William Shakespeare



Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20, 2011

today's date

page 249


NOTE:  In 2012, I was supposed to have done a web page about this dream:


I was in a house somewhere and in front of me appeared a man with a beard who looked like Shakespeare and his face turned bright yellow and black and flashed in and out with more and more black on its face, until there was a big hole in his left cheek like he had cancer from holding chewing tobacco in his mouth all day for years.

Then a regular picture of Shakespeare appeared which I recognized immediately. My husband Edward was standing next to me and while I was thinking that Shakespeare had to have been fifth dimension thinking, Edward grabbed a large red crayon and drew red lines on Shakespeare until he looked like a big red dog.

Then my daughter came and we had to go upstairs.  On the stairway were parts of black writing pens, but they were in parts like mechanical pens with ink that could dry out, so I started grabbing all those pen parts and put them together in a box because I knew I had a lot more writing to do yet in life.

NOTE:  For some reason, I never did it, so today  3-20-13, I decided to meditate on the dream to see if it was worth doing.

I discovered that nobody knows how Shakesepeare died.  perhaps my dream is telling people how that happened to him.  I did read that he was a very heavy drinker in his lifetime, so perhaps he also used snuff and kept it in his cheek like other men do.

In my mediation, I heard a voice says:  "I was born in Pittsburgh", and a moment later, the voice said, "Edinborough".

I then decided to dream on it.

This is the dream:

3-20-13 - DREAM - I was working in an office somewhere and my work disappeared off of my desk when I was out of the room. I looked everywhere in the room and couldn't find it. 

Then I discovered that some dark green carpet pieces I had that I was going to take home was missing, as well as some dark red pieces of carpet was missing, and some squares of lace white curtain was missing as well. 

I went out into the hallway, and saw my pieces of carpet and curtains strewn along the hallway like someone took it and couldn't carry it all and like bread crumbs, a little fell here and there along the way.

So I followed the trail of carpet and curtain around the corner to another office where a tall, bearded man sat as a desk.

More pieces of carpet and curtain was on his desk, along with my work from my desk, so it was apparent that he had taken it.

I looked at him, and he looked at me, and he said, "I found all my old carpet and curtains that used to be in my old office".

I thought he was going to be mad at me for having them, but he wasn't - he was thrilled to have found his old stuff because he had treasured it in the past and now it was found again.

But, I had to go back out into the hall and retrieve the pieces he had dropped along the way when he left my office, and decided I should make a special trip with my car, which I could park right outside the building door to make it easier because it was raining outside, and I didn't want anything to get wet.

At some point then, I found a piece of pinkish purple stone, the color of amethyst, and knew that was connected to that old boss as well, and I wanted to keep it.



1-7-99 - DREAM - I seemed to be the manager of an apartment building. I was walking in the hallway trying to decide if I wanted to go to the bank or the post office or both. It was a pretty long walk so I decided not to, but would wait until I had my car and drive there.

I had a small enamel white kettle with a red rim that some green vegetable had been soaked in. The food was eaten but the liquid was still in it. I was trying to figure out where I could set it down without taking it all the way back to my apartment.

I set it down by a stairway. I saw some old people leaving through a dark brown side door, but they slipped out the door before I could speak to them.

Another old couple was moving some antique furniture out of their crowded apartment. I thought I saw that they had an ironing board with a colorful orange cover on it. I needed an ironing board, so I spoke to them and said, "Are you getting rid of this stuff? I need one of those!" I touched what I thought was the ironing board, and it turned into a Chinese lacquered cabinet of orange with black serpents painted all over it. I was disappointed that it wasn't an ironing board, but these people now thought I had knowledge of ancient Chinese mythology and creation from the serpents and I heard the husband and wife saying to each other, "I'm really impressed with her, she has all this knowledge about the serpents.

They were taking their stuff outside to a rummage sale and they had a round table with piles of old magazines on it. I was interested in the magazines. They had green pages with piano music on some of the pages. They wanted me to have the magazines but they wanted $1.50 each for them. They didn't have that much value to me and there was a woman watching over the rummage area so I couldn't just take them.

I walked over further where there were clotheslines hung with clothing and colorful sheets hanging. I was looking for patterns of fabric I could use for quilts. I saw some I wanted but I didn't have my purse, so I went to get it. The purse was stuffed with cash and checks so I went back to buy the dresses and sheets I liked. Just as I got back there, other women were buying what I wanted. I was just a moment too late. I was disappointed. Most everything had been sold before I came back with my money, so I bought nothing and started walking back home.

I came into my own building and saw some tall college-age men coming towards me. They were all about 9 feet tall and so handsome with booming bass voices. They were alternately reciting Shakespeare-type poetry and talking about how they wanted a friend who could be a non-sexual friend to just enjoy their company.

I didn't feel old, but figured they would see me as 60 years old and they wouldn't be interested in letting me be that person. I felt disappointed that I was too old to enjoy that relationship with them.

When they reached the door, they turned around and began coming along behind me. I walked through a large wooden door that had a black serpentine wooden handle in the center of the door. I pushed open the door and went through. Instantly I saw that my clothing was falling off. I clutched my bra to my body to cover myself. I knew these guys were right behind me and would be coming through that same door in a second and I didn't want them to see me this way. I saw some maintenance room doors on the right and quickly pushed open a rickety wooden door and rushed through it. As I did, I saw it was a stairway going up to the next floor. As I came to the stairway and began to go up it, a beautiful young, lithe dancing girl with long dark hair separated out of myself.

I was able to speak with her as she gracefully moved alongside of myself. She was totally naked and I saw that she had white sesame-like seeds hanging all over her body around the waist and up her body to her neck, and around her neck. I was rather grossed out and asked her what it was.She said, "These are seeds. If you take a few and put them on your livingroom table and sprinkle Folic Acid on them, they become human fetuses.

That made perfect sense to me and I knew I needed to pass that information along to a good friend of mine who wanted to be pregnant.

NOTE: When I talked to my friend in the morning, she told me that her doctor had just recommended the same thing to her the day before.



Red Dog Squadron - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia -

It was performed 400 years after Shakespeare wrote it in 1599. After moving to Los Angeles, Raider and Roday officially launched RED DOG with their inaugural ...


How Did Shakespeare Die?

The cause of Shakespeare's death is a mystery, but an entry in the diary of John Ward, the vicar of Holy Trinity Church in Stratford (where Shakespeare is buried), tells us that "Shakespeare, Drayton, and Ben Jonson had a merry meeting and it seems drank too hard, for Shakespeare died of a fever there contracted." Ward, a self-proclaimed Shakespeare fan, wrote his diary fifty years after Shakespeare died and most historians agree it appears to be a baseless anecdote. It should be noted though that a serious outbreak of typhus, known as the "new fever", in 1616 (the year Shakespeare died), lends credibility to Ward's story.

C. Martin Mitchell, in his insightful biography of Shakespeare's physician and son-in-law, Dr. John Hall, presents the following hypothesis: "I have formed the opinion that it was more likely than not in the nature of a cerebral hemorrhage or apoplexy that quickly deepened and soon became fatal. There are three reasons for this. Firstly, the hurried reconstruction and inter-lineated clauses of the Will not allowing time for it to be copied afresh before signature; Secondly, the earliest and clearest impressions of the Droeshout frontispiece of the First Folio show outstanding shadings, suggesting marked thickening of the left temporal artery– a sign of atheroma and arterio-sclerosis; and thirdly, such a termination is quite common in men who have undergone such continuous mental and physical strain over a prolonged period as our actor-manager-dramatist must have been subjected to throughout his, undoubtedly, strenuous career. Richard Burbage who daily shared the same theatrical life, himself died of such a seizure after twenty-four hours illness [in 1619]" (Mitchell, 79).

Unfortunately, Shakespeare's death at the age of fifty-two will almost surely remain a mystery. We do know, however, that in a world where plague, syphilis, typhus, scurvy, tuberculosis, smallpox, malaria, dysentery and toothaches shortened a Londoner's life expectancy to thirty-five years, Shakespeare fared quite well, leading a relatively long and healthy life.

Shakespeare bust

Shakespeare's bust in his tomb at Stratford-upon-Avon
photo by Michael Best

Shakespeare's burial is recorded in the Stratford Parish Register as occurring on 25 April 1616; he died on April 23.

The cause of his death is unknown. Some scholars have suggested that the signatures on his will indicate that he was already sick at the date of signing, 25 March 1616.

Shakespeare was buried on 25 April 1616 in Holy Trinity Church, Stratford, where he had been baptised just over 52 years earlier. His tomb, which lies beneath* the floor of the church inside the chancel rail, is covered by a stone* inscribed with a curse*:

Good friend for Jesus sake forbear
To dig the dust enclosed here!
Blest be the man that spares these stones,
And curst be he that moves my bones

Mabillard, Amanda. Shakespeare's Death Shakespeare Online. 20 Aug. 2000.

Kay, Dennis. Shakespeare. New York: William Morrow, Inc., 1992.
Levi, Peter. The Life and Times of William Shakespeare. London: Macmillan, 1988.
Mitchell, C. Martin. The Shakespeare Circle: A Life of Dr. John Hall. Birmingham: Cornish Brothers Ltd., 1949.
Picard, Liza. Elizabeth's London. London: Phoenix Press, 2003.


Related Articles

Did Shakespeare's Death Go Unnoticed?
Shakespeare's Burial
Life in Stratford (structures and guilds)
Life in Stratford (trades, laws, furniture, hygiene)

Sports and Games in Shakespeare's England [A-L]
Sports and Games in Shakespeare's England [M-Z]
Essential Globe Information
Going to a Play in Elizabethan London

Was Shakespeare Italian?
Shakespeare's Ancestry
Shakespeare's Parents

Shakespeare's Birth
Shakespeare's Siblings
Shakespeare's Education

Shakespeare's Lost Years
Shakespeare's Marriage
Shakespeare's Children
Shakespeare as Actor and Playwright

Shakespeare's Influence
Shakespeare's Language
Portraits of Shakespeare
Shakespeare's Contemporaries
Quotes About Shakespeare
Shakespeare and the Gunpowder Plot
Most Common Questions About Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616)[nb 1] was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.[1] He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon".[2][nb 2] His extant works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays,[nb 3] 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, two epitaphs on a man named John Combe, one epitaph on Elias James, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.[3]

Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others.[4]

Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613.[5][nb 4] His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the 16th century. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights.

Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. In 1623, John Heminges and Henry Condell, two friends and fellow actors of Shakespeare, published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare's. It was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare is hailed, presciently, as "not of an age, but for all time."[6]

Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the 19th century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeare's genius, and the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that George Bernard Shaw called "bardolatry".[7] In the 20th century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.

Early life

William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer.[8] He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual birthdate remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, St George's Day.[9] This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholar's mistake, has proved appealing to biographers, since Shakespeare died 23 April 1616.[10] He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.[11]

Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was probably educated at the King's New School in Stratford,[12] a free school chartered in 1553,[13] about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were largely similar, the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree,[14] and the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.[15]

At the age of 18, Shakespeare married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The next day two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage.[16] The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste, since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times,[17] and six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, Susanna, baptised 26 May 1583.[18] Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years later and were baptised 2 February 1585.[19] Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596.[20]

After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592, and scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".[21] Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare’s first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is also supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him.[22] Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London.[23] John Aubrey reported that Shakespeare had been a country schoolmaster.[24] Some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will.[25] Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, and Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area.[26]

London and theatrical career

"All the world's a stage,
and all the men and women merely players:
they have their exits and their entrances;
and one man in his time plays many parts..."

As You Like It, Act II, Scene 7, 139–42[27]

It is not known exactly when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of his plays were on the London stage by 1592.[28] By then, he was sufficiently well known in London to be attacked in print by the playwright Robert Greene in his Groats-Worth of Wit:

...there is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tiger's heart wrapped in a Player's hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country.[29]

Scholars differ on the exact meaning of these words,[30] but most agree that Greene is accusing Shakespeare of reaching above his rank in trying to match university-educated writers such as Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Nashe and Greene himself (the "university wits").[31] The italicised phrase parodying the line "Oh, tiger's heart wrapped in a woman's hide" from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3, along with the pun "Shake-scene", identifies Shakespeare as Greene's target. Here Johannes Factotum—"Jack of all trades"— means a second-rate tinkerer with the work of others, rather than the more common "universal genius".[30][32]

Greene's attack is the earliest surviving mention of Shakespeare’s career in the theatre. Biographers suggest that his career may have begun any time from the mid-1580s to just before Greene's remarks.[33] From 1594, Shakespeare's plays were performed by only the Lord Chamberlain's Men, a company owned by a group of players, including Shakespeare, that soon became the leading playing company in London.[34] After the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, the company was awarded a royal patent by the new king, James I, and changed its name to the King's Men.[35]

In 1599, a partnership of company members built their own theatre on the south bank of the River Thames, which they called the Globe. In 1608, the partnership also took over the Blackfriars indoor theatre. Records of Shakespeare's property purchases and investments indicate that the company made him a wealthy man.[36] In 1597, he bought the second-largest house in Stratford, New Place, and in 1605, he invested in a share of the parish tithes in Stratford.[37]

Some of Shakespeare's plays were published in quarto editions from 1594. By 1598, his name had become a selling point and began to appear on the title pages.[38] Shakespeare continued to act in his own and other plays after his success as a playwright. The 1616 edition of Ben Jonson's Works names him on the cast lists for Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Sejanus His Fall (1603).[39] The absence of his name from the 1605 cast list for Jonson’s Volpone is taken by some scholars as a sign that his acting career was nearing its end.[40] The First Folio of 1623, however, lists Shakespeare as one of "the Principal Actors in all these Plays", some of which were first staged after Volpone, although we cannot know for certain which roles he played.[41] In 1610, John Davies of Hereford wrote that "good Will" played "kingly" roles.[42] In 1709, Rowe passed down a tradition that Shakespeare played the ghost of Hamlet's father.[43] Later traditions maintain that he also played Adam in As You Like It and the Chorus in Henry V,[44] though scholars doubt the sources of the information.[45]

Shakespeare divided his time between London and Stratford during his career. In 1596, the year before he bought New Place as his family home in Stratford, Shakespeare was living in the parish of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, north of the River Thames.[46] He moved across the river to Southwark by 1599, the year his company constructed the Globe Theatre there.[47] By 1604, he had moved north of the river again, to an area north of St Paul's Cathedral with many fine houses. There he rented rooms from a French Huguenot named Christopher Mountjoy, a maker of ladies' wigs and other headgear.[48]

Later years and death

Rowe was the first biographer to pass down the tradition that Shakespeare retired to Stratford some years before his death;[49] but retirement from all work was uncommon at that time,[50] and Shakespeare continued to visit London.[49] In 1612, Shakespeare was called as a witness in Bellott v. Mountjoy, a court case concerning the marriage settlement of Mountjoy's daughter, Mary.[51] In March 1613 he bought a gatehouse in the former Blackfriars priory;[52] and from November 1614 he was in London for several weeks with his son-in-law, John Hall.[53]

After 1606–1607, Shakespeare wrote fewer plays, and none are attributed to him after 1613.[54] His last three plays were collaborations, probably with John Fletcher,[55] who succeeded him as the house playwright for the King’s Men.[56]

Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616[57] and was survived by his wife and two daughters. Susanna had married a physician, John Hall, in 1607,[58] and Judith had married Thomas Quiney, a vintner, two months before Shakespeare’s death.[59]

In his will, Shakespeare left the bulk of his large estate to his elder daughter Susanna.[60] The terms instructed that she pass it down intact to "the first son of her body".[61] The Quineys had three children, all of whom died without marrying.[62] The Halls had one child, Elizabeth, who married twice but died without children in 1670, ending Shakespeare’s direct line.[63] Shakespeare's will scarcely mentions his wife, Anne, who was probably entitled to one third of his estate automatically.[64] He did make a point, however, of leaving her "my second best bed", a bequest that has led to much speculation.[65] Some scholars see the bequest as an insult to Anne, whereas others believe that the second-best bed would have been the matrimonial bed and therefore rich in significance.[66]

Shakespeare was buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church two days after his death.[67] The epitaph carved into the stone slab covering his grave includes a curse against moving his bones, which was carefully avoided during restoration of the church in 2008:[68]

Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare,
To digg the dvst encloased heare.
Bleste be ye man yt spares thes stones,
And cvrst be he yt moves my bones.[69]

(Modern spelling: Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear, | To dig the dust enclosed here. | Blessed be the man that spares these stones, | And cursed be he that moves my bones.)

Sometime before 1623, a funerary monument was erected in his memory on the north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing. Its plaque compares him to Nestor, Socrates, and Virgil.[70] In 1623, in conjunction with the publication of the First Folio, the Droeshout engraving was published.[71]

Shakespeare has been commemorated in many statues and memorials around the world, including funeral monuments in Southwark Cathedral and Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey.


Most playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others at some point, and critics agree that Shakespeare did the same, mostly early and late in his career.[72] Some attributions, such as Titus Andronicus and the early history plays, remain controversial, while The Two Noble Kinsmen and the lost Cardenio have well-attested contemporary documentation. Textual evidence also supports the view that several of the plays were revised by other writers after their original composition.

The first recorded works of Shakespeare are Richard III and the three parts of Henry VI, written in the early 1590s during a vogue for historical drama. Shakespeare's plays are difficult to date, however,[73] and studies of the texts suggest that Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew and The Two Gentlemen of Verona may also belong to Shakespeare’s earliest period.[74] His first histories, which draw heavily on the 1587 edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland,[75] dramatise the destructive results of weak or corrupt rule and have been interpreted as a justification for the origins of the Tudor dynasty.[76] The early plays were influenced by the works of other Elizabethan dramatists, especially Thomas Kyd and Christopher Marlowe, by the traditions of medieval drama, and by the plays of Seneca.[77] The Comedy of Errors was also based on classical models, but no source for The Taming of the Shrew has been found, though it is related to a separate play of the same name and may have derived from a folk story.[78] Like The Two Gentlemen of Verona, in which two friends appear to approve of rape,[79] the Shrew's story of the taming of a woman's independent spirit by a man sometimes troubles modern critics and directors.[80]

Shakespeare's early classical and Italianate comedies, containing tight double plots and precise comic sequences, give way in the mid-1590s to the romantic atmosphere of his greatest comedies.[81] A Midsummer Night's Dream is a witty mixture of romance, fairy magic, and comic lowlife scenes.[82] Shakespeare's next comedy, the equally romantic Merchant of Venice, contains a portrayal of the vengeful Jewish moneylender Shylock, which reflects Elizabethan views but may appear derogatory to modern audiences.[83] The wit and wordplay of Much Ado About Nothing,[84] the charming rural setting of As You Like It, and the lively merrymaking of Twelfth Night complete Shakespeare's sequence of great comedies.[85] After the lyrical Richard II, written almost entirely in verse, Shakespeare introduced prose comedy into the histories of the late 1590s, Henry IV, parts 1 and 2, and Henry V. His characters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly between comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrative variety of his mature work.[86] This period begins and ends with two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet, the famous romantic tragedy of sexually charged adolescence, love, and death;[87] and Julius Caesar—based on Sir Thomas North's 1579 translation of Plutarch's Parallel Lives—which introduced a new kind of drama.[88] According to Shakespearean scholar James Shapiro, in Julius Caesar "the various strands of politics, character, inwardness, contemporary events, even Shakespeare's own reflections on the act of writing, began to infuse each other".[89]

In the early 17th century, Shakespeare wrote the so-called "problem plays" Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida, and All's Well That Ends Well and a number of his best known tragedies.[90] Many critics believe that Shakespeare's greatest tragedies represent the peak of his art. The titular hero of one of Shakespeare's most famous tragedies, Hamlet, has probably been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famous soliloquy which begins "To be or not to be; that is the question".[91] Unlike the introverted Hamlet, whose fatal flaw is hesitation, the heroes of the tragedies that followed, Othello and King Lear, are undone by hasty errors of judgement.[92] The plots of Shakespeare's tragedies often hinge on such fatal errors or flaws, which overturn order and destroy the hero and those he loves.[93] In Othello, the villain Iago stokes Othello's sexual jealousy to the point where he murders the innocent wife who loves him.[94] In King Lear, the old king commits the tragic error of giving up his powers, initiating the events which lead to the torture and blinding of the Earl of Gloucester and the murder of Lear's youngest daughter Cordelia. According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play offers neither its good characters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty".[95] In Macbeth, the shortest and most compressed of Shakespeare's tragedies,[96] uncontrollable ambition incites Macbeth and his wife, Lady Macbeth, to murder the rightful king and usurp the throne, until their own guilt destroys them in turn.[97] In this play, Shakespeare adds a supernatural element to the tragic structure. His last major tragedies, Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus, contain some of Shakespeare's finest poetry and were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and critic T. S. Eliot.[98]

In his final period, Shakespeare turned to romance or tragicomedy and completed three more major plays: Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest, as well as the collaboration, Pericles, Prince of Tyre. Less bleak than the tragedies, these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the 1590s, but they end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragic errors.[99] Some commentators have seen this change in mood as evidence of a more serene view of life on Shakespeare's part, but it may merely reflect the theatrical fashion of the day.[100] Shakespeare collaborated on two further surviving plays, Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen, probably with John Fletcher.[101]


It is not clear for which companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays. The title page of the 1594 edition of Titus Andronicus reveals that the play had been acted by three different troupes.[102] After the plagues of 1592–3, Shakespeare's plays were performed by his own company at The Theatre and the Curtain in Shoreditch, north of the Thames.[103] Londoners flocked there to see the first part of Henry IV, Leonard Digges recording, "Let but Falstaff come, Hal, Poins, the rest...and you scarce shall have a room".[104] When the company found themselves in dispute with their landlord, they pulled The Theatre down and used the timbers to construct the Globe Theatre, the first playhouse built by actors for actors, on the south bank of the Thames at Southwark.[105] The Globe opened in autumn 1599, with Julius Caesar one of the first plays staged. Most of Shakespeare's greatest post-1599 plays were written for the Globe, including Hamlet, Othello and King Lear.[106]

After the Lord Chamberlain's Men were renamed the King's Men in 1603, they entered a special relationship with the new King James. Although the performance records are patchy, the King's Men performed seven of Shakespeare's plays at court between 1 November 1604 and 31 October 1605, including two performances of The Merchant of Venice.[107] After 1608, they performed at the indoor Blackfriars Theatre during the winter and the Globe during the summer.[108] The indoor setting, combined with the Jacobean fashion for lavishly staged masques, allowed Shakespeare to introduce more elaborate stage devices. In Cymbeline, for example, Jupiter descends "in thunder and lightning, sitting upon an eagle: he throws a thunderbolt. The ghosts fall on their knees."[109]

The actors in Shakespeare's company included the famous Richard Burbage, William Kempe, Henry Condell and John Heminges. Burbage played the leading role in the first performances of many of Shakespeare's plays, including Richard III, Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear.[110] The popular comic actor Will Kempe played the servant Peter in Romeo and Juliet and Dogberry in Much Ado About Nothing, among other characters.[111] He was replaced around the turn of the 16th century by Robert Armin, who played roles such as Touchstone in As You Like It and the fool in King Lear.[112] In 1613, Sir Henry Wotton recorded that Henry VIII "was set forth with many extraordinary circumstances of pomp and ceremony".[113] On 29 June, however, a cannon set fire to the thatch of the Globe and burned the theatre to the ground, an event which pinpoints the date of a Shakespeare play with rare precision.[113]

Textual sources

Title page of the First Folio, 1623.
Copper engraving of Shakespeare
by Martin Droeshout.

In 1623, John Heminges and Henry Condell, two of Shakespeare's friends from the King's Men, published the First Folio, a collected edition of Shakespeare's plays. It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for the first time.[114] Many of the plays had already appeared in quarto versions—flimsy books made from sheets of paper folded twice to make four leaves.[115] No evidence suggests that Shakespeare approved these editions, which the First Folio describes as "stol'n and surreptitious copies".[116] Alfred Pollard termed some of them "bad quartos" because of their adapted, paraphrased or garbled texts, which may in places have been reconstructed from memory.[117] Where several versions of a play survive, each differs from the other. The differences may stem from copying or printing errors, from notes by actors or audience members, or from Shakespeare's own papers.[118] In some cases, for example Hamlet, Troilus and Cressida and Othello, Shakespeare could have revised the texts between the quarto and folio editions. In the case of King Lear, however, while most modern additions do conflate them, the 1623 folio version is so different from the 1608 quarto, that the Oxford Shakespeare prints them both, arguing that they cannot be conflated without confusion.[119]


In 1593 and 1594, when the theatres were closed because of plague, Shakespeare published two narrative poems on erotic themes, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece. He dedicated them to Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. In Venus and Adonis, an innocent Adonis rejects the sexual advances of Venus; while in The Rape of Lucrece, the virtuous wife Lucrece is raped by the lustful Tarquin.[120] Influenced by Ovid's Metamorphoses,[121] the poems show the guilt and moral confusion that result from uncontrolled lust.[122] Both proved popular and were often reprinted during Shakespeare's lifetime. A third narrative poem, A Lover's Complaint, in which a young woman laments her seduction by a persuasive suitor, was printed in the first edition of the Sonnets in 1609. Most scholars now accept that Shakespeare wrote A Lover's Complaint. Critics consider that its fine qualities are marred by leaden effects.[123] The Phoenix and the Turtle, printed in Robert Chester's 1601 Love's Martyr, mourns the deaths of the legendary phoenix and his lover, the faithful turtle dove. In 1599, two early drafts of sonnets 138 and 144 appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim, published under Shakespeare's name but without his permission.[124]


Published in 1609, the Sonnets were the last of Shakespeare's non-dramatic works to be printed. Scholars are not certain when each of the 154 sonnets was composed, but evidence suggests that Shakespeare wrote sonnets throughout his career for a private readership.[125] Even before the two unauthorised sonnets appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim in 1599, Francis Meres had referred in 1598 to Shakespeare's "sugred Sonnets among his private friends".[126] Few analysts believe that the published collection follows Shakespeare's intended sequence.[127] He seems to have planned two contrasting series: one about uncontrollable lust for a married woman of dark complexion (the "dark lady"), and one about conflicted love for a fair young man (the "fair youth"). It remains unclear if these figures represent real individuals, or if the authorial "I" who addresses them represents Shakespeare himself, though Wordsworth believed that with the sonnets "Shakespeare unlocked his heart".[128]

"Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate..."

—Lines from Shakespeare's Sonnet 18.[129]

The 1609 edition was dedicated to a "Mr. W.H.", credited as "the only begetter" of the poems. It is not known whether this was written by Shakespeare himself or by the publisher, Thomas Thorpe, whose initials appear at the foot of the dedication page; nor is it known who Mr. W.H. was, despite numerous theories, or whether Shakespeare even authorised the publication.[130] Critics praise the Sonnets as a profound meditation on the nature of love, sexual passion, procreation, death, and time.[131]


Shakespeare's first plays were written in the conventional style of the day. He wrote them in a stylised language that does not always spring naturally from the needs of the characters or the drama.[132] The poetry depends on extended, sometimes elaborate metaphors and conceits, and the language is often rhetorical—written for actors to declaim rather than speak. The grand speeches in Titus Andronicus, in the view of some critics, often hold up the action, for example; and the verse in The Two Gentlemen of Verona has been described as stilted.[133]

Soon, however, Shakespeare began to adapt the traditional styles to his own purposes. The opening soliloquy of Richard III has its roots in the self-declaration of Vice in medieval drama. At the same time, Richard’s vivid self-awareness looks forward to the soliloquies of Shakespeare's mature plays.[134] No single play marks a change from the traditional to the freer style. Shakespeare combined the two throughout his career, with Romeo and Juliet perhaps the best example of the mixing of the styles.[135] By the time of Romeo and Juliet, Richard II, and A Midsummer Night's Dream in the mid-1590s, Shakespeare had begun to write a more natural poetry. He increasingly tuned his metaphors and images to the needs of the drama itself.

Pity by William Blake, 1795, Tate Britain, is an illustration of two similes in Macbeth:
 "And pity, like a naked new-born babe, /
Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'd /
Upon the sightless couriers of the air".

Shakespeare's standard poetic form was blank verse, composed in iambic pentameter. In practice, this meant that his verse was usually unrhymed and consisted of ten syllables to a line, spoken with a stress on every second syllable. The blank verse of his early plays is quite different from that of his later ones. It is often beautiful, but its sentences tend to start, pause, and finish at the end of lines, with the risk of monotony.[136] Once Shakespeare mastered traditional blank verse, he began to interrupt and vary its flow. This technique releases the new power and flexibility of the poetry in plays such as Julius Caesar and Hamlet. Shakespeare uses it, for example, to convey the turmoil in Hamlet's mind:[137]

Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting
That would not let me sleep. Methought I lay
Worse than the mutines in the bilboes. Rashly—
And prais'd be rashness for it—let us know
Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well...
Hamlet, Act 5, Scene 2, 4–8[137]

After Hamlet, Shakespeare varied his poetic style further, particularly in the more emotional passages of the late tragedies. The literary critic A. C. Bradley described this style as "more concentrated, rapid, varied, and, in construction, less regular, not seldom twisted or elliptical".[138] In the last phase of his career, Shakespeare adopted many techniques to achieve these effects. These included run-on lines, irregular pauses and stops, and extreme variations in sentence structure and length.[139] In Macbeth, for example, the language darts from one unrelated metaphor or simile to another: "was the hope drunk/ Wherein you dressed yourself?" (1.7.35–38); "...pity, like a naked new-born babe/ Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'd/ Upon the sightless couriers of the air..." (1.7.21–25). The listener is challenged to complete the sense.[139] The late romances, with their shifts in time and surprising turns of plot, inspired a last poetic style in which long and short sentences are set against one another, clauses are piled up, subject and object are reversed, and words are omitted, creating an effect of spontaneity.[140]

Shakespeare combined poetic genius with a practical sense of the theatre.[141] Like all playwrights of the time, he dramatised stories from sources such as Plutarch and Holinshed.[142] He reshaped each plot to create several centres of interest and to show as many sides of a narrative to the audience as possible. This strength of design ensures that a Shakespeare play can survive translation, cutting and wide interpretation without loss to its core drama.[143] As Shakespeare’s mastery grew, he gave his characters clearer and more varied motivations and distinctive patterns of speech. He preserved aspects of his earlier style in the later plays, however. In Shakespeare's late romances, he deliberately returned to a more artificial style, which emphasised the illusion of theatre.[144]



Macbeth Consulting the Vision of the Armed Head.
By Henry Fuseli, 1793–94. Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington.

Shakespeare's work has made a lasting impression on later theatre and literature. In particular, he expanded the dramatic potential of characterisation, plot, language, and genre.[145] Until Romeo and Juliet, for example, romance had not been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy.[146] Soliloquies had been used mainly to convey information about characters or events; but Shakespeare used them to explore characters' minds.[147] His work heavily influenced later poetry. The Romantic poets attempted to revive Shakespearean verse drama, though with little success. Critic George Steiner described all English verse dramas from Coleridge to Tennyson as "feeble variations on Shakespearean themes."[148]

Shakespeare influenced novelists such as Thomas Hardy, William Faulkner, and Charles Dickens. The American novelist Herman Melville's soliloquies owe much to Shakespeare; his Captain Ahab in Moby-Dick is a classic tragic hero, inspired by King Lear.[149] Scholars have identified 20,000 pieces of music linked to Shakespeare's works. These include two operas by Giuseppe Verdi, Otello and Falstaff, whose critical standing compares with that of the source plays.[150] Shakespeare has also inspired many painters, including the Romantics and the Pre-Raphaelites. The Swiss Romantic artist Henry Fuseli, a friend of William Blake, even translated Macbeth into German.[151] The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud drew on Shakespearean psychology, in particular that of Hamlet, for his theories of human nature.[152]

In Shakespeare's day, English grammar, spelling and pronunciation were less standardised than they are now,[153] and his use of language helped shape modern English.[154] Samuel Johnson quoted him more often than any other author in his A Dictionary of the English Language, the first serious work of its type.[155] Expressions such as "with bated breath" (Merchant of Venice) and "a foregone conclusion" (Othello) have found their way into everyday English speech.[156]

Critical reputation

"He was not of an age, but for all time."

Ben Jonson[157]

Shakespeare was not revered in his lifetime, but he received a large amount of praise.[158] In 1598, the cleric and author Francis Meres singled him out from a group of English writers as "the most excellent" in both comedy and tragedy.[159] And the authors of the Parnassus plays at St John's College, Cambridge, numbered him with Chaucer, Gower and Spenser.[160] In the First Folio, Ben Jonson called Shakespeare the "Soul of the age, the applause, delight, the wonder of our stage", though he had remarked elsewhere that "Shakespeare wanted art".

A recently garlanded statue of William Shakespeare
in Lincoln Park, Chicago,
 typical of many created in the 19th and early 20th century.

Between the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the end of the 17th century, classical ideas were in vogue. As a result, critics of the time mostly rated Shakespeare below John Fletcher and Ben Jonson.[161] Thomas Rymer, for example, condemned Shakespeare for mixing the comic with the tragic. Nevertheless, poet and critic John Dryden rated Shakespeare highly, saying of Jonson, "I admire him, but I love Shakespeare".[162] For several decades, Rymer's view held sway; but during the 18th century, critics began to respond to Shakespeare on his own terms and acclaim what they termed his natural genius. A series of scholarly editions of his work, notably those of Samuel Johnson in 1765 and Edmond Malone in 1790, added to his growing reputation.[163] By 1800, he was firmly enshrined as the national poet.[164] In the 18th and 19th centuries, his reputation also spread abroad. Among those who championed him were the writers Voltaire, Goethe, Stendhal and Victor Hugo.[165]

During the Romantic era, Shakespeare was praised by the poet and literary philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge; and the critic August Wilhelm Schlegel translated his plays in the spirit of German Romanticism.[166] In the 19th century, critical admiration for Shakespeare's genius often bordered on adulation.[167] "That King Shakespeare," the essayist Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1840, "does not he shine, in crowned sovereignty, over us all, as the noblest, gentlest, yet strongest of rallying signs; indestructible".[168] The Victorians produced his plays as lavish spectacles on a grand scale.[169] The playwright and critic George Bernard Shaw mocked the cult of Shakespeare worship as "bardolatry". He claimed that the new naturalism of Ibsen's plays had made Shakespeare obsolete.[170]

The modernist revolution in the arts during the early 20th century, far from discarding Shakespeare, eagerly enlisted his work in the service of the avant-garde. The Expressionists in Germany and the Futurists in Moscow mounted productions of his plays. Marxist playwright and director Bertolt Brecht devised an epic theatre under the influence of Shakespeare. The poet and critic T. S. Eliot argued against Shaw that Shakespeare's "primitiveness" in fact made him truly modern.[171] Eliot, along with G. Wilson Knight and the school of New Criticism, led a movement towards a closer reading of Shakespeare's imagery. In the 1950s, a wave of new critical approaches replaced modernism and paved the way for "post-modern" studies of Shakespeare.[172] By the 1980s, Shakespeare studies were open to movements such as structuralism, feminism, New Historicism, African American studies, and queer studies.[173][174]

Speculation about Shakespeare


Around 230 years after Shakespeare's death, doubts began to be expressed about the authorship of the works attributed to him.[175] Proposed alternative candidates include Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, and Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford.[176] Several "group theories" have also been proposed.[177] Only a small minority of academics believe there is reason to question the traditional attribution,[178] but interest in the subject, particularly the Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship, continues into the 21st century.[179]


Some scholars claim that members of Shakespeare's family were Catholics, at a time when Catholic practice was against the law.[180] Shakespeare's mother, Mary Arden, certainly came from a pious Catholic family. The strongest evidence might be a Catholic statement of faith signed by John Shakespeare, found in 1757 in the rafters of his former house in Henley Street. The document is now lost, however, and scholars differ as to its authenticity.[181] In 1591 the authorities reported that John Shakespeare had missed church "for fear of process for debt", a common Catholic excuse.[182] In 1606 the name of William's daughter Susanna appears on a list of those who failed to attend Easter communion in Stratford.[182] Scholars find evidence both for and against Shakespeare's Catholicism in his plays, but the truth may be impossible to prove either way.[183]


Few details of Shakespeare's sexuality are known. At 18, he married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, who was pregnant. Susanna, the first of their three children, was born six months later on 26 May 1583. Over the centuries some readers have posited that Shakespeare's sonnets are autobiographical,[184] and point to them as evidence of his love for a young man. Others read the same passages as the expression of intense friendship rather than sexual love.[185] The 26 so-called "Dark Lady" sonnets, addressed to a married woman, are taken as evidence of heterosexual liaisons.[186]


No written contemporary description of Shakespeare's physical appearance survives, and no evidence suggests that he ever commissioned a portrait, so the Droeshout engraving, which Ben Jonson approved of as a good likeness,[187] and his Stratford monument provide the best evidence of his appearance. From the 18th century, the desire for authentic Shakespeare portraits fuelled claims that various surviving pictures depicted Shakespeare. That demand also led to the production of several fake portraits, as well as mis-attributions, repaintings and relabelling of portraits of other people.[188]

List of works

Classification of the plays

The Plays of William Shakespeare.
By Sir John Gilbert, 1849.

Shakespeare's works include the 36 plays printed in the First Folio of 1623, listed below according to their folio classification as comedies, histories and tragedies.[189] Two plays not included in the First Folio, The Two Noble Kinsmen and Pericles, Prince of Tyre, are now accepted as part of the canon, with scholars agreed that Shakespeare made a major contribution to their composition.[190] No Shakespearean poems were included in the First Folio.

In the late 19th century, Edward Dowden classified four of the late comedies as romances, and though many scholars prefer to call them tragicomedies, his term is often used.[191] These plays and the associated Two Noble Kinsmen are marked with an asterisk (*) below. In 1896, Frederick S. Boas coined the term "problem plays" to describe four plays: All's Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida and Hamlet.[192] "Dramas as singular in theme and temper cannot be strictly called comedies or tragedies", he wrote. "We may therefore borrow a convenient phrase from the theatre of today and class them together as Shakespeare's problem plays."[193] The term, much debated and sometimes applied to other plays, remains in use, though Hamlet is definitively classed as a tragedy.[194] The other problem plays are marked below with a double dagger (‡).

Plays thought to be only partly written by Shakespeare are marked with a dagger (†) below. Other works occasionally attributed to him are listed as apocrypha.


Lost plays

See also

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  1. ^ Dates follow the Julian calendar, used in England throughout Shakespeare's lifespan, but with the start of year adjusted to 1 January (see Old Style and New Style dates). Under the Gregorian calendar, adopted in Catholic countries in 1582, Shakespeare died on 3 May (Schoenbaum 1987, xv).
  2. ^ The "national cult" of Shakespeare, and the "bard" identification, dates from September 1769, when the actor David Garrick organised a week-long carnival at Stratford to mark the town council awarding him the freedom of the town. In addition to presenting the town with a statue of Shakespeare, Garrick composed a doggerel verse, lampooned in the London newspapers, naming the banks of the Avon as the birthplace of the "matchless Bard" (McIntyre 1999, 412–432).
  3. ^ The exact figures are unknown. See Shakespeare's collaborations and Shakespeare Apocrypha for further details.
  4. ^ Individual play dates and precise writing span are unknown. See Chronology of Shakespeare's plays for further details.
  5. ^ The Passionate Pilgrim, published under Shakespeare's name in 1599 without his permission, includes early versions of two of his sonnets, three extracts from Love's Labour's Lost, several poems known to be by other poets, and eleven poems of unknown authorship for which the attribution to Shakespeare has not been disproved (Wells et al. 2005, 805)


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External links


Name Shakespeare, William
Alternative names
Short description English poet and playwright
Date of birth April 1564
Place of birth Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England
Date of death 23 April 1616
Place of death Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England

Retrieved from ""


  1. Dee Finney's blog August 18, 2012 page 272 ALL ABOUT ...

    Aug 18, 2012 – I didn't really want to do another page about Shakespeare as I've already written about him 47 times, but when he comes to visit, you can't just ignore it ...
  2. Ascended Master Hilarion, Chohan of the Fifth Ray

    She was the muse that sponsored Francis Bacon (the true author of the works attributed to Shakespeare) and his circle of Elizabethan authors. All the healing ...

    and all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances, and one man in his time plays many parts." William Shakespeare ...

    June 4, 2012. CRASHED PLANE LAGOS, NIGERIA 153 PASSENGERS 10 KILLED ON THE GROUND, page 249. August 18, 2012. SHAKESPEARE, page 265 ...

    Mar 15, 2008 – Before and after Shakespeare, others had the same idea: .... Shakespeare was correct in asserting that Life is a Play, for the great life of each ...

    Rogue River Rafting, Ashland Shakespeare Festival, and. Running Y Ranch. (You might also want to plan to stay. for the Klamath Tribes Annual Restoration ...
  7. Dee Finney's blog January 7, 2012 page 102 ALL ABOUT BACON

    Jan 7, 2012 – The Baconian theory of Shakespearean authorship, first proposed in the mid-19th century, contends that Sir Francis Bacon wrote the plays ...

    "The Merchant of Venice" by William Shakespeare "The New Teenage Body Book" by Kathy McCoy and Charles Wibbelsman "The Pigman" by Paul Zindel ...

    You should have seen Shakespeare park that horse exactly where he wanted to on opening night. Beethoven - died in the black. Deaf, but solvent - right?

    Aug 1, 2012 – I was in a house somewhere and in front of me appeared a man with a beard who looked like Shakespeare and his face turned bright yellow ...

    Sep 15, 2002 – Graduation address at Michigan Military Academy, June 19, 1879. "Cry 'Havoc!' and let slip the dogs of war." Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, III, i, ...
  2. dreams, visions, prophecy and coincidences about princess diana

    Nov 28, 1997 – Shakespeare said, " "All the world is a stage and all men and woman are merely players." "Dreams at the Dawning and Phantom of the Opera." ...

    October 25, 1415, Shakespeare -- Henry V. 1415 Battle of Agincourt. 1420 Henry enters Paris with Charles, forces him to sign Treaty of Troyes: Henry to succeed ...
  4. Finney's blog March 15, 2012 page 171 THE GAME OF LIFE ...

    Mar 15, 2012 – SHAKESPEARE: the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players: they have their exits and their entrances; and one man in his ...
  5. 2011 EVENT

    Even Shakespeare's Soothsayer warned Julius Caesar, “Beware the Ides of March.” Then along came political pollsters. However, their accuracy has suffered of ...
  6. Code 19 and Creation - Dreams of the Great Earth Changes

    ... (therefore neither left-nor right-built): as Hamlet from Shakespeare is also composed out of only nineteen consonants.Others than these nineteen + one amino ...
  7. Dee Finney's blog January 26, 2012 page 114 THE MATRIX

    Jan 26, 2012 – Before and after Shakespeare, others had the same idea: .... Shakespeare was correct in asserting that Life is a Play, for the great life of each ...
  8. WWIII DATABASE - SimilarShare
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    Nov 6, 2005 – THE DOGS OF WAR - BLOWBACK AND THE MARBLE GAME Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, III, i, 273.
  1. Dee Finney's blog - November 26, 2011 - page 69 - WITCHES AND ...
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    Nov 26, 2011 – In Shakespeare's day she was still regarded in England as a witch in league with the fiends of hell, but a juster estimate had begun to prevail ...
  2. Electrons and Mythologies - Dreams of the Great Earth Changes
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    ... the mathematician, John Dee, whose activities were satirized in the plays of Marlowe, (Dr Faustus); Jonson (The Alchemist); and Shakespeare (The Tempest).
  3. Dee finney's blog February 8, 2012 page 131 GLOBAL FATE ...
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    Feb 8, 2012 – ... but also quoted Schiller (from his Shakespeare's Ghost) in the dedication of his own revolutionary novel, Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not).
  4. Dee Finney's blog August 17, 2012 page 271 THE GRAND REAPER
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    Aug 17, 2012 – THE DOGS OF WAR - BLOWBACK AND THE MARBLE GAME Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, III, i, 273.
  5. PRINCE CHARLES - SimilarShare
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    Apr 5, 2005 – Quoting from Lawrence Gardner's new Grail meaning of the Elf Bloodline:"In William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, the queen of ...
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    Dec 23, 2004 – Shakespeare's time at Windsor Castle the 'horn of a unicorn of above eight spans and a half in length, valued at above £10,000/' This may be ...
  7. Dee Finney's blog January 23, 2013 page 430 THE ...
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    Jan 23, 2013 – Stupid adults are incapable of understanding the lessons of history, or of Shakespeare. But stupid adults still need leadership, and it is through ...
  8. FLIGHT 111 - PLANE CRASH - NOVA SCOTIA - SimilarShare
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    ... of Swiss Air was not a mechanical or accidental event, and has the smell as Hamlet said in Shakespeare's Play, " something rotten " behind closed doors.
  9. minnie mouse & mickey mouse - dreams, crop circles and symbolism - SimilarShare
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    Famous Rats: William Shakespeare, Yves St. Laurent, Pope John Paul, Karim Agha Khan and Prince Charles. ox Year of Birth: 1913, 1925, 1937, 1949, 1961, ...
    You've visited this page 2 times. Last visit: 2/18/09
  10. FIRE - SimilarShare
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    The fire was at least five miles long along the banks of the Little Wind River, according to R.J. Shakespeare, chief medical officer with the Fort Washakie Fire ...
  1. The Mental Destruction of Paul Bennewitz - SimilarShare
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    Feb 26, 2005 – (Macbeth, act 5, scene vii, line 48 - William Shakespeare). ACT I: Late in 1972, according to Timothy Good's Alien Contact, film producers ...
  2. Dee Finney's blog January 11, 2013 page 423 GODDESSES ...
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    Jan 11, 2013 – Shakespeare had several of his male characters address female characters as goddesses, including Demetrius to Helena in A Midsummer ...
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    Project Gutenberg - Download pre-1923 classic books from the start of this century and previous centuries, from authors like Shakespeare, Poe, Dante.
  4. MOON - SimilarShare
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    In particular, she is the moon goddess Diana. Their king, Oberon, however, had an historical base, being inspired by an ancestor of Shakespeare's colleague, .
  5. Dee Finney's blog February 7, 2012 page 130 WHAT'S UP WITH ...
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    Feb 7, 2012 – I love finding directory listings like these (Adolf Hitler directory, Shakespeare, etc...) ...
  6. Zbigniew Brzezinski in the news
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    *4 William Shakespeare in Macbeth (3:5:121). *5 The quotes of Elie Wiesel, author of “Night”, are from Mark Chmiel's study of the sources of this lamentable ...
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    1000). Virginia Woolf (1882-1941, UK) --[Shakespeare's Sister] from Ch. 3 of A Room of One's Own first ... - ...
  8. Dee Finney's blog - October 28, 2011 - page 59 Jacob's Ladder ...
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    Shakespeare came closer to everyday humanity when he said: “True hope is swift, and flies with swallow's wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures, ...
  9. \dee Finney's blog August 9, 2012 page 268 Eleanor of Aquitaine
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    Aug 9, 2012 – The character "Queen Elinor" appears in William Shakespeare's King John, along with other members of the family. On television, she has ...
  10. POLAR AXIS SPIN - The Current Location Of The Spin Axis - SimilarShare
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    Jun 9, 2005 – ... in constant movement, has been within modern Canadian borders since at least the 1600s -- the time of Shakespeare and Sir Isaac Newton.
  1. Dee Finney's blog January 3, 20101 page 100 PULSARS MAKE ...
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    Jan 3, 2012 – ... the 1997 International Cosmos Prize for Achievement in Human Science, the Kistler Prize in 2001, the Shakespeare Prize in 2005, the 2006 ...
  2. 19 GREAT WOMEN WRITERS - SimilarShare
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    May 17, 2005 – --[Shakespeare's Sister] from Ch. 3 of A Room of One's Own first published in 1929, based on 1928 lectures on "Women and Fiction" ) --[Killing ...
  3. DEES DREAMS AND VISIONS - February 2012
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    Feb 1, 2012 – ... but also quoted Schiller (from his Shakespeare's Ghost) in the dedication of his own revolutionary novel, Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not).
  4. Dee Finney'S BLOG mAY 6,, 2012 PAGE 213 88 books to read
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    May 6, 2012 – ... The Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum; New Atlantis · William Shakespeare – Poetry and Plays; Galileo Galilei – Starry Messenger; ...
  5. THE SONS OF NOAH - SimilarShare
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    William Shakespeare's play Henry IV, Part II contains a wry comment about people who claim to be related to royal families. Prince Hal notes of such people, ...
  6. Dee Finney's blog September 28, 2012 page 317 GEOFFREY OF ...
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    Sep 28, 2012 – ... two kings, Leir and Cymbeline, later immortalized byWilliam Shakespeare, and one of the earliest developed narratives of King Arthur.
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    Francis Bacon, the Freemason and Rosicrucian, wrote Shakespeare's Dramas??? S.M.A.R.T.'s Ritual Abuse Newsletters Homepage · George Bush - the ...
    You've visited this page 2 times. Last visit: 7/21/08
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    Nov 26, 2000 – Francis Bacon, the Freemason and Rosicrucian, wrote Shakespeare's Dramas??? Rituals and Rarities in different Secret Societies ...
  9. Dee Finney's blog March 25, 2012 page 182 RITUAL MAGIC ...
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    Mar 25, 2012 – William Shakespeare may have modelled the character of Prospero in The Tempest (1610–11) on Dee. 20th century. The four novel set Ægypt ...
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    Mar 28, 2002 – They were alternately reciting Shakespeare-type poetry and talking about how they wanted a friend who could be a non-sexual friend to just ...
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    Sep 1, 2009 – ... curly frothy fell on top of me, and the boss picked her up off of me by the hair and quoted something from Shakespeare about being shorn.
  2. Dee Finney\s blog May 27, 2012 page 225 TIME TO SAY GOODBYE ...
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    May 27, 2012 – ... Psalm 144 · Sonnet 144 by William Shakespeare; The London Street Commune movement at 144 Piccadilly, London in 1969; Rule 144A, ...

    Jan 1, 1999 – They were alternately reciting Shakespeare-type poetry and talking about how they wanted a friend who could be a non-sexual friend to just ...
  4. Dee Finney's blog July 29, 2012 page 259 EVENTS OF 1978

    Jul 29, 2012 – The People's Republic of China lifts a ban on works by Aristotle, William Shakespeare and Charles Dickens. February 15 · Rhodesia's prime ...

    Aug 29, 2007 – William Shakespeare (1564-1616). The use of depleted uranium weaponry by the United States, defying all international treaties, will slowly ...
  6. The Pope's Visit to Temple Mount and the Third Secret of Fatima

    This article discusses the possibility that Pope Benedict XV1 will be assassinated during his visit to Israel in May 2009.
  7. PINDAR..The Lizard King

    Conspiracy related discusion about PINDAR...........The Lizard King?????????? in the Above Top Secret website discussion forum Ancient & Lost Civilizations.

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