


NEXUS MAGAZINE UK Office                                                   
55 Queens Road, East Grinstead, West Sussex, RH19 1BG, UK.
Tel: +44 (0)1342 322854;  Fax: +44 (0)1342 324574
UK Office e-mail:
Head Office e-mail (Australia):

Best regards,
David Kingston
The following e-mail reflects Professor Thomas Gold's views on the subject of the above Nexus Magazine Lake Vostock post data. Prof Gold and I have entered into a long e-mail debate over Martian Water & Palaeo Seas/planetary wide Ice sheets and have discussed at length his theories of continuously renewed Earth Core-Mantle derrived methane and oil - as opposed to the finite volume squashed bug/plant theories of the origin of oil - extant in western oil company dominated science. Prof Gold had previously stated his belief to me that Lake Vostock could contain large amounts of methane under pressure and that drilling into same might represent a hazardous operation..................... See his various oil & gas papers (including reasons for magnetite concentrations) at
Dear Mr. Mason:
Thank you for this fascinating information.
I had previously considered informing the Vostok investigators,
Russian,UK,US, that there was a severe hazard that above the water
there would most likely be a large amount of methane, and breaking
into that would be very hazardous.  It may of course be so large an
amount that letting it out would make a severe  change of atmospheric
chemistry, and hence of climate.
The bubbles in the ice, the large dome, and the magnetic anomaly all
point to such a situation.  Most permafrost regions have methane
underneath them, and this would be by far the largest of them.  May
be the scientist who vanished crashed into a methane ice bubble.
Large deposits of magnetite are common in methane-rich regions, being
produced from iron oxides acting as oxygen donor to microbes that
live on the oxidation of methane.

If you have the contacts, feel free, or even encouraged, to
distribute this letter to other parties in this business, together
with my name.  I don't wish to hide behind anonymity.
Yours sincerely,  Thomas Gold (28 February 2001)


NOTE:  When Kent Steadman was still alive, we used to collaborate via IM on all the time.  It's pretty cool when I discover that we are still doing this after his death as well.  Thanks Kent!


Lake Vostok (Russian: восток, "east") is the largest of more than 140 subglacial lakes found under the surface of Antarctica. It is located beneath Russia's Vostok Station, 4,000 meters (13,000 ft) under the surface of the central Antarctic ice sheet, within the Australian Antarctic Territory. It is 250 km long by 50 km wide at its widest point, thus similar in size to Lake Ontario, and is divided into two deep basins by a ridge. The water over the ridge is about 200 m (650 ft) deep, compared to roughly 400 m (1,300 ft) deep in the northern basin and 800 m (2,600 ft) deep in the southern. Lake Vostok covers an area of 15,690 km² (6,058 mi²). It has an estimated volume of 5,400 km³ (1,300 cubic miles) and consists of fresh water. The average depth is 344 m. In May 2005 an island was found in the center of the lake.
Lake Vostok
When imaged from space by radar, Lake Vostok can be seen as a flat area within the ice sheet. (NASA GSFC)
Coordinates 77°0′S 105°0′E / 77°S 105°E / -77; 105Coordinates: 77°0′S 105°0′E / 77°S 105°E / -77; 105
Lake type subglacial rift lake
Basin  countries (Antarctica)
Max. length 250 km
Max. width 50 km
Surface area 15,690 km²
Average depth 344 m
Max. depth 1,000 m
Water volume 5,400 ± 1,600 km³
Residence time (of lake water) 1,000,000 yrs
Islands 1 (found May 2005)
Settlements Vostok Station


Radar imaging

Airborne ice-penetrating radar data first showed lakes beneath the Antarctic ice-sheet in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The existence of Lake Vostok was first noted in 1973 by scientists of the Scott Polar Research Institute,[1] but not named by them.

Russian and British scientists delineated the lake in 1996 by integrating a variety of data, including airborne ice-penetrating radar imaging observations and spaceborne radar altimetry. It has been confirmed that the lake contains large amounts of liquid water under the more than three-kilometer thick icecap, promising to be the most unspoiled lake on Earth. Its water is very old, with a mean residence time in the order of one million years (as compared with six years for Lake Ontario, which is typical for lakes of that size).[2]


The average water temperature is around −3 °C (27 °F); it remains liquid below the normal freezing point because of high pressure from the weight of the ice above it. Geothermal heat from the Earth's interior warms the bottom of the lake. The ice sheet itself insulates the lake from cold temperatures on the surface.

 Ice core

Researchers working at Vostok Station produced one of the world's longest ice cores in 1998. A joint Russian, French, and U.S. team drilled and analyzed the core, which is 3,623 metres (11,890 ft) long. Ice samples from cores drilled close to the top of the lake have been analyzed to be as old as 420,000 years, suggesting that the lake has been sealed under the icecap for between 500,000 and more than a million years. Drilling of the core was deliberately halted roughly 100 metres (300 ft)[3] above the suspected boundary where the ice sheet and the liquid waters of the lake are thought to meet. This was to prevent contamination of the lake from the 60 ton column of freon and aviation fuel Russian scientists filled it with to prevent it from freezing over.

From this core, specifically from ice that is thought to have formed from lake water freezing onto the base of the ice sheet, evidence has been found, in the form of microbes, to suggest that the lake water supports life. Scientists suggested that the lake could possess a unique habitat for ancient bacteria with an isolated microbial gene pool containing characteristics developed perhaps 500,000 years ago.[4]



Since Lake Vostok consists of two separate basins divided by a ridge, it has been suggested that the chemical and biological compositions of these two ecosystems are likely to be different.

 Pressure and oxygen

Lake Vostok is an oligotrophic extreme environment, one that is supersaturated with oxygen, with oxygen levels 50 times higher than those typically found in ordinary freshwater lakes on Earth. The sheer weight of the continental icecap sitting on top of Lake Vostok is believed to contribute to the high oxygen concentration. Besides dissolving in the water, oxygen and other gases are trapped in a type of structure called a clathrate. In clathrate structures, gases are enclosed in an icy cage and look like packed snow. These structures form at the high-pressure depths of Lake Vostok and would become unstable if brought to the surface.[2]


No other natural lake environment on Earth is as rich in oxygen and it is speculated that any organisms inhabiting the lake would have needed to evolve special adaptations to survive. These adaptations to an oxygen-rich environment might include high concentrations of protective enzymes.

Due to the lake's similarity to the Jupiter moon Europa and Saturn's moon Enceladus, any confirmation of life living in Lake Vostok would strengthen the prospect for the possible presence of life on Europa or Enceladus.[5]

 Tidal forces

In April 2005, German, Russian, and Japanese researchers found that the lake has tides. Depending on the position of the Sun and the Moon, the surface of the lake rises between 1 and 2 cm. The researchers assume that the fluctuation of the lake surface has the effect of a pump that keeps the water circulating, which would be necessary for the survival of microorganisms if there are any.


To probe, without contamination, the waters of Lake Vostok for life, plans were initiated in 2001 by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to start with a melter probe — the so-called "cryobot" — which melts down through the ice over Lake Vostok, unspooling a communications and power cable as it goes. The cryobot carries with it a small submersible, called a "hydrobot", which is deployed when the cryobot has melted to the ice-water interface. The hydrobot then swims off and "looks for life" with a camera and other instruments.[6][7]

In January 2006, Robin Bell and Michael Studinger, Geophysical researchers from Columbia University, announced in Geophysical Research Letters the discovery of two smaller lakes under the icecap, named 90 Degrees East and Sovetskaya.

It is also suspected that the Antarctic subglacial lakes may be connected by a network of subterranean rivers. CPOM glaciologists Duncan Wingham (University College, London) and Martin Siegert (University of Bristol, now University of Edinburgh) published in Nature in 2006 that many of the subglacial lakes of Antarctica are at least temporarily interconnected. Because of varying water pressure in individual lakes, large, sub-surface rivers may suddenly form and then force large amounts of water through the solid ice.[2]

 See also


  1. ^ Oswald, G. K. A.; Robin, G. de Q. (1973). "Lakes beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet". Nature 245 (5423): 251–254. doi:10.1038/245251a0. 
  2. ^ a b c Siegert MJ (2000). "The identification, examination and exploration of Antarctic subglacial lakes". Sci Prog 83 ( Pt 3): 223–42. PMID 11077478. 
  3. ^ Jouzel J, Petit JR, Souchez R, Barkov NI, Lipenkov VY, Raynaud D, Stievenard M, Vassiliev NI, Verbeke V, Vimeux F (1999). "More than 200 meters of lake ice above subglacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica". Science 286 (5447): 2138–41. doi:10.1126/science.286.5447.2138. PMID 10591641. 
  4. ^ Priscu JC, Adams EE, Lyons WB, Voytek MA, Mogk DW, Brown RL, McKay CP, Takacs CD, Welch KA, Wolf CF, Kirshtein JD, Avci R (1999). "Geomicrobiology of subglacial ice above Lake Vostok, Antarctica". Science 286 (5447): 2141–4. doi:10.1126/science.286.5447.2141. PMID 10591642. 
  5. ^ "Mystery of Antarctica's 15-Million Year-Old Lake". The Daily Galaxy. 2007-12-04. Retrieved 2007-12-05. 
  6. ^ Ice Explorer Conceived for Other Worlds Gets Arctic Test
  7. ^ Robot to Explore Buried Ice Lake

External links





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    EDITOR: want UFO disclosure--more than standard press-pap? Huh? HUH? Soon to come, Kent's Cap'n Nemo Theory. For now try to guess what that theory might be, tain't difficult. Think this, tech, really important tech, is NOT the property of governments nor even the military-industrial complex, but individuals, genius rogues. Do NOT follow the Fortune 500 money, because the good projects might be simple and will NOT make a pile of cash for Daddy Warbucks. Follow the rogues-trail. Alas, some of the tech-outriders may or may not necessarily be genius humanitarians. Gosh, guess that IS the theory. DONE! Just needs names and enhancements! Bet this is what "done-in" Jessup, Forrestal, maybe Branton! Here's some clues below.


    Date: 6/26/01 8:31:24 AM Pacific Daylight Time

    Ah, Kent! Looks like you figured it out!

    You're on the right track. Many discoveries and inventions are not built or marketed because big business owns the patents and won't build them. Why? Because there is no money to be made by them because anyone with a little bit of skill can build them at home.

    Yes, there are devices that create almost free energy, and there really is a way to run a car on water. I have no doubt that UFOs are built and operated by private groups.

    I am building a device that has several patents on it, so I can't sell it. The patents go back to 1935! People have built this, taken to the media, and have been threatened by government officials. They have been told that the device would destroy the entire economy of the western world. Therefore, I'm building it for myself only. While researching this, I have found evidence that thousands of these devices may be in use by individuals who keep quiet. No, this isn't a UFO, its much simpler than that, and you wouldn't recognize it as anything special if you saw it.

    Keep looking Kent, but the secret is that you DON'T want to follow the money, because there is no money to be made with these things. Follow the underground, grassroots organizations. Pay attention to private web pages (like yours).

    Does Captain Nemo exist? You bet he does! :-)

    NOTE:  When you click on the red dots, it goes to more pages.



    Hanebu - Die Nazi-Flugscheiben


    EDITOR: getting feedback that these reports are very significant

    During this ten-year period, the Vril Society members were supposedly the first group to attempt the back-engineering of an extraterrestrial spacecraft. "A German writer, John Von Helsing, describes the discovery of a crashed saucer in the Black Forest in 1936 and says that this technology was taken and combined with the information the Vril Society had received through channeling and was made into a further project called the Haunebu."



    On May 19, 1943 the allied forces suspected since something of strange happened in the "Antarctica German base" because of the great "movement" of submarines in direction to the South Atlantic. more

    It's amazing this topic was lost to "ufo mystery" websites. Perhaps someone wrote a book about this. I think the public should really study this, and admit what the Germans were shown. It appears that Hitler was not a part of this secret German group that went to Antarctica after WWII. more




    ANTARCTICA: The anomaly was big in another way, encompassing the entire Southeast corner of the lake, about (65 b 46 miles) 105 km by 75 km

    Clue: were many ancient temples magnetic in nature?

    Here we have the standard version of all the furious activity currently underway in Antarctica. If this information turns out to be lip service, at least we have what they did say on record.

    UPDATE: Unique Buried South Pole Telescope Points To Earth's Center

    UPDATE: Life at the bottom of the world, possibly related, CIA funding at University of Hawaii  Professor of Planetary Sciences and Consultant received awards and honors from diverse organizations such as the City and County of Honolulu, NASA and the CIA

    COMMENTARY: The U of H is a viper pit of intelligence types, predominately the CIA. They like the warm weather in Hawaii. They even have a telescope in Antarctica  named after them: VIPER



    EXPERIMENTS: read between the lines: HAARP SOUTH POLE?

    Date: 3/15/01 7:47:42 PM Pacific Standard Time

    UPDATE: Hi Kent: Strangely, no one is communicating out of Antarctica right now, no one. There's about 232 people at McMurdo, and quite a number of scientists, but no one's talking. This is new: Ambitious plans to penetrate icebound Lake Vostok have slowed to a crawl

    Almost equal in area to Lake Ontario but up to four times as deep..."The lake is not the big homogeneous feature we thought before," says Columbia geophysicist Michael Studinger. It contains "islands" where land meets ice and pockets where water rises to different levels.

    MCMURDO STATION AND VOSTOK STATION Aeronomy & Astrophysics (21 Scientists) I.D. No. Institution  Blankenship (+20) GS-098-O University of Texas, Austin

    Hoagland offers theories

    Deep-ice X-ray

    This season, airborne surveyors mapped the "surface" of Lake Vostok like never before. Take a look miles beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    Aerogeophysical Operations in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Polar Topography, bathymetry Satellite Images of Area Adjacent to Polar Opening  Hollow Mars


    Beginning in 1938, long before the end of the Second World War, the Nazi's commenced to send out numerous exploratory missions to the Queen Maud region of Antarctica. A steady stream of expeditions were reportedly sent out from [at the time] white supremacist South Africa. Over 230,000 square miles of the frozen continent were mapped from the air, and the Germans discovered vast regions that were surprisingly free of ice, as well as warm water lakes and cave inlets. One vast ice cave within the glacier was reportedly found to extend 30 miles to a large hot-water geothermal lake deep below. Various scientific teams were moved in to the area, including hunters, trappers, collectors and zoologists, botanists, agriculturists, plant specialists, mycologists, parasitologists, marine biologists, ornithologists, and many others. Numerous divisions of the German government were involved in the top secret project. more

    NEU-SCHWABENLAND  Following my Neu-Schwabenland hunch  The German grasping at the Antarctic  

    THE VRIL SOCIETY 2 Tesla and Vril  


    "Their source of power was the Black Sun, an infinite beam of light which though invisible to the human eye is real and there.

    IUFO: Marrs-Antarctica A Nazi Base?

    Date: 4/17/01 9:45:57 AM Pacific Daylight Time

    The article and website are VERY interesting because when I worked at the KSC and Cape Canaveral in the late 50s; and up to 1992, I was a friend of Dr. Wernher von Braun (German Scientist who worked on the Apollo Program) and heard much concerning the Hitler Shangi La at the South Pole. It is a FACT! Look at my website. Open it with Netscape. Clark (McClelland), former ScO, Ground Test Astronaut), Space Shuttle Fleet, Apollo Lunar Program, Mercury, Gemini, Sky Lab, ISS, etc. Open:


    Excerpts from the movie. This movie was made to cover up the THREE HOUR missing time when Admiral Byrd met with the nazis at their secret base in Neuschwabenland (Antarctic)

    Admiral Byrd's team of six R4-D's were fitted with the super secret "Trimetricon" spy cameras and each plane was trailing a  magnetometer. They flew over as much of the continent as they could in the short three month "summer" period, mapping and recording magnetic data. Magnetometers show anomalies in the Earth's magnetism, i.e. if there is a "hollow" place under the surface ice or  ground, it will show up on the meter.

    Operation HighJump photo gallery  Operation HighJump story  

    Missing three hours  

    Most likely, it was one of these R4Ds that was involved in Admiral Byrd's mapping flight that reportedly returned 3 hours late, due to severe weather (or encounters with Nazis, or some combination of the two). :)

    Admiral Byrd and the Inner Earth  Location and Size of the Polar Openings  Satellite Images of Area Near N. Polar Opening  Antarctica RadarSat-1 Map 2  Viewing Antarctica with RADARSAT


    In the series of reports, “The Quest for the Inner Passage,” (THEI Vol. 1) we found that Admiral Byrd, who’s family is part of the elitist crowd through kinship with England’s Royal family. Seemed to know from an early age that he was destined to explore the earth’s Polar Regions.

    In “Quest for the Inner Passage” we learned that a veil of secrecy has covered his expeditions from the start. As one biographer put it, “there were secrets that would not be talked about (1). We also learned that the One World Order paymaster John D. Rockefeller and his pals had financed every one of his early explorations. (2). And, much to the dismay of the other expedition members, all of the scientific information gathered by the members of Byrd’s First Antarctic Expedition – “enough to fill 7 large books” – was turned over to Rockefeller before anyone else had a chance to study the findings, only to vanish and never be seen again. (3).


    NEMO THEORY Radiant Energy: Unraveling Tesla’s Greatest Secret

    Of all the great inventions and discoveries of Nikola Tesla, nothing stood out with greater potential benefit to the whole of humanity than his discovery of Radiant Energy in 1889. The series of observations that led to the discovery of Radiant energy initially grew out of experiments that Tesla had conducted in an attempt to duplicate the results that Heinrich Hertz had claimed to achieve in affirming the existence of electromagnetic waves, the discovery of which Hertz announced in 1887. While replicating Hertz’s experiments, Tesla experimented with violently abrupt DC electrical discharges and discovered a new force in the process.

    THE HOLLOW EARTH: an Antarctic hole


    In July of 1937, the Nazi party's elite, such as Hitler and Goering, began sending out special teams of their elite forces. These teams were to collect all kinds of supernatural, scientific and religious items. Primarily items dealing with the supernatural, occult and the fringe sciences. During the search for Noah's Ark, along the borders of Turkey and Persia in the mountain range of Arafat, the team was exposed to a story by some of the older members of a village near the Tigress river. The story was that 200 generations ago a strange shiny house had fallen from the sky, making such a noise that it woke everyone in the village. more

    Date: 6/24/01 1:23:39 AM Pacific Daylight Time

    Hi Kent, While searching for solar catastrophe' related info I found an article in Issue 27 of Atlantis Rising entitled: UFOs of the Third Reich (Was Hitler's Last Refuge, the South Pole?), which may be of interest to you.

    You can download a .pdf copy of Issue 27 here


    Date: 6/21/01 11:40:35 PM Pacific Daylight Time

    This is interesting, Kent. Is someone (faction two) fighting back?

    What is your guess on the identities of the "factions?" Kent

    Well, I think it's safe to say that one faction is fascist-oriented, and quite mad. They're the Montauk-Denver Airport-CIA-Nazi-SRI-ufo gang. They're being opposed by Navy DARPA-patriot-technicians who understand what the other guys have, and, perhaps, how to counter it. The whole thing is like one big inter-dimensional crazy quilt, with members of both camps often working in close proximity to each other...

    Remember, both Betty and Barney Hill described a Nazi on board that saucer. I don't think they were supposed to remember that part.

    By the way, would it behoove you to put up material on Laurance Rockefeller's dubious involvement with the UFO crowd? His "Best Evidential Package" makes for great reading if you like science fiction.

    Radiant Energy: Unraveling Tesla’s Greatest Secret

    Vostock and another dead researcher


    It's insanely frustrating to search for TR-3B details, but... How 'bout this?  PDF file showing how TR-3B's are sighted flying between Air Force bases?  Looked like a semi-boring file a teacher would love.

    Here's more about that Captain Nemo Theory... and arrrrgh!  I hate how you can search the whole world on something, and the simple websites are the ones you forgot:
    Believe it or not, NO ONE seems to be linking to germanUFOchatter...
    I thought about searching for just VRIL... Hmm, it's gotta be more than just coincidence that the VRIL-ufo topic is related to the VRIL-orgone-energy topic?  I ended up looking for "dark sun", "dark matter", etc. 
    Vril (Orgone) "energy".  Is this related to the magnetic earth grid and Nazi UFOs?
    Quote about vril energy:
    "Vril is an energy which links conscious experience with physical experience.
    It is the unifier of sciences. All we need is the discovery of means by which specific
    patterns may be derived from the Vril current."
    YAY!  Free online books!  I love finding directory listings like these (Adolf Hitler directory, Shakespeare, etc...)
    English is Tough Stuff (funny link from the previous site):
    That quote about vril energy seems to be a mind-blower... Just what do all us viewers believe in?  What do we think that can happen?  What would we like to have happen?  I'll have to think more about "linking conscious experience with physical experience"...


    Bill The Mad-Info-Finder 6:50 PM Pacific Daylight Time

    Hi Kent, Your readers might be interested to know that the entire book, "Vril - the Power of the Coming Race," by Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton , is free online at:

    Also, please note a new post at detailing an encounter on the mysterious Marcahuasi plateau with the "Dark Sun:"



I didn't dream about an Android this months, but I did dream about a Cyborg.  Similar?

8-6-09 - CYBORG -  DREAM - I was working in a very large, multistory office building somewhere.  I couldn't find my purse before I went to work, so went without it, hoping my co-workers could help me get through the day - for lunch especially.  I didn't need it otherwise.

When I got to work, I discovered that I was working with a Cyborg -  a man who was pleasant enough to look at, but he had a human physique, but some kind of mechanically controlled brain, and as I later learned, he was not a nice guy - or the mechanism went wrong.  He did and made other people do unspeakable things to each other, and killed others to trap them in elevators for example, and didn't want anyone to go home.

I don't want to describe in detail what this guy was doing to people, and making them think about doing to each other, because it was so nasty, It all had to do with body functions.  I had to force myself to wake up because I couldn't tolerate even thinking about the abuse he was making people think about, but he had full control of more than one person in a time, in a local area.  As long as they didn't use the elevators, they were able to exit the building, but I could see bodies piled up and squished by the elevators as I walked by them, trying to find a stairway that he didn't have control of.  It wasn't just me he was controlling - he didn't want anyone to leave. 

The only way I could leave was to wake up and get out of his influence in that frequency.

Steve Quale & Tom Horn on Psychotronic Warfare, Superman & The Nephilim

A number of interesting questions (and answers) was brought up in a recent interview I heard with Tom Horn and Stephen Quayle. A few pieces of the "grand puzzle" fell into place (at least for me) while listening to these interviews.

Stephen Quayle began an interview series with Tom Horn on the subject of psychotronic warfare, mind control and weapons technology. The discussion continued into topics such as cyborgs, mythology, prophecies and the book of revelation, they made a few very interesting suggestions that seems to connect the "Sons of God" and the Nephilim (the Giants or the Titans) to it all. And that is a topic that I have been fascinated by for some time now. It keeps coming up again and again.









PSYCHOTRONIC WARFARE: What In The Otherworld Is Going On?
Added: Sep 10th, 2006 6:58 PM

What In The Otherworld Is Going On?

President Bush's inaugural speech included comments about the angel in the whirlwind (who hurls death and terror over the guilty land) and in his second inaugural he added the effort to create a "fire in the minds of men" (i.e., the Possessed).

What does this have to do with the following:

The use of 'vital energy' by ultraterrestrials to form dimensional gateways--whether by manipulating animal, plant, or atmospheric molecular energy--brings interesting questions to the biblical story of Genesis, where some believe super-intelligent angels known as 'Watchers' descended to earth and used antediluvian cell matter (women, animals, plants) to construct for themselves 'portals', through which they extended themselves into the material world, bringing with them physical and psychotronic warfare.

Note the implication behind this activity in Genesis:

"The benei Elohim saw the daughters of Adam, that they were fit extensions." (emphasis added [Interlinear Hebrew Bible])

'Fit extensions' could be understood to mean the use of molecular energy to format navigational, dimensional pathways. Current advances by modern scientists to blend DNA of various species using transgenics (genetically modified crops, mice with human brains, goats with human blood, rabbit-human embryos) raises a host of prophetic possibilities and questions in light of Genesis 6:

The book of Enoch expands the Genesis story to reveal that the 'sin' of angels with women included similar simultaneous activity against nature, animals, and plants.

The reason 'Watchers' might have been transgenically blending their specie with human DNA as well as animal and plant DNA (various living organisms) remains a mystery, but is curiously compelling in light of modern transgenic and similar well-funded research. Are we seeing the fulfillment of prophecy? "As it was in the days of Noah..." ?

What if, by corrupting the species 'barrier' commanded by God in which each creature was to recreate after its "own kind", Watchers successfully mingled human-animal-plant DNA and combined the hereditary traits of several species into a single new mutation? An entirely new being--Nephilim--might have suddenly possessed the combined intelligence and instincts (seeing, hearing, smelling, reacting to the environment, etc.) of several life forms and in ways unfamiliar to ancient men.

Today, molecular biologists classify the functions of genes within native species yet are unsure in many cases how a gene's coding might react from one species to another. Simply stated, transgenics is the science of altering the genetic structure and in some cases the nature of a species by introducing DNA of a different species into its genome. Such tinkering includes human embryos having their molecular biology altered through inserting animal (and if you can accept the staggering possibility, alien [demon?]) DNA into their genome.

What are the ramifications of such creatures?


For instance, many people believe that animals not only 'sense' earthquakes and 'smell' tumors but that they 'see' spirits. The Bible provides verification for this in the story of Balaam's donkey. Modern researchers likewise have uncovered evidence that animals often seem to react to things unseen (ever seen a dog barking or growling at 'nothing'?).

Now imagine what this could mean if government laboratories with unlimited budgets working beyond congressional review were to decode the gene functions that lead to animal propensities of sense, smell, sight. The ultimate psychotronic warfare could be committed against entire populations by 'agents' who appear to be human but who see and even interact with invisible forces. Biblical and apocryphal texts indicate such may have been the case with Nephilim, and brings an entirely new context to the fear-factor ancient men had of these beings.

Yet this terrifying example is only the tip of the iceberg. If interbreeding between regular and transgenic humans (a possibility many believe not only explains Genesis 6 but that could point to an imminent possibility given modern science and man's tendency to throw caution to the wind when given the chance to play 'god') ever occurs, mutated DNA will get out of the bottle. When and if that happens, 'alien' and/or animal characteristics will be introduced to human specie, altering the human genetic code and eventually eliminating humanity as we know it. Some believe that was in Genesis 6, and could be again, the whole idea.

By now your saying to yourself, huh? What does this have to do with the president's inaugural speeches concerning the angel in the whirlwind and a fire in the minds of men? (Also See Author David Lowe's Comments - Thank God Some Thinking People Understand What Tom Is Saying - Please Help Get The Word Out While There Is Time!)

Find out in what many have called the best Q-Files series ever - PSYCHOTRONIC WARFARE: What In The Otherworld Is Going On? This special 4-hour program is now available at a special price in the Raiders News Update Store. And SHARING this series with your friends and family - while there is time? - is HIGHLY ENCOURAGED!

What In The Otherworld Is Going On?

4 CD Set / 4 Hours

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