8-20-2015  VISION

I saw a full sheet of newspaper with a black, white and grey drawing on the front of what looked like a drawing of UFOS at war.

They were not in any formation, but everywhere at many angles and large words - UFOS, UFOS, UFOS everywhere superimposed on top of the drawing.  It was like a war in the Heavens.

A few minutes later, I saw another full sheet of newspaper like the Sunday edition.

In other words, there is the REAL world, and the Sunday version.


The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch;[1] Ge'ez: መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ mäts'hafä henok) is an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah, although modern scholars estimate the older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) to date from about 300 BC, and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably to the first century BC.

It is not part of the biblical canon as used by Jews, apart from Beta Israel. Most Christian denominations and traditions may accept the Books of Enoch as having some historical or theological interest or significance, but they generally regard the Books of Enoch as non-canonical or non-inspired.] It is regarded as canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, but not by any other Christian group.

It is wholly extant only in the Ge'ez language, with Aramaic fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls and a few Greek and Latinfragments. For this and other reasons, the traditional Ethiopian belief is that the original language of the work was Ge'ez, whereas non-Ethiopian scholars tend to assert that it was first written in either Aramaic or Hebrew; E. Isaac suggests that the Book of Enoch, like the Book of Daniel, was composed partially in Aramaic and partially in Hebrew.:6 No Hebrew version is known to have survived. It is asserted in the book itself that its author was Enoch, before the Biblical Flood.

The authors of the New Testament were familiar with the content of the story and influenced by it: a short section of 1 Enoch (1 En 1:9 or 1 En 2:1 depending on the translation) is quoted in the New Testament (Letter of Jude 1:14–15), and is attributed there to "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" (1 En 60:8). The text was also utilised by the community that originally collected the Dead Sea Scrolls.

The first part of the Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers, the angels who fathered the Nephilim. The remainder of the book describes Enoch's visits to heaven in the form of travels, visions and dreams, and his revelations.

The book consists of five quite distinct major sections (see each section for details):

Most scholars believe that these five sections were originally independent works (with different dates of composition), themselves a product of much editorial arrangement, and were only later redacted into what we now call 1 Enoch.



Although evidently widely known during the development of the Hebrew Bible canon, 1 Enoch was excluded from both the formal canon of the Tanakh and the typical canon of the Septuagint and therefore, also the writings known today as the Deuterocanon. One possible reason for Jewish rejection of the book might be the textual nature of several early sections of the book that make use of material from the Torah; for example, 1 En 1 is a midrash of Deuteronomy 33. The content, particularly detailed descriptions offallen angels, would also be a reason for rejection from the Hebrew canon at this period – as illustrated by the comments of Trypho the Jew when debating with Justin Martyr on this subject. Trypho: "The utterances of God are holy, but your expositions are mere contrivances, as is plain from what has been explained by you; nay, even blasphemies, for you assert that angels sinned and revolted from God." (Dialogue 79)


By the 4th century, the Book of Enoch was mostly excluded from Christian canons, and it is now regarded as scripture by only the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and the Eritrean Orthodox Church.

References in the New Testament

Enoch is referred to as a historical person and prophet, and quoted, in Jude 1:14–15:

And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.

Compare this with Enoch 1:9, translated from the Ethiopic (found also in Qumran scroll 4Q204=4QEnochc ar, col I 16–18):

And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His Saints To execute judgment upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly: And to convict all flesh Of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.

Compare this also with what may be the original source of 1 En 1:9 in Deuteronomy 33:2:

The Lord came from Sinai and dawned from Seir upon us; he shone forth from Mount Paran; he came from the ten thousands of Saints, with flaming fire at his right hand.

Under the heading of canonicity, it is not enough to merely demonstrate that something is quoted. Instead, it is necessary to demonstrate the nature of the quotation. In the case of the Jude 14 quotation of 1 Enoch 1:9, it would be difficult to argue that Jude does not quote Enoch as an historical prophet since he cites Enoch by name. However, there remains a question as to whether the author of Jude attributed the quotation believing the source to be the historical Enoch before the flood or a midrash of Deut 33:2–3.The Greek text might seem unusual in stating that "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" prophesied "to" (dative case) not "of"  the men, however, this might indicate the Greek meaning “against them” - the dative τούτοις as a dativus incommodi (dative of disadvantage).

Peter H. Davids points to Dead Sea Scrolls evidence but leaves it open as to whether Jude viewed 1 Enoch as canon, deuterocanon, or otherwise: "Did Jude, then, consider this scripture to be like Genesis or Isaiah? Certainly he did consider it authoritative, a true word from God. We cannot tell whether he ranked it alongside other prophetic books such as Isaiah and Jeremiah. What we do know is, first, that other Jewish groups, most notably those living in Qumran near the Dead Sea, also used and valued 1 Enoch, but we do not find it grouped with the scriptural scrolls."

The attribution "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" is apparently itself a section heading taken from 1 Enoch (1 En 60:8, Jude 1:14a) and not from Genesis.

Also II Peter 2:4–5 and I Peter 3:19–20 made reference to some Enochian material.


The Book of Enoch was considered as scripture in the Epistle of Barnabas (16:4) and by many of the early Church Fathers, such as Athenagoras, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus and Tertullian, who wrote c. 200 that the Book of Enoch had been rejected by the Jews because it contained prophecies pertaining to Christ. However, later Fathers denied the canonicity of the book, and some even considered the letter of Jude uncanonical because it refers to an "apocryphal" work.

Ethiopic Orthodox Church

This subsection contains Ethiopic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbolsinstead of Ethiopic characters.

The traditional belief of the Ethiopic Orthodox Church, which sees 1 Enoch as an inspired document, is that the Ethiopic text is the original one, written by Enoch himself. They believe that the following opening sentence of Enoch is the first and oldest sentence written in any human language, since Enoch was the first to write letters:

"ቃለ፡ በረከት፡ ዘሄኖክ፡ ዘከመ፡ ባረከ፡ ኅሩያነ፡ ወጻድቃነ፡ እለ፡ ሀለዉ፡ ይኩኑ"
"በዕለተ፡ ምንዳቤ፡ ለአሰስሎ፡ ኵሉ፡ እኩያን፡ ወረሲዓን።"
"Qāla barakat za-Hēnōk za-kama bāraka ḫərūyāna wa-ṣādəqāna 'əlla hallawu yəkūnū ba-ʿəlata məndābē la-'asassəlō kʷəllū 'əkūyān wa-rasīʿān"
"Word of blessing of Henok, wherewith he blessed the chosen and righteous who would be alive in the day of tribulation for the removal of all wrongdoers and backsliders."

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) does not consider 1 Enoch to be part of its standard canon, though it believes that the original Book of Enoch was an inspired book. The Book of Moses, found within the scriptural canon of the LDS Church, has several similarities to 1 Enoch, including names that have been found in some versions of 1 Enoch, and is believed by the Church to contain extracts from "the ministry, teachings, and visions of Enoch".

Manuscript tradition


The most extensive witnesses to the Book of Enoch exist in the Ge'ez language. Robert Henry Charles's critical edition of 1906 subdivides the Ethiopic manuscripts into two families:

Family α: thought to be more ancient and more similar to the Greek versions:

Family β: more recent, apparently edited texts

Additionally, there are the manuscripts[ used by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church for preparation of the deuterocanonicals from Ge'ez into the targumic Amharicin the bilingual Haile Selassie Amharic Bible (Mashaf qeddus bage'ezenna ba'amaregna yatasafe 4 vols. c.1935).


Eleven Aramaic-language fragments of the Book of Enoch were found in cave 4 of Qumran in 1948 and are in the care of the Israel Antiquities Authority. They were translated for and discussed by Józef Milik and Matthew Black in The Books of Enoch. Another translation has been released by Vermes and Garcia-Martinez. Milik described the documents as being white or cream in color, blackened in areas, and made of leather that was smooth, thick and stiff. It was also partly damaged, with the ink blurred and faint.

Also at Qumran (cave 1) have been discovered three tiny fragments in Hebrew (8:4–9:4, 106).

Chester Beatty XII, Greek manuscript of the Book of Enoch, 4th century

Greek and Latin

The 8th-century work Chronographia Universalis by the Byzantine historian George Syncellus preserved some passages of the Book of Enoch in Greek (6:1–9:4, 15:8–16:1). Other Greek fragments known are:

It has been claimed that several small additional fragments in Greek have been found at Qumran (7QEnoch: 7Q4, 7Q8, 7Q10-13), dating about 100 BC, ranging from 98:11? to 103:15 and written on papyrus with grid lines, but this identification is highly contested.

Of the Latin translation, only 1:9 and 106:1–18 are known. The first passage occurs in Pseudo-Cyprian and Pseudo-Vigilius;[42] the second was discovered in 1893 by M. R. James in an 8th-century manuscript in the British Museum and published in the same year.


Second Temple period

The 1976 publication by Milik of the results of the paleographic dating of the Enochic fragments found in Qumran made a breakthrough. According to this scholar, who studied the original scrolls for many years, the oldest fragments of the Book of Watchers are dated 200–150 BC. Since the Book of Watchers shows evidence of multiple stages of composition, it is probable that this work was extant already in the 3rd century BC. The same can be said about the Astronomical Book.

It was no longer possible to claim that the core of the Book of Enoch was composed in the wake of the Maccabean Revolt as a reaction to Hellenization.:93 Scholars thus had to look for the origins of the Qumranic sections of 1 Enoch in the previous historical period, and the comparison with traditional material of such a time showed that these sections do not draw exclusively on categories and ideas prominent in the Hebrew Bible. Some scholars speak even of an "Enochic Judaism" from which the writers of Qumran scrolls were descended. Margaret Barker argues, "Enoch is the writing of a very conservative group whose roots go right back to the time of the First Temple". The main peculiar aspects of the Enochic Judaism are the following:

Most Qumran fragments are relatively early, with none written from the last period of the Qumranic experience. Thus, it is probable that the Qumran community gradually lost interest in the Book of Enoch.

The relation between 1 Enoch and the Essenes was noted even before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. While there is consensus to consider the sections of the Book of Enoch found in Qumran as texts used by the Essenes, the same is not so clear for the Enochic texts not found in Qumran (mainly the Book of Parables): it was proposed to consider these parts as expression of the mainstream, but not-Qumranic, essenic movement. The main peculiar aspects of the not-Qumranic units of 1 Enoch are the following:

Early influence

Classical Rabbinic literature is characterized by near silence concerning Enoch. It seems plausible that Rabbinic polemics against Enochic texts and traditions might have led to the loss of these books to Rabbinic Judaism.

The Book of Enoch plays an important role in the history of Jewish mysticism: the great scholar Gershom Scholem wrote, "The main subjects of the later Merkabah mysticism already occupy a central position in the older esoteric literature, best represented by the Book of Enoch." Particular attention is paid to the detailed description of the throne of God included in chapter 14 of 1 Enoch.

For the quotation from the Book of Watchers in the Christian Letter of Jude, see section: Canonicity.

There is little doubt that 1 Enoch was influential in molding New Testament doctrines about the Messiah, the Son of Man, the messianic kingdom, demonology, the resurrection, and eschatology.:10 The limits of the influence of 1 Enoch are discussed at length by R.H. Charles E Isaac, and G.W. Nickelsburg in their respective translations and commentaries. It is possible that the earlier sections of 1 Enoch had direct textual and content influence on many Biblical apocrypha, such as Jubilees, 2 Baruch, 2 Esdras,Apocalypse of Abraham and 2 Enoch, though even in these cases, the connection is typically more branches of a common trunk than direct development.

The Greek text was known to, and quoted, both positively and negatively, by many Church Fathers: references can be found in Justin Martyr, Minucius Felix, Irenaeus, Origen,Cyprian, Hippolytus, Commodianus, Lactantius and Cassian,[58]:430 although these references come exclusively from the first five chapters of 1 Enoch. After Cassian and before the modern "rediscovery", some excerpts are given in the Byzantine Empire by the 8th-century monk George Syncellus in his chronography, and in the 9th century, it is listed as an apocryphon of the New Testament by Patriarch Nicephorus.]


Sir Walter Raleigh, in his History of the World (written in 1616 while imprisoned in the Tower of London), makes the curious assertion that part of the Book of Enoch "which contained the course of the stars, their names and motions" had been discovered in Saba (Sheba) in the first century and was thus available to Origen and Tertullian. He attributes this information to Origen, though no such statement is found anywhere in extant versions of Origen.]

Outside of Ethiopia, the text of the Book of Enoch was considered lost until the beginning of the seventeenth century, when it was confidently asserted that the book was found in an Ethiopic (Ge'ez) language translation there, and Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc bought a book that was claimed to be identical to the one quoted by the Epistle of Jude and the Church Fathers. Hiob Ludolf, the great Ethiopic scholar of the 17th and 18th centuries, soon claimed it to be a forgery produced by Abba Bahaila Michael.

Better success was achieved by the famous Scottish traveller James Bruce, who, in 1773, returned to Europe from six years in Abyssinia with three copies of a Ge'ez version. One is preserved in the Bodleian Library, another was presented to the royal library of France, while the third was kept by Bruce. The copies remained unused until the 19th century; Silvestre de Sacy, in "Notices sur le livre d'Enoch", included extracts of the books with Latin translations (Enoch chapters 1, 2, 5–16, 22, and 32). From this a German translation was made by Rink in 1801.

The first English translation of the Bodleian/Ethiopic manuscript was published in 1821 by Richard Laurence, titled The Book of Enoch, the prophet: an apocryphal production, supposed to have been lost for ages; but discovered at the close of the last century in Abyssinia; now first translated from an Ethiopic manuscript in the Bodleian Library. Oxford, 1821. Revised editions appeared in 1833, 1838, and 1842.

In 1838, Laurence also released the first Ethiopic text of 1 Enoch published in the West, under the title: Libri Enoch Prophetae Versio Aethiopica. The text, divided into 105 chapters, was soon considered unreliable as it was the transcription of a single Ethiopic manuscript.

In 1833, Professor Andreas Gottlieb Hoffmann of the University of Jena released a German translation, based on Laurence's work, called Das Buch Henoch in vollständiger Uebersetzung, mit fortlaufendem Kommentar, ausführlicher Einleitung und erläuternden Excursen. Two other translations came out around the same time: one in 1836 calledEnoch Restitutus, or an Attempt (Rev. Edward Murray) and one in 1840 called Prophetae veteres Pseudepigraphi, partim ex Abyssinico vel Hebraico sermonibus Latine bersi (A. F. Gfrörer). However, both are considered to be poor—the 1836 translation most of all—and is discussed in Hoffmann.

The first critical edition, based on five manuscripts, appeared in 1851 as Liber Henoch, Aethiopice, ad quinque codicum fidem editus, cum variis lectionibus, by August Dillmann. It was followed in 1853 by a German translation of the book by the same author with commentary titled Das Buch Henoch, übersetzt und erklärt. It was considered the standard edition of 1 Enoch until the work of Charles.

The generation of Enoch scholarship from 1890 to World War I was dominated by Robert Henry Charles. His 1893 translation and commentary of the Ethiopic text already represented an important advancement, as it was based on ten additional manuscripts. In 1906 R.H. Charles published a new critical edition of the Ethiopic text, using 23 Ethiopic manuscripts and all available sources at his time. The English translation of the reconstructed text appeared in 1912, and the same year in his collection of The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament.

The publication, in the early 1950s, of the first Aramaic fragments of 1 Enoch among the Dead Sea Scrolls profoundly changed the study of the document, as it provided evidence of its antiquity and original text. The official edition of all Enoch fragments appeared in 1976, by Jozef Milik.

In 1978 a new edition of the Ethiopic text was edited by Michael Knibb, with an English translation, while a new commentary appeared in 1985 by Matthew Black. The renewed interest in 1 Enoch spawned a number of other translations: in Hebrew (A. Kahana, 1956), Danish (Hammershaimb, 1956), Italian (Fusella, 1981), Spanish (1982), French (Caquot, 1984) and other modern languages.

In 2001 George W.E. Nickelsburg published the first volume of a comprehensive commentary on 1 Enoch in the Hermeneia series. Since the year 2000, the Enoch seminarhas devoted several meetings to the Enoch literature and has become the center of a lively debate concerning the hypothesis that the Enoch literature attests the presence of an autonomous non-Mosaic tradition of dissent in Second Temple Judaism.

Ge'ez origin theory

Wossenie Yifru (1990) holds that Ge'ez is the language of the original from which the Greek and Aramaic copies were made, pointing out that it is the only language in which the complete text has yet been found.

The Book of the Watchers

This first section of the Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers, the angels who fathered the Nephilim (cf. the bene Elohim, Genesis 6:1–2) and narrates the travels of Enoch in the heavens. This section is said to have been composed in the fourth or 3rd century BC according to Western scholars.


The introduction to the Book of Enoch tells us that Enoch is "a just man, whose eyes were opened by God so that he saw a vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which thesons of God showed to me, and from them I heard everything, and I knew what I saw, but [these things that I saw will] not [come to pass] for this generation, but for a generation that has yet to come."

It discusses God coming to Earth on Mount Sinai with His hosts to pass judgement on mankind. It also tells us about the luminaries rising and setting in the order and in their own time and never change.

Observe and see how (in the winter) all the trees seem as though they had withered and shed all their leaves, except fourteen trees, which do not lose their foliage but retain the old foliage from two to three years till the new comes.

How all things are ordained by God and take place in his own time. The sinners shall perish and the great and the good shall live on in light, joy and peace.

And all His works go on thus from year to year for ever, and all the tasks which they accomplish for Him, and their tasks change not, but according as God hath ordained so is it done.

The first section of the book depicts the interaction of the fallen angels with mankind; Sêmîazâz compels the other 199 fallen angels to take human wives to "beget us children".

And Semjâzâ, who was their leader, said unto them: "I fear ye will not indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin." And they all answered him and said: "Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations not to abandon this plan but to do this thing." Then sware they all together and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit ofMount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it.

The names of the leaders are given as "Samyaza (Shemyazaz), their leader, Araqiel, Râmêêl, Kokabiel, Tamiel, Ramiel, Dânêl, Chazaqiel, Baraqiel, Asael, Armaros, Batariel,Bezaliel, Ananiel, Zaqiel, 
Shamsiel, Satariel, Turiel, Yomiel, Sariel."

This results in the creation of the Nephilim (Genesis) or Anakim/Anak (Giants) as they are described in the book:

And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three hundred ells: Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood.

It also discusses the teaching of humans by the fallen angels, chiefly Azâzêl:

And Azâzêl taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjâzâ taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, Armârôs the resolving of enchantments, Barâqîjâl, taught astrology, Kôkabêl the constellations, Ezêqêêl the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiêl the signs of the earth, Shamsiêl the signs of the sun, and Sariêl the course of the moon.

Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel appeal to God to judge the inhabitants of the world and the fallen angels. Uriel is then sent by God to tell Noah of the coming cataclysm and what he needs to do.

Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spoke, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech, and said to him: Go to Noah and tell him in my name "Hide thyself!" and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.

God commands Raphael to imprison Azâzêl:

the Lord said to Raphael: "Bind Azâzêl hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert, which is in Dûdâêl (God's Kettle/Crucible/Cauldron), and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azâzêl: to him ascribe all sin."

God gave Gabriel instructions concerning the Nephilim and the imprisonment of the fallen angels:

And to Gabriel said the Lord: "Proceed against the biters and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle ..."

Some, including R.H. Charles, suggest that "biters" should read "bastards", but the name is so unusual that some believe that the implication that is made by the reading of "biters" is more or less correct.

The Lord commands Michael to bind the fallen angels.

And the Lord said unto Michael: "Go, bind Semjâzâ and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves with them in all their uncleanness. 12. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is for ever and ever is consummated. 13. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: (and) to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all generations. ..."

Book of Parables

See also: Metatron

Chapters 37–71 of the Book of Enoch are referred to as the Book of Parables. The scholarly debate centers on these chapters. The Book of Parables appears to be based on the Book of Watchers, but presents a later development of the idea of final judgement and eschatology, concerned not only with the destiny of the fallen angels but also of the evil kings of the earth. The Book of Parables uses the expression "Son of Man" for the eschatological protagonist, who is also called “Righteous One,” “Chosen One,” and “Messiah”, and his sitting on the throne of glory in the final judgment. The first known use of "The Son of Man" as a definite title in Jewish writings comes from the book of 1 Enoch and its use may have played a role in the early Christian understanding and use of the title.

It has been suggested that the Book of Parables in its entirety is a later addition. Pointing to similarities with the Sibylline Oracles and other earlier works J.T. Milik in 1976 dated the Book of Parables to the third century. He believed that the events in the parables were linked to historic events dating from 260 CE to 270 CE. This theory is in line with many scholars of the 19th century Lucke (1832), Hofman (1852), Wiesse (1856) and Phillippe (1868). According to this theory, these chapters were written in later Christian times by a Jewish Christian to enhance Christian beliefs with Enoch's authoritative name. In a 1979 article Michael Knibb followed Miliks' reasoning and suggested that because no fragments of chapters 37–71 were found at Qumran a later date was likely. Knibb would continue this line of reasoning in later works.: 417 In addition to being missing from Qumran chapters 37–71 are also missing from the Greek translation.: 417 Currently no firm consensus has been reached among scholars as to the date of the Book of Parables. Milik’s date of as late as 270 CE however has been rejected by most scholars. David W. Suter suggests that there is a tendency to date the Book of Parables between 50 BCE and 117 CE.: 415–416

Robert Charles in 1893 judged chapter 71 to be a later addition. He would later change his opinion.: 1 He gave an early date for the work between 94 and 64 BCE.: LIV Per the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia: in the Book of Enoch, "Son of man" is found, but never in the original material. It occurs in the "Noachian interpolations (lx. 10, lxxi. 14), in which it has clearly no other meaning than "man. The author of the work misuses or corrupts the titles of the angels.: 16 Charles views the title son of man as found in the book of parables as referring to a supernatural person a Messiah who is not of human descent.: 306-309 In that part of the Book of Enoch known as the "Similitudes" it is met with in the technical sense of a supernatural Messiah and judge of the world (xlvi. 2, xlviii. 2, lxx. 27); universal dominion and preexistence are predicated of him (xlviii. 2, lxvii. 6). He sits on God's throne (xlv. 3, li. 3), which is His own throne. Though Charles does not admit it, these passages betray Christian redaction and emendation. Many scholars have suggested that passages in the Book of Parables are Noachian interpolations. These passages seem to interrupt the flow of the narrative. Darrell D. Hannah suggests that these passages are not in total novel interpolations but rather derived from an earlier Noah apocryphon. He believes that some interpolations refer to Herod the Great and should be dated around 4 BCE.[74]: 472–477

In addition to the Noachian interpolations theory, which perhaps a majority of scholars support; most scholars currently believe that chapters 70-71 are a later addition in part or whole.: 76: 472–473 Chapter 69 end with “This is the third parable of Enoch.” In chapters 70-71 Like Elijah, Enoch is generally thought to have been brought up to heaven while still alive by God. While some have suggested that the text refers to Enoch having died a natural death and ascending to heaven. The Son of Man is identified with Enoch. The text implies that Enoch had previously been enthroned in heaven. Chapters 70-71 seems to contradict passages earlier in the parable where the Son of Man is a separate entity. The parable also switches from third person singular to first person singular. James H. Charlesworth rejects the theory that chapters 70-71 are later additions. He believes that no additions were made to the Book of Parables.: 450–468: 1–12 In his earlier work the implication is that a majority of scholars agreed with him.


XXXVIII–XLIV. The First Parable.

XLV–LVII. The Second Parable.

LVIII–LXXI. The Third Parable.

The Astronomical Book

Main article: Enoch calendar
Correspondence of weekly day in the Qumran year
 Months 1,4,7,10   Months 2,5,8,11   Months 3,6,9,12 
Wed 1 8 15 22 29 6 13 20 27 4 11 18 25
Thurs 2 9 16 23 30 7 14 21 28 5 12 19 26
Fri 3 10 17 24 1 8 15 22 29 6 13 20 27
Sat 4 11 18 25 2 9 16 23 30 7 14 21 28
Sun 5 12 19 26 3 10 17 24 1 8 15 22 29
Mon 6 13 20 27 4 11 18 25 2 9 16 23 30
Tues 7 14 21 28 5 12 19 26 3 10 17 24 31

Four fragmentary editions of the Astronomical Book were found at Qumran, 4Q208-211. 4Q208 and 4Q209 have been dated to the beginning of the 2nd century BC, providing a terminus ante quemfor the Astronomical Book of the 3rd century BC. The fragments found in Qumran also include material not contained in the later versions of the Book of Enoch.

This book contains descriptions of the movement of heavenly bodies and of the firmament, as a knowledge revealed to Enoch in his trips to Heaven guided by Uriel, and it describes a Solar calendarthat was later described also in the Book of Jubilees which was used by the Dead Sea sect. The use of this calendar made it impossible to celebrate the festivals simultaneously with the Temple of Jerusalem.

The year was composed from 364 days, divided in four equal seasons of ninety-one days each. Each season was composed of three equal months of thirty days, plus an extra day at the end of the third month. The whole year was thus composed of exactly fifty-two weeks, and every calendar day occurred always on the same day of the week. Each year and each season started always on Wednesday, which was the fourth day of the creation narrated in Genesis, the day when the lights in the sky, the seasons, the days and the years were created.\:94–95 It is not known how they used to reconcile this calendar with the tropical year of 365.24 days (at least seven suggestions have been made), and it is not even sure if they felt the need to adjust it.:125–140


The Dream Visions

The Book of Dream Visions, containing a vision of a history of Israel all the way down to what the majority have interpreted as the Maccabean Revolt, is dated by most to Maccabean times (about 163–142 BC). According to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church it was written before the Flood.


LXXXIII–LXXXIV. First Dream-Vision on the Deluge. LXXXV–XC. Second Dream-Vision of Enoch: the History of the World to the Founding of the Messianic Kingdom.

Animals in the second Dream-Vision

The second Dream-Vision in this section of the Book of Enoch is an allegorical account of the history of Israel, that uses animals to represent human beings and human beings to represent angels.

One of several hypothetical reconstructions of the meanings in the dream is as follows based on the works of R. H. Charles and G. H. Schodde:


There are a great many links between the first book and this one, including the outline of the story and the imprisonment of the leaders and destruction of the Nephilim. The dream includes sections relating to the book of Watchers:

And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast into that fiery abyss. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep. — (The fall of the evil ones)

And all the oxen feared them and were affrighted at them, and began to bite with their teeth and to devour, and to gore with their horns. And they began, moreover, to devour those oxen; and behold all the children of the earth began to tremble and quake before them and to flee from them. — (The creation of the Nephilim et al.)

86:4, 87:3, 88:2, and 89:6 all describe the types of Nephilim that are created during the times described in The Book of Watchers, though this doesn't mean that the authors of both books are the same. Similar references exist in Jubilees 7:21–22.

The book describes their release from the Ark along with three bulls white, red and black which are Shem, Ham, and Japeth in 90:9. It also covers the death of Noah described as the white bull and the creation of many nations:

And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens (90:10)

It then describes the story of Moses and Aaron (90:13–15) including the miracle of the river splitting in two for them to pass, and the creation of the stone commandments. Eventually arriving at a "pleasant and glorious land" (90:40) where attacked by dogs (Philistines), foxes (Ammonites, Moabites) and wild boars (Esau).

And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it †forsook its glory† and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself unseemly. 45. And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that ram which had †forsaken its glory†. — (David replacing Saul as leader of Israel)

The creation of Solomon's temple it also describes the house which may be the tabernacle: "And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: (and) a tower lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower and they offered a full table before Him". This interpretation is accepted by Dillmann p 262, Vernes p 89, and Schodde p. 107. It also describes the escape of Elijah the prophet; in 1 Kings 17:2–24, he is fed by "ravens", so if Kings uses a similar analogy he may have been fed by the Seleucids. "...saw the Lord of the sheep how He wrought much slaughter amongst them in their herds until those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed His place." This describes the various tribes of Israel "inviting" in other nations "betraying his place" (i.e., the land promised to their ancestors by God).

This part of the book can be taken to be the kingdom splitting into the northern and southern tribes. That is Israel and Judah eventually leading to Israel falling to the Assyrians in 721 BC and Judah falling to the Babylonians a little over a century later 587 BC. "And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and tigers, and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes, and to all the wild beasts, and those wild beasts began to tear in pieces those sheep"; God abandons Israel for they have abandoned him.

There is also mention in fifty nine of seventy shepherds with their own seasons; there seems to be some debate on the meaning of this section some suggesting that it is a reference to the 70 appointed times in 25:11, 9:2, 1:12. Another interpretation is the seventy weeks in Daniel 9:24. However, the general interpretation is that these are simply Angels. This section of the book and later near the end describes the appointment by God of the 70 angels to protect the Israelites from enduring too much harm from the "beasts and birds". The later section (110:14) describes how the 70 angels are judged for causing more harm to Israel than he desired finding them guilty and are "cast into an abyss, full of fire and flaming, and full of pillars of fire."

"And the lions and tigers eat and devoured the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars eat along with them; and they burnt that tower and demolished that house"; the sacking of Solomon's temple and the tabernacle in Jerusalem by the Babylonians as they take Judah in 587 BC/586 BC exiling the remaining Jews. "And forthwith I saw how the shepherds pastured for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep turned back and came and entered and began to build up all that had fallen down of that house". "Cyrus allowed Sheshbazzar, a prince from the tribe of Judah, to bring the Jews from Babylon back to Jerusalem. Jews were allowed to return with the Temple vessels that the Babylonians had taken. Construction of the Second Temple began"; history of ancient Israel and Judah, the temple is finished being built in 515 BC.

The first part of this next section of the book seems, according to Western scholars, to clearly describe the Maccabean revolt of 167 BC against the Seleucids. The following two quotes have been altered from their original form to make the hypothetical meanings of the animal names clear.

And I saw in the vision how the (Seleucids) flew upon those (faithful) and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep in pieces and devoured them. And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the (Seleucids) cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those (faithful), and their eyes were opened. And it looked at them and their eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep, and the rams saw it and all ran to it. And notwithstanding all this those (Macedonians) and vultures and (Seleucids) and (Ptolemies) still kept tearing the sheep and swooping down upon them and devouring them: still the sheep remained silent, but the rams lamented and cried out. And those (Seleucids) fought and battled with it and sought to lay low its horn, but they had no power over it. (109:8–12)

All the (Macedonians) and vultures and (Seleucids) and (Ptolemies) were gathered together, and there came with them all the sheep of the field, yea, they all came together, and helped each other to break that horn of the ram. (110:16)

According to this theory, the first sentence is most likely the death of High Priest Onias III, who is murdered which is described in 1 Maccabees 3:33–35 (dies c. 171 BC). The "great horn" clearly is not Mattathias, the initiator of the rebellion, as he dies a natural death as described in 1 Maccabees 2:49. It is also not Alexander the Great, as the great horn is interpreted as a warrior who has fought the Macedonians, Seleucids, and Ptolemies. Judas Maccabeus (167 BC–160 BC) has fought all three of these, with a large number of winning battles against the Seleucids over a large period of time; "they had no power over it". He is also described as "one great horn among six others on the head of a lamb", possibly pertaining to his five brothers and Mattathias. If you[who?] take this in context of the history from Maccabeus time Dillman Chrest Aethiop says verse 13 can find its explanation in 1 Maccabees iii 7; vi. 52; v.; 2 Maccabees vi. 8 sqq., 13, 14; 1 Maccabees vii 41, 42 and 2 Maccabees x v, 8 sqq. The evidence does seem to suggest that this is in fact the life and times of Judas Maccabeus. He is eventually killed by the Seleucids at the Battle of Elasa where he faced "twenty thousand foot soldiers and two thousand cavalry". At one time, it was believed this passage possibly belonged to John Hyrcanus; the only reason for this was the time between Alexander the Great and John Maccabeus was too short. However, it has been asserted that evidence shows this section does indeed discuss Maccabeus.

It then describes: "And I saw till a great sword was given to the sheep, and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field to slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven fled before their face." This might be simply the "power of God", God was with them to avenge the death. It may also be perhaps Jonathan Apphus taking over command of the rebels to battle on after Judas death. Other possible appearances are John Hyrcanus (Hyrcanus I) (Hasmonean dynasty): the passage "And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to His house" possibly describes John's reign a time of great peace and prosperity. Certain scholars also claim Alexander Jannaeus of Judaea is alluded to in this book.

The end of the book describes the new Jerusalem, culminating in the birth of a Messiah:

And I saw that a white bull was born, with large horns and all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air feared him and made petition to him all the time. 38. And I saw till all their generations were transformed, and they all became white bulls; and the first among them became a lamb, and that lamb became a great animal and had great black horns on its head; and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over it and over all the oxen.

Still another interpretation, which has just as much as credibility, is that the last chapters of this section simply refer to infamous battle of Armageddon, where all of the nations of the world march against Israel; this interpretation is supported by the War Scroll, which describes what this epic battle may be like, according to the group(s) that existed at Qumran.

The Epistle of Enoch

Some scholars propose a date somewhere between the 170 BC and the 1st century BC.

This section can be studied as formed by five sub-sections, mixed by the final redactor:


        XCII, XCI.1–10, 18–19. Enoch's Book of Admonition for his Children.

Names of the fallen angels

Some of the fallen angels that are given in 1 Enoch have other names such as Rameel ('morning of God'), who becomes Azazel and is also called Gadriel ('wall of God') in Chapter 68. Another example is that Araqiel ('Earth of God') becomes Aretstikapha ('world of distortion') in Chapter 68.

"Azaz" as in Azazel means strength, so the name Azazel can refer to strength of God. But the sense in which it is used most probably means impudent (showing strength towards) which comes out as arrogant to God. This is also a key point to his being Satan in modern thought.

Nathaniel Schmidt states "the names of the angels apparently refer to their condition and functions before the fall," and lists the likely meaning of the angels names in the book of Enoch, noting that "the great majority of them are Aramaic."

The suffix of the names 'el' means 'God' (List of names referring to El) which is used in the names of high ranking angels. The Archangels all include this such as Uriel (Flame of God) or Michael "who is like God?". Another is given as Gadrel, who is said to have tempted Eve; Schmidt lists the name as meaning "the helper of God."

See also




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=unCKBcBa0lM    L.A. MARZULLI

The names of the Watchers

According to the Book of Enoch, exactly 200 Watchers fell to Earth to take human wives. It names 20 of these, explaining that each one was a leader in a group of 10. In his book From the Ashes of Angels, Andrew Collins names a few others, and other reference works corroborate some of the names given in these sources, sometimes with alternate spellings. Through these various sources, I have collected information on what some of these named Watchers taught to mankind. Where there was a variation in wording, I have included both wordings.

According to Collins, there is no complete record of the names of all 200 Watchers. Most of the names included in Enoch are not included in other books, apocryphal or otherwise; in fact, very few of the others appear inother mythological texts; these include Azazel and Kokabel (Shemyaza is a central character in Storm Constantine's Grigori triology). Azazel is a curious example; although the Watchers, in the beginning of Enoch, swear to Shemyaza, the clear leader, that they will not change their minds about descending. But later, Azazel takes the brunt of the blame for what happens (to his credit, he taught more forbidden items to humankind than the others). He was thrown into the canyon of Duadel, and pinned with sharp rocks, with his face covered. In the Biblical book Leviticus, he is recreated as a desert creature to whom the ancient Israelites dedicated their scapegoats:

"Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats, one lot for the Lord and the other lot for Azazel. And Aaron shall present the goat on which the lot fell for the Lord, and offer it as a sin offering; but the goat on which the lot fell for Azazel shall be presented alive before the lord to make atonement for it, that it may be sent away into the wilderness to Azazel."

In still later times, Azazel is considered a demon, and is occasionally identified as the devil -- or as one of his chieftains.

Kokabel, or Kakabel, also appears in Jewish folklore as a powerful angel who is in charge of the stars and constellations. He is considered by some to be a holy angel; by others, a fallen one. It is said that he commands 365,000 lesser spirits and teaches astrology to his fellow angels.

Sariel is known under many names, but this one translates to "God's command." Some say he is the angel of death; he is named as the one who retrieved the soul of Moses from Mount Sinai. He is also called by some a "prince of the presence" and an angel of healing. His name appears in Gnostic amulets and it is said that when he's invoked he manifests in the form of an ox; according to the Cabala, he is one of the seven angels that rule the earth. He is also associated with the skies and is in charge of the zodiac sign of Aries and instructs others on the course of the Moon. In occult circles he is one of the nine angels of the summer equinox and can protect against the evil eye.

What follows is as complete a list of the Watchers' names as I can find; I will add names as I discover more of them.

1. Semyaza, Shemyaza, Semjaza, Semiaza, Samyaza, Shemhazai
"Taught enchantments and root-cuttings."

2. Azazel, Azazyel, Azaziel
"Taught men to make swords, knives, shields, breastplates, the fabrication of mirrors and the workmanship of bracelets and ornaments, the use of paint, the beautifying of the eyebrows, the use of stones of every valuable and select kind, and of all sorts of dyes, so that the world became altered."

"Taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures."

3. Amazarak
"Taught all the sorcerers, and dividers of roots."

4. Armers, Armeros, Armaros
"Taught the solution of sorcery."
"Taught the resolving of enchantments."

5. Barkayal, Baraqijal, Baraqel
"Taught the observers of the stars."
"Taught astrology."

6. Kokabel, Kawkabel, Kakabel
"Taught the science of the constellations."

7. Ezeqeel, Ezekeel
"Taught the knowledge of the clouds."

8. Araqiel, Arakiel
"Taught the signs of the earth."

9. Shamsiel, Shamshiel
"Taught the signs of the sun."

10. Sariel,, Suriel, Zerachiel, Saraquel, Asardel
"Taught the motion of the moon."
"Taught the course of the moon."

11. Akibeel
"Taught signs."

12. Tamiel
"Taught astronomy."

13. Penemue
"Taught the bitter and the sweet, the use of ink and paper."

14. Kasdeja, Kisdeja
"Taught the children of men all the wicked smitings of spirits and demons, and the smitings of the embryo in the womb, that it may pass away."

15. Gadreel
"Introduced weapons of war."

16. Ramuell
17. Danel
18. Azkeel
19. Saraknyal
20. Asael
21. Batraal
22. Anane
23. Zavebe
24. Samsaveel
25. Ertael
26. Turel
27. Yomvael
28. Urakabarameel

The many names of the Nephilim

"The Nefilim ('Fallen Ones') bore many other tribal names, such as Emim ('Terrors'), Repha'im ('Weakeners'), Gibborim ('Giant Heroes'), Zamzummim ('Achievers'), Anakim ('Long-necked' or 'Wearers of Necklaces'), Awwim ('Devastators' or 'Serpents'). One of the Nefilim named Arba is said to have built the city of Hebron, called 'Kiriath-Arba' after him, and become the father of Anak whose three sons, Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai, were later expelled by Joshua's comrade Caleb. Since, however, arba means 'four' in Hebrew, Kiriath-Arba may have originally have meant 'City of Four,' a reference to its four quarters mythically connected with the Anakite clans: Anak himself and his 'sons' Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai."
- Robert Graves and Raphael Patai, Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis

SOURCE:  http://echoes.devin.com/watchers/names.html



Michael ~ Raphael ~ Gabriel ~ Ariel ~ Azrael ~ Chamuel ~ Haniel ~ Jeremiel ~ Jophiel ~ Metatron ~ Raguel ~ Raziel ~ Sandalphon ~ Uriel ~ Zadkiel

Archangel Ariel ~

Ariel's name means 'Lion or lioness of God' and this archangel is associated with lions and animals. Ariel is involved with healing and protecting nature and that includes the animals, fish and birds, especially the wild ones. Environmentalism.  Patron Angel of Wild Animals

 Archangel Azrael ~

Azrael's name means 'Whom God helps'. Azrael's role is primarily to cross people over to heaven at the time of physical death. Azrael comforts people prior to their physical death, ensures they do not suffer during death, and helps them to assimilate on the other side. Call upon Azrael for support and comfort. Grief Counseling. Assists Newly Crossed Over Soul. Compassion, peace, transition and comfort. Patron Angel of the Clergy 

Archangel Chamuel ~

Chamuel' name means "He who sees God' or 'He who seeks God'. Chamuel is a powerful healer leader in the angelic hierarchy known as the 'Powers' who protect the world from fearful and lower energies. Call upon Chamuel for comfort, protection, and intervention in world events. Love, tolerance, gratitude. Call upon Chamuel if you need to find items, soulmate, etc... unconditional love and strengthens relationships. Patron Angel of all who love God

Archangel Gabriel ~

Gabriel's name means 'God is my strength. Gabriel is the Angel of child conception or the process of adopting a child. This archangel also helps anyone whose life purpose involves art or communication. Defender of the Element of Water and of the West. The Angel of resurrection, mercy and peace and benefactor of " messengers". Purity, rebirth, creativity, prophecy, purifying your thoughts, body and emotions.Communication & the Arts. Patron Angel of all who work in the field of communications. postal workers, and clergy.

Archangel Haniel  ~

Haniel's name means 'Glory of God' Haniel helps us to recover lost secrets of natural healing remedies. Haniel also helps us enjoy more grace in our lives. Call upon Haniel to add beauty, harmony, and the company of wonderful friends to your life. Moon energy, clairvoyance and grace

Archangel Jeremiel ~

Jeremiel's name means 'Mercy of God' In addition to being an archangel of prophetic vision's, Jeremiel helps newly-crossed over souls to review their lives. He helps those still living to take an inventory of their life, to be able to make positive adjustments. Visions, life review and psychic dreams.

Archangel Jophiel ~

Jophiel's name means 'Beauty of God'. Jophiel helps us to think beautiful thoughts and to therefore create, manifest, and attract more beauty into our lives. Illumination, wisdom and perception. Thoughts of beauty and love. Patron Angel of Artists

Archangel Metatron ~

Metatron is a fiery, energetic angel who has a special place in his heart for children, especially those who are spiritually gifted. After the Exodus, Metatron led the children of Israel through the wilderness and onto safety. He continues to lead children today, both on earth and in heaven. Unity, education and truth. Children Issues. Owning your own power. Patron Angel of Small Children.

Archangel Michael ~

Michael's name means 'He who is like God' or 'He who looks like God' His chief function is to rid the earth and its inhabitants of the toxins associated with fear. Michael gives guidance and direction for people who need help or assistance in their life's purpose or career path ... to clarify or to make changes. Defender of the Element of Fire and of the South. Leader of the Archangels, he is the Angel of protection, justice & strength. Protection, courage, power and strength. Archangel Michael gives you protection, and encourages you to make life changes that are required for your spiritual growth.If your space needs clearing call upon Archangel Michael. Patron Angel of Law Enforcement and the Military 

Archangel Raguel ~

Raguel's name means 'Friend of God' His chief role in heaven is to oversee all of the other archangels and angels, to ensure that they're all working together in a harmonious and orderly fashion, according to Divine order and will. If you need help in creating  harmony and resolving conflicts, call upon Raguel.

Archangel Raphael ~

Raphael's name means 'God heals' or 'God has healed' based upon the Hebrew word, Rapha, which means 'doctor' or 'healer' Raphael is a powerful healer of physical bodies, both for humans and animals. Defender of the Element of Air and of the East. He is the Angel of Love, Joy and Laughter, custodian of the Tree of Life and of Healing Powers. He helps you heal your mind, thoughts, body, and soul. Those suffering from addicitions would benefit asking Archangel Raphael for assistance. Patron Angel
of all those in the field of Medicine

Archangel Raziel ~

Raziel's name means 'secret of God' because he works so closely with God that he knows all of the secrets of the universe, and how it operates. Raziel can help you too understand esoteric material and increase you ability to see, hear, know and feel Divine guidance. Alchemy, divine magic and manifesting. Patron Angel of Law Makers and Lawyers

Archangel Sandalphon ~

Sandalphon's name means 'brother' in Greek, a reference to his twin brother, the archangel Metatron. The twins are the only archangels in heaven who were originally mortal men. Sandalphon's chief role is to carry human prayers to God, so they may be answered. Patron Angel of music

Archangel Uriel ~

Uriel's name means 'God is light' 'Gods light' or 'Fire of God' because he illuminates situations and gives prophetic information and warnings. Perhaps because of his connection to Noah, and the weather elements of thunder and lightening, Uriel is considered an archangel who helps us with natural disaster. Call upon archangel Uriel to avert such events, or to heal and recover in their aftermath. Defender of the element of earth and of the north. Angel of nature, visions and instruction and the custodian of prophecy. Peace & ministration, spiritual understanding, students with their test and studies and problem solving. A patron angel of literature and music

Archangel Zadkiel ~

Zadkiel's name means 'The righteousness of God' Zadkiel can help you hold mercy and compassion towards yourself and others, and let go of judgements and unforgivingness.To forgive yourself or someone else, ask Zadkiel for help. He is the Archangel of
invocation, transformation. Angel of freedom, benevolence, mercy, and the patron Patron Angel of all who forgive.


Samael (Hebrew: סמאל‎, "Venom of God" or "Poison of God," also Sammael or Samil) is an important archangel in Talmudic and post-Talmudic lore, a figure who is accuser (devil), seducer and destroyer, and has been regarded as both good and evil. Rabbinical writings describe Samael as the guardian angel of Esau and a patron of Edom(or, the Roman empire).

He is considered in Talmudic texts to be a member of the heavenly host (with often grim and destructive duties). One of Samael's greatest roles in Jewish lore is that of the main archangel of death. He remains one of Yahweh's servants even though he wants men to do evil. As an angel, Samael resides in the seventh heaven, although he is declared to be the chief angel of the fifth heaven, the reason for this being the presence of the throne of glory in the fifth heaven.


In Judaism, Samael is said to be the angel of death, one of the seven archangels, the ruler over the Fifth Heaven, and commander of two million angels. Yalkut Shimoni (I, 110) presents Samael as Esau's guardian angel.

According to The Ascension of Moses Samael is also mentioned as being in 7th Heaven:

In the last heaven Moses saw two angels, each five hundred parasangs in height, forged out of chains of black fire and red fire, the angels Af, "Anger," and Hemah, "Wrath," whom God created at the beginning of the world, to execute His will. Moses was disquieted when he looked upon them, but Metatron embraced him, and said, "Moses, Moses, thou favorite of God, fear not, and be not terrified," and Moses became calm. There was another angel in the seventh heaven, different in appearance from all the others, and of frightful men. His height was so great, it would have taken five hundred years to cover a distance equal to it, and from the crown of his head to the soles of his feet he was studded with glaring eyes, at the sight of which the beholder fell prostrate in awe. "This one," said Metatron, addressing Moses, "is Samael, who takes the soul away from man." "Whither goes he now?" asked Moses, and Metatron replied, "To fetch the soul of Job the pious." Thereupon Moses prayed to God in these words, "O may it be Thy will, my God and the God of my fathers, not to let me fall into the hands of this angel."

In The Holy Kabbalah (Arthur Edward Waite, 255), Samael is described as the "wrath of God", and is listed as fifth of the archangels of the world of Briah. Also in the Kabbalah, Samael was said to be the Serpent who tempted Eve into sin. He even seduced and impregnated her with Cain. Samael then became the consort of Adam's first wife, Lilith, . He created with her a host of demon children, including a son, Sariel, the "Sword of Samael"  (or Asmodai).

Samael is sometimes confused in some books with Camael, an archangel of God, whose name is similar to words meaning "like God" (but Camael with a waw missing).

It is also said that the Baal Shem once summoned Samael, to make him do his bidding.

In several interpretations of the Ascension of Isaiah, Samael is often identified as Malkira (Heb.: מלך רוע melek roa; lit. "king of evil" or "king of the wicked") or Belkira (prob. בעל קיר baal qir, "lord of the wall"), which are both epithets of the false prophet sent by Belial to accuse Isaiah of treason, notably the Ascension of Isaiah also identifies him as Satan.


According to some myths, Samael was mated with Eisheth Zenunim, Na'amah, Lilith and Agrat Bat Mahlat, all except Lilith being 'angels' of sacred prostitution.

It should be noted, however, that this link is a dubious one and likely arises from a case of mistaken identity equating Samael with the demon Azazel whom is himself in Zoharistic lore a combination of the angels Azael and Aza.



In the Apocryphon of John, found in the Nag Hammadi library, Samael is the third name of the demiurge, whose other names are Yaldabaoth and Saklas. In this context, Samael means "the blind god", the theme of blindness running throughout gnostic works[. His appearance is that of a lion-faced serpent. In On the Origin of the World in the Nag Hammadi library texts, he is also referred to as Ariael, the Archangel of Principalities.



To anthroposophists, Samael is known as one of the seven archangels: Saint Gregory gives the seven archangels as Anael, Gabriel, Michael, Oriphiel, Raphael, Samael and Zachariel. They are all imagined to have a special assignment to act as a global zeitgeist ("time-spirit"), each for periods of about 360 years. Since 1879, anthroposophists posit, Michael has been the leading time spirit. Four important archangels are also supposed to display periodic spiritual activity over the seasons: Raphael during the spring, Uriel during the summer, Michael during the autumn, and Gabriel during the winter.



belial   NOTE HOW ETish these beings look.

Belial is a term occurring in the Hebrew Bible which later became personified as the devil in Jewish and Christian texts.

Found frequently as a personal name in the Vulgate and various English translations of the Bible, is commonly used as a synonym of Satan, or the personification of evil.

This sense is derived from 2 Corinthians 6:15, where Belial (or Beliar) as prince of darkness is contrasted with Christ, the light. It is clear in the Vulgate and Douay translations of 1 Kings 21:10 and 13, where the sameHebrew is rendered once as Belial and twice as "the devil".

In the other instances, too, the translators understood it as a name for the prince of evil, and so it has passed into English. Milton, however, distinguishes Belial from Satan, regarding him as the demon of impurity. In the Hebrew Bible, nevertheless, the word is not a proper name, but a common noun usually signifying "wickedness" or "extreme wickedness". Thus, Moore renders "sons of Belial" as "vile scoundrels" (Judges 19:22); most prefer "worthless fellows".

In some cases belial seems to mean "destruction", "ruin"; thus in Psalm 12:9, the word is parallel to the thought of utter destruction and seems to mean the same. In Psalm 18:5, it is parallel to "death" and "Sheol"; some understand it as "destruction", Cheyne as "the abyss".

The etymology of the word is doubtful; it is usually taken to be a compound meaning "worthlessness." Cheyne suggest an alternate that means "that from which no one comes up", namely the abyss, Sheol. St. Jerome'setymology "without yoke", which he has even inserted as a gloss in the text of Judges 19:22, is contrary toHebrew philology.

Belial, from meaning wickedness or Sheol, could develop into a name for the prince of evil or of darkness; and as such was widely used at the beginning of our era. Under the names Beliar, Berial, he plays a very important rôle in apocryphal literature, in the "Ascension of Isaias", the "Sibylline Oracles", and the "Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs". He is the prince of this world and will come as Antichrist; his name is sometimes given also to Nero, returning as Antichrist.


The Book of Revelation describes a "war in heaven" between angels led by the archangel Michael versus those led by "the dragon", identified with "the devil and Satan", who are defeated and thrown down to the earth. Revelation's "war in heaven" has been compared to the idea of fallen angels, and possible parallels have been proposed in the Hebrew Bible and Dead Sea Scrolls.



This type of calculation can lead to wide margins of error.  The further back in time, the wider the margin, so that dates in the Early Dynastic Periods can be off by 50 to 200 years, while New Kingdom dates can be off by 20 years or  more.  After the 26th Dynasty, dates are more readily comparable to other events outside of KMT and the range of error is much less.

Many people use a calendar that is based upon the presumed date upon which Jesus of Nazareth was born. According to that calendar this is the year 1999 A.D. and the years are counted backward from the year one to events that occured before the birth of Jesus.

That is only one calendar system.  The Hebrew calendar, which is another calendar many people use today, starts on a date that some people believe is when the world was created according to the Old Testament.  According to that calendar, this is the year 5758 and there are no dates before the year one.  The Chinese also have a different calendar and so do many other people.

The ancient Egyptians set their calendar very differently than we are used to.  They kept a 365 day year, like we do, but they did not have a leap year to make up for the fact that the Earth takes 365 and a quarter days to travel around the sun.  Therefore the Egyptian civil calendar gradually grew out of step with the seasons.  The ancient Egyptians also only recognized three seasons: flooding, planting and harvesting (instead of spring, summer, fall and winter).

The ancient Egyptians also recorded years very differently than we are used to.  Each time a new Pharaoh came to power, the calendar was reset to year one.  For example, the ancient Egyptians would write that something happend on the 12th day of the of the 3rd month of the 2nd season in the 8th year of King Ramesses.  This makes it very hard to determine just when certain kings ruled because there is not one complete and reliable list of all of the kings and how long each of them ruled.  It is also hard, because there are not many starting dates that we can compare to other reliable events.

In order to be fair in this day of enightenment, we are presenting the precious wives and Mothers of these great Pharoahs.


The Lists of Antediluvian Kings: A Coded Document 
by Dr. Patrice Guinard
-- translation Matyas Becvarov --

Note: This paper has been written in French for the Primeras Jornadas Internacionales de Historia de la Astrología en la Antiguedad, organized by the journal Beroso in Barcelona (March 24-25, 2001), and has been published in Spanish in the 4th edition of the journal (1st semestre 2001). 


"One should not attribute any particular symbolic value to these numbers." 
(Dominique Charpin,
Le Déluge, Dossiers d'Archéologie, 204, 1995)

In The Legend of Adapa (attested before 1500 B.C.), Uanna, Hellenized as Oannes by Berossus and given the epithet Adapa ("The Wise"), appears in the reign of A-lulim, the first antediluvian king in the form of a man clothed to resemble a fish. He is the first of the apkallu (= AB.GAL in Sumerian), i.e. the seven sages sent by Ea to civilize human beings. Berossus relates the myth of Oannes (ca. 4500-4000 B.C.), a civilizing hero who ostensibly emerged from the waters of the Persian Gulf to give birth to Sumerian culture (writing, sciences, agriculture, city-dwelling).

Other mythic accounts of Sumerian origin are known, e.g. the famous Epic of Gilgamesh and the story Atrahasis (The Very Wise), which relate the event of the Flood and served as inspiration for the Bible. Between the appearance of Uanna-Oannes and the Flood episode there reigned some dozen kings according to the temple records of Nippur, the religious capital of Sumer, which was dedicated to the god Enlil. These kings are the so-called antediluvian rulers. After the Flood, the royal seat was moved to Kish. 

The List of the Isin Dynasty (ca. 2000 B.C.)

The chronology of Mesopotamian kings, the earliest of them being mythical figures, extends from the earliest times up to the 18th century B.C. The record is found on some fifteen tablets, primarily from the archives of Nippur (cf. Thorkild Jacobsen, The Sumerian King List, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1939, and Jean-Jacques Glassner, Chroniques mésopotamiennes, Paris, Belles Lettres, 1993). Several lists exist, with the Sumerian names transcribed into Akkadian and dating from the Amorite dynasty of Larsa (ca. 1800 B.C.) or composed at Isin (ca. 1900B.C.); the most complete text of the list is found in the collection of Weld-Blundell, and has been translated by Thorkild Jacobsen (op. cit., pp. 70-77): 

1 - Eridu A-lulim 28.800 years = 8 saroi
2 - Eridu Alalgar 36.000 years = 10 saroi
3 - Bad-tibira En-men-lu-Anna 43.200 years = 12 saroi
4 - Bad-tibira En-men-gal-Anna 28.800 years = 8 saroi
5 - Bad-tibira Dumu-zi 36.000 years = 10 saroi
6 - Larak En-sipa-zi-Anna 28.800 years = 8 saroi
7 - Sippar En-men-dur-Anna 21.000 years = 5,833 saroi
8 - Shuruppak Ubar-Tutu 18.600 years = 5,166 saroi

The ancient Sumerian system of numeration was sexagesimal (based on 60), which gave rise to our division of the hour into 60 minutes and of the circle into 360 degrees. The key names of the numbers were 1, GES or GESH; 60, also GES or GESH (the base unit); 3600, SAR or SHAR ... The disappearance of Sumerian numeration can be dated to the 15th century B.C. (cf. Georges Ifrah, Histoire universelle des chiffres, Paris, 1981; Paris, Laffont, 1994).

All the numbers are divisible by 3600, with the exception of the last two, which are divisible globally. Hence the last two antediluvian kings are said to have reigned for eleven periods. In total, five cities were governed by eight kings during 67 saroi, or periods of reign.

I suggest a double decoding principle, as follows: the total sum of the duration of the reigns in question, and the sum of the products of those durations (beginning at each end and calculating toward the center value), two by two, the first combined with the last, the second with the seventh, the third with the sixth, and the fourth with the fifth.

This approach yields 67 for the first sum, and 275.658 (= 41.328 + 58.33 + 96 + 80) for the second value. Subsequently I multiply the first value by 10 and divide the second by 10 (the reasons for this operation follow below). The results are 670 and 27.5658 respectively.

These numbers are those of the cycle of the eclipses and of the anomalistic cycle of the moon. In point of fact, solar and lunar eclipses recur at the same moment after each 54 years, or 669 synodic months (approximation 0.15%). By synodic rotation of the moon is understood the interval between two full moons or two new moons. The period of 54 years is attested in a tablet from Uruk (cf. F. Thureau-Dangin, "Tablettes d'Uruk," Textes Cunéiformes du Louvre, 6, Paris, 1922, and Bartel van der Waerden, Science Awakening II: the Birth of Astronomy, 1965; English rev. ed., Leyden, Noordhoff, 1974, p. 103).

One-third of this period of 54 years, called saros by the Greeks, i.e. 18 years and 11.3 days, is the classic cycle of solar and lunar eclipses, and includes 29 lunar eclipses and 41 solar eclipses. The Saros cycle is the period of return of the Sun and Moon to their initial positions relative to the Earth: this return is possible because of synchronization between the synodic and anomalistic revolutions of the Moon. In effect, the period includes exactly 223 synodic lunar cycles and 239 anomalistic revolutions. The anomalistic revolution is the interval of time that separates two passages of the Moon at its perigee across the point where it is closest to the Earth. This relation between synodic months and anomalistic months of the Moon was known to Babylonian astronomers, who used it to predict the return of lunar and solar eclipses. Van der Waerden points out that "The duration of an eclipse is highly influenced by the anomalistic movement of the Moon, but that influence is neutralized if one takes these 223 months as a block" (op. cit., p. 103).

The second number (27.5658) is that of the anomalistic lunar cycle (in reality 27.555, or an approximation of 0.04%). Hence these two numbers relate to extremely precise data concerning knowledge of lunar motion, and take on even more significant shape if one keeps in mind that it was Ishbi-Erra (2017-1985 B.C.), the founder of the Isin Dynasty, who imposed on the greater part of southern Mesopotamia the lunar calendar of Nippur, to the detriment of numerous local competing calendars (cf. Mark Cohen, The Cultic Calendars of the Ancient Near East, Bethesda (Md.), CDL Press, 1993).

Hence the list of antediluvian kings of the Isin Dynasty is an encoding of astronomical data concerning the various lunar periods. The number 10, which serves as multiplier and divisor in this coding, was not chosen arbitrarily, since it was probably at this point, perhaps even under the Isin Dynasty, that the decimal system replaced the Sumerian hexagesimal system. 

The List of Berossus (ca. 747 B.C.)

Berossus, the Hellenized Chaldean philosopher/astrologer, proposes in his Babyloniaca (in the first section of Book II) a second list of antediluvian kings who reigned after the appearance of Oannes, this time including ten sovereigns, four cities and 120 periods of reign (the two following sections of his Book II are devoted to a description of the Flood and to the post-diluvian kings).

Berossus borrowed his narrative from the archives of Babylonia-Borsippa, and these archives themselves, with regard to the Creation and the first ages of the world, copied revelations ostensibly inscribed on tablets by Oannes, the first fish-man and "the inventor of letters, sciences and arts, the founder of laws, cities and all civilization. " (Joseph Bidez, "Les écoles chaldéennes sous Alexandre et les Séleucides," in Mélanges Capart, Brussels, 1935, p. 50). 

1 - Babylone Alôros (Aloros) = 1 A-lulim 36.000 years = 10 saroi
2 - Babylone Alaparos = 2 Alalgar 10.800 years = 3 saroi
3 - Pautibiblon Amêlôn (Amelon) = 3 En-men-lu-Anna 46.800 years = 13 saroi
4 - Pautibiblon Ammenôn (Ammenon) = 4 En-men-gal-Anna 43.200 years = 12 saroi
5 - Pautibiblon Megalaros (Amegalaros) 64.800 years = 18 saroi
6 - Pautibiblon Daônos ou Daôs (Daonos) = 5 Dumu-zi 36.000 years = 10 saroi
7 - Pautibiblon Euedôrachos (Euedorachos) = 7 En-men-dur-Anna 64.800 years = 18 saroi
8 - Larak Amempsinos = 6 En-sipa-zi-Anna 36.000 years = 10 saroi
9 - Larak Opartes (Otiartes) = 8 Ubar-Tutu 28.800 years = 8 saroi
10 - Shuruppak Xisouthros 64.800 years = 18 saroi

I use transcriptions of the Hellenized names given by Berossus, from G. Contenau (Le déluge babylonien, Paris, 1941; rev. ed. Paris, Payot, 1952, p. 56), and, where a difference occurs, those of Stanley Burstein in parentheses (cf. The Babyloniaca of Berossus, Malibu (Ca.), Sources and Monographs of the Ancient Near East, Undena Publications, 1978, pp. 18-19). Any correspondences with the sovereigns of the first list are also indicated.

Xisouthros is the Ziusuddu (or Ziusudra) of the Sumerian flood story, and En-men-dur-Anna (or Enmenduranki) is the celebrated inventor of divination: he "is held to have invented mantic methods, the various ways of divining the future. What is his name? En-me-dur-an-an, or rather En-me-dur-an-ki, which means: 'the lord of the decrees of heaven and earth.' (...) [He is] the inventor of divination, the principles of which the gods revealed to him, and of whom diviners in ages afterward can be called sons." (G. Contenau, Le déluge babylonien, Paris, Payot, 1952, pp. 49 and 59). One notices that the order of succession for the rulers is not identical in the two chronologies, and that En-men-dur-Anna figures as the seventh sovereign in both lists.

In the second chronology all the durations of reign are divisible by 3600, and the overlap with the first list is obvious: in the latter, four cities ruled by ten kings; in the former, five cities ruled by eight kings. Moreover, the sum of the first four reigns equals 38 [= 19 X 2] in both chronologies, and to the two supplemental rulers there is attributed a period of 18 saroi, the period in question being the cycle of the eclipses observable in the first chronology. In addition, the difference between the total durations of the two chronologies equals 53, or even 54 if one counts only periods of complete reign, and 54 is the number of the great cycle of the eclipses.

Proceeding in the same fashion for the later list (total sum, and sum of the products taken two by two, from the beginning and end to the center), and using two as the code number (since it is here a question of a second list, so the number two symbolizes the redoubling of coding from the first chronology), I obtain the numbers 240 and 365 [= (180 + 24 + 130 + 216 + 180) / 2].

The number 240 is an approximation (0.42%) of the number of anomalistic revolutions of the Moon within the cycle of the saros, and of the average of the numbers of anomalistic (239) and draconitic (242) revolutions of the Moon (approximation 0.20%). Thus it harks back to the first chronology. The number 365 is that of the days in the year (approximation 0.07%), and also the number of double hours in a solar month, since the day was divided into twelve beru of two hours each. The chronology may encode the introduction to the Zodiac vis-à-vis the underlying solar calendar.

It is known that under Nabonassar a new calendar was instituted that introduced seven supplementary months over a period of nineteen years (i.e., 235 lunar cycles). Berossus writes: "Nabonasaros [Nabu-Nasir] gathered and destroyed the archives concerning the kings who preceded him, so that the Chaldean king list would commence with him." (Babyloniaka, 2.5.1, Burstein edition, p. 22.) This reorganization of the archives corresponds to the dawning of a new era following a major scientific discovery: the synchronization of the lunar and solar calendars.

Taking up again the numbers of Berossus' list, and working out the sum of the products of the reigns by city (Babylon, Shuruppak and Pautibiblon, Larak) the results are: [(10 + 3) X 18] + [(13 + 12 + 18 + 10 + 18) X (10 + 8)], which equals 1512.

Berossus also indicates that Alaparos was the son of Aloros, and Xisouthros the son of Otiartes. Calculating the sum of the products of the reigns two by two, and merging the duration of the reigns relative to Alaparos-Aloros and Xisouthros-Otiartes, the results are: [(10 +3) X (8 + 18)] + (13 X 10) + (12 X 18) + (18 X 10), which equals 864.

These numbers, 1512 and 864, are both multiples of 216. 
1512 is equal to 216 X 7 (7 being the number of days in the week), and 864 is equal to 216 X 4 (4 being the number of seasons in the year, or the number of weeks in the lunar month). Hence, the introduction of the week of seven days, attested later, may have been conceptualized in this earlier epoch.

What is more, the number 216, equal to 18 (= cycle of saros) times 12 (= months in the solar year), but also 8 X 27 (= days in the solar month), or even 235 (= lunar cycles) - 19 (= solar years), could be the key to understanding the important astronomical discovery of the coincidence of lunar and solar cycles.

We know that the Chinese established in the 6th century B.C. a new calendar based on the cycle of 19 years, or 235 lunar cycles, which is to say, 12 years of 12 lunar months and 7 years of 13 lunar months, and that this cycle of 19 years was reformulated by the Greek Meton of Athens in 430 B.C. 

Astronomy, Myth and Celestial Mathematics

No satisfactory explanation has ever been given before for the duration of the reigns in question. Some interpreters have suggested a basis in the great eras defined in Indian thought and have therefore assumed a relationship with the yugas. Others have believed it possible to find in the durations evidence of the precession of the equinoxes. Setting ourselves here to a more modest scale, we have made explicit knowledge attested by the Mesopotamians themselves, but in an earlier epoch, which seems the more likely explanation. It seems plausible to me that such scientific knowledge could have embedded itself in myth (e.g., the legendary sovereigns before the Flood) and crystallized in the form of numbers. It is only thus that the three levels of the Triad (cf. my "Du Sémiotique à l'Astral," 04semas.html ) or the three "worlds" can find a point of commonality and harmony. So astronomical fact, encoded by means of simple arithmetic (but apparently complex enough to have escaped notice in the repeated analyses of rationalistic thought), reveals itself through myth. The Ancients reasoned differently with regard to the pertinence and extension of knowledge. "Empirical fact" needed Myth in order to magnify it, and Number in order to reveal it. All of society benefitted from that approach, and knowledge in those societies was never something hidden, but rather was accessible to the intelligence and perspicacity of those who possess such gifts. The myths and monuments that crystallized such knowledge were available to all people. It is rather modern society, with its incapacity really to understand otherness -- as well as its bondage to its own ego -- that masks this lack of availability through a panoply of experts who remain useless and deaf to dialogue, through a body of knowledge reserved for specialists and shut away in inaccessible places, and through an absurd complexity of data and results. Descartes lived his philosophy like a series of battles. This particular battle, that I have waged now for several years, has led me to conclusions that I find satisfying in part.

home : index : ancient Mesopotamia

Sumerian King List

Statuette of a Sumerian 
Sumerian King List: list of rulers of ancient Sumer, used as a framework for the study of Mesopotamian chronology. Sixteen copies (indicated as A, B, C... P) of this text are known, all of them written in Sumerian, although some of them clearly show Akkadian influence. The text appears to have been composed in the late third millennium BCE (Ur III period), and was later updated. The sequence of cities is identical to the Eridu Genesis.

The text presented here is based on version G, an octagonal prism from Larsa.

In Joseph Campbell's, The Inner Reaches Of Outer Space, he writes about the similarity between the Babylonian and Genesis flood stories. In the Babylonian or Sumerian story, there were ten kings who lived very long lives from creation to the time of the flood. This is given as a total of 432,000 years.

Sumerian King List (a version)

































Total years =


In the Biblical account, there were ten patriarchs between Adam and Noah, who also lived long lives. Noah was 600 years old at the time of the landing of the Ark on the mountains of Ararat (in present day Turkey). The total years add up to 1,656.

Dates in Genesis

Age wen
Begging Son

Age at 
Time of Death

Adam (Gen 5:3-5)



Seth (Gen 5:6-8)



Enosh (Gen 5:911)



Kenon (Gen 5:12-14)



Mahalalel (Gen 5:15-17)



Jared (Gen 5:18-20)



Enoch (Gen 5:21-24)



Methuselah (Gen 5:25-27)



Lamech (Gen 5:28-31)



Noah (Gen 7:6)

when Flood came

Total years until Flood =


In 1,656 years, there are 86,400 weeks, and half that number is 43,200. There are myths about cycles in time, and out of time, so this doubling/halving is not uncommon. He believed that someone carefully gave the age of Noah to secretly hide the time cycle number.


After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridu. 
In Eridu, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28,800 years. 
Alalgar ruled for 36,000 years. 
Two kings; they ruled for 64800 years.
Then Eridu fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. 
In Bad-tibira, Enmen-lu-ana ruled for 43,200 years. 
Enmen-gal-ana ruled for 28,800 years. 
The divine Dumuzi, the shepherd, ruled for 36,000 years. 
Three kings; they ruled for 108,000 years.
Then Bad-tibira fell and the kingship was taken to Larak. 
In Larak, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28,800 years. 
One king; he ruled for 28,800 years.
Then Larak fell and the kingship was taken to Sippar. 
In Sippar, Enmen-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21,000 years. 
One king; he ruled for 21000 years.
Then Sippar fell and the kingship was taken to Šuruppak. 
In Šuruppak, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18,600 years. 
One king; he ruled for 18,600 years.
Five cities; eight kings ruled for 385,200sic years. 
Then the Flood swept over.
After the Flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kiš. 
In Kiš, Gišur became king; he ruled for 1,200 years. 
Kullassina-bêl ruled for 900 years. 
Nan-GIŠ-lišma ruled for 1,200 years. 
En-dara-ana ruled for 420 years, 3 months, and 3½ days. 
Babum ruled for 300 years. 
Pu'annum ruled for 840 years. 
Kalibum ruled for 900 years. 
Kalumum ruled for 840 years. 
Zuqaqip ruled for 900 years. 
Atab ruled for 600 years. 
Mašda, son of Atab, ruled for 840 years. 
Arwi'um, son of Mašda, ruled for 720 years. 
Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and put all countries in order, became king; he ruled for 1,500 years. 
Balih, son of Etana, ruled for 400 years. 
Enme-nuna ruled for 660 years. 
Melem-Kiš, son of Enme-nuna, ruled for 900 years. 
Barsal-nuna, son of Enme-nuna, ruled for 1,200 years. 
Samug, son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years. 
Tizkar, son of Samug, ruled for 305 years. 
Ilku'u ruled for 900 years. 
Ilta-sadum ruled for 1200 years. 
Enmen-baragesi, who destroyed Elam's weapons, became king; he ruled for 900 years. 
Agga, son of Enmen-baragesi, ruled for 625 years. 
Twenty-three kings ruled for 23,310 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Eanna. 
In Eanna, Meš-ki'ag-gašer, son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for 324 years. Meš-ki'ag-gašer entered the sea and disappeared. 
Enmekar, son of Meš-ki'ag-gašer, the king of Uruk, who built Uruk, became king; he ruled for 420 years. 
The divine Lugal-banda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years. 
The divine Dumuzi, the fisherman, whose city was Ku'ara, ruled for 100. 
Gilgameš, whose father was an invisible being, the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years. 
Ur-Nungal, son of the divine Gilgameš, ruled for 30 years. 
Udul-kalama, son of Ur-Nungal, ruled for 15 years. 
La-bašer ruled for 9 years. 
Ennun-dara-ana ruled for 8 years. 
Mešhe, the smith, ruled for 36 years. 
Melem-ana ruled for 6 years. 
Lugal-ki-GIN ruled for 36 years. 
Twelve kings ruled for 2310 years.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ur. 
In Ur, Mes-ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years. 
Meš-ki'ag-Nuna, son of Mes-ane-pada, became king; he ruled for 36 year. 
Elulu ruled for 25 years. 
Balulu ruled for 36 years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:) 
Four kings ruled for 177 years.
Then Ur was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan. 
In Awan, [...] became king; he ruled for [...] years. 
[...]-Lu ruled for [...] years. 
Kul[...] ruled for 36 years. 
Three kings ruled for 356 years.
Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš. 
In Kiš, Su-suda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 200+N years. 
Dadase ruled for 81 years. 
Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for 240+N years. 
Kalbum, son of Mamagal, ruled for 195 years. 
TUG ruled for 360 years. 
Men-nuna ruled for 180 years. 
Enbi-Ištar ruled for 290 years. 
Lugalgu ruled for 360 years. 
Eight kings they ruled for 3195sic years.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi. 
In Hamazi, Hataniš became king; he ruled for 360 years. 
One king ruled for 360 years.
Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk. 
In Uruk, En-šakuš-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years. 
Lugal-ure ruled for 120 years. 
Argandea ruled for 7 years. 
Three kings ruled for 187 years.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ur. 
In Ur, Nanne became king; he ruled for 54+N years. 
Mes-ki'ag-Nanna, son of Nanne, ruled for 48 years. 
[...], the son of [...], ruled for 2 years. 
Three kings ruled for [...] years.
Then Ur was defeated and the kingship was taken to Adab. 
In Adab, Lugal-ane-mundu became king; he ruled for 90 years. 
One king ruled for 90 years.
Then Adab was defeated and the kingship was taken to Mari. 
In Mari, Anubu became king; he ruled for 30 years. 
Anba, son of Anubu, ruled for 17 years. 
Bazi, the leather worker, ruled for 30 years. 
Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years. 
Lim-er, the pašišu-priest, ruled for 30 years. 
Šarrum-iter ruled for 9 years. 
Six kings ruled for 136 years.
Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš. 
In Kiš, Ku-Baba, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kiš, became king; she ruled for 100 years. 
One queen ruled for 100 years.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Akšak. 
In Akšak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years. 
Undalulu ruled for 6 years. 
Urur ruled for 6 years. 
Puzur-Nirah ruled for 20 years. 
Išu-Il ruled for 24 years. 
Šu-Sin, son of Išu-Il, ruled for 7 years. 
Six kings ruled for 93 years.
Then Akšak was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš. 
In Kiš, Puzur-Sin, son of Ku-Baba, became king; he ruled for 25 years. 
Ur-Zababa, son of Puzur-Sin, ruled for 400. 
Simudara ruled for 30 years. 
Usi-watar ruled for 7 years. 
Ištar-muti ruled for 11 years. 
Išme-Šamaš ruled for 11 years. 
Nanniya, the stonecutter, ruled for 7 years. 
Seven kings ruled for 491 years.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk. 
In Uruk, Lugalzagesi became king; he ruled for 25 years. (2341-2316) 
One king ruled for 25 years.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Agade. 
In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade; he ruled for 56 years. (2335-2279) 
Rimuš, son of Sargon, ruled for 9 years. (2279-2270) 
Maništušu, the older brother of Rimuš, son of Sargon, ruled for 15 years. (2270-2255) 
Naram-Sin, son of Maništušu, ruled for 56 years. (2255-2218) 
Šar-kali-šarri, son of Naram-Sin, ruled for 25 years. (2218-2193) 
Then who was king? Who was not king? 
Irgigi was king, Nanum was king, Imi was king, Elulu was king; those four kings ruled 3 years. (2193-2190) 
Dudu ruled for 21 years. (2190-2169) 
Šu-Durul, son of Dudu, ruled for 15 years. (2169-2154) 
Eleven kings ruled for 181 years.
Then Agade was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk. 
In Uruk, Ur-nigin became king; he ruled for 7 years. (2154-2147) 
Ur-gigir, son of Ur-nigin, ruled for 6 years. (2147-2141) 
Kuda ruled for 6 years. (2141-2135) 
Puzur-ili ruled for 5 years. (2135-2130) 
Ur-Utu ruled for 6 years. (2130-2124) 
Five kings ruled for 30 years.
Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to the army of Gutium. 
The army of Gutium, a king whose name is unknown. 
Nibia became king; he ruled for 3 years. 
Then Ingišu ruled for 6 years. 
Ikukum-la-qaba ruled for 6 years. 
Šulme ruled for 6 years. 
Silulumeš ruled for 6 years. 
Inimabakeš ruled for 5 years. 
Ige'a'uš ruled for 6 years. 
I'ar-la-qaba ruled for years. 
Ibate ruled for 3 years. 
Yarla ruled for 3 years. 
Kurum ruled for 1 year. 
Apil-kin ruled for 3 years. 
La'arabum ruled for 2 years. 
Irarum ruled for 2 years. 
Ibranum ruled for 1 year. 
Hablum ruled for 2 years. 
Puzur-Sin, son of Hablum, ruled for 7 years. 
Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years 
Si'u ruled for 7 years. 
Tiriga ruled for 40 days. 
Twenty-one kings ruled for 91 years and 40 days.
Then the army of Gutium was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk. 
In Uruk, Utu-hegal became king; he ruled for 420 years and 7 days.(2124-2113) 
One king ruled for 427 years and 6sic days.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ur. 
In Ur, Ur-Nammu became king; he ruled for 18 years. (2113-2095) 
Šulgi, son of Ur-Nammu, ruled for 46 years. (2095-2047) 
Amar-Sin, son of Šulgi, ruled for 9 years. (2047-2038) 
Šu-Sin, son of Amar-Sin, ruled for 9 years. (2038-2029) 
Ibbi-Sin, son of Šu-Sin, ruled for 24 years. (2029-2004) 
Foursic kings ruled for 108sic years.
Then Ur was defeated. The kingship was taken to Isin. 
In Isin, Išbi-Irra became king; he ruled for 33 years. (2018-1985) 
The divine Šu-ilišu, son of Išbi-Irra, ruled for 20 years. (1985-1975) 
Iddin-Dagan, son of Šu-ilišu, ruled for 21 years. (1975-1954) 
Išme-Dagan, son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for 20 years. (1954-1935) 
Lipit-Ištar, son of Išme-Dagan, ruled for 11 years. (1935-1924) 
The divine Ur-Ninurta ruled for 28 years. (1924-1896) 
Bur-Sin, son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years. (1896-1874) 
Lipit-Enlil, son of Bur-Sin, ruled for 5 years. (1864-1869) 
The divine Irra-imitti ruled for 8 years. (1869-1861) 
The divine Enlil-bani ruled for 24 years. (1861-1837) 
The divine Zambija ruled for 3 years. (1837-1834) 
The divine Iter-piša ruled for 4 years. (1834-1831) 
Urdukuga ruled for 4 years. (1831-1828) 
Sin-magir ruled for 11 years. (1828-1817) 
Damiq-ilišu, son of Sin-magir, ruled for 23 years. (1817-1794) 
Thirteensic kings ruled for 213 years.
Hand of Nur-Ninšubur.

After this, tablet B, from Nippur, adds some totals: 

A total of thirty-nine kings ruled for 14409+N years, 3 months and 3½ days; four dynasties in Kiš.
A total of twenty-two kings ruled for 2610+N years, 6 months and 15 days; five dynasties in Uruk.
A total of twelve kings ruled for 396 years, 3 dynasties in Ur.
A total of three kings ruled for 356 years; one dynasty in Awan.
A total of one king ruled for 420 years; one dynasty in Hamazi.
A total of one king ruled for 90 years; one dynasty in Adab.
A total of six kings ruled for 136 years; one dynasty in Mari.
A total of six kings ruled for 99 years; one dynasty in Akšak.
A total of eleven kings ruled for 197 years; one dynasty in Agade.
A total of twenty-one kings ruled for 125 years and 40 days; one dynasty in Gutium.
A total of eleven kings ruled for 159 years; one dynasty in Isin.
Eleven royal cities. Their total: 134 kings. Total: 28,876+N years, N months, N days.

A tablet from Nippur (CM 2) is an addition to the Sumerian King List. It is too damaged to make sense of it. 

[...] reigned 4+N years. 
Ur[...], son of a man whose name is not known, ruled for 8 years. 
Sumuabum reigned 8 months. 
Ikun-pi-Ištar became king; he ruled for [...] years. 
A total of N kings ruled for 125+n years; six dynasties of [...]a.

Jona Lendering © 2006 
Latest revision: 10 May 2007

home : index : ancient Mesopotamia


Modern Bible commentators view the "war in heaven" in Revelation 12:7-13 as an eschatological vision of the end of time or as a reference to spiritual warfare within the church, rather than (as in Milton's Paradise Lost) "the story of the origin of Satan/Luciferas an angel who rebelled against God in primeval times." Some Christian commentators have seen the war in heaven as "not literal" but symbolic of events on earth.

In Milton's (1608–1674) Paradise Lost, the angel Lucifer leads a rebellion against God before the Fall of Man. A third of the angels are hurled from Heaven, including pagan gods such as Moloch and Belial.

Jonathan Edwards (1703–1758) said in his sermon Wisdom Displayed in Salvation: "Satan and his angels rebelled against God in heaven, and proudly presumed to try their strength with his. And when God, by his almighty power, overcame the strength of Satan, and sent him like lightning from heaven to hell with all his army; Satan still hoped to get the victory by subtilty".

In the Catholic Encyclopedia (1911) article "St. Michael the Archangel", Frederick Holweck wrote: "St. John speaks of the great conflict at the end of time, which reflects also the battle in heaven at the beginning of time." He added that Michael's name "was the war-cry of the good angels in the battle fought in heaven against the enemy and his followers."

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) teaches that Revelation 12 concerns an actual event in the pre-mortal existence of man. The Book of Moses, included in the LDS standard works, references the War in Heaven and Satan's origin as a fallen angel of light. This image of a war in heaven at the end of time became added to the story of a fall of Satan at the beginning of time, including not only Satan but a third of all angels as well, referred to in the phrase "the dragon and his angels".


Michael casts out rebel angels. Illustration by Gustave Doré for John Milton's Paradise Lost.

The motif of the fall of Satan and his angels can be found in Christian angelology and Christian art, and the concept of fallen angels (who, for rebelling against God, were degraded and condemned to a life of mischief or shame on earth or in a place of punishment) is widespread.[11] The Christian tradition has stories about angelic beings cast down from heaven by God, often presenting the punishment as inflicted in particular on Satan. As a result of linking this motif with the cited passage of the Book of Revelation, the casting of Satan down from heaven, which other versions of the motif present as an action of God himself, has become attributed to the archangel Michael at the conclusion of a war between two groups of angels, of whom, because of the mention of the dragon's tail casting a third of the stars of heaven to the earth, one third are supposed to have been on the side of Satan, in spite of the fact that the casting down of the stars (Revelation 12:4) is recounted as occurring before the start of the "war in heaven" (Revelation 12:7).

Lucifer's rebellion has been attributed to a number of motives, all of which stem from his great pride. These motives include:


Hebrew Bible parallels

See also: Cherub in Eden

Parallels are drawn to the passage in Isaiah 14:4-17 that mentions the Morning star that had "fallen from heaven" and was "cast down to the earth". In verse 12 of this passage, the Hebrew word that referred to the morning star was translated into Latin as Lucifer. With the application to the Devil of the morning star story, "Lucifer" was then applied to him as a proper name. The name Lucifer, the Latin name (literally "Light-Bearer" or "Light-Bringer") for the morning star (the planet Venus in its morning appearances), is often given to the Devil in these stories. The brilliancy of the morning star—which eclipses all other stars, but is not seen during the night—may be what gave rise to myths such as the Babylonian story of Ethana and Zu, who was led by his pride to strive for the highest seat among the star-gods on the northern mountain of the gods (an image present also in Ezekiel 28:14), but was hurled down by the supreme ruler of the Babylonian Olympus. Stars were then regarded as living celestial beings. The Jewish Encyclopedia states that the myth concerning the Morning star was transferred to Satan by the first century before the Common Era, citing in support of this view the Life of Adam and Eve and the Slavonic Book of Enoch 29:4, 31:4, where Satan-Sataniel is described as having been one of the archangels. Because he contrived "to make his throne higher than the clouds over the earth and resemble 'My power' on high", Satan-Sataniel was hurled down, with his angels, and since then he has been flying in the air continually above the abyss. According to Jewish thought, the passage in Isaiah was used to prophesy the fate of the King of Babylon, who is described as aiming to rival God.

Dead Sea Scrolls

Some scholars discern the concept of a war in heaven in certain Dead Sea Scrolls, namely, the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, also known as the War Scroll (1QM and 4Q491-497), the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, Song 5 (4Q402), and the Melchizedek document (11Q13).

In the War Scroll, according to Menahem Mansoor, the angels of light, who are identified with Michael, the prince of light, will fight in heaven against the angels of darkness, who are identified with Belial, while the Sons of Light fight the Sons of Darkness on earth, and during the last of the seven battles described in the scroll will come and help the Sons of Light win the final victory.

James R. Davila speaks of Song 5 of the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice as describing "an eschatological war in heaven similar to that found in 11Q13 and to traditions about the archangel Michael in the War Rule and the book of Revelation". He suggests that Melchizedek, who is mentioned both in the Melchizedek document and the fifth of the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, may be a divine warrior who is involved in the conflict with the archangel Michael in the futurist sense.

That the Melchizedek document (11Q13) concerns a war in heaven is denied by Fred L. Horton, who remarks that "there is no hint in the extant portion of the 11Q Melchizedek of a revolt of heavenly beings against the heavenly council, and the only dissenting spirit is the traditional Belial";the view of Davila, however, is that the document originally was about an eschatological war in heaven, with Melchizedek as angelic high priest and military redeemer.

Greek mythology

The fall of superhuman beings punished for opposing gods also appears in Greek mythology. Homer's Iliad says that Hephaestus was cast down from the heavenly threshold by Zeus and landed on the island of Lemnos nearly dead. Hesiod's Theogony recounts that the gods, after defeating the Titans, hurled them down to Tartarus (the Titanomachy) as far beneath the earth as earth is beneath the sky.




In Classical Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν Tītán; plural: Τιτᾶνες Tītânes) and Titanesses (Greek: Τιτάνης Tītánis; plural: Τιτᾶνίδες Titânídes) were members of the second order of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympian deities. Based on Mount Othrys, the Titans most famously included the first twelve children of the primordial Gaia (Mother Earth) and Uranus (Father Sky). They were giant deities of incredible strength, who ruled during the legendary Golden Age, and also composed the first pantheon of Greek deities.

Among the first generation of twelve Titans, the females were Mnemosyne, Tethys, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea, and Themis and the males were Oceanus, Hyperion, Coeus, Cronus, Crius, and Iapetus.

The second generation of Titans consisted of Hyperion's children Helios, Selene, and Eos; Coeus' children Lelantos, Leto, andAsteria; Iapetus' sons Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius; Oceanus' daughter Metis; and Crius' sons Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses.

As they had overthrown the primordial deities, the Titans were overthrown by younger gods, including many of their own children - the Olympians - in the Titanomachy (or "War of the Titans"). The Greeks may have borrowed this mytheme from the Ancient Near East.


Main article: Titanomachy

Greeks of the classical age knew of several poems about the war between the Olympians and Titans. The dominant one, and the only one that has survived, was in theTheogony attributed to Hesiod. A lost epic, Titanomachia - attributed to the legendary blind Thracian bard Thamyris - was mentioned in passing in an essay On Music that was once attributed to Plutarch. The Titans also played a prominent role in the poems attributed to Orpheus. Although only scraps of the Orphic narratives survive, they show interesting differences with the Hesiodic tradition.

The classical Greek myths of the Titanomachy fall into a class of similar myths throughout Europe and the Near East concerning a war in heaven, where one generation or group of gods largely opposes the dominant one. Sometimes the elders are supplanted, and sometimes the rebels lose and are either cast out of power entirely or incorporated into thepantheon. Other examples might include the wars of the Æsir with the Vanir in Scandinavian mythology, the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish, the Hittite "Kingship in Heaven" narrative, the obscure generational conflict in Ugaritic fragments, Virabhadra's conquest of the early Vedic Gods, and the rebellion of Lucifer in Christianity. The Titanomachy lasted for ten years.

In Orphic sources

Rhea, a Titan daughter of the earth goddess Gaia, was both sister and wife to Cronus.

Hesiod does not have the last word on the Titans. Surviving fragments of poetry ascribed to Orpheus preserve some variations on the myth. In such text, Zeus does not simply set upon his father violently. Instead, Rhea spreads out a banquet for Cronus so that he becomes drunk uponfermented honey. Rather than being consigned to Tartarus, Cronus is dragged—still drunk—to the cave of Nyx (Night), where he continues to dream throughout eternity.

Another myth concerning the Titans that is not in Hesiod revolves around Dionysus. At some point in his reign, Zeus decides to give up the throne in favor of the infant Dionysus, who like the infant Zeus, is guarded by the Kouretes. The Titans decide to slay the child and claim the throne for themselves; they paint their faces white with gypsum, distract Dionysus with toys, then dismember him and boil and roast his limbs. Zeus, enraged, slays the Titans with his thunderbolt; Athena preserves the heart in a gypsum doll, out of which a new Dionysus is made. This story is told by the poets Callimachus and Nonnus, who call this Dionysus "Zagreus", and in a number of Orphic texts, which do not.

One iteration of this story, of the Late Antique Neoplatonist philosopher Olympiodorus, recounted in his commentary of Plato's Phaedrus,affirms that humanity sprang up out of the fatty smoke of the burning Titan corpses. Pindar, Plato, and Oppian refer offhandedly to the "Titanic nature" of humans. According to them, the body is the titanic part, while soul is the divine part of humans. Other early writers imply that humanity was born out of the malevolent blood shed by the Titans in their war against Zeus. Some scholars consider that Olympiodorus' report, the only surviving explicit expression of this mythic connection, embodied a tradition that dated to the Bronze Age, while Radcliffe Edmonds has suggested an element of innovative allegorized improvisation to suit Olympiodorus' purpose.


Modern interpretations

Cronus armed with sickle; after acarved gem (Aubin-Louis Millin de Grandmaison, Galerie mythologique, 1811).

Some 19th- and 20th-century scholars, including Jane Ellen Harrison, have argued that an initiatory or shamanic ritual underlies the myth of the dismemberment and cannibalism of Dionysus by the Titans.[4] She also asserts that the word "Titan" comes from the Greek τίτανος, signifying white "earth, clay or gypsum," and that the Titans were "white clay men", or men covered by white clay or gypsum dust in their rituals. Martin Litchfield West also asserts this in relation to shamanistic initiatory rites of early Greek religious practices.

According to Paul Faure, the name "Titan" can be found on Linear A written as "Tan" or "Ttan", which represents a single deity rather than a group. Other scholars believe the word is related to the Greek verb τείνω ("teino", to stretch), through an epic variation τιταίνω ("titaino"), and τίσις ("tisis", retribution, vengeance), a view Hesiod appears to share when he narrates: "But their father, great Ouranos, called them Titans by surname, rebuking his sons, whom he had begotten himself; for he said they had strained (τιταίνοντας, "titainontas") in their wickedness to perform a mighty deed, and at some later time there would be vengeance (τίσιν, "tisin") for this."In popular culture

Main article: Titans in popular culture

Various large things have been named after the Titans for their "titanic" size, for example the RMS Titanic or the giant predatory bird Titanis walleri.

The element titanium is named after the Titans (in reference to its exceptional strength and durability). Many of Saturn's moons are named after various Titans, and one is simply named "Titan".

Many professional and amateur sports teams use a titan as their mascot. One of the National Football League's teams is the Tennessee Titans, the New York Jets were originally known as the New York Titans, California State University, Fullerton and Ohio State University, Newark Campus's athletic teams are known as the Titans, and the Australian professional rugby league team Gold Coast is also known as the Titans.

The Titans have appeared as antagonists in Disney's Hercules and Percy Jackson & the Olympians series.

They have also appeared as both protagonists and antagonists in the God of War video game series and Clash of the Titans movies. While the 1981 original and 2010 remake of the latter do not actually feature any Titans, Cronus was the main antagonist of the 2012 sequel.


External links




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