Dee Finney's blog  July 3, 2014  page  706  BIBLICAL FLOOD - DELUGE EVIDENCE

 

 

 

NOAHS ARK

NOAH'S ARK

 

Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20, 2011

today's date July 3, 2014

page 706

TOPIC:   THE BIBLICAL FLOOD - DELUGE EVIDENCE

7-3-14 -  DREAM - I was in a room somewhere with a small group of men, who were reading text about the Great Flood (the deluge) of the world and the evidence to prove that it actually happened.

I didn't actually see the men, but they were showing me books about the flood to show that it wasn't just in one place.

Genesis 7 New King James Version (NKJV)

The Great Flood

7 Then the Lord said to Noah, “Come into the ark, you and all your household, because I have seen that you are righteous before Me in this generation. You shall take with you seven each of every clean animal, a male and his female; two each of animals that are unclean, a male and his female; also seven each of birds of the air, male and female, to keep the species alive on the face of all the earth. For after seven more days I will cause it to rain on the earth forty days and forty nights, and I will destroy from the face of the earth all living things that I have made.” And Noah did according to all that the Lord commanded him. Noah was six hundred years old when the floodwaters were on the earth.

So Noah, with his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives, went into the ark because of the waters of the flood. Of clean animals, of animals that areunclean, of birds, and of everything that creeps on the earth, two by two they went into the ark to Noah, male and female, as God had commanded Noah. 10 And it came to pass after seven days that the waters of the flood were on the earth. 11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. 12 And the rain was on the earth forty days and forty nights.

13 On the very same day Noah and Noah’s sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and Noah’s wife and the three wives of his sons with them, entered the ark—14 they and every beast after its kind, all cattle after their kind, every creeping thing that creeps on the earth after its kind, and every bird after its kind, every bird of every sort. 15 And they went into the ark to Noah, two by two, of all flesh in which is the breath of life. 16 So those that entered, male and female of all flesh, went in as God had commanded him; and the Lord shut him in.

17 Now the flood was on the earth forty days. The waters increased and lifted up the ark, and it rose high above the earth. 18 The waters prevailed and greatly increased on the earth, and the ark moved about on the surface of the waters. 19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly on the earth, and all the high hills under the whole heaven were covered. 20 The waters prevailed fifteen cubits upward, and the mountains were covered. 21 And all flesh died that moved on the earth: birds and cattle and beasts and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth, and every man. 22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit[a] of life, all that was on the dry land, died. 23 So He destroyed all living things which were on the face of the ground: both man and cattle, creeping thing and bird of the air. They were destroyed from the earth. Only Noah and those who were with him in the ark remained alive. 24 And the waters prevailed on the earth one hundred and fifty days.

Footnotes:

  1. Genesis 7:22 Septuagint and Vulgate omit of the spirit.

The Great Flood and the Great Deluge are two distinct, but connected, events.  By way of definition, a flood is an inundation, an overflowing or influx of water beyond its normal confines, as in covering what is normally dry land.  A deluge, on the other hand, is a heavy fall of rain.  Both events occurred as described in the ancient texts.   

“And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.”  “In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.”  “And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.” 

-- Genesis 7:10-12  [emphasis added]  

The ancient Sumerian texts describe two separate events: first a tidal wave style flood rushing over the civilized -- and supposedly uncivilized -- lands.  This sudden influx of water then resulted in a massive contribution to the hydrologic cycle, and it began raining for what seemed to be a very long time (day and night for either seven or forty days, depending whether it is the Sumerian or Genesis version).  

In the Sumerian version, first the “waters of the flood were upon the earth.”  Then, “the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up.”  Then, “the windows of heaven were opened,” and it rained! Sequentially, the Genesis version is the same: a rush of flood waters upon the earth, followed by the fountains of the great deep (water rising up via the hydrologic cycle), and then rain -- i.e. a flood, evaporation, and rain.  

Based on the Sumerian texts, it is surmised that an astronomical event occurred (possibly the relatively near approach of another planet such as Nibiru), which resulted in a massive Antarctica ice cap suddenly shifting and crashing into the sea.  Inasmuch as the approach of another planet could have been easily predicted by theAnunnaki, it is clear that they would have had ample warning of some impending catastrophe and were simply off planet as observers when the event took place.  This gave them ring-side seats to observe the destruction -- a fact which is also recorded in the ancient Sumerian texts.  (Nin-khursag, in particular, was horrified at the destruction, and vowed that it would never happen again!)  

This also explains that aspect of the Enki and Enlil conflict, whereby Enlil was in favor of letting the humans be destroyed, while Enki -- the father of Homo sapiens -- was the one who insisted upon saving the humans (even if he had to do so by subterfuge).  Enlil could see it coming -- possibly even be able to predict that a celestial close encounter would result in the ice laden, top heavy, South Pole of the earth, suddenly coming unglued and causing a massive tidal wave.  (It is even conceivable that the Anunnaki had the means to initiate the ice cap collapse -- and would want to do so as a means of releasing the massive amounts of fresh water held in ice, and thereby reinvigorating the hydrologic cycle.)  

This latter is because during the time of Noah, the earth was having a massive, world-wide drought.  Things were in pretty dire straights.  Even the Anunnaki were being effected.   The problem was that most of the fresh water was in the form of ice at the poles, (i.e. the Antarctica ice cap was much larger than it is today).  What was needed was a massive infusion into the water cycle.  Noah’s name, in fact, means “respite”, as in respite from the drought.  (All of this is in the Sumerian texts, albeit with Noah being called “Zi-u-sudra”.)  

When the Antarctica ice cap did crash into the sea, the result was the mother of all tidal waves, one which went crashing across the face of the Earth.  In particular, civilized lands (predominantly at the lower elevations) were undoubtedly flooded suddenly and with a vengeance.  (The Sumerians had the habit of referring to the civilized portions of the Earth as the world -- i.e. if you didn’t live in a civilized location, you really didn’t count at all.  Thus any Sumerian reference to the “world” may actually refer to the civilized parts only.)  

Then, once the flood/tidal wave had done its work, massive amounts of new water were added to the water cycle, and it began to rain.  And rain, and rain...  

The descriptions of a great flood and/or deluge are fundamental to virtually all societies with links to ancient times. The part of Noah was played by such characters as the Sumerian Zi-u-sudra, Babylonian Atrahasis, Akkadian Uptnashtim, Chaldean Xisuthrus, and Zoroastrian Yima.  One site once flooded with myths, but now apparently underwater [1] contained some sixty one (61) flood myths from different cultures is.  These include flood myths of the: Algonquin, Assyrian, Australian, Babylonian, Bakongo (Zaire), Basonge, Batak (Sumatria), Cameroon, Chaldean, Cheyenne, China, Chorote (Eastern Paraguay), Fiji, German, Hebrew, Hindu, Huichol, Ifugaos (Philippines), Ipurina (Upper Amazon), Jivaran Indian (South America), Kabadi (New Guinea), Kammu (northern Thailand), Kikuyu, Kootenay (southeast British Columbia), Kwaya (Lake Victoria), Lake Tyras (Victoria), Makiritare (Venezuela), Mandingo (Ivory Coast)...  Well, you get the idea.                       

Examples include the Flood Story of the Babylonians:  

“The gods were distressed by the disturbance from human overpopulation. The gods dealt with the problem first by plague, then by famine.  Both times, the god Enki advised men to bribe the god causing the problem.  The third time, Enlil advised the gods to destroy all humans with a flood, but Enki had Atrahasis build an ark and so escape.  Also on the boat were cattle, wild animals and birds, and Atrahasis' family.  After the flood, the gods regretted their action, and Enki established barren women and stillbirth to avoid the problem in the future.”  [emphasis added]  

The Chaldean Flood Myth:  

“The god Chronos warned Xisuthrus of a coming flood, ordered him to write a history, and told him to build a vessel (5 stadia by 2 stadia) for himself, his friends and relations, and all kinds of animals, all of which he did.  After the flood had come and abated somewhat, he sent out some birds, which returned.  Later, he tried again, and the birds returned with mud on their feet.  On the third trial, the birds didn't return.  He disembarked and, with his wife, daughter, and pilot, offered sacrifices to the gods. Those four were translated to live with the gods.”  

and the Zoroastrian Flood Myth:  

"After Ahura Mazda had warned Yima that destruction in the form of winter, frost, and floods, subsequent to the melting of the snow, are threatening the sinful world, he proceeds to instruct him to build a vara, 'fortress or estate,' in which specimens of small and large cattle, human beings, dogs, birds, red flaming fires, plants and foodstuffs will have to be deposited in pairs."  

Keep in mind that the Great Flood and Deluge occurred at the earliest times of recorded history.  Depending on the different views of such scholars as Immanuel Velikovsky, Laurence Gardner, and Zecharia Sitchin(and others), the dating of the events are between 6,000 and 13,000 years ago.  Accordingly, accurate information is scant at best, and any number of interpretations can be logically derived. A particularly intriguing concept is Velikovsky’s <http://www.varchive.org/itb/satdel.htm>.  

A really excellent site, <http://mcclungmuseum.utk.edu/specex/ur/ur-flood.htm>, is dedicated to the Mesopotamian tradition of the Flood.  Included are several relevant ideas:  

z The Sumerian King List, from the early second millennium BC, separates antediluvian dynasties (all of whose kings had reigns of fantastic lengths -- similar to the patriarchs from Adam through Noah), from the later dynasties by the intervention of a great flood.  

z In the epic of Atrahasis, Enlil was continually plotting to reduce the number of humans, “whose noisy vitality was such that Enlil could not sleep.”  Enlil tried various plagues as a means of wiping out the human race, only to be thwarted by Enki, who kept the humans up to date on survival techniques (i.e. which other gods to bribe). When Enlil decides on a flood, Enki betrays Enlil's plan to Atrahasis, the king -- who is then able to ride out the flood with his family, possessions, and livestock.  After the fact, Enlil is furious, but the mother goddess has condemned the chief gods Anu and Enlil for attempted homo-sapiens-cide, and Enlil has to give way.  He eventually permits the human race to continue, but only under the condition that Enki and the mother goddess organize them better, “probably to spare him the noise.”   [emphasis added]  

z Most of the heroes of the flood are granted eternal life by the gods.  (Noah, however, received only a Covenant, and possibly, a “done that, been there” T-shirt.)  

z In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the hero of the flood is Utnapishtim, who is warned by Ea (the Akkadian name of Enki) and told to load “all his possessions, including silver and gold, his family, domesticated and wild animals, and craftsmen onto the boat.”  [Why silver and gold?]  “The storm comes; the gods cower and weep at its destructive force.  The storm rages for six days and six nights; on the seventh day it subsides.”  

z The Biblical flood story (Genesis 5:28-9:17) was likely derived, directly or indirectly, from the Gilgamesh version.  The story of the flood was then carried down in later Jewish, Christian, and even Muslim traditions [where it occurs in the Koran (Sura 11: 25-48)].  

z Sir Leonard Woolley is generally credited with discovering evidence of the Flood, based on his excavations at Ur.  But earlier work at Kish may have been his inspiration (and thereafter he may have went looking for evidence at his own digs).  Woolley did win the media race in announcing the idea to the public. Later Stephen Langdon of the Kish expedition, pointed out that Woolley had visited the Kish site and been shown the alluvial deposits, before Woolley returned to Ur, and made his own alluvial deposit discovery.  

z Later, Woolley’s assistant at Ur, Max Mallowan, found similar deposits at Fara (ancient Shuruppak), which Max argued was the true Flood evidence (doubting the earlier versions).  However, most so-called experts now officially doubt that “the Ur, Kish, or even Fara floods could be the source of the Mesopotamian flood narratives, and prefer to take them merely as evidence for the endemic hazard posed by floods in the flat alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia.”  

Finally, in the Story of Atrahasis...                                      

                                      Enki made his voice heard...

                                      Dismantle the house, build a boat

                                      Reject possessions, and save living things.

                                                           -- Akkadian, ca. 1640 BC  

An interesting piece of Enki-style advice.  

Chronicles of Earth         Adam and Eve         Adam’s Family

Enki and Enlil         Epic of Gilgamesh         Genesis

Forward:

Sodom and Gomorrah         The Tower of Babel         Night Falls on the Gods

Laurence Gardner         Zecharia Sitchin         Immanuel Velikovsky

______________________

History Timeline According to Sitchin

based on The Cosmic Code: The Sixth Book of The Earth Chronicles
by Zecharia Sitchin

Events Before the Deluge

450,000 years ago, 
On Nibiru, a distant member of our solar system, life faces slow extinction as the planet's atmosphere erodes. Deposed by Anu, the ruler Alalu escapes in a spaceship and finds refuge on Earth. He discovers that Earth has gold that can be used to protect Nibiru's atmosphere.

445,000 
Led by Enki, a son of Anu, the Anunnaki land on Earth, establish Eridu -Earth Station I - for extracting gold from the waters of the Persian Gulf.

430,000
Earth's climate mellows. More Anunnaki arrive on Earth, among them Enki's half-sister Ninhursag, Chief Medical Officer.

416,000 
As gold production falters, Anu arrives on Earth with Enlil, the heir apparent. It is decided to obtain the vital gold by mining it in southern Africa. Drawing lots, Enlil wins command of Earth Mission; Enki is relegated to Africa. On departing Earth, Anu is challenged by Alalu's grandson.

400,000 
Seven functional settlements in southern Mesopotamia include a Spaceport (Sippar), Mission Control Center (Nippur), a metallurgical center (Shuruppak). The ores arrive by ships from Africa; the refined metal is sent aloft to orbiters manned by Igigi, then transferred to spaceships arriving periodically from Nibiru.

380,000 
Gaining the support of the Igigi, Alalu's grandson attempts to seize mastery over Earth. The Enlilites win the War of the Olden Gods.

300,000 
The Anunnaki toiling in the gold mines mutiny. Enki and Ninhursag create Primitive Workers through genetic manipulation of Ape woman; they take over the manual chores of the Anunnaki. Enlil raids the mines, brings the Primitive Workers to the Edin in Mesopotamia. Given the ability to procreate, Homo Sapiens begins to multiply.

200,000 
Life on Earth regresses during a new glacial period.

100,000 
Climate warms again. The Anunnaki (the biblical Nefilim), to Enlil's growing annoyance marry the daughters of Man.

75,000 
The "accursation of Earth" - a new Ice Age-begins. Regressive types of Man roam the Earth . Cro-Magnon man survives.

49,000 
Enki and Ninhursag elevate humans of Anunnaki parentage to rule in Shuruppak. Enlil, enraged. plots Mankind's demise.

13,000 
Realizing that the passage of Nibiru in Earth's proximity will trigger an immense tidal wave, Enlil makes the Anunnaki swear to keep the impending calamity a secret from Mankind.

Events After the Deluge

11,000 B.C. 
Enki breaks the oath, instructs Ziusudra/Noah to build a submersible ship. The Deluge sweeps over the Earth; the Anunnaki witness the total destruction from their orbiting spacecraft.

Enlil agrees to grant the remnants of Mankind implements and seeds; agriculture begins in the highlands. Enki domesticates animals.

10,500 B.C.
The descendants of Noah are allotted three regions. Ninurta, Enlil's foremost son, dams the mountains and drains the rivers to make Mesopotamia habitable; Enki reclaims the Nile valley. The Sinai peninsula is retained by the Anunnaki for a post-Diluvial spaceport; a control center is established on Mount Moriah (the future Jerusalem).

9,780 B.C.
Ra/Marduk, Enki's firstborn son, divides dominion over Egypt between Osiris and Seth.

9,330 B.C.
Seth seizes and dismembers Osiris, assumes sole rule over the Nile Valley.

8,970 B.C.
Horus avenges his father Osiris by launching the First Pyramid War. Seth escapes to Asia, seizes the Sinai peninsula and Canaan.

8,670 B.C.
Opposed to the resulting control of all the space facilities by Enki's descendants, the Enlilites launch the Second Pyramid War. The victorious Ninurta empties the Great Pyramid of its equipment.

Ninhursag, half-sister of Enki and Enlil, convenes peace conference. The division of Earth is reaffirmed. Rule over Egypt transferred from the Ra/Marduk dynasty to that of Thoth. Heliopolis built as a substitute Beacon City.

8,500 B.C.
The Anunnaki establish outposts at the gateway to the space facilities; Jericho is one of them.

7,400 B.C.
As the era of peace continues, the Anunnaki grant Mankind new advances; the Neolithic period begins. Demi-gods rule over Egypt.

3,800 B.C.
Urban civilization begins in Sumer as the Anunnaki reestablish there the Olden Cities, beginning with Eridu and Nippur.

Anu comes to Earth for a pageantful visit. A new city, Uruk (Erech), is built in his honor; he makes its temple the abode of his beloved granddaughter Inanna/lshtar.

Kingship on Earth

3,760 
Mankind granted kingship. Kish is first capital under the aegis of Ninurta. The alendar begun at Nippur. Civilization blossoms out in Sumer (the First Region).

3,450 
Primacy in Sumer transferred to Nannar/Sin. Marduk proclaims Babylon "Gateway of the Gods." The "Tower of Babel" incident. The Anunnaki confuseMankind's languages.

His coup frustrated, Marduk/Ra returns to Egypt, deposes Thoth, seizes his younger brother Dumuzi who had betrothed Inanna. Dumuzi accidentally killed; Marduk imprisoned alive in the Great Pyramid. Freed through an emergency shaft, he goes into exile.

3,100-3, 350 
years of chaos end with installation of first Egyptian Pharaoh in Memphis.Civilization comes to the Second Region.

2,900 
Kingship in Sumer transferred to Erech. Inanna given dominion over the Third Region; the Indus Valley Civilization begins.

2,650
Sumer's royal capital shifts about. Kingship deteriorates. Enlil loses patience with the unruly human multitudes.

2,371 
Inanna falls in love with Sharru-Kin (Sargon). He establishes new capital city. Agade
(Akkad). Akkadian empire launched.

2,316
Aiming to rule the four regions, Sargon removes sacred soil from Babylon. The Marduk-Inanna conflict flares up again. It ends when Nergal, Marduk's brother, journeys from south Africa to Babylon and persuades Marduk to leave Mesopotamia.

2,291 
Naram-Sin ascends the throne of Akkad. Directed by the warlike Inanna, he penetrates the Sinai peninsula, invades Egypt.

2,255
Inanna usurps the power in Mesopotamia; Naram-Sin defies Nippur. The Great Anunnaki obliterate Agade. Inanna escapes. Sumer and Akkad occupied by foreign troops loyal to Enlil and Ninurta.

2,220
Sumerian civilization rises to new heights under enlightened rulers of Lagash. Thoth helps its king Gudea build a ziggurat-temple for Ninurta.

2,193 
Terah, Abraham's father, born in Nippur into a priestly-royal family.

2,180 
Egypt divided; followers of Ra/Marduk retain the south; Pharaohs opposed to him gain the throne of lower Egypt.

2,130 
As Enlil and Ninurta are increasingly away, central authority also deteriorates in Mesopotamia. Inanna's attempts to regain the kingship for Erech does not last.

The Fateful Century

B.C 2,123 
Abraham born in Nippur.

2,113 
Enlil entrusts the Lands of Shem to Nannar; Ur declared capital of new empire. Ur- Nammmu ascends throne, is named Protector of Nippur. A Nippurian priest-Terah, Abraham's father - comes to Ur to liaison with its royal court.

2,096 
Ur-Nammu dies in battle. The people consider his untimely death a betrayal by Anu and Enlil. Terah departs with his family for Harran.

2,095 
Shulgi ascends the throne of Ur, strengthens imperial ties. As empire thrives, Shulgi falls under charms of Inanna, becomes her lover. Grants Larsa to Elamites in exchange for serving as his Foreign Legion.

2,080 
Theban princes loyal to Ra/Marduk press northward under Mentuhotep I. Nabu, Marduk's son, gains adherents for his father in Western Asia.

2,055 
On Nannar's orders, Shulgi sends Elamite troops to suppress unrest in Canaanite cities. Elamites reach the gateway to the Sinai peninsula and its Spaceport.

2,048
Shulgi dies. Marduk moves to the Land of the Hittites. Abraham ordered to southern Canaan with an elite corps of cavalrymen.

2,047
Amar-Sin (the biblical Amraphel) becomes king of Ur. Abraham goes to Egypt, stays five years, then returns with more troops.

2,041 
Guided by Inanna, Amar-Sin forms a coalition of Kings of the East, launches military expedition to Canaan and the Sinai. Its leader is the Elamite Khedor-la'omer. Abraham blocks the advance at the gateway to the Spaceport.

2,038 
Shu-Sin replaces Amar-Sin on throne of Ur as the empire disintegrates.

2,029 
Ibbi-Sin replaces Shu-Sin. The western provinces increasingly to Marduk.

2,024 
Leading his followers, Marduk marches on Sumer, enthrones himself in Babylon. Fighting spreads to central Mesopotamia. Nippur's Holy of Holies is defiled. Enlil demands punishment for Marduk and Nabu; Enki opposes, but his son Nergal sides with Enlil.

As Nabu marshals his Canaanite followers to capture the Spaceport, the Great Anunnaki approve of the use of nuclear weapons. Nergal and Ninurta destroy the Spaceport and the errant Canaanite cities.

2,023 
The winds carry the radioactive cloud to Sumer. People die a terrible death, animals perish, the water is poisoned, the soil becomes barren. Sumer and its great civilization lie prostrate. Its legacy passes to Abraham's seed as he begets -at age 100- a legitimate heir: Isaac.


Sumerian Culture and the Annunaki

Copyright Neil Freer and www.ancientX.com, 
Reprinted with permission

Working from the same archaeological discoveries, artifacts, and recovered records as archaeologists and linguists have for two hundred years, Sitchin propounds – proves, in the opinion of this author -- that the Anunnaki (Sumerian: “those who came down from the heavens”; Old testament Hebrew, Anakeim, Nefilim, Elohim; Egyptian: Neter), an advanced civilization from the tenth planet in our solar system, splashed down in the Persian gulf area around 432,000 years ago, colonized the planet, with the purpose of obtaining large quantities of gold. Some 250,000 years ago, the recovered documents tell us, their lower echelon miners rebelled against the conditions in the mines and the Anunnaki directorate decided to create a creature to take their place. Enki, their chief scientist and Ninhursag their chief medical officer, after getting no satisfactory results splicing animal and Homo Erectus genes, merged their Anunnaki genes with that of Homo Erectus and produced us, Homo Sapiens, a genetically bicameral species, for their purposes as slaves. Because we were a hybrid, we could not procreate. The demand for us as workers became greater and we were genetically manipulated to reproduce.

xfacts.com

 Eventually, we became so numerous that some of us were expelled from the Anunnaki city centers, gradually spreading over the planet. Having become a stable genetic stock and developing more precociously than, perhaps, the Anunnaki had anticipated, the Anunnaki began to be attracted to humans as sexual partners and children were born of these unions. This was unacceptable to the majority of the Anunnaki high council and it was decided to wipe out the human population through a flood that was predictable when Nibiru, the tenth in our solar system and the Anunnaki home planet, came through the inner solar system again (around 12,500 years ago) on one of its periodic 3600 year returns. Some humans were saved by the action of the Anunnaki official, Enki, who was sympathetic to the humans he had originally genetically created. For thousands of years, we were their slaves, their workers, their servants, and their soldiers in their political battles among themselves. The Anunnaki used us in the construction of their palaces (we retroproject the religious notion of temple on these now), their cities, their mining and refining complexes and their astronomical installations on all the continents. They expanded from Mesopotamia to Egypt to India to South and Central America and the stamp of their presence can be found in the farthest reaches of the planet.

 Around 6000 years ago, they, probably realizing that they were going to phase off the planet, began, gradually, to bring humans to independence. Sumer, a human civilization, amazing in its “sudden”, mature, and highly advanced character was set up under their tutelage in Mesopotamia. Human kings were inaugurated as go-betweens, foremen of the human populations answering to the Anunnaki. A strain of humans, genetically enhanced with more Anunnaki genes, a bloodline of rulers in a tradition of “servants of the people” was initiated (Gardner). These designated humans were taught technology, mathematics, astronomy, advanced crafts and the ways of advanced civilized society (in schools, called now “mystery schools” but there was no mystery about them). Gardner has brought to light the fact that there exists a robust, highly documented, genealogical, genetic history carrying all the way back to the Anunnaki, possessed by the heterodox tradition of Christianity, which is only now coming forward, no longer gun-shy of the Inquisition. This tradition, preserving the bloodline, is the one branded “heretical” and murderously persecuted by the Roman Church. There were no Dark Ages for this tradition, only for those whom the Church wanted to keep in the dark about the real nature of human history and destroy the bloodline, a direct threat to the power of the Bishops.

What evidence supports the Sitchin thesis?

The Astronomical Evidence

“...no concrete problem is going to be solved as long as the experts of astronomy are too supercilious to touch "mythical" ideas -- which are firmly believed to be plain nonsense, of course -- as long as historians of religion swear to it that stars and planets were smuggled into originally "healthy" fertility cults and naive fairy tales only "very late" -- whence these unhealthy subjects should be neglected by principle -- and as long as the philologists imagine that familiarity with grammar replaces that scientific knowledge which they lack, and dislike.”

Giorgio de Santillana, Ph.D.& Hertha von Dechend, Ph.D.

Hamlet's Mill

 A key underpinning of the Sitchin paradigm is the existence, now or in the past, of the tenth planet in our solar system, the home planet of the Anunnaki with the size, orbit, and characteristics described, as Sitchin has demonstrated, in the Enuma Elish and corroborated by Harrington, former chief of the U.S. Naval Observatory, now deceased.

 Tombaugh discovered Pluto in 1930. Christie, of the U.S. Naval Observatory, discovered Charon, Pluto’s moon, in 1978. The characteristics of Pluto derivable from the nature of Charon demonstrated that there must still be a large planet undiscovered because Pluto could not be the cause of the residuals, the “wobbles” in the orbital paths of Uranus and Neptune clearly identifiable. The IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite), during ’83 -’84, produced observations of a tenth planet so robust that one of the astronomers on the project said that “all that remains is to name it” -- from which point the information has become curiously guarded. In 1992 Harrington and Van Flandern of the Naval Observatory, working with all the information they had at hand, published their findings and opinion that there is, indeed, a tenth planet, even calling it an “intruder” planet. The search was narrowed to the southern skies, below the ecliptic. Harrington invited Sitchin, having read his book and translations of the Enuma Elish, to a meeting at his office and they correlated the current findings with the ancient records.

The recovered Enuma Elish document, a history of the formation of our solar system and more, says that, at the time when Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Uranus and Saturn were in place, there was a Uranus sized planet, called Tiamat, in orbit between Mars and Jupiter. Earth was not in place yet. A large wandering planet, called Nibiru, was captured into the system gravitationally. As it passed by the outer planets it caused the anomalies of their moons, the tilting of Uranus on its side, the dislodging of Pluto from its being a moon of Saturn to its own planetary orbit. Its path bent by the gravitational pull of the large planets, first its satellites collided with the large planet Tiamat and, on a second orbit through, Nibiru collided with Tiamat, driving the larger part of it into what is now Earth’s orbit to recongeal as Earth, dragging its moon with it to become our Moon with all its anomalies. The shattered debris of Tiamat’s smaller part became the asteroid belt, comets, and meteorites. The gouge of our Pacific basin is awesome testimony to the collisional event. Nibiru settled into a 3600 year elliptical retrograde (opposite direction to all the other planets) orbit around our sun, coming in through the asteroid belt region between Mars and Jupiter at perigee and swinging far out past Pluto at apogee. Harrington acknowledged that his information agreed with all these details and the maps they each had drawn of the orbits were almost indistinguishable. The current probable location of Nibiru (Planet X, our tenth) estimated by both was the same.

 It is the opinion of this author and others that, in light of the evidence already obtained through the use of the Pioneer 10 and 11 and two Voyager space craft, the Infrared Imaging Satellite (IRAS, ‘83-84) and the clear and unequivocal statements of Harrington when consulting with Sitchin, that the search has already been accomplished, in fact that the planet has already been found.

We need to force the issue of the tenth planet being in our solar system, not just to demonstrate the validity of the new paradigm but for a very practical reason. The ancient records are very clear. The passage of the tenth planet, Nibiru, once every 3600 years, through the inner solar system effects the Earth, sometimes in catastrophic ways. It is very probably the cause of pole shifts, pole reversals, changes in the precessional movement, perhaps even catastrophic bombardment by asteroid size space debris that it may drag along with it. Since it passes through the asteroid belt area between Mars and Jupiter and its orbital path may vary depending on the position of the other planets when it comes though, it may have been responsible for the devastation of Mars. A rigorous, detailed computer modeling of the solar system, including the tenth planet needs to be done urgently for our own planetary safety. Remember that the Vatican maintains an astronomical observatory and Msgr. Balducci may have access to information that prompts him to make the amazing statements he has ---- no doubt as voice of the Vatican.

The Technological Evidence

 Ooparts is the term used to describe the purportedly out of place in time artifacts, toys, tools, technical devices, depictions and documents which have come to light through archaeological excavation or discovery. Almost everyone is familiar, through published works or documentaries, with the clay pot batteries still containing the electrodes from the Iraqi desert dated at 2500 B.C., the flyable model airplane from a pyramid tomb, the sophisticated machining of stone requiring the most advanced techniques we know today, the 1000 ton precision cut blocks of stone in a temple foundation that we could not even handle, an ancient relief frieze from an Abydos temple depicting rockets, airplanes and even a helicopter, etc. The most recent and quite amazing oopart is the rediscovery of monoatomic gold by David Hudson (Monoatomics are superconductors at room temperature, have anti-gravitic properties and are only now being investigated by the advanced physics community) Hudson’s discovery, correlated with the bringing to light, by Gardner, of the suppressed discovery of the Anunnaki gold processing plant on Mt. Horeb by Sir Flinders Petrie in 1889 demonstrates that the monoatomics were already known at least 3000 years ago. These ooparts coupled with evidence from many disciplines and the historical records indicate that an advanced civilization existed in those times possessing a high technology and that that civilization was indeed the Anunnaki.

The Documentary Evidence

 The recorded historical documentation for the existence and deeds of the Anunnaki has become gradually available to us only since the early 1800’s. The excavation of the ancient sites of Mesopotamia brought to light the amazingly advanced civilization of Sumer and, with it, thousands of clay tablets containing not only mundane records of commerce, marriages, military actions and advanced astronomical calculation systems but of the history of the Anunnaki themselves. It is clear from those records that the Sumerians knew these aliens to be real flesh and blood. The library of the ruler, Ashurbanipal, at Nineveh was discovered to have burnt down and the clay tablets held there were fired, preserving them for our reading. One of the most impressive finds, in very recent time, has been a sealed, nine foot by six foot room in Sippar holding, neatly arranged on shelves, a set of some 400 elaborate clay tablets containing an unbroken record of the history of those ancient times, a sort of time capsule. The evidence is so overwhelming and robust that, if it weren’t for those with power enough to suppress, it would have been accepted and our world view changed a century ago or, perhaps, sooner.

The Genetic Evidence

 The recovered records place the location of the Anunnaki laboratory where the first humans were literally produced in east central Africa just above their gold mines. This falls precisely on the map where the mitochondrial DNA “search for Eve” places the first woman Homo Sapiens and in the same period. (The gold mining engineers of Africa have found 100,000-year-old gold mines in that area.) The evidence for, and description of advanced genetic engineering is all there in the ancient documents. Our rapid progress from inception to going to Mars soon, after only 250,000 years, does not correspond to the million year periodicities of slow evolutionary development of other species such as Homo Erectus before us. As so many thinkers have pointed out, we are radically and anomalously different, as discussed in part three.

Scientific Objections to the Thesis

 How could the Anunnaki, clearly described as comfortable in earth gravity and atmosphere, very similar to current humans in all ways, have evolved on a planet within our solar system whose orbital apogee takes it into the deep cold of space for much of its orbit?

 The ancient records repeatedly describe Nibiru as a “radiant” planet. This may be understood as having a high core temperature. Although controversial, there is also astrophysical opinion that a large body in elongated orbit is constantly tending toward circular orbit and this causes stresses in the body that could generate a good deal of heat. That their planet is gradually cooling, may be indicated by Sitchin’s interpretation of their colonizing Earth (contains most of the gold identifiable in the solar system) for the purpose of obtaining large quantities of gold for molecular seeding of their atmosphere with a reflective gold shielding. Pertinent here is Harrington’s confident statement to Sitchin that it is “a nice, good planet, could be surrounded by gases, probably has an atmosphere and could support life like ours”. The sunlight level there might be quite different than on earth. The Anunnaki were often depicted or sculpted with what seem to be obviously sunglasses.

 If, however, the Anunnaki evolved on a radically different planet from earth under quite different conditions to which to adapt, why should they have turned out to be so identical to human species? Sitchin’s answer is based on the collisional event between the intruder planet, Nibiru, and the planet Tiamat, the residual part of which recongealed into the Earth after being driven into current Earth orbit. That the two, or at least one, of the colliding planets was sufficiently developed to have evolved basic organic compounds, perhaps even simple life, the cross-seeding of everything from amino acids to more complicated organic compounds or even primitive organisms, could account for the evolutionary similarity. Although this author finds it a reasonable hypothesis, even trivial, that advanced civilizations would be capable of crossing extremely different genomes, perhaps with even radically different bases, the cross-seeding theory can account for the apparent relative ease with which the Anunnaki impinged their genes on the genes of Homo Erectus. The Anunnaki skill level, 200,000 years ago, is indicated well by the recorded fact that, in early trials, they succeeded in crossing animal genes with Homo Erectus genes, obtained living hybrids but never a satisfactory product which led them to modify Homo Erectus genes with their advanced genes.

If our genome is estimated as 98% to 99% similar to the chimpanzee, how could there be a melding of the Homo Erectus and Anunnaki genomes, or impingement of the advanced code on the lesser advanced one detectable? The author suggests that this is a major question probably answerable only by the geneticists open-minded enough to attack it. The resolution of that question should provide rich additional clues in itself.

Author: Neil Freer 
Source:
 http://www.ancientx.com/
Reprinted with permission


Will Nibiru Return in 2003?

NOTE:  IT DID, BUT IN ANOTHER DIMENSION

AND THEN, WHAT IS PLANET X?

Featuring an exclusive WWW.YOWUSA.COM interview 
with Zecharia Sitchin

The recent release of Zecharia Sitchin’s latest book “The Lost Book Of Enki”, caused a lot of public interest, as well as some unexpected and unwarranted misinformation concerning our destiny and the return of Nibiru. Consequently, some have predicted that Nibiru will fly through our solar system next year and with catastrophic results for our planet.

Is all of this hysteria or fact? We wanted to know so we contacted Zecharia Sitchin with the able help of YOWUSA supporter, Josef Novak.   In this article, we’ll first we will present our exclusive interview with Zecharia Sitchin in response to a series of written questions submitted to him.  

Interview with Zecharia Sitchin

NOTE: The following Q&A interview was conducted over a course of weeks between YOWUSA and Zecharia Sitchin and has been reviewed by him for completeness and accuracy.   

--- Beginning of Interview ---

YOWUSA: Could you please summarise your research and explain how you managed to beautifully consolidate everything in your latest release “The Lost Book Of Enki”?

SITCHIN: My journey into the Past began as a schoolboy, fortunate to study the Bible (Old Testament) in its original Hebrew. Reaching chapter 6 of Genesis, the teacher explained that in the days before the Great Flood of Noah there were "giants" upon the Earth. But I raised my hand and said: The term in the Bible isNefilim, which means Those Who Have Come Down/Descended (from Heaven to Earth), not "giants." 

Instead of being complimented on my linguistic knowledge, I was reprimanded for "questioning the Bible." The result was an obsession: Who were the Nefilim? What was the significance that they married the Daughters of Adam? Why were they described as the sons (plural) of the Elohim ("gods" in plural)? 

The lifetime of research led me to the origin of all these tales -- the Great Flood, the Tower of Babel and the Creation of the Adam included -- in the writings, on clay tablets, of the Sumerians, back in time almost six millennia.

In the eight books preceding The Lost Book of Enki (starting with The 12th Planet in 1976).) I presented the textual and pictorial evidence from all the ancient civilizations showing that WE ARE NOT ALONE -- that there is one more planet in our own solar system from which intelligent beings (Nefilim, Elohim, Anunnaki in Sumerian) had come here some 450,000 years ago for their own reasons, and who some 300,000 years ago engaged in genetic engineering to bring about Homo-sapiens by mixing their genes with those of the evolved hominids. Their home planet, which has an elongated orbit around our sun lasting some 3,600 years, was called NIBIRU: "Planet of the Crossing."

The leader of the first expedition to Earth, a great scientist who led the genetic engineering achievement, was called EN.KI ("Lord Earth"). 

In 2024 BC the ongoing conflict between clans of the Anunnaki (to use their Sumerian name) resulted in the use of nuclear weapons to obliterate their spaceport in the Sinai Peninsula. The unexpected consequence was the demise of the great Sumerian civilization. 

Enki opposed this use of the "weapons of terror." His autobiography, reconstructed by me from almost 800 long, short, undamaged or even fragmented texts, was intended to tell Mankind how it all came about. Thus the culmination of my lifelong writings: The Lost Book Of Enki. 

YOWUSA: On your web site you quote from an article titled “Comet’s Course Hints at Mystery Planet” in the journal Science dated 6 April 2001:

“A Supercomet following an unexpectedly far-flung path around the sun suggests that an unidentified planet once lurked in the outermost reaches of the solar system, an international team of astronomers reports.  What’s more, the mysterious object may still be there.” 

From your research into the historical records of ancient civilisations are all such findings relating to the Sumerian Nibiru? 

SITCHIN: The above is just one recent example of a recurring spate of revelations from the astronomical establishment touching on the existence of one more planet in our solar system. Some ten years ago the US Government itself, through its Naval Observatory, led the search for "Planet X" and the team's leader, Dr. Harrington, agreed with my ancient evidence. At that time even The New York Times wrote that all that is left regarding the existence of such a post-Plutonian planet is to name it... (I wrote to the Planetary Society that the planet already has a name: Nibiru). After a hiatus of a decade or so, the "discoveries" of "something" "out there" keep piling up again. 

I have no doubt that at the right time -- right in the eyes of whoever decided these matters -- the existence of Nibiru will be officially confirmed. 

YOWUSA: On your web site you also quote from an article titled “Neptune Attacks!” in the New Scientist magazine: 

“There is new evidence that a sudden barrage of deadly debris crashed against the Earth and the Moon 3.9 billion years ago… What triggered this onslaught?  Something in the structure of the Solar System must have changed.” 

SITCHIN: This is yet another confirmation by modern science of the Sumerian knowledge.  A long text known as Enuma Elish describes how Nibiru arrived at an early Solar System and collided with an olden planet, causing it’s crash to form the Earth and the Moon. 

YOWUSA: So, while the majority in the scientific community may disagree with your research, they are still making open discoveries that are confirming your research. However, many religious leaders still seem to be relatively tight-lipped about acknowledging your research.  Are you disappointed that religion does not seem to be evolving in the way our science is? 

SITCHIN: In Sumerian times Religion was Science and Science was Religion. Who is more tight lipped now, to use your words, one wonders. As the two come together, the validity of the ancients' knowledge will also become evident. 

There are many priests, ministers and rabbies among my fans.  I report an eye-opening dialogue with a Vatican theologian on my website Sitchin.com.

YOWUSA: Since the whole Hebrew Bible was compiled centuries after Genesis, the first of the five books of the Bible, do you believe that the writer of the Genesis account followed Sumerian beliefs more closely?

SITCHIN: Of Course. The first parts of Genesis, from the tale of Creation through the tales of Adam and Eve, the Garden of Eden, the Tower of Babel, the Great Flood, Sodom and Gomorrah, the Wars of the Kings in which Abraham was involved -- are all based on earlier Sumerian records.

YOWUSA: The beliefs of the Native American Indians reflect Sumerian beliefs as you have stated them.  Since major religions have departed from the original Sumerian beliefs, why do you say the Native American beliefs have remained so intact? 

SITCHIN: A good question; let me try to answer it: The Anunnaki first established their activities in the Americas after the Great Flood, because the Deluge exposed there vast sources of gold -- the metal for which they had come to Earth (needing it to create a shield to save the atmosphere on Nibiru). The arena for that was South America. The next phase was when the leader known in the Old World as Ningishzidda (in Sumerian) or Thoth (in Egypt) was exiled, and came with his followers to Mesoamerica where he was called the Winged Serpent (Quetzalcoatl). Separated from the wars and feuds of the Old World -- resulting among other things in Religion as we know it today -- the people in the Americas apparently retained the olden knowledge and lore untainted. 

YOWUSA: According to your findings, at about 11,000 BC, 7,400 BC, and 3,800 BC as a result of the appearance of Nibiru or the visitation of the Anunnaki, mankind experienced significant technological and/or sociological advances. 

For example, the year 3,760 AD coincides with the beginning of the Jewish Calender and according to you the time of the state visit to Earth by Anu (a leader of the Anunnaki or Nibiru) in Nippur, Sumer’s “cult center.”  Assuming a relatively stable orbit for Nibiru, that would place a similar event in 3,440 AD.

According to NOSTRADAMUS scholar John Hogue, the quatrains of Nostradamus predict that the Earth will be destroyed by the expanding Sun in the year 3,797 AD.  Mayan calendars are interpreted to indicate an “ending” at 2012 AD, and so on.  How do such predictions jive with the data on the ancient clay tablets? 

SITCHIN: That Mankind's progression from Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) to Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) to Neolithic (New Stone Age) and then the great Sumerian civilization, had occurred in intervals of about 3,600 years, is a fact. That Anu visited Earth, approved the grant of civilization (=knowledge, science, technology) to Mankind, marked by the start of the calendar in Nippur in 3760 BC (which is still the Hebrew/Jewish calendar), is certain (as far as I am concerned). 

But as I have tried to explain in my recent Seminars (though not yet in a full length book), the visits to Earth and the nearing (at what is called perihelion) of Nibiru do NOT coincide.  This is a point of immense significance, which those who have only read my first book somehow ignore. 

Also, the assumption that the 3600 years, as a perfect mathematical given, is also at all times the actual orbital period, is untenable: Even the orbit of Halley's comet, about 75 years, varies from 74 to 76 or so. All attempts to pinpoint a precise date for future arrivals of the planet and/or of the Anunnaki are thus difficult questions. I will answer them once I am satisfied that, based on historical and astronomical data, I have come up with the right answer. 

YOWUSA: In retrospect, have there ever been times in your life when you wished that you had never uncovered this knowledge so that you may have lived a much simpler, less informed life? 

SITCHIN: No. I am grateful to my fate -- or destiny (the Sumerians distinguished between the two) -- that my teacher told me harshly to "sit down and don’t question the Bible." 

I have as a result devoted my lifetime to the study of what the ancients knew, witnessed and recorded. I am grateful that I was given the ability to fathom that evidence and to convey it to my fellow humans -- to let them know how WE had come about, what our Past has been, and thus What the Future holds; because -- as is stated in the Lost Book of Enki and the Bible, the First Things shall be the Last Things. 

--- End of Interview ---


The Past Awaits Us

If Zecharia Sitchin has not yet reported enough hard evidence in the ancient documents to support precise future predictions, who are we to second-guess his work?  Unless we can present hard evidence to support a future coming, we should not do this amazing research an injustice by throwing wild predictions into the wind and obstructing the search for truth. 

There is too much at stake to be taken down unproductive rabbit holes with fear mongering and misinformation.  Rather than trying to predict the future, we should be making our future by studying our past.


©
 YOWUSA.COM
June 1, 2002
Steve Russell 


Nibiru's Orbit Identified

 

Uranus and Neptune don't follow their expected paths. Pluto is far too small an influence to account for this.

John Murray, a planetary scientist, studied 13 comets with well known orbits. He found them "... all aligned along a band, as would be expected if they had been perturbed by some large body." That large body above Aquarius, [Nibiru], is estimated to be 2 trillion miles away and orbit the Sun every 5 million years. [Discover, Oct 2001, pp 76-78]

The Pythagoreans said the revolving planets emitted notes, their pitches being determined by their speed and distance from the Earth. [The Search for Infinity]

In "The Lost Book of Enki" Zecharia Sitchin has translated ancient Sumerian tablets. That translation details the planet Nibiru's orbit: "An outermost abode he chose for himself... A Shar [3,600 years] shall be his circuit..." Nibiru is also described as shepherding the gods [other planets]. (pp 54,55) Jupiter synchronizes asteroid orbits and shepherds the planets into rounder orbits. Sitchin's translation implies that Nibiru adopted a round orbit from a very highly elliptical one that brought it close to Earth. The gods descended from Nibiru where there alone they had seemingly immortal life spans.

Nibiru orbit = Jupiter to Sun light seconds^2 span x 10 1 / Nibiru orbit speed mirrors it's orbit circuit in miles

Nibiru is 414... times Jupiter span to the Sun 422... " " orbit period

The Sun is 191... times Jupiter orbit period [Sun: 226 million year orbit, Detroit Free Press and 250 km/s orbit speed, The Scientific Companion] 191... " " " speed

6x6x600 astronomical units = Nibiru span to Sun [approx. distance Earth travels in 3,600 years of orbit (Nibiru's Shar orbit duration)]
6x6x.6 = Pluto au^.666 / Mercury^.666 au to Sun
.666 = Jupiter speed / 9 planet orbit speed average

The Sumerians bequeathed their 60 minutes x 60 seconds system of time and circle arc to us. They divided the cosmos accordingly.

"Some 51 light-years away lies an extrasolar system similar to our own: a yellow star in Ursa Major has a Jupiter-size planet orbiting at a distance comparable to that of Jupiter from our sun." [Scientific American, Oct 2001, p 23]

Nibiru isn't returning in 2003 but something epic is.

Copyright 2002 by David Millo
www.MysteriesUnsealed.com 


Bibliography

You can buy online any of these books - just click on the book title to access secure online purchase option.   Buying any of these books you will help support this web site!

The Lost Book of Enki: 
Memoirs and Prophecies 
of an Extraterrestrial god
Zecharia Sitchin
November 15, 2001 

Will the past become our future? Is humankind destined to repeat the events that occurred on another planet, far away from Earth?

 Zecharia Sitchin's bestselling series The Earth Chronicles provided humanity's side of the story-as recorded on ancient clay tablets and other Sumerian artifacts--concerning our origins at the hands of the Anunnaki, "those who from heaven to earth came." In The Lost Book of Enki, we can view this saga from a different perspective through this richly conceived autobiographical account of Lord Enki, an Anunnaki god, who tells the story of these extraterrestrials' arrival on Earth from the 12th planet Nibiru. The object of their colonization: gold to replenish the dying atmosphere of their home planet. Finding this precious metal results in the Anunnaki creation of homo sapiens--the human race--to mine this important resource. 

BUY NOW

The Cosmic Code: 
The Sixth Book of The Earth Chronicles

by Zecharia Sitchin
March 2002 


Reveals Zecharia Sitchin's groundbreaking research into the code left behind by the creators of humanity.

Explains how the Anunnaki were not merely the mythical gods of the Sumerians, but rather the founders of human life on Earth.
Using Biblical and ancient Sumerian sources, explains how to decode these messages our star ancestors left behind.
Daring to challenge our long-held beliefs about the origins of man, Zecharia Sitchin suggests that humans are not the children of God, but rather the children of the Anunnaki, an ancient race from the planet Nibiru. His revolutionary theories are supported by his intense scrutiny of not only ancient Sumerian texts but also stone structures all over the world. The similarities and astrological significance of these formations suggests that rather than looking for guidance from leaders here on Earth, humanity should instead look to the sky for answers.  

BUY NOW

The Destruction of Atlantis: 
Compelling Evidence of the Sudden Fall 
of the First Great Civilization

Frank Joseph, Zecharia Sitchin
May 2002

The most comprehensive reconstruction of the history and fate of the legendary ancient civilization of Atlantis. 

Draws together compelling evidence from geology, astronomy, myths, and ancient texts to prove the existence of Atlantean civilization and its catastrophic end. Includes a vivid narrative that re-creates the last days of Atlantis. Represents 20 years worth of research across the globe. 

All human cultures, from classical and biblical to native North and South American, share the myth of an ancient deluge, often coinciding with a rain of fire from the heavens. What accounts for this shared myth of environmental catastrophe? Now, in The Destruction of Atlantis, author Frank Joseph links this worldwide cultural phenomenon to the story of the lost civilization of Atlantis, which in a single day and night disappeared into the sea in a violent cataclysm. 

In the most comprehensive account of this legendary island, Joseph provides compelling evidence that Atlantis was at the root of all subsequent human civilizations. Brilliantly refuting years of modern skepticism, Joseph combines evidence from archaeology, geology, astronomy, and ancient lore to locate Atlantis in the context of Near Eastern Bronze Age society at the end of the 13th century B.C. The author seamlessly combines hard scientific evidence with a stunning imaginative re-creation of what it must have been like to walk the streets of Atlantis in its last days. The resulting portrait of a mighty empire corrupted by an overreaching lust for wealth and power offers an important lesson to our own materialistic civilization poised on the brink of ecological disaster.

BUY NOW

Genesis Revisited : 
Is Modern Science Catching Up With 
Ancient Knowledge?

Zecharia Sitchin
August 1995

Modern Technology ... or Knowledge of the Ancients? 


Space travel ... Genetic engineering...Computer science ... Astounding achievements as new as tomorrow. But stunning recent evidence proves that as these ultramodern advances were known to our forfathers millions of yrsterdays ago ... as early as 3,000 years before the birth of Christ!

In this remarkable companion volume to his landmark EARTH CHRONICLES series, author Zecharia Sitchin reexamines the teachings of the ancients in the light of mankind's latest scientific discoveries -- and uncovers breathtaking, never-before- revealed facts that challenge long-held, conventional beliefs about our planet and our species.  

BUY NOW

Divine Encounters:
 A Guide to Visions, Angels and Other Emissaries
Zecharia Sitchin
January 1996 


The Ultimate Human Experience The interaction between mankind and spiritual beings -- of Divine Encounters -- as recorded in scriptures and ancient texts provides a powerful drama that spans Heaven and Earth, involving worship and devotion, eternity and mortality, love and sex, jealousy and murder. But how much of these are based on real happenings and how much is based on myth? With a visionary's ardor and a scientist'sattention to detail, Zecharia Sitchin, author of The Earth Chronicles, gives a stunning account of human interaction with celestial travelers. He also provides further proof that prophetic dreams, visions, UFO encounters, and other extraordinary phenomena are indeed the hallmark of intervention by intergalactic emissaries who reach out from other realms to enlighten, guide, punish, and comfort us in times of need. Sitchin's research and theories, illustrated with maps and charts, chronicle a magnificent and inspiring journey through history, from the dawn of time to the approach of the millennium.  

BUY NOW

 

Of Heaven and Earth : 
Essays Presented at the First Sitchin Studies Day

Zecharia Sitchin (Editor), 
Madeleine Briskin, Neil Freer
October 1996 

Reader Review: 
This book of essays presented at the first Sitchin Studies day is a must for those of us that have read the Earth Chronicles. Upon reading the first few pages, I discovered that I was not alone in my love of Sitchin, I was in fact in very good company. I especially appreciated the essay by Neil Freer with his "take no prisoners" logic. While all the essays clear up confusion and answer my questions, his was my favorite. This is not a book of theory, of the perception of myths, or wishful thinking. This book tells it like it is. I think it can stand on it's own to capture the interest of even those unaware of Sitchins work. For those of us who are aware, it validates our thinking and lets us know that we are not alone! 

BUY NOW

Other Books by Zecharia Sitchin

 

The Wars of Gods and Men
Zecharia Sitchin

The Lost Realms
Zecharia Sitchin

 

The 12th Planet
Zecharia Sitchin

When Time Began
Zecharia Sitchin

 

The Stairway to Heaven
Zecharia Sitchin

The Cosmic Code 
(The Earth Chronicles, No 6)

Zecharia Sitchin

 

 

20 - ENKI BEGATS NOAH (ZIUSUDRA)

NOTE:  DNA OF THE GODS CLEARLY STATES THAT IT WAS ENKI'S SON NINGISHZIDDA (THOTH) WHO PERFECTED NOAH

Story So Far:

Marduk and Ninurta, patrilateral parallel cousins, cultivated clients from among the Hybrid Earthlings descended from Adapa. The cousins, each the apparent next leader of the Enkiite and Enlilite lineages (respectively), recruited these clients to rule large numbers of Earthlings who could supply armies and exert force where needed.

As his son recruited among the descendants of Ka-in
, Enlil planned to let climate changes kill all the Hybrids.

Narrative Resumes: 
Enki lusted for Batanash, wife of his son Adapa’s descendant, Lu-Mach, Workmaster of Earthlings in Edin. Enlil had ordered Lu-Mach to enforce work quotas and reduce rations for the Earthlings he directed. The Earthlings grumbled and threatened Lu-Mach. 

So Enki
 sent Lu-March to Marduk in Babylon to learn city-building and sent Batanash to Ninmah at the Medical/Science complex of Shurubak, "from the angry Earthling masses protected and safe to be. Thereafter Enki his sister Ninmah in Shurubak was quick to visit.

On the roof of a dwelling where Batanash
 was bathing Enki by her loins took hold, he kissed her, his semen into her womb he poured." From this encounter, she bore Ziusudra (Noah). 

When Lu-Mach
 returned to Edin, "to him Batanash the son showed. White as the snow his skin was.... Like the skies were his eyes, in a brilliance his eyes were shining." Lu-Mach complained, "A son unlike an Earthling to Batanash was born.... Is one of the Igigi [astronauts] his father?" Batanash swore "None of the Igigi is the boy’s father." Lu-Mach’s father Matushal assured him Ziusudra was destined to help Earhlings survive the Ice Age Earth was entering. 

Ninmah
 loved and cared for Ziusudra; Enki taught him to read Adapa’s writings. 

But drought, plague and starvation stalked the Earthlings
 
[Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 204 -205]. Enki and Ninmah proposed teaching Earthlings medicine for plague, sea-fishing as well as pond - and canal - building for drought and famine.

Enlil
 (Yahweh), however, was still enraged at Enki for creating the Earthling hybrids. Enlil was also furious at Enki’s son Marduk, who was recruiting the hybrid line descended from the daughters of Adapa whom the astronauts had abducted at Marduk’s wedding to the Earthling Sarpanit. Marduk was conditioning this hybrid population to serve him for the time when he and the astronauts who had taken hybrid women must remain on Earth, the time when enough gold had been sent toNibiru to shield the homeplanet’s atmosphere and the other Nibirans would return home. So Enlil forbade any help for the Earthlings. "Let the Earthlings by hunger and pestilence perish," decreed Enlil. To speed the demise of the Earthlings, Enlil specifically ordered Enki to block Earthlings’ access to ocean fish. 

The Earthlings at Shurubak, where Ziusudra
 lived under Enki and Ninmah’s tutelage, sent Ziusudra to Enki at Edin for help. Enki suggested the Earthlings protest Enlil’s anti-Earthling policy and boycott worship of and service to their Nibiran lords, but said he couldn’t openly ignore Enlil’s order and help the Earthlings. 

Covertly, however, Enki
 fed Earthlings from his corn stores, trained them in sea fishing and gave them access to the sea. When Enlil accused Enki of defying his decree that humans be allowed to perish, Enki lied. He said the humans acted without his knowledge. Frustrated, Enlil planned for the final destruction of Earthlingsand the end to Nibiran occupation of Earth
 
[Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 206; 1978, The 12th Planet, pages 292 -294]. 

Each 3,600 year revolution of Nibiru to the region of Solaris
 created ever more violent disturbances on
 Nibiru, the Sun (huge solar flares) Mars (Lahmu) and Earth. On Earth, Enki’s son Nergal reported from the south tip of Africa that the Antarctic ice sheet was sliding to the ocean and would, next approach of Nibiru, slide into the sea and cause wave reverberations that would engulf most of Earth. 


21 - Galzu Keeps Nibiran Leaders On Mission Earth 

The Story:
Enlil
 planned to let the hybrid Earthlings Enki created -- a species created in violation of interplanetary law -- drown when, next time Nibiru neared Earth and the Antarctic Icesheet would slip into the sea, inundating all Earth except great peaks. Then, Enlil calculated, the Nibiran gold-mining operations on Earth would end and the Nibirans could return to Nibiru.

Narrative Resumes: 
Anu and the Counsel on Nibiru beamed Earth: "’For evacuating Earth and Lahmu prepare.’ In the Abzu [Zimbabwe] the gold mines shut down; therefrom the Anunnaki [colonists on Earth from Nibiru] to the Edin came; ... smelting and refining ceased, all gold to Nibiru was lofted. Empty, for evacuating ready, a fleet of celestial chariots [interplanetary spaceships] to Earth returned." One spaceship brought the mysterious white-haired Galzu (Great Knower) with a sealed message from Anu to Enki, Enlil and Ninmah 
[Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 208]. 

"Enlil
 the seal of Anu examined; unbroken and authentic it was, its encoding trustworthy. ’For King and Council Galzu speaks, his words are my commands.’ So did the message of Anu state. ’I am Galzu, Emissary Plenipotentiary of King and Council, to Enlil,’" he said. 

Plenipotentiary Galzu
 summonsed Enlil’s elder sister and brother, Ninmah and Enki. Galzu told Ninmah, "’Of the same school and age we are.’ This Ninmahcould not recall: the emissary was as young as a son, she was as his olden mother." Galzu told Ninmah she aged and he hadn’t because she’d been so long on Earth. She and her brothers had been on Earth so long that they’d die if they returned to Nibiru, where their bodies could not survive the homeplanet’s netforce. 

"The three of you on Earth will remain; only to die to Nibiru you will return." Ninmah
 and her brothers must orbit Earth in their rockets when the Antarctic icesheet slipped into the ocean and waves washed over the planet. When the waters calmed, the Leaders were to return to Earth, the only place they could survive.

King Anu’s order continued, "To each of the other Anunnaki, a choice to leave or the calamity outwait must be given. The Igigi [astronauts] who Earthlings espoused must between departure and spouses choose. No Earthling, Marduk’s Sarpanit included, to Nibiru
 to journey is allowed. For all who stay and what happens see, in celestial chariots they safety must seek."
 
[Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 209 - 211]. 

Enlil
 convened the Anunnaki Council, which consisted of the Leaders’ sons and grandchildren and the Igigi commanders. He said he decided the Earthlings must drown in the deluge. 

Enki protested, "’A wonderous Being by us was created, by us saved it must be,’ Enki to Enlil shouted." 

Enlil
 roared back, "’To Primitive Workers you gave to them knowing you endowed. The powers of the Creator of All into your hands you have taken. With fornicationAdapa you conceived , Understanding to his line you gave. His offspring to the heavens you have taken, our wisdom with them you shared. Every rule you have broken, decisions and commands you ignored. Because of you a Civilized Earthling brother [Abael] a brother [Ka-in] murdered. Because of Marduk your son the Igigi like him with Earthlings intermarried.’" 

Enlil
 demanded Enki and all swear not to tell the Earthlings of the impending inundation. Enki refused; he and Marduk stamped out of the Council. But Enki was still reluctant to openly defy Enlil, who, after all, had drawn command of Earth Mission
 
[Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 212 -214]. 

Enlil
 brought the Council back to order. Astronauts with Adapite wives and children, he decreed, must move to the peaks above wave level. When the delugeengulfed Earth, repatriating colonists would rocket to Nibiru. "Enki, Ninmah, and I -- as well as our sons, daughters and their descendants -- will orbit Earth till the Earthlings drown and the waters recede." Marduk was to shelter on Marsbase; Enlil’s son Nannar would wait out Earth’s flood on the moon 
[Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 230]. 

In preparation for 
the flood, Enki and Ninmah buried their records and computer programs deep in the Iraqi soil. They prepared genetic banks of Earth’s creatures to save from coming flood. "Male and female essences and life-eggs they collected, of each kind two by two ... they collected for safekeeping while in Earth circuit to be taken, thereafter the living kinds to recombine. The day of the deluge they waited."
 [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: 216]. 


22 - GALZU HELPS ENKI SAVE ZIUSUDRA & EARTHLINGS 

The Story:

Enlil, Earth’s Nibiran Commander, convened the Anunnaki Council, the leaders’ sons and grandchildren and the Igigi astronaut commanders. He ordered all to hide news of the coming flood from the Earthlings who, he ruled, must drown. Astronauts with Adapite wives and descendants must flee to peaks above the waters. "Colonists will repatriate to Nibiru while Enki, Ninmah and I orbit around Earth with our children and grandchildren till the Earthlings all die in the flood." 

Narrative Resumes: 
Enki dreamed Galzu spoke "’Into your hands Fate take, for the Earthlings the Earth inherit. Summon your son Ziusudra, without breaking the oath [swearing not to tell humans] to him the coming calamity reveal. A boat that the watery avalanche can withstand, a submersible one, to build him tell, the likes of which on this tablet to you I am showing. Let him in it save himself and his kinfolk and the seed of all that is useful, be it plant or animal, also take. That is the will of the Creator of All.’" 

Enki
 woke and pondered his dream. When he got out of bed, much to his amazement, he kicked an actual tablet -- where none had been before he slept -- next to his bed. He searched his home and grounds for Galzu but Galzu’s was not there, nor had anyone seen him, except Enki, in the dream. The appearance of the tablet -- a physical object -- following a dream or trance encounter with a representative of a higher power -- Galzu in this instance -- is what Sitchin calls a Twightlight Zone miracle.

"That night to the reed hut where Ziusudra
 was sleeping Enki stealthily went. The oath not breaking, the lord Enki not to Ziusudra but to the hut’s wall [computer bank?] spoke from behind the reed wall.

When Ziusudra
 by the words was awakened, to him Enki said, "Reed hut, a calamitous storm will sweep, the destruction of Mankind it will be. This is the decision of the assembly by Enlil convened.

Galzu tells Enki (depicted with his snake icon) to warn Ziasudra

(touching the "wall"--probably a computer bank, depicted with Xs across the screens and slots for programs)

of the Flood.

Galzu guides Enki’s arm to convey tablet

(possibly a computer or holo disk. The disk is shown leaving Enki’s hand en route to Ziasudra’s computer)

[Drawing from Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: page 194, but interpretation mine.]

" ’Abandon thy house, Ziusudra build a boat. Its design and measurements on a tablet.... A boatguide [Enki’s son, Ninagal] to you will come. To a safe haven the boatguide will navigate you. By you shall the seed of Civilized Man survive. Not to you Ziusudra, have I spoken, but to the reed wall did I speak.’" [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: abridged from pages 220 -222]

13,000 years ago, "in the Whiteland, at the Earth’s bottom, off its foundation, the [Antarctic] icesheet slipped. By Nibiru’s netforce it was pulled into the south sea. A tidal wave arose, northward spreading.

Depiction of Ziusudra’s submersible

[Sitchin, Z., 1995, Divine Encounters, page 95.]
 

The boat of Ziusudra the tidal wave from its moorings lifted. Though completely submerged, not a drop of water into it did enter. For forty days, waves and storms swept Earth, downing everything on the planet except those on mountaintops and in Ziusudra’s boat" [Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: abridged from page 227].
 

Enki’s and Enlil’s whirlwind/hovercraft

Surfacing, Ninagal raised sail and steered to Mt Arrata, where Ziusudra built a huge fire as a signal and roasted lamb as an offering to Enki. Enki and Enlil descended in helicopters (Whirlwinds) from their rocketships. 
 

"When Enlil the survivors saw, Ningal among them, "‘Every Earthling had to perish’, he with fury shouted’; at Enkiwith anger he lunged, to kill his brother with bare hands he was ready." Ningal radioed Ninmah and Ninurta to bring their copters down quick.

"‘He is no mere mortal, my son he is,’ Enki
 to Ziusudra pointing. ‘To a reed wall I spoke, not Ziusudra.’ " 

Enki, joined by Ninmah
 and Ninurta, revealed his dream vision. He told Enlil of the instructions and tablet Galzu gave him. 

Together, Enki
, Ninurta and Nimah convinced Enlil "The survival of mankind the will of the Creator of All must be."
[Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki: abridged from pages 228 - 229].




23 - MESOPOTAMIA & NILE AREAS RECLAIMED; NINURTA FINDS ABUNDANTGOLD AND KAIN HYBRID DELUGE SURVIVORS IN PERU

The Story:

Enlil wanted to kill Enki for defying his order to let the hybrid earthlings perish with the Deluge caused by the passage of homeplanet Nibiru through the inner Solar System and the resulting plunge of the Antarctic icesheet into the South Sea. When Commander Enlil descended to Mt Ararat as the Deluge subsided and he first saw Ziusudra and Enki’s son Ningal and the sub they used to survive (and to also save Ziasudra’s descendants, his village, and genetic starts for flora and fauna), Enlil was so angry he challenged Enki to fight to the death hand to hand. Enki admitted that he’d fathered Ziasudra. Ninmah, Ninurta and Enki then convinced Enlil that Galzu had facilitated the will of the Creator of All when he gave Enki the plans for the sub and strategy to save the hybrids.

Narrative Resumes: 
The flood waters from the 
deluge, 13,000 years ago, receded; they left the uplands intact. The waters had totally carried away the Nibiran settlements and buried Mesopotamia and the goldmines in Africa under silt and mud. Of the Anunnaki settlements, only the raised stone Landing Place at Baalbek, Lebanon, was intact; their spaceport at Sippar was totally gone. 
 


NIBIRU’S PERIGEE 13,000 YEARS AGO, BURIED MESOPOTAMIA, SUCKED OFF MARS’ ATMOSPHERE AND SURFACE WATER

Enlil
 summonsed to the Landing Place the Nibirans who survived the flood on the Earth’s peaks and the astronauts in spacecraft orbiting the planet. He also called in his son Nannar from his refuge on the Moon and Enki’s son Marduk from his refuge on Mars. 

Marduk
 reported: "Lahmu [Mars] by the passage of Nibiru was devastated. Its atmosphere was sucked out, its waters evaporated, a place of dust storms it is."Nannar reported the Moon was only usable with Eagle Masks [helmets]. 
 


ANUNNAKI REPLENISH EARTH’S CROPS AND LIVESTOCK

The survivors opened the vault beneath the Landing Platform, unlocked the diorite chests there, and found intact the grain seeds Nibiru had sent to introduce to Earth. Enlil put his heir and champion, Ninurta in charge of creating an irrigation system in Mesopotamia for the grain. Enki, in his genetics lab, doubled, tripled and quadrupled the chromosomes of the grain from Nibiru they’d been using on Earth 
[Sitchin, Z., 1985 The Wars of Gods & Men, p124]. Enlil assigned Ziasudra’s son as Ninurta’s foreman to supervise the hybrid survivors dam and terrace building as well as provision of bread. 

Enlil
 charged Adad/Ishkur, his youngest son, with surveying the fruit trees that survived the flood. Adad found the grapes brought by Ninmah from Nibiru had survived, and the Hybrids resumed grape growing for both white and red wine.

Enki’s son Ninagal, who’d piloted Ziusudra’s submersible, revealed the genetic starts Enki
 and Ninmah had stowed aboard. Ninagal said, "The life essences and life eggs, in the four-legged animals from Ziusudra’s boat can be combined. Sheep for wool and meat will multiply, cattle for milk and hides will all have." Enki bade his son Dumuzi (assisted by Ziusudra’s middle son) shepherd the livestock. Enki and Ninagal engineered a system of dams and sluices to regulate the Nile to create a pastureland for Dumuzi’s herds. 

The passage of Nibiru through the Inner Solar system not only damaged Earth
 and Mars; it also ripped away the shield of gold dust the Nibirans had shipped to the mother planet. Nibiru’s atmosphere was again dwindling and gold from Earth was desperately needed on Nibiru. But in Africa, not only were the mines buried in mud, but the hundreds of Nibiran miners had been evacuated back to Nibiru and the thousands of hybrid miners had been drowned in the deluge. The gold refinery atBad-Tibira was gone, as was the rocket terminal at Sippar in Mesopotamia. Ninurta came to the rescue.

Ninurta
 prospected huge gold finds of pure gold, needing no refining, in Peru, where, he also found, descendents of Ka-in had survived the great flood on rafts and now lived on an island in Lake Titicaca. Abundant gold was now available to send to Nibiru. Enlil selected the Saudi Arabian peninsula for a new interplanetary freighter rocket terminal site to ferry the gold to the homeplanet.



24 - NINGISHZIDDA, MEMORIALIZED AS SPHINX, CREATES PYRAMIDS TO GUIDE ROCKETS TO SINAI PENINSULA SPACEPORT

Story So Far:
From 10,500 to 7,000 years ago, Reclaiming Earth after the Deluge, the Nibiran Goldmining Mission rebuilt Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) with Adapite Hybrids ruled by the Enlil clan through Ziusudra’s sons Shem and Japheth. 
 

Narrative Resumes:
THE NEW SPACEPORT
 (“
Place of the Celestial Chariots”) in Sinai Enki’s son Ningizidda/Thoth (using Nibiran power tools that still exceed the capacity our 2005AD tools to cut and transport stones) built two pyramids in Egypt. The larger pyramid, the Great Pyramid, was to be the southwestern marker of a line extending from Mt. Ararat in Eastern Turkey, running through the landing platform at Baalbek in Lebanon and ending at this Great Pyramid on the Nile. The first, smaller, pyramid Ningishzidda had built was a scale model of the Great one. The Great Pyramid was to contain Nibirans’ master computer programs and astronavigational equipment. Enki induced Enlil to authorize a monument to Ningishzidda for designing the pyramids:

“Let us beside the twin peaks a monument create, the Age of the Lion to announce. The image of Ningishzidda, the peaks’ designer, let its face be. Let it precisely toward the Place of Celestial Chariots gaze.”

[Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki, page 238]

The actual Spaceport was to be run by Enlil’s son’s son, Utu. The Spaceport was on the 30th parallel, the line of division between the realms of Lineage Enlil Northof the parallel and the realms of Lineage Enki, South of the 30th. In the Great Pyramid, Enki’s son Gibil installed pulsating crystals and a capstone of electrum, to reflect a beam that marked the western edge of the runway line from Ararat to Tilmun for incoming spacecraft. The eastern edge of the rocket runway corridor wasMt Katherine, at the southern tip of the Sinai. Mission Control itself was to be on Mount Moriah (the future Jerusalem), off-limits to Earthlings.

 


NINGZIDDA’S FACE ON SPHINX SETS OFF COMPETITION WITH HIS BROTHER MARDUK AND RIVAL NINURTA


Marduk, who’d been disinherited as future king of Nibiru for marrying an Earthling and who’d lost his command of Marsbase when the perigee of Nibiru had sucked off the Martian atmosphere some 500 years before, protested the glory given his younger brother Ningishzidda and the authority given Utu of the Enlilites. “Mardukto his father Enki words of aggrievement said, ‘To dominate the whole Earth to me did you promise. Now command and glory to others are granted, without task or dominion I am left’” [ibid, page 238].


Enki’s other sons as well as Enki’s Champion, Ninurta, and his brothers in the Enlil Lineage also demanded “lands for themselves and devoted Earthlings.”

 


NINMAH NEGOTIATES PEACE, IS AWARDED SINAI


Ninmah, ever the peace-maker, proposed all these Royals be given lands and Earthling followers. Ninmah, as daughter of Nibiru’s King Anu, mother of Ninurta andmother of Enki’s daughters as well, was awarded control of the entire Sinai  Tilmun (Land of Missiles), as it was called, as neutral ground between the two lineages. Lands east of Sinai were allotted Enlil and his descendants, supported by Ziusudra’s sons Shem and Japheth and their descendants. Africa was awarded Enki and his lineage, supported by Ziasudra’s son Ham and his descendants. Enki appointed Marduk ruler of Egypt, with Earthling supporters too. Ninurtabuilt Ninmah a palace on Mt Moriah. When she was installed as “Ninharsag, Mistress of the Mountainhead,” Nibiran whirlbirds began lofting Peru’s gold nuggets to the Sinai for transport to Niburu to resume shielding the home planet’s atmosphere with gold dust.


25 - MARDUK’S SON SATU KILLS BROTHER, ASAR; ASAR’S SON, HORON DEFEATS SATU, UNITES EGYPT 

Story So Far:

Enki got Enlil to authorize Ningishzidda’s face on the Sphinx. Ningishzidda’s brother Marduk and Marduk’s rival Ninurta both protested. Enlil awarded vast estates and Earthling subjects to the Nibiran Royals. He assigned Ninmah, as neutral peacemaker, control of Sinai, where she would dwell and separate the Enlil and Enki lineages. Enlil allotted lands east of Sinai to his own descendants, supported by Adapite descendants of Ziusudra’s sons Shem and Japheth. Enlil gave Enki and his descendants Egypt and Africa, supported by the line of Ziasudra’s son Ham.


The 
Civilized Workers (as Adapite Hybrids were now called) were in great demand as laborers for their Nibiran lords, Igigi, Astronaut Corps; again whildbirdedPeru’s gold nuggets to the Sinai to rocket to Niburu for the homeplanet’s shield. For 300 years, peace prevailed on Earth.


Narrative Resumes:

Enki moved to Elephantine (Abu) Island near Aswan (Syene). From Abu, he supervised workers building dams, dykes and tunnels to control the Nile’s flow to the Mediterranean. 9,780 years ago, Enki, now called Ptah, gave son Marduk, now called Ra, rule of Egypt and the workers there. [Sitchin, Z., 1985, The Wars of Gods and Men, page 38; See The Lost Book of Enki pages 242 - 248]


Earlier, during the Great Deluge of 13, 000 years ago, 
Marduk, his Adapite wife, Sarpanit and their sons, Asar (Osiris) and Satu (Seth) sheltered on Marsbase with the Igigi Commnader, Shamgaz. Marduk’s boys, Asar and Satu, married Shamgaz’s girls, Asra (Isis)
* and Nebat (Nephys). Shamgaz formed a close friendship with Satu [Sitchin, Z., 2002 The Lost Book of Enki pages 243 244].


Asar
 and Asra settled near Marduk in the northern lowlands of Lower Egypt. Satu and Nebat settled in the mountains of southern Upper Egypt, near the villa ofShamgaz and the Landing Platform in Lebanon. Shamgaz and his daughter Nebat lobbied Satu. They convinced Satu that he and the Igigi Astronauts had no chance of good land on Earth. Asar, Shamgaz argued, living near Marduk, would succeed to rule of the fertile lower Nile area, leaving only Upper Egypt to Satu and his Igigi friends. Satu, Nebat and Shamgaz decided to assassinate Asar.


Shamgaz
 and Satu invited Asar to an Astronaut and Royals banquet honoring, Aso, Ethiopia’s visiting Queen. Shamgaz drugged Asar’s wine, and when Asar fell unconscious, sealed him in a coffin which they threw in the sea. Word of Asar’s murder reached Asta, Sarpanit and Marduk. They retrieved Asar’s coffin from the sea. Satu declared himself, as the sole surviving son of Marduk, to now be the ruler of both Upper and Lower Egypt. Marduk wanted to kill Satu for killing his brother, but Enki forbade this. Instead, Enki had Asta extract semen from Asar’s corpse and impregnated herself with it.


Announcing her pregnancy, 
Asta disputed Satu’s claim to Lower Egypt. She went into hiding and bore Horon (Horus), whom she raised to fight Satu and avengeAsar. Shamgaz and the Astronauts ignored Asta. The Astronauts spread their estates and Earthlings armies from Lebanon all the way to the borders of Ninmahneutral Jerusalem region and the Interplanetary Landing Zone, The Place of Celestial Chariots.


Meanwhile, in Upper Egypt, 
Marduk’s brother Gibil tutored Horon to manhood. Gibil taught Horon how to pilot aircraft and fashioned multi-headed missiles for him and taught him and his Earthlings how to smelt iron and make iron weapons for his Earthling army – all to ready Horon to defeat Satu. Fully armed, Horon’s army marched on Sinai. Rather than face Horon’s better weaponed army, Satu challenged Horon to a one-to-one a real battle.


As 
Horon flew his fighter toward Satu, Satu struck him with a poisoned dart but Ningishzidda administered an antidote and gave Horon a blinding weapon. In a far-ranging aerial battle, Horon hit Satu with the blinding weapon, then with a harpoon. Blind, Satu crashed, his testicles squashed; Horon bond him and dragged him before the Council, which decided to let him live out his life, without the life-extension treatment, among the Astronaut Corps.

* Sitchin, in The Wars of Gods and Men, page 41, relates that Plutarch’s version of this tale has Marduk’s brother Ningishzidda (Thoth, Hermes)as the secret father of Asra.

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26 - ENLILITES SEND NINURTA TO BUILD ALTERNATE TITICACA SPACEPORT 

Story So Far:

The principals of Enki’s lineage, in their competition among themselves, had transferred much advanced technology to their Earthling minions. Marduk, Enki’s eldest son, married to the Adapite Earthling Sarpanit, forged an alliance with the Astronaut Corps (Igigi). Following Marduk’s example, the Igigi took Earthling women and captured the Landing Place in Lebanon, and in 8970 B.C., in the name of Marduk’s son Satu, were advancing on the Spaceport in Sinai. Gibil, another of Enki’s sons, had taught Earthlings commanded by Marduk’s grandson Horon to make iron weapons.

Narrative Resumes:
Enlil
 and his sons, Ninurta, Nannar and Adad, saw the command of the gold mining expedition and control of Earth, which they felt should be theirs alone, threatened by Marduk and the Earthlings led by the descendants of Enki, particularly Marduk, his sons and his grandsons. 

Enlil
 and his sons feared the Enlilites would control Earth’s space facilities and thus the flow of gold from Earth to Nibiru. If Marduk and his allies had such control, they would be able to hold both Earth and Nibiru in their power. Enlil and his clan would not even be able to escape Earth when the mining there was done, ifMarduk and his allies controlled space travel and communication with the home planet.

To counter this, they sent Ninurta
 to secretly build a communications center next to Lake Titicaca. Ninurta built also a spaceport on the plains next to the Andes. "From there" Ninurta reported, "gold shipments to Nibiru can continue, from there in need we too can ascend" 
[Sitchin, Z., 2002, The Lost Book of Enki, 1976, The 12th Planet, pages 248 -249]

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27 - Marduk foils marriage of Enlillite Inanna & Enkiite Dumuzi 

Inanna’s Background:

Rulers of Nibiru and Earth pampered Inanna, who, as a child, was called Irnini. She, in later years, was known also as Ishtar, Ashtoreth, Annutitum, Aphrodite,Athena, Venus, Eshdar, Innin, Ninni, Kali and Shakti. 

"Inanna by her parents Nannar and Ningal was beloved. Enlil [Her Grandfather] by her cradle sat. Beautiful beyond describing she was, in martial arts withAnunnaki heroes [Nibirans on Earth] she competed. A skyship of her own, to roam Earth’s skies, to her the Anunnaki presented." 
[The Lost Book of Enki, Sitchin, 2002:250] Inanna and brother Ute, twins of Nannar (Enlil’s second son), were both Nibirans born on Earth. 

Inanna
 and her twin were long-lived like homeplanet Niburans. But the Earthborns matured faster. "Who on Nibiru in diapers would still be, on Earth became a child; Who on Nibiru began to crawl, when on Earth born was running around."
 [Sitchin 2002:152]

Dumuzi’s Background:

Dumuzi, also Earthborn, was Enki’s youngest son, born after Ningishzidda and Gibil. Dumuzi had accompanied Ningishzidda and their Hybrid half-brother,Adapa, to Nibiru. Dumuzi brought sheep and goats to Earth from Nibiru. After the deluge receded, Enki put Dumuzi in charge of Africa’s domestic herds and the humans tending them. He became Enki’s favorite son. Marduk, Enki’s eldest, felt jealous.

Narrative Resumes:
"After the Deluge, on the Landing Platform [Lebanon], Dumuzi and Inanna their eyes on each other set. Hesitant at first they were, he of Enki’s clan, she of Enlil an offspring [son’s daughter]." 

Elders of both clans were delighted, they could heal their deadly rivalry with a royal marriage between Dumuzi
 and Inanna, the darlings of clan heads Enlil and Enki. “‘Perchance the espousing peace between the clans truly will bring!’ Enlil to them all did say. “
 
[Sitchin 2002:152]

Marduk
 sent his sister Geshtinanna to Inanna. “To her Inanna what was in her heart revealed, ‘A vision of a great nation I have. As a Great Anunnaki Dumuzithere will rise. His queen-spouse I shall be. To Dumuzi I will status give, the country I will rightly direct.’ Inanna’s visions of rulership and glory by Geshtinanna to her brother Marduk were reported. By Inanna’s ambitions Marduk was greatly disturbed; to Gestinanna a secret plan he said.” 
[Sitchin 2002:152]

Marduk
 had Geshinanna seduce Dumuzi. She told Dumuzi, “Before you your young wife in your embrace will sleep, a legitimate heir, by a sister born, you must have" [ie, keeping succession within the Enki clan]. Inanna’s son to succession shall not be entitled. 

After she’d received his ejaculate, Gestinanna
 panicked Dumuzi, telling him, “Marduk of raping me will accuse you, evil emissaries to arrest you he will send. To try you and disgrace you he will order, the liaison with an Enlilite to disunite.” 

Dumuzi, bereft at Geshianna’s betrayal, fled to hide behind a waterfall but slipped into the rapids and drown
 
[Sitchin 2002:153].


28 - Inanna Revived Defeats Enkiites; Ninurta, Not Marduk to Next Rule Earth

Story So Far
Around 8670 BC, a marriage between Inanna, Enlil’s son’s daughter and Enki’s son Dumuzi, meant to bring the feuding Enki and Enlil clans to peace is foiled by Enki’s eldest son, Marduk, who gets his sister Geshtinanna to seduce Dumuzi so he can accuse Dumuzi of rape and prevent Inanna from power in the Enkiite turf–Africa, Egypt, the Seas. Dumuzi flees to hide behind a waterfall but drowns.


Narrative Resumes
Dumuzi’s brother Ninagal retrieved Dumuzi’s body from Lake Victoria and brought it to their brother Nergal and his wife, Erishkigal (Inanna’s sister) in South Africa. Inanna flew to her sister’s place.

 


ERISHKIGAL KILLS SISTER INANNA LEST SHE & NERGAL CREATE HEIR TO AFRICA


Erishkigal
 believed Inanna was pursuing levirate, whereby Inanna, as widow of Nergal’s brother Dumuzi, would bare a male child with Nergal to inherit the status as a ruler in Africa, as Dumuzi’s queen. Ereshkigal thought Inanna would try through such a child with Nergal to usurp the power she and Nergal had in Africa. “Of scheming an heir by Nirgal, Dumuzi’s brother, Inanna was accused” 
[ Sitchin, Z.,The Lost Book of Enki, 2002:255].


When 
Inanna arrived at Ereshkigal and Nergal’s place, Erkishkigal barred her entry. Inanna forced her way in, but Ereshkigal disarmed her hung her on a stake to die.


And die 
Inanna did. But “from clay of the Abzu [Africa] Enki two emissaries fashioned, beings without blood, by death rays unharmed, to lower Abzu he sent them,Inanna to bring back. Upon the corpse the clay emissaries a Pulser and an Emitter directed, then the Water of Life on her they sprinkled, in her mouth, the plant of life they placed. Then the dead Inanna arose”
 [ Sitchin, Z.,The Lost Book of Enki, 2002:255]. 

Inanna
 brought Dumuzi’s body back to Mesopotamia and had it mummified, to rise on a “Final Day” and rejoin her bodily. Sitchin identifies Inanna’s mummification celebration as both a way of her dealing with her grief and also as part of a move by Astronauts to preserve the myth of the latter’s immortality. Astronauts were actually just very long-living, compared to Earthlings; one Earth year equals 3, 600 years on the homeplanet, Nibiru 
[The Cosmic Code, pages 90, 96].

 


INANNA & ENLILITES DEFEAT ENKIITES, TRAP MARDUK IN PYRAMID


Inanna
 led the Enlilites to war against Marduk for instigating Dumuzi’s death. Though Marduk’s brothers Ningishzidda and Nergal declined to defend him, his other brothers, Ninigal and Gibil, father Enki and Marduk’s grandson, Horon, joined Marduk and his Astronaut Service (Igigi) allies fighting the Enlilites. Inanna’s brother Utu held off the Igigi in Sinai, and Marduk retreated before a massive aerial onslaught by Inanna and Enlil’s sons, Ninurta and Ishkur/Adad into the beacon pyramid [Giza].

“Let the slow death, by alive being buried, be Marduk’s sentence! Inanna her consent gave. Each one of them one stone for plugging slid down,Marduk as in a tomb to seal” [ Sitchin, Z.,The Lost Book of Enki, 2002:255].

Enki brought Sarpanit, Marduk’s Hybrid wife – their young son Nabu in hand, and Inanna’s father Nannar and brother Utu to plead for Marduk’s life. Sarpanitprostrated herself before Inanna, begging her to spare Marduk. “Appeased not was Inanna. For the death of my beloved Dumuzi, the Instigator must die,’ Inannaretorted.

 


NINHARSAG NEGOTIATES HER SON NINURTA TO SUCCEED TO EARTH’S RULE IN EXCHANGE FOR MARDUK’S LIFE


Ninharsag
 brought her feuding brothers, Enki and Enlil into the confrontation between Sarpanit and Inanna. Ninharsag proposed exiling Marduk and appointing Ninurta, her son with Enlil, in Marduk’s place as successor to the rule of Earth. Enlil awarded Egypt to Thoth, but Inanna objected.


Egypt, said Inanna, should be hers. “To the heritage of Dumuzi, her deceased bridegroom, did Inanna lay claim. A dominion of her own she of Enki and Enlildemanded” 
[ Sitchin, Z.,The Lost Book of Enki, 2002:259].


References:

-  Sitchin, Z.,

2002, The Lost Book of Enki,

1976, The 12th Planet;
1980, The Stairway to Heaven;

1985, The Wars of Gods and Men;

1990, Genesis Revisited;

1990, The Lost Realms;

1993, When Time Began;
1995, Divine Encounters;

1998, The Cosmic Code;

2004, The Earth Chronicles Expeditions;

 

-  Freer, N.,

2000, Breaking the Godspell.


-  Enki/Ea
 is the Nibiran who (4, 000 years ago) dictated his autobiography to his scribe, Endubscar of Endu.

-  The Lost Book of Enki, Sitchin’s translation of Enki’s tale is the source – with many of Enki’s slants -- of most of the account in these essays. The Lost Book of Enki itself is historical fiction, wherein Sitchin
 has woven information meticulously documented in his Earth Chronicles.

 

 

Flood Stories



A flood myth or deluge myth is a symbolic narrative in which a great flood is sent by a deity, or deities, to destroy civilization in an act of divine retribution. Parallels are often drawn between the flood waters of these myths and the primeval waters found in certain creation myths, as the flood waters are described as a measure for the cleansing of humanity, in preparation for rebirth.

There are many flood myths. It is a theme widespread among many cultures, though it is perhaps best known in modern times through the biblical and Quranic account of Noah's Ark, the Hindu Puranic story of Manu, through Deucalion in Greek mythology, or Utnapishtim in The Story of Gilgamesh which takes us to the beginning -Sumerian Gods and Ancient Alien Theory. Was Noah's Ark a UFO?

Most flood myths also contain a culture hero, who strives to ensure this rebirth. The flood myth motif is widespread among many cultures as seen in the Mesopotamian flood stories, the Puranas, Deucalion in Greek mythology, the Genesis flood narrative, and in the lore of the K'iche' and Maya peoples of Central America, the Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwa tribe of Native Americans in North America, and the Muisca people in South America.





Parallels are often drawn between the flood waters of these myths and the primeval waters found in some creation myths since the flood waters are seen to cleanse humanity in preparation for rebirth. Most flood myths also contain a culture hero who strives to ensure this rebirth.

Could Noah's Ark and other 'ships' that allegedly saved specific bio-genetically encoded humans, have been UFO's? This implies aliens, or a consciousness force, create program after program, or consciousness holograms of different races of humans through which they study, monitor, and learn.




Origin of Flood Myths


Adrienne Mayor's The First Fossil Hunters and Fossil Legends of the First Americans promoted the hypothesis that flood stories were inspired by ancient observations of seashells and fish fossils inland and on mountains. The ancient Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, and Chinese all wrote about finding such remains in these locations, and the Greeks hypothesized that Earth had been covered by water several times, noting seashells and fish fossils found on mountain tops as evidence. Native Americans also expressed this belief in their early encounters with Europeans, though they had not written it down previously.

However, Leonardo da Vinci postulated that an immediate deluge could not have caused the neatly ordered strata he found in the Italian Apennines.

Some geologists believe that quite dramatic, unusually great flooding of rivers in the distant past might have influenced the legends. One of the latest, and quite controversial, hypotheses of this type is the Ryan-Pitman Theory, which argues for a catastrophic deluge about 5600 BC from the Mediterranean Sea into the Black Sea. This has been the subject of considerable discussion, and a news article from National Geographic News in February 2009 reported that the flooding might have been "quite mild".

There also has been speculation that a large tsunami in the Mediterranean Sea caused by the Thera eruption, dated about 1630-1600 BC geologically, was the historical basis for folklore that evolved into the Deucalion myth. Although the tsunami hit the South Aegean Sea and Crete it did not affect cities in the mainland of Greece, such as Mycenae, Athens, and Thebes, which continued to prosper, indicating that it had a local rather than a region wide effect.

Another theory is that a meteor or comet crashed into the Indian Ocean around 3000 - 2800 BC, created the 30 kilometres (19 mi) undersea Burckle Crater, and generated a giant tsunami that flooded coastal lands.

It has been postulated that the deluge myth may be based on a sudden rise in sea levels caused by the rapid draining of prehistoric Lake Agassiz at the end of the last Ice Age, about 8,400 years ago.




The Flood Tablet - Atra-Hasis


Fragment of a clay tablet from the library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh, with an Assyrian account of the Flood. Some of the most famous cuneiform tablets are the 'Code of Hammurabi'. Hammurabi was a Babylonian king who lived long before the time of Moses. The tablets reveal intimate details of everyday life in the Near East and shed light on many obscure customs mentioned in Old Testament. Some tell the story of the Creation, the Fall, and the Flood. They do much to verify the truth of the Biblical record.

This tablet is perhaps the most famous of all cuneiform tablets. It is the eleventh tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic, and describes how the gods sent a flood to destroy the world. Like Noah, Utnapishtim was forewarned and built an ark to house and preserve living things. After the flood he sent out birds to look for dry land.

- British Museum




Flood Stories From Around the World


Europe

Greek: 
Zeus sent a flood to destroy the men of the Bronze Age. Prometheus advised his son Deucalion to build a chest. All other men perished except for a few who escaped to high mountains. The mountains in Thessaly were parted, and all the world beyond the Isthmus and Peloponnese was overwhelmed. Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha (daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora), after floating in the chest for nine days and nights, landed on Parnassus. When the rains ceased, he sacrificed to Zeus, the God of Escape. At the bidding of Zeus, he threw stones over his head; they became men, and the stones which Pyrrha threw became women. That is why people are called laoi, from laas, "a stone." [Apollodorus 1.7.2]

An older version of the story told by Hellanicus has Deucalion's ark landing on Mount Othrys in Thessaly. Another account has him landing on a peak, probably Phouka, in Argolis, later called Nemea. [Gaster, p. 85]

The Megarians told that Megarus, son of Zeus, escaped Deucalion's flood by swimming to the top of Mount Gerania, guided by the cries of cranes. [Gaster, p. 85-86]

An earlier flood was reported to have occurred in the time of Ogyges, founder and king of Thebes. The flood covered the whole world and was so devastating that the country remained without kings until the reign of Cecrops. [Gaster, p. 87]

"Many great deluges have taken place during the nine thousand years" since Athens and Atlantis were preeminent. Destruction by fire and other catastrophes was also common. In these floods, water rose from below, destroying city dwellers but not mountain people. The floods, especially the third great flood before Deucalion, washed away most of Athens' fertile soil. [Plato, "Timaeus" 22, "Critias" 111-112]

Roman: 
Jupiter, angered at the evil ways of humanity, resolved to destroy it. He was about to set the earth to burning, but considered that that might set heaven itself afire, so he decided to flood the earth instead. With Neptune's help, he caused storm and earthquake to flood everything but the summit of Parnassus, where Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha came by boat and found refuge. Recognizing their piety, Jupiter let them live and withdrew the flood. Deucalion and Pyrrha, at the advice of an oracle, repopulated the world by throwing "your mother's bones" (stones) behind them; each stone became a person. [Ovid, book 1]

Jupiter and Mercury, traveling incognito in Phrygia, begged for food and shelter, but found all doors closed to them until they received hospitality from Philemon and Baucis. The gods revealed their identity, led the couple up the mountains, and showed them the whole valley flooded, destroying all homes but the couple's, which was transformed into a marble temple. Given a wish, the couple asked to be priest and priestess of the temple, and to die together. In their extreme old age, they changed into an oak and lime tree. [Ovid, book 8]

Scandinavian: 
Oden, Vili, and Ve fought and slew the great ice giant Ymir, and icy water from his wounds drowned most of the Rime Giants. The giant Bergelmir escaped, with his wife and children, on a boat. Ymir's body became the world we live on. [Sturluson, p. 35]

Celtic: 
Heaven and Earth were great giants, and Heaven lay upon the Earth so that their children were crowded between them, and the children and their mother were unhappy in the darkness. The boldest of the sons led his brothers in cutting up Heaven into many pieces. From his skull they made the firmament. His spilling blood caused a great flood which killed all humans except a single pair, who were saved in a ship made by a beneficent Titan. The waters settled in hollows to become the oceans. The son who led in the mutilation of Heaven was a Titan and became their king, but the Titans and gods hated each other, and the king titan was driven from his throne by his son, who was born a god. That Titan at last went to the land of the departed. The Titan who built the ship, whom some consider to be the same as the king Titan, went there also. [Sproul, pp. 172-173]

Welsh: 
The lake of Llion burst, flooding all lands. Dwyfan and Dwyfach escaped in a mastless ship with pairs of every sort of living creature. They landed in Prydain (Britain) and repopulated the world. [Gaster, pp. 92-93]

Lithuanian: 
From his heavenly window, the supreme god Pramzimas saw nothing but war and injustice among mankind. He sent two giants, Wandu and Wejas (water and wind), to destroy earth. After twenty days and nights, little was left. Pramzimas looked to see the progress. He happened to be eating nuts at the time, and he threw down the shells. One happened to land on the peak of the tallest mountain, where some people and animals had sought refuge. Everybody climbed in and survived the flood floating in the nutshell. God's wrath abated, he ordered the wind and water to abate. The people dispersed, except for one elderly couple who stayed where they landed. To comfort them, God sent the rainbow and advised them to jump over the bones of the earth nine times. They did so, and up sprang nine other couples, from which the nine Lithuanian tribes descended. [Gaster, p. 93]

German: 
A louse and a flea were brewing beer in an eggshell. The louse fell in and burnt herself. This made the flea weep, which made the door creak, which made the broom sweep, which made the cart run, which made the ash-heap burn, which made the tree shake itself, which made the girl break her water-pitcher, which made the spring begin to flow. And in the spring's water everything was drowned. [Grimm 30]

Turkey: 
Iskender-Iulcarni (Alexander the Great), in the course of his conquests, demanded tribute from Katife, Queen of Smyrna. She refused insultingly and threatened to drown the king if he persisted. Enraged at her insolence, the conqueror determined to punish the queen by drowning her in a great flood. He employed Moslem and infidel workmen to make a strait of the Bosphorus, paying the infidel workmen one-fifth as much as the Moslems got. When the canal was nearly completed, he reversed the pay arrangements, giving the Moslems only one-fifth as much as the infidels. The Moslems quit in disgust and left the infidels to finish the canal. The Black Sea swept away the last dike and drowned the workmen. The flood spread over Queen Katife's country (drowning her) and several cities in Africa. The whole world would have been engulfed, but Iskender-Iulcarni was prevailed upon to open the Strait of Gibraltar, letting the Mediterranean escape into the ocean. Evidence of the flood can still be seen in the form of drowned cities on the coast of Africa and ship moorings high above the coast of the Black Sea. [Gaster, pp. 91-92]

Vogul: 
After seven years of drought, the Great Woman said to the Great Man that rains had come elsewhere; how should they save themselves. The Great Man counseled the other giants to make boats from cut poplars, anchor them with ropes of willow roots 500 fathoms long, and provide them with seven days of food and with pots of melted butter to grease the ropes. Those who did not make all the preparations perished when the waters came. After seven days, the waters sank. But all plants and animals had perished, even the fish. The survivors, on the brink of starvation, prayed to the great god Numi-tarom, who recreated living things. [Gaster, pp. 93-94]




Near East

Middle Eastern generally: 
In this region, it is common to believe that the earth was originally covered with water, and that there is now a layer of water beneath the earth. Hebrews also have a layer of water above the earth.

Egypt: 
People have become rebellious. Atum said he will destroy all he made and return the earth to the Primordial Water which was its original state. Atum will remain, in the form of a serpent, with Osiris.

Persian: 
In early times, the earth was full of malign creatures fashioned by the evil Ahriman. The angel Tistar (the star Sirius) descended three times, in the form of man, horse, and bull respectively, causing ten days and nights of rain each time. The first flood drowned the creatures, but the seeds of evil remained. Before returning to cause the second flood, Tistar, in the form of a white horse, battled the demon Apaosha, who took the form of a black horse. Ormuzd blasted the demon with lightning, making the demon give a cry which can still be heard in thunderstorms, and Tistar prevailed. The poison washed from the land by the second flood made the seas salty. The waters were driven to the ends of the earth by a great wind and became the seas. [Vitaliano, pp. 161-162]

Assyrian: 
The gods, led by Enlil, agreed to cleanse the earth of an overpopulated humanity, but Utnapishtim was warned by the god Ea in a dream. He and some craftsmen built a large boat (one acre in area, seven decks) in a week. He then loaded it with his family, the craftsmen, and "the seed of all living creatures." The waters of the abyss rose up, and it stormed for six days. Even the gods were frightened by the flood's fury.

Upon seeing all the people killed, the gods repented and wept. The waters covered everything but the top of the mountain Nisur, where the boat landed. Seven days later, Utnapishtim released a dove, but it returned finding nowhere else to land. He next returned a sparrow, which also returned, and then a raven, which did not return. Thus he knew the waters had receded enough for the people to emerge. Utnapishtim made a sacrifice to the gods. He and his wife were given immortality and lived at the end of the earth. [Sandars, chpt. 5]

Sharur destroyed Asag, demon of sickness and disease, by flooding his abode. In the process, "The primeval waters of Kur rose to the surface, and as a result of their violence no fresh waters could reach the fields and gardens." [Kramer, p. 105]

Sumerian: 
The gods had decided to destroy mankind. A god (probably Enki) warned the priest-king Ziusudra ("Long of Life") of the coming flood by speaking to a wall while Ziusudra listened at the side. He was instructed to build a great ship and carry beasts and birds upon it. Violent winds came, and a flood of rain covered the earth for seven days and nights. Then Ziusudra opened a window in the large boat, allowing sunlight to enter, and he prostrated himself before the sun-god Utu. After landing, he sacrificed a sheep and an ox and bowed before Anu and Enlil. For protecting the animals and the seed of mankind, he was granted eternal life and taken to the country of Dilmun, where the sun rises. [Hammerly-Dupuy, p. 56; Heidel, pp. 102-106]

Hebrew: 

God, upset at mankind's wickedness, resolved to destroy it, but Noah was righteous and found favor with Him. God told Noah to build an ark, 450 x 75 x 45 feet, with three decks. Noah did so, and took aboard his family (8 people in all) and pairs of all kinds of animals (7 of the clean ones). For 40 days and nights, floodwaters came from the heavens and from the deeps, until the highest mountains were covered. The waters flooded the earth for 150 days; then God sent a wind and the waters receded, and the ark came to rest in Ararat. After 40 days, Noah sent out a raven, which kept flying until the waters had dried up.

He next sent out a dove, which returned without finding a perch. A week later he set out the dove again, and it returned with an olive leaf. The next week, the dove didn't return. After a year and 10 days from the start of the flood, everyone and everything emerged from the ark. Noah sacrificed some clean animals and birds to God, and God, pleased with this, promised never again to destroy all living creatures with a flood, giving the rainbow as a sign of this covenant. Animals became wild and became suitable food, and Noah and his family were told to repopulate the earth. Noah planted a vineyard and one day got drunk. His son Ham saw him lying naked in his tent and told his brothers Shem and Japheth, who came and covered Noah with their faces turned. When Noah awoke, he cursed Ham and his descendants and blessed his other sons. [Genesis 6-9]

The Koran [11:25-48] refers to the same flood event, adding that the earth swallowed the water, the boat came to rest on the mountain Al-Judi, and one of Noah's disbelieving sons drowned in the flood.

Aprocryphal scripture tells that Adam directed that his body, together with gold, incense, and myrrh, should be taken aboard the Ark and, after the flood, should be laid in the middle of the earth. God would come from thence and save mankind. [Platt, p. 66, 80 (2 Adam 8:9-18, 21:7-11)]

A woman "clothed with the sun" gave birth to a man child who was taken up by God. The woman then lived in the wilderness, where the Devil-dragon, cast down to earth, persecuted her. At one time he cast a flood of water from his mouth trying to wash her away, but the earth helped the woman and swallowed the flood. [Revelation 12]

Babylonian: 
Three times (every 1200 years), the gods were distressed by the disturbance from human overpopulation. The gods dealt with the problem first by plague, then by famine. Both times, the god Enki advised men to bribe the god causing the problem. The third time, Enlil advised the gods to destroy all humans with a flood, but Enki had Atrahasis build an ark and so escape. Also on the boat were cattle, wild animals and birds, and Atrahasis' family. When the storm came, Atrahasis sealed the door with bitumen and cut the boat's rope. The storm god Adad raged, turning the day black. After the seven-day flood, the gods regretted their action. Atrahasis made an offering to them, at which the gods gathered like flies. and Enki established barren women and stillbirth to avoid the problem in the future. [Dalley, pp. 23-35]

Chaldean: 
The god Chronos in a vision warned Xisuthrus of a coming flood, ordered him to write a history and bury it in Sippara, and told him to build and provision a vessel (5 stadia by 2 stadia) for himself, his friends and relations, and all kinds of animals, all of which he did. After the flood had come and abated somewhat, he sent out some birds, which returned. Later, he tried again, and the birds returned with mud on their feet. On the third trial, the birds didn't return. He disembarked in the Corcyraean mountains in Armenia and, with his wife, daughter, and pilot, offered sacrifices to the gods. Those four were translated to live with the gods. The others at first were grieved when they could not find the four, but they heard Xisuthrus' voice in the air telling them to be pious and to seek his writings at Sippara. [G. Smith, pp. 42-43]

Zoroastrian: 
"After Ahura Mazda has warned Yima that destruction in the form of winter, frost, and floods, subsequent to the melting of the snow, are threatening the sinful world, he proceeds to instruct him to build a vara, 'fortress or estate,' in which specimens of small and large cattle, human beings, dogs, birds, red flaming fires, plants and foodstuffs will have to be deposited in pairs." [Dresden, p. 344]




Africa

Pygmy: 
Chameleon heard a strange noise, like water running, in a tree, but at that time there was no water in the world. He cut open the trunk, and water came out in a great flood that spread all over the earth. The first human couple emerged with the water. [Parrinder, pp. 46-47]

Kikuyu (Kenya): 
A beautiful but mysterious woman agreed to marry a man on the condition that he never ask about her family. He agreed, and they lived happily together until it was time for their oldest son's circumcision, and the man asked his wife why her family couldn't attend the ceremony. With that, the wife bounced into the air and made a hole seven miles deep when she landed. She called upon her ancestors, who came as spirits from Mt. Kenya. The spirits raised a thunder and hailstorm as they came. They brought food, goats, cattle, and beer with them and, while the people took shelter in caves, flooded the countryside with beer, turning it into a lake. When the spirits left, they took the couple and their children with them into Mt. Kenya. [Abrahams, pp. 336-338]

Southwest Tanzania: 
The rivers began flooding. God told two men to go into a ship, taking with them all sorts of seed and animals. The flood rose, covering the mountains. Later, to check whether the waters had dried up, the man sent out a dove, and it came back to the ship. He waited and sent out a hawk, which did not return because the waters had dried. The men then disembarked with the animals and seeds. [Gaster, pp. 120-121]

Ekoi (Nigeria): 
The first people Etim 'Ne (Old Person) and his wife Ejaw came to earth from the sky. At first, there was no water on earth, so Etim 'Ne asked the god Obassi Osaw for water, and he was given a calabash with seven clear stones. When Etim 'Ne put a stone in a small hole in the ground, water welled out and became a broad lake. Later, seven sons and seven daughters were born to the couple. After the sons and daughters married and had children of their own, Etim 'Ne gave each household a river or lake of its own. He took away the rivers of three sons who were poor hunters and didn't share their meat, but he restored them when the sons begged him to. When the grandchildren had grown and established new homes, Etim 'Ne sent for all the children and told them each to take seven stones from the streams of their parents, and to plant them at intervals to create new streams. All did so except one son who collected a basketful and emptied all his stones in one place. Waters came, covered his farm, and threatened to cover the whole earth. Everyone ran to Etim 'Ne, fleeing the flood. Etim 'Ne prayed to Obassi, who stopped the flood but let a lake remain covering the farm of the bad son. Etim 'Ne told the others the names of the rivers and streams which remained and told them to remember him as the bringer of water to the world. Two days later he died. [Courlander, pp. 267-269]

Efik-Ibibio (Nigeria): 
The sun and moon are man and wife, and their best friend was flood, whom they often visited. They often invited flood to visit them, but he demurred, saying their house was too small. Sun and moon built a much larger house, and flood could no longer refuse their invitation. He arrived and asked, "Shall I come in?" and was invited in. When flood was knee-deep in the house, he asked if he should continue coming and was again invited to do so. The flood brought many relatives, including fish and sea beasts. Soon he rose to the ceiling of the house, and the sun and moon went onto the roof. The flood kept rising, submerging the house entirely, and the sun and moon made a new home in the sky. [Eliot, pp. 47-48]

Mandingo (Ivory Coast): 
A charitable man gave away everything he had to the animals. His family deserted him, but when he gave his last meal to the (unrecognized) god Ouende, Ouende rewarded him with three handfuls of flour which renewed itself and produced even greater riches. Then Ouende advised him to leave the area, and sent six months of rain to destroy his selfish neighbors. The descendants of the rich man became the present human race. [Kelsen, pp. 135-136]

Bakongo (west Zaire): 
An old lady, weary and covered with sores, arrived in a town called Sonanzenzi and sought hospitality, which was denied her at all homes but the last she came to. When she was well and ready to depart, she told her friends to pack up and leave with her, as the place was accursed and would be destroyed by Nzambi. The night after they had left, heavy rains came and turned the valley into a lake, drowning all the inhabitants of the town. The sticks of the houses can still be seen deep in the lake. [Feldmann, p. 50; Kelsen, p. 137]

Bachokwe? (southern Zaire): 
A chieftainess named Moena Monenga sought food and shelter in a village. She was refused, and when she reproached the villagers for their selfishness, they said, in effect, "What can you do about it"? So she began a slow incantation, and on the last long note, the whole village sank into the ground, and water flowed into the depression, forming what is now Lake Dilolo. When the village's chieftain returned from the hunt and saw what had happened to his family, he drowned himself in the lake. [Vitaliano, pp. 164-165; Kelsen, p. 136]

Bena-Lulua (Congo River, southeast Zaire): 
The old water woman only gave water to him who sucks her sores. One man did so, and water flowed and drowned almost everybody. He continued his disgusting task, and the water stopped flowing. [Kelsen, p. 136]

Lower Congo: 
The sun once met the moon and threw mud at it, making it dimmer. There was a flood when this happened. Men put their milk stick behind them and were turned into monkeys. The present race of men is a recent creation. [Fauconnet, p. 481; Kelsen, p. 136]

Komililo Nandi: 
Ilet, the spirit of lightning, came to live, in human form, in a cave high on the mountain named Tinderet. When he did so, it rained incessantly and killed most of the hunters living in the forest below. Some hunters, searching for the cause of the rain, found him and wounded him with poison arrows. Ilet fled and died in a neighboring country. When he died, the rain stopped. [Kelsen, p. 137]

Cameroon: 
As a girl was grinding flour, a goat came to lick it. She first drove it away, but when it came back, she allowed it to lick as much as it could. In return for the kindness, the goat told her there will be a flood that day and advised her and her brother to run elsewhere immediately. They escaped with a few belongings and looked back to see water covering their village. After the flood, they lived on their own for many years, unable to find mates. The goat reappeared and said they could marry themselves, but they would have to put a hoe-handle and a clay pot with a broken bottom on their roof to signify that they are relatives. [Kahler-Meyer, pp. 251-252]

Kwaya (Lake Victoria): 
The ocean was once enclosed in a small pot kept by a man and his wife under the roof of their hut to fill their larger pots. The man told his daughter-in-law never to touch it because it contained their sacred ancestors. But she grew curious and touched it. It shattered, and the resulting flood drowned everything. [Kahler-Meyer, pp. 253-254]




Far East

Hindu: 
Manu, the first human, found a small fish in his washwater. The fish begged protection from the larger fishes, in return for which it would save Manu. Manu kept the fish safe, transferring it to larger and larger reservoirs as it grew, and later the fish saved Manu from a deluge by warning him to build a boat and letting him tie the craft to the fish's horn. The fish led him to a mountain and told Manu to tie the ship's rope to a tree to prevent it from drifting. Manu, alone of all creatures, survived. He made offerings of clarified butter, sour milk, whey, and curds. From these, a woman arose, calling herself Manu's daughter. Whatever blessings he invoked through her were granted him. Through her, he generated this race. [Gaster, pp. 94-95; Kelsen, p. 128; Brinton, pp. 227-228]

"The Lord of the Universe," to preserve king Satyavarata from dangers of the depravity of the age, sent him a large ship, and told him to gather himself, medicinal herbs, and pairs of brute animals aboard it to save them from a flood. Seven days later, the three worlds were flooded and darkened. The god appeared in the ocean as an enormous fish, a million leagues long, and Satyavarata tied the ark to its horn with a huge sea serpent. [Howey, pp. 389-390]

Bhil (central India): 
Out of gratitude for the dhobi feeding it, a fish told a dhobi (a pious man) that a great deluge was coming. The man prepared a large box in which he embarked with his sister and a cock. After the flood, a messenger of Rama sent to find the state of affairs discovered the box by the cock's crowing. Rama had the box brought to him and questioned the man. Facing north, east, and west, the man swore that the woman was his sister; facing south, the man said she was his wife. Told that the fish gave the warning, Rama had the fish's tongue removed, and fish have been tongueless since. Rama ordered the man to repopulate the world, so he married his sister, and they had seven daughters and seven sons. [Gaster, pp. 95-96]

Kamar (Raipur District, Central India): 
A boy and girl were born to the first man and woman. God sent a deluge to destroy a jackal which had angered him. The man and woman heard it coming, so they shut their children in a hollow piece of wood with provisions to last until the flood subsides. The deluge came, and everything on earth was drowned. After twelve years, God created two birds and sent them to see if the jackal had been drowned. They saw nothing but a floating log and, landing on it, heard the children inside, who were saying to each other that they had only three days of provisions left. The birds told God, who caused the flood to subside, took the children from the log, and heard their story. In due time they were married. God gave each of their children the name of a different caste, and all people are descended from them. [Gaster, p. 96]

Ho (southwestern Bengal): 
The first people became incestuous and unheedful of God or their betters. Sirma Thakoor, or Sing Bonga, the creator, destroyed them, some say by water and others say by fire. He spared sixteen people. [Gaster, p. 96]

Lepcha (Sikkim): 
A couple escaped a great flood on the top of a mountain called Tendong, near Darjeeling. [Gaster, p. 96]

Tibet: 
Tibet was almost totally inundated, until the god Gya took compassion on the survivors, drew off the waters through Bengal, and sent teachers to civilize the people, who until then had been little better than monkeys. Those people repopulated the land. [Gaster, p. 97]

Assam: 
A flood once covered the whole world and drowned everyone except for one couple, who climbed up a tree on the highest peak of the Leng hill. In the morning, they discovered that they had been changed into a tiger and tigress. Seeing the sad state of the world, Pathian, the creator, sent a man and a woman from a cave on the hill. But as they emerged from the cave, they were terrified by the sight of the tigers. They prayed to the Creator for strength and killed the beasts. After that, they lived happily and repopulated the world. [Gaster, p. 97]

Kamchadale (northeast Siberia): 
A flood covered the whole land in the early days of the world. A few people saved themselves on rafts made from bound-together tree trunks. They carried their property and provisions and used stones tied to straps as anchors to prevent being swept out to sea. They were left stranded on mountains when the waters receded. [Gaster, p. 100]

Mongolia: 
Hailibu, a kind and generous hunter, saved a white snake from a crane which attacked it. Next day, he met the same snake with a retinue of other snakes. The snake told him that she was the Dragon King's daughter, and the Dragon King wished to reward him. She advised Hailibu to ask for the precious stone that the Dragon King keeps in his mouth. With that stone, she told him, he could understand the language of animals, but he would turn to stone if he ever divulged its secret to anyone else. Hailibu went to the Dragon King, turned down his many other treasures, and was given the stone. Years later, Hailibu heard some birds saying that the next day the mountains would erupt and flood the land. He went back home to warn his neighbors, but they didn't believe him. To convince them, he told them how he had learned of the coming flood and told them the full story of the precious stone. When he finished his story, he turned to stone. The villagers, seeing this happen, fled. It rained all the next night, and the mountains erupted, belching forth a great flood of water. When the people returned, they found the stone which Hailibu had turned into and placed it at the top of the mountain. For generations, they have offered sacrifices to the stone in honor of Hailibu's sacrifice. [Elder & Wong, pp. 75-77]

China: 
The Supreme Sovereign ordered the water god Gong Gong to create a flood as punishment and warning for human misbehavior. Gong Gong extended the flood for 22 years, and people had to live in high mountain caves and in trees, fighting with wild animals for scarce resources. Unable to persuade the Supreme Sovereign to stop the flood, and told by an owl and a turkey about _Xirang_ or Growing Soil, the supernatural hero Gun stole Growing Soil from heaven to dam the waters. Before Gun was finished, however, the Supreme Sovereign sent the fire god Zhu Rong to execute him for his theft. The Growing Soil was taken back to heaven, and the floods continued. However, Gun's body didn't decay, and when it was cut apart three years later, his son Yu emerged in the form of a horned dragon. Gun's body also transformed into a dragon at that time and thenceforth lived quietly in the deeps. The Supreme Sovereign was fearful of Yu's power, so he cooperated and gave Yu the Growing Soil and the use of the dragon Ying. Yu led other gods to drive away Gong Gong, distributed the Growing Soil to remove most of the flood, and led the people to fashion rivers from Ying's tracks and thus channel the remaining floodwaters to the sea. [Walls, pp. 94-100]

The goddess Nu Kua fought and defeated the chief of a neighboring tribe, driving him up a mountain. The chief, chagrined at being defeated by a woman, beat his head against the Heavenly Bamboo with the aim of wreaking vengeance on his enemies and killing himself. He knocked it down, tearing a hole in the sky. Floods poured out, inundating the world and killing everyone but Nu Kua and her army; her divinity made her and her followers safe from it. Nu Kua patched the hole with a plaster made from stones of five different colors, and the floods ceased. [Werner, p. 225; Vitaliano, p. 163]

Korea: 
A son was borne to a fairy and a laurel tree; the fairy returned to heaven when the boy was seven years old. One day, rains came and lasted for many months, flooding the earth with a raging sea. The laurel, in danger of falling, told his son to ride him when it came uprooted by the waves. The boy did so, floating on the tree for many days. One day a crowd of ants floated by and cried out to be saved. After asking the tree for permission, the boy gave them refuge on the branches of the laurel. Later, a group of mosquitoes flew by and also asked to be saved. Again, the boy asked the tree for permission, was granted it, and gave the mosquitoes rest. Then another boy floated by and asked to be saved.

This time the tree refused permission when its son asked. The son asked twice more, and after the third time the tree said, "Do what you like," and the son rescued the other boy. At last the tree came to rest on the summit of a mountain. The insects expressed their gratitude and left.

The two boys, being very hungry, went and found a house where an old woman lived with her own daughter and a foster-daughter. As everyone else in the world had perished and the subsiding waters allowed farming again, the woman decided to marry her daughters to the boys, her own going to the cleverer boy. The second boy maliciously told the woman that the other boy could quickly gather millet grains scattered on sand.

The woman tested this claim, and the first boy despaired of ever succeeding, when the ants came to his aid, filling the grain bag in a few minutes. The other boy had watched, and he told the woman that the task hadn't been done by the first boy himself, so the woman still couldn't decide which daughter to marry to which boy. She decided to let the boys decide by chance, going to one room or another in total darkness. A mosquito came and told the Son of the Tree which room the old woman's daughter was in, so those two were married, and the second boy married the foster-daughter. The human race is descended from those two couples. [Zong, pp. 16-18]

Young Gim's father was killed by robbers, and Gim set out to track them and get revenge. On the way, he met another bereaved boy hunting the same robbers. They became sworn brothers, but they were separated when a storm upset their ferry as they were crossing a river. Gim was rescued by another boy who had been orphaned by the same robbers. They too swore to be brothers but were separated when their ferry sank in a storm. Gim was rescued and hidden by an old woman; he was on the island of the robbers but was helpless from his injuries. One day a mysterious man came by and asked Gim to go with him. Gim lived with the man in the mountains studying magic until he was sixteen, whereupon the man told him to go and rescue the king from the robbers, and that he would meet Gim again in three years exactly.

Gim set out, finding a magic horse, arms, and armor along the way, and arrived at the king's castle when it was on the point of surrender. In the enemy camp, he found a black face belching fire at the castle, a genii studying astrology, a rat whose swinging tail produced a flood which threatened the castle, and a giant who hurled flames at the King's camp. Gim fought them with his magic but was overwhelmed by their numbers. He fled with the king to an island, but the rat tried to submerge it with an even greater flood from its tail. A butterfly led Gim to a cavern in a distant mountain, where he met the first boy he had encountered. They went back to fight together, but the other boy was killed and the island submerged, and Gim and the King retreated to a second island.

Gim was led by a crow to another cavern in the mountains where he met his other friend. They returned to fight, but again the friend was killed, the island submerged, and Gim and the King had to retreat. When a third island was threatened with the flood, they took refuge on a ship. Gim's mentor then came (three years having elapsed) and with his magic called down thunderbolts which destroyed all of the enemy. Gim went to the enemy island, found his mother, and married the sister of his second friend. [Zong, pp. 62-66]

The River Dedong flooded the countryside. An old man in Pyongyang, rowing about in a boat, found and rescued a deer, a snake, and a boy from the waters. He carried them to shore and released them, but the boy had lost his parents in the flood and so became the man's adopted son. One day the deer came and led the man to a buried treasure of gold and silver, and the man became rich. The foster-son became reckless with the money, and he and his father argued. The boy accused the man of theft, and the man was imprisoned. The snake came to him in his cell and bit his arm, which then swelled painfully. But then the snake returned with a small bottle. The man applied the medicine to his arm, which cured it at once. In the morning, he heard that the magistrate's wife was dying of a snakebite, so he sent word that he could cure her. This he did with the snake's ointment. He was released, and the foster-son was arrested and punished. [Zong, pp. 94-95]

A foundling infant grew up incredibly fast and soon showed signs of fantastic strength. He earned the name "Iron-shoes" from the footwear he needed. He set out on a journey and met with and joined three other extraordinary men--"Nose-wind", who had extraordinarily powerful breath; "Long-rake", who crumbled mountains with his rake, and "Waterfall", who made rivers by pissing. They went to an old woman's home and were invited to spend the night, but the woman locked them in, and the men realized that she and her four sons were tigers in disguise. The tigers tried to kill them by roasting the room, but Nose-wind kept it cool by his blowing. The next day, the woman challenged them to a contest of gathering pine trees while her sons stacked them. When it became clear that the four brothers ripped up the trees faster than the tigers could stack them, the woman set fire to the logs. Waterfall, though, made water which not only put out the fire, but created a flood that nearly drowned the tigers. Nose-wind blew on the water and froze it. Iron-shoes skated out and kicked the heads off the tigers, and Long-rake broke up the ice and threw it far and wide, eliminating any trace of the flood. [Zong, pp. 162-166]

Andaman Islands (Bay of Bengal): 
Some time after their creation, men grew disobedient. In anger, Puluga, the Creator, sent a flood which covered the whole land, except perhaps Saddle Peak where Puluga himself resided. Of all creatures, the only survivors were two men and two women who had the fortune to be in a canoe when the flood came. The waters sank and they landed, but they found themselves in a sad plight. Puluga recreated birds and animals for their use, but the world was still damp and without fire. The ghost of one of the peoples' friends took the form of a kingfisher and tried to steal a brand from Puluga's fire, but he accidentally dropped it on the Creator. Incensed, Puluga hurled the brand at the bird, but it missed and landed where the four flood survivors were seated. After the people had warmed themselves and had leisure to reflect, they began to murmur against the Creator and even plotted to murder him. However, the Creator warned them away from such rash action, explained that men had brought the flood on themselves by their disobedience, and that another such offense would likewise be met with punishment. That was the last time the Creator spoke with men face to face. [Gaster, pp. 104-105]

Chingpaw (Upper Burma): 
When the deluge came, Pawpaw Nan-chaung and his sister Chang-hko saved themselves in a large boat. They took with them nine cocks and nine needles. When the storm and rain had passed, they each day threw out one cock and one needle to see whether the waters were falling. On the ninth day, they finally heard the cock crow and the needle strike bottom. They left their boat, wandered about, and came to a cave home of two nats or elves. The elves bade them stay and make themselves useful, which they did. Soon the sister gave birth, and the old elfin woman minded the baby while its parents were away at work. The old woman, who was a witch, disliked the infant's squalling, and one day took it to a place where nine roads met, cut it to pieces, and scattered its blood and body about. She carried some of the tidbits back to the cave, made it into a curry, and tricked the mother into eating it. When the mother learned this, she fled to the crossroads and cried to the Great Spirit to return her child and avenge its death. The Great Spirit told her he couldn't restore her baby, but he would make her mother of all nations of men. Then, from each road, people of different nations sprang up from the fragments of the murdered babe. [Gaster, pp. 97-98]

Kammu (northern Thailand): 
A brother and sister tried to dig out a bamboo rat, but it told them it was digging to escape a coming flood and instructed them to seal themselves inside a drum to save themselves. They did so. Some richer people took refuge on rafts, but the rafts overturned when the waters receded, and those people died. The brother and sister made a hole, saw water, sealed the drum again, and waited longer. The second time they made a hole, they saw dry land and emerged. (In another version, they took along a needle and knew the flood was over when no water leaked in the hole they poked.) They looked far and wide for mates, but they were the only survivors. A malcoha cuckoo sang to them, "brother and sister should embrace one another." They slept together. After seven years, the child was born as a gourd. They put it behind their house and went about their work. Later, hearing noises from the gourd, they burnt a hole in its shell, and people of the different races came out, first Rumeet, then Kammu, Thai, Westerner, and Chinese. The Rumeet are darker because they rubbed off charcoal around the hole. At first, none of those people could not speak. They sat down in a row on a tree trunk, it broke, and they all cried out, and with that they were able to speak. Later, the different people all learned different ways of writing. [Lindell et. al., pp. 268-278]

Ami (eastern Taiwan): 
A brother and sister escaped a great deluge in a wooden mortar. They landed on a high mountain, married, had children, and founded the village of Popkok in a hollow of the hills, where they thought themselves safe from another deluge. [Gaster, p. 104]

Ifugao (Philippines): 
A great drought dried up all the rivers. The old men suggested digging in a river bed to find the soul of the river. After three days of digging, a great spring gushed forth rapidly enough to kill many of the diggers. While the Ifugaos celebrated the waters, a storm came, the river kept rising, and the elders advised people to run for the mountains, as the river gods were angry. Only two people made it to safety, a brother and sister, Wigan and Bugan, on the separate mountains Amuyao and Kalawitan. Both had enough food on the summits, but only Bugan had fire. After six months, the waters receded. Wigan traveled to his sister on Mt. Kalawitan, and they settled in the valley. The sister later found herself with child and ran away in shame, following the course of the river. The god Maknongan, appearing as an old man, assured her that her shame had no foundation, since she and her brother would repopulate the world. [Demetrio, p. 262]

Only a brother and sister named Wigam and Bugan survived a primeval flood, on Mount Amuyas. [Gaster, p. 104]

Batak (Sumatra): 
Naga-Padoha, the giant snake on which the earth rests, grew tired of its burden and shook it off into the sea. But the god Batara-Guru caused a mountain to fall into the water to preserve his daughter Puti-orla-bulan. She had three sons and daughters from whom the human race is descended. Later, the earth was replaced onto the head of the snake, and there has been a constant struggle between the snake, wanting to be free of its burden, and the deity. [Kelsen, p. 133]

Debata, the Creator, sent a flood to destroy every living thing when the earth grew old and dirty. The last pair of humans took refuge on the highest mountain, and the flood had already reached their knees, when Debata repented his decision to destroy mankind. He tied a clod of earth to a thread and lowered it. The last pair stepped onto it and were saved. As the couple and their descendants multiplied, the clod increased in size, becoming the earth we inhabit today. [Gaster, p. 100]

Dyak (Borneo): 
Some women gathered bamboo shoots, sat on a log, and began paring them. But they noticed the trunk exuded drops of blood with each cut of their knives. Some men came by and saw that the trunk was actually a giant, torporous boa constrictor. They killed it, cut it up, and took it home to eat. While they were frying the pieces, strange noises came from the frying pan and a torrential rain began. The rain continued until only the highest hill remained above water. Only a woman, dog, rat, and a few small creature survived. The woman noticed that the dog had found shelter from the rain under a creeper warmed by the rubbing between the creeper and a tree in the wind. She took the hint, rubbed the creeper against a piece of wood, and produced fire for the first time. The woman took the fire-drill for her mate and gave birth to a son called Simpang-impang. He was only half a man, with only one arm, one leg, etc. Some time later, the Spirit of the Wind carried off some rice which Simpang-impang had spread out to dry. Simpang-impang demanded compensation. The Spirit of the Wind refused but was vanquished in a series of contests and restored Simpang-impang's missing parts. [Gaster, pp. 101-102]

When the flood came, a man named Trow made a boat from a large wooden mortar previously used for pounding rice. He took with him his wife, a dog, pig, cat, fowl, and other animals, and rode out the flood. Afterwards, to repeople the earth, Trow fashioned additional wives out of a log, stone, and anything else handy. Soon he had a large family which became the ancestors of the various Dyak tribes. [Gaster, p. 102]




Australasia and the Pacific Islands

Valman (northern New Guinea): 
The wife of a very good man saw a very big fish. She called her husband, but he couldn't see it until he hid behind a banana tree and peeked through its leaves. When he finally saw it, he was horribly afraid and forbade his family to catch and eat the fish. But other people caught the fish and, heedless of the man's warning, ate it. When the good man saw that, he hastily drove a pair of all kinds of animals into trees and climbed into a coconut tree with his family. As soon as the wicked men ate the fish, water violently burst from the ground and drowned everyone on it. As soon as the water reached the treetops, it sank rapidly, and the good man and his family came down and laid out new plantations. [Gaster, p. 105]

Papua New Guinea: 
A flood covered the whole world except for the summit of Mount Tauga. When the waves threatened to cover even that, the rockface cracked and the diamond-studded head of Radaulo, king of snakes, emerged. His fiery tongue licked out to taste the waves, and the water, hissing, retreated. Radaulo slowly uncoiled and pursued the water all the way back to the ocean bed. [Eliot, p. 224]

Australian: 
Grumuduk, a medicine man who lived in the hills, had the power to bring rain and to make plants and animals plentiful. A plains tribe kidnapped him, wanting his power, but Grumuduk escaped and decreed that wherever he walked in the country of his enemies, salt water would rise in his footsteps. [Flood, p. 179]

During the Dreamtime flood, woramba, the Ark Gumana carrying Noah, Aborigines, and animals, drifted south and came to rest in the flood plain of Djilinbadu (about 70 km south of Noonkanbah Station, just south of the Barbwire Range and east of the Worral Range), where it can still be seen today. The white man's claim that it landed in the Middle East was a lie to keep Aborigines in subservience. [Kolig, pp. 242-245]

Arnhem Land (northern Northern Territory): 
In one version of the myth of the Wawalik sisters, the sisters, with their two infant children, camped by the Mirrirmina waterhole. Some of the older sister's menstrual blood fell into the well. The rainbow serpent Yurlunggur smelled the blood and crawled out of his well. He spit some well water into the sky and hissed to call for rain. The rains came, and the well water started to rise. The women hurriedly built a house and went inside, but Yurlunggur caused them to sleep. He swallowed them and their sons. Then he stood very straight and tall, reaching as high as a cloud, and the flood waters came as high as he did. When he fell, the waters receded and there was dry ground. [Buchler, pp. 134-135]

Two orphaned children were left in the care of a man called Wirili-up, who shirked the responsibility. The children, always hungry, cried so much that a ngaljod (rainbow serpent) rose from his waterhole and flooded the countryside. Wirili-up fled, but the children drowned. [Mountford, p. 74]

Gumaidj (Arnhem Land): 
When a storm came up, two sisters who were gathering shellfish swore at Namarangini, the spirit man who sang up the rain. He heard, grabbed the younger sister, and tried unsuccessfully to copulate with her while the older sister beat him with a branch. He took her to the hut at his camp, made a fire, and tried again, but he discovered there was a cycad nut grinding stone in her vagina. He removed it with her stick for beating cycad nuts, and then he copulated with her easily. When they had finished, she made herself into a fly and returned to her husband. Her husband discovered the stone was missing, and he killed her by pushing a heated stick through her vagina into her stomach. The next morning, the other sister discovered that she was dead and knew that her husband had killed her. The Fly and Sandfly women cried for their sister and beat her husband, driving him away. He died and turned into a certain milkwood tree. When the women cried, rain fell heavily and continued falling for several weeks. They made bark rafts. A rush of water from inland washed them out to sea, to Elcho and other islands. At sea, you can still hear them crying. Women lost their grinding stones from their vagina when the flood washed them out to sea. [Berndt & Berndt, pp. 287-289]

Western Australia: 
Long ago, two races, one white and one black, lived on opposite shores of a great river. At first they were on friendly terms, intermarrying, feasting together, etc. But the whites were more powerful and had better spears and boomerangs, so they came to feel superior and broke off relations. Some time later, it rained for several months. The river overflowed and forced the blacks to retreat into the hinterland. When the rains stopped and the waters receded, the black returned, to find that their neighbors had vanished under a wide sea. [Vitaliano, p. 166]

Victoria: 
Bunjil, the creator, was angry with people because of the evil they did, so he caused the ocean to flood by urinating into it. All people were destroyed except those whom Bunjil loved and fixed as stars in the sky, and a man and a woman who climbed a tall tree on a mountain, and from whom the present human race is descended. [Gaster, p. 114]

Southeast Australian: 
The animals, birds, and reptiles became overpopulated and held a conference to determine what to do. The kangaroo, eagle-hawk, and goanna were the chiefs of the three respective groups, and their advisors were koala, crow, and tiger-snake. They met on Blue Mountain. Tiger-snake spoke first and proposed that the animals and birds, who could travel more readily, should relocate to another country. Kangaroo rose to introduce platypus, whose family far outnumbered any others, but the meeting was then adjourned for the day. On the second day, while the conference proceeded with crow taunting koala for his inability to find a solution, the frilled lizards decided to act on their own. They possessed the knowledge of rain-making, and they spread the word to all of their family to perform the rain ceremony during the week before the new moon. Thus would they destroy the over-numerous platypus family.

They did their ceremonies repeatedly, and a great storm came, flooding the land. The frilled lizards had made shelters on mountains, and some animals managed to make their way there, but nearly all life was destroyed in the great flood. When the flood ended and the sun shone again, the kangaroo called animals together to discover how the platypus family had fared. But they could not find a single living platypus. Three years later, the cormorant told emu that he had seen a platypus beak impression along a river, but never saw a platypus. Because of the flood, the platypuses had decided that the animals, birds, and reptiles were their enemies and only moved about at night. The animals organized a search party, and carpet-snake eventually found a platypus home and reported its location back to the others. Kangaroo summoned all the tribes together, even the insect tribe. Fringed lizard was ejected for doing mischief; he has turned ugly because of the hate he dwells upon. The animals and birds found they were both related to the platypus family; even the reptiles found some relationship; and everyone agreed that the platypuses were an old race. Carpet-snake went to the platypus home and invited them to the assembly. They came and were met with great respect. Kangaroo offered platypus his choice of the daughter of any of them. Platypus learned that emu had changed its totem so that the platypus and emu families could marry. This made platypus decide it didn't want to be part of any of their families. Emu got angry, and kangaroo suggested the platypuses leave silently that night, which they did. They met bandicoot along the way, who invited the platypuses to live with them. The platypuses married the bandicoot daughters and lived happily. Water-rats got jealous and fought them but were defeated. Platypuses have tried to be seperate from the animal and bird tribes ever since, but not entirely successfully. [W. R. Smith, pp. 151-168]

Maori (New Zealand): 
Long ago, there were a great many different tribes, and they quarrelled and made war on each other. The worship of Tane, the creator, was being neglected and his doctrines denied. Two prophets, Para-whenua-mea and Tupu-nui-a-uta, taught the true doctrine about the separation of heaven and earth, but others just mocked them, and they became angry. So they built a large raft at the source of the Tohinga River, built a house on it, and provisioned it with fern-root, sweet potatoes, and dogs. Then they prayed for abundant rain to convince men of the power of Tane. Two men named Tiu and Reti, a woman named Wai-puna-hau, and other women also boarded the raft. Tiu was the priest on the raft, and he recited the prayers and incantations for rain.

It rained hard for four or five days, until Tiu prayed for the rain to stop. But though the rain stopped, the waters still rose and bore the raft down the Tohinga river and onto the sea. In the eighth month, the waters began to thin; Tiu knew this by the signs of his staff. At last they landed at Hawaiki. The earth had been much changed by the flood, and the people on the raft were the only survivors. They worshipped Tane, Rangi (Heaven), Rehua, and all the gods, each at a separate alter. After making fire by friction, they made thanks-offerings of seaweed for their rescue. Today, only the chief priest may go to those holy spots. [Gaster, pp. 110-112; Kelsen, p. 133]

Two brothers-in-law of the hero Tawhaki attacked him and left him for dead. He recovered, and retired with his own warriors and their families to a high mountain, where he built a fortified village. Then he called to the gods, his ancestors, for revenge. The floods of heaven descended and killed everyone on earth. This event was called "The overwhelming of the Mataaho." [Gaster, p. 112] In another version of the story, Tawhaki, a man, put on a garment of lightning and was worshipped as a god. Once, in a fit of anger, he stamped on the floor of heaven, breaking it and releasing the celestial waters which flooded the earth. [Gaster, p. 112] In another version, the flood was caused by the copious weeping of Tawhaki's mother. [Gaster, p. 112]

Palau Islands (Micronesia): 
The stars are the shining eyes of the gods. A man once went into the sky and stole one of the eyes. (The Pelew Islanders' money is made from it.) The gods were angry at this and came to earth to punish the theft. They disguised themselves as ordinary men and went door-to-door begging for food and lodging. Only one old woman received them kindly. They told her to make a bamboo raft ready and, on the night of the next full moon, to lie down on it and sleep. This she did. A great storm came; the sea rose, flooded the islands, and destroyed everyone else. The woman, fast asleep, drifted until her hair caught on a tree on the top of Mount Armlimui. The gods came looking for her again after the flood ebbed, but they found her dead. So one of the women-folk from heaven entered the body and restored it to life. The gods begat five children by the old woman and then returned to heaven, as did the goddess who restored her to life. The present inhabitants of the islands are descendants of those five children. [Gaster, pp. 112-113]

Before humans, one of the Kaliths (deities) named Athndokl visited an unfriendly village and was killed by its inhabitants. Seven friendly gods, who went searching for him, were met with unkindness except from the woman Milathk, who told them of the death. They resolved vengeance by flooding the village, and suggested Milathk save herself by preparing a raft tied to a tree by a rope. The flood came and covered the village at the next full moon. Milathk perished in the flood, but was recalled to life by the oldest Obakad god. He wanted to make her immortal but was stopped by another god, Tariit. Milathk became the mother of mankind. [Kelsen, p. 132]

Fiji: 
The great god Ndengei had a favorite bird, called Turukawa, which would wake him every morning. His two grandsons killed the bird and buried it to hide the crime. Ndengei sent his messenger Utu to find the bird. The first search proved fruitless, but a second search exposed the grandsons' guilt. Rather than apologizing, they fled to the mountains and took refuge with some carpenters, who built a strong stockade to keep Ndengei at bay. In their fortress, the rebels withstood Ndengei's armies for three months, but then Ndengei caused the earth to be flooded with rain. The rebels sat securely as the surrounding lands were submerged, until the waters reached their walls. They prayed to another god for direction, and they were brought canoes (or taught how to make them) by Rokoro, the god of carpenters, and his foreman Rokola. (By other accounts, they were instructed to make floats out of the shaddock fruit, or they floated in bowls.) They floated around picking up other survivors. The receding tide left a total of eight survivors on the island of Mbengha. Two tribes were destroyed completely--one consisting entirely of women and the other with tails like dogs. The natives of Mbengha claim to rank highest of all the Fijians. [Kelsen, p. 131; Gaster, p. 106]

Samoa: 
In a battle between Fire and Water (offspring of the primeval octopus), everything was overwhelmed by a 'boundless sea', and the god Tangaloa had the task of re-creating the world. [Poignant, p. 30]

Mangaia (Cook Islands): 
The gods of sea and rain one day decided to engage in a contest to see which was more powerful. With the help of the wind god, the sea god attacked the coast, reaching the height of the Makatea (a raised barrier reef plateau surrounding the island). The rain god, with five days and nights of rain, washed the red clay and small stones into the ocean and carved deep valleys. Rangi, the people's chief, had been forewarned and led his people to the central peak. When their situation became precarious, he appealed to the supreme god, who ordered the other gods to stop. The results of their actions explain the island's landscape. [Vitaliano, p. 168]

Tahiti: 
Tahiti was destroyed by the sea. Even the trees and stones were carried away by the wind. But two people were saved. The wife took up her young chicken, her young dog, and her kitten, and the husband took up his young pig. The husband said they should escape to Mount Orofena, but the wife said (correctly) that the flood would reach even there, and they should go to Mount Pita-hiti instead, which they did. They watched ten nights till the sea ebbed. The land, though, remained without produce, and the fish in the rock crevices were putrid. When the wind died away, stones and trees began to fall from the heavens, where the winds had carried them. To escape this new danger, the couple dug a hole, lined it with grass, and covered it over with stones and earth. They crept inside and listened to the terrible crash of the falling stones. By and by, the falling stones stopped, but to be safe they waited another night before coming out. The land they found was desolated. The woman brought forth two children, a son and a daughter, but grieved about the lack of food. Again the mother brought forth, but still there was no food. Then in three days all the trees bore fruit. All people are descended from that couple. [Gaster, pp. 108-109] Hawaii: 
Lalohona, a woman from the depths of the sea, was enticed ashore by Konikonia with a series of images. She warns him that her parents, Kahinalii and Hinakaalualumoana, will cause the ocean to flood the land so that her brothers, the pao'o fish, may search for her. At her suggestion, they fled to the mountains and built their home in the tops of the tallest trees. After ten days, Kahinalii sent the ocean; it rose and overwhelmed the land. The people fled to the mountains, and the flood covered the mountains; they climbed the trees, and the flood rose above the trees and drowned them all. But the waters began to subside just as they reached the door of Konikonia's house. When the waters retreated, he and his people returned to their land. This flood is called kai-a-ka-hina-lii. [Barrre, p. 23]

All the land was once overflowed by the sea, except for the peak of Mauna Kea, where two humans survived. The event is called kai a Kahinarii (sea of Kahinarii). There was no ship involved. [Gaster, p. 110; Barrre, p. 22]

In the earliest times in Hawaii, there was no sea, nor even fresh water. Pele came to Hawaii because she was displeased over her husband having been enticed from her. Her parents gave her the sea so she could bring her canoes. At Kanaloa she poured the sea from her head. It rose until it covered the high ground, leaving only a few mountains not entirely submerged. She later caused it to recede to what we see today. This sea was named after the mother of Pele, Kahinalii, because the sea belonged to her; Pele simply brought it. [Barrre, pp. 23-24]

The people had turned to evil, so Kane punished their sin with a flood. Nu'u and his company were saved by entering into the Great-Canoe, a large canoe roofed over like a house, which had been given them by Kane. The canoe contained a number of things, and Nu'u ruled over the whole like a chief. After the flood, these people repopulated the islands. The waters came up as a wicked brother-in-law of Nu'u was indulging himself in pleasure. He ran to enter the ark, but his calls were unheard by those inside. He prayed to the god Lono in the name of his sister but did not escape. He became angry at the first pair of people who had brought this trouble by bringing evil into the world, and he prayed to Lono that the whole earth be destroyed and that the first pair of people be brought back to life to witness the trouble they caused. [Barrre, pp. 19-21]

Nuu was of the thirteenth generation from the first man. The gods commanded Nuu to build an ark and carry on it his wife, three sons, and males and females of all breathing things. Waters came and covered the earth. They subsided to leave the ark on a mountain overlooking a beautiful valley. The gods entered the ark and told Nuu to go forth with all the life it carried. In gratitude for his deliverance, Nuu offered a sacrifice of pig, coconuts, and awa to the moon, which he thought was the god Kane. Kane descended on a rainbow to reproach Nuu for his mistake but left the rainbow as a perpetual sign of his forgiveness. [Kalakaua, p. 37; Barrre, pp. 21-22]

A high chief had two boys killed for playing with his drums. Their father Kamalo sought the help of the shark god Kauhuhu to get revenge. Kauhuhu told the man to build a special fence around his place and to collect 400 black pigs, 400 red fish, and 400 white chickens. Months later, Kauhuhu came in the form of a cloud. He caused a great storm which washed everyone on the hillside, except Kamalo and his people, into the harbor, where sharks devoured them. [Westervelt, pp. 110-116]




North and Central America

Netsilik Eskimo: 
A flood killed all animals and humans except for two Shaman, who survived in a boat. They copulated, and their offspring included the world's first women. [Balikci]

The giant Inugpasugssuk waded into the ocean to hunt seals. His penis stuck up out of the water so far away that he thought it was a seal putting its head up, and he struck it by mistake. He fell backwards in pain, and that raised a wave that flooded the whole district of Arviligjuaq. [Norman, p. 233]

Norton Sound Eskimo: 
In the first days, all the earth was flooded except for a very high mountain in the middle. A few animals escaped to this mountain, and a few people survived in a boat, subsisting on fish. The people landed on the mountain as the water subsided and followed the retreating water to the coast. The animals also descended. [Gaster, p. 120]

Innuit: 
An unusually high tide caused a global flood. Shellfish and such things in the mountains are evidence of it. [Gaster, p. 120]

Hareskin (Alaska): 
Kunyan ("Wise Man"), foreseeing the possibility of a flood, built a great raft, joining the logs with ropes made from roots. He told other people, but they laughed at him and said they'd climb trees in the event of a flood. Then came a great flood, with water gushing from all sides, rising higher than the trees and drowning all people but the Wise Man and his family on his raft. As he floated, he gathered pairs of all animals and birds he met with. The earth disappeared under the waters, and for a long time no one thought to look for it. Then the musk-rat dived into the water looking for the bottom, but he couldn't find it. He dived a second time and smelled the earth but didn't reach it. Next beaver dived. He reappeared unconscious but holding a little mud. The Wise Man placed the mud on the water and breathed on it, making it grow. He continued breathing on it, making it larger and larger. He put a fox on the island, but it ran around the island in just a day. Six times the fox ran around the island, by the seventh time, the land was as large as it was before the flood, and the animals disembarked, followed by Wise Man with his wife (who was also his sister) and son. They repeopled the land. But the flood waters were still too high, and to lower them, the bittern swallowed them all. Now there was too little water. Plover, pretending sympathy at the bittern's swollen stomach, passed his hand over it, but suddenly scratched it. The waters flowed out into the rivers and lakes. [Gaster, pp. 117-118]

Kaska (northern inland British Columbia): 
A great flood came; people survived it on rafts and canoes. Darkness and high winds came, which scattered the vessels. When the flood subsided, people landed at the nearest land and lived where they had landed. Thus they were scattered all over the world, and when they met again long afterwards, they were different tribes and spoke different languages. [Gaster, p. 119]

Skagit (Washington): 
The Creator made the earth and gave four names for it -- for the sun, waters, soil and forests. He said only a few people, with special preparation for the knowledge, should know all four names, or the world would change too suddenly. After a while, everyone learned the four names. When people started talking to the trees the change came in the form of a flood. When the people saw the flood coming, they made a giant canoe and filled it with five people and a male and female of all plants and animals. Water covered everything but the summit of Kobah and Takobah (Mts. Baker and Ranier). The canoe landed on the prairie. Doquebuth, the new Creator, was born of a couple from the canoe. He was told to go to a lake (Lake Campbell) and swim and fast to get his spirit powers, but he delayed. Finally he did so after his family deserted him. The Old Creator came to him in dreams. First he told Doquebuth to wave his blanket over the water and the forest and name the four names of the earth; this created food for everyone. Next, at the direction of the Old Creator, he gathered the bones of the people who lived before the flood, waved the blanket over them and named the four names, and made people again. These people couldn't talk, so he similarly made brains for them from the soil. Then they spoke many different languages, and Doquebuth blew them back to the places they lived before the flood. Someday, another flood will come and change the world again. [Clark, pp. 139-141]

Joshua (southern Oregon): 
In the beginning, there was no land, and Xowalaci (The Giver) and his companion lived in a sweat house on the water. One day, white land appeared and expanded on the waters. Xowalaci made it solid by blowing tobacco smoke on it. He made more solid land by dropping five mud cakes into the ocean and telling them to expand when they hit the bottom. When he stepped on the new land, it became solid. He looked on the sand of the new land and saw a man's tracks, seemingly coming from the north and leading into the water to the south. This worried him, and he told the water to overflow the land he had created from the mud and to recede again. But he found more tracks again, coming from the west, so he caused a second flood.

He repeated the process five times with no different results.

Finally he gave up and said, "This is going to make trouble in the future!" and there has been trouble in the world since then. Then Xowalaci tried to make people. He formed figures from grass and mud, ordered a house to appear, and gave the figures to his companion to put in the house. Dogs arose from this creation attempt. He tried again using white sand, but those figures gave rise to snakes. He attributed these failures to the footprints. The world became inhabited by dogs and snakes. He crushed the ten biggest snakes in baskets of mixed fresh and salt water and threw them in the ocean. Two bad snakes got away to give rise to today's snake-like animals. Xowalaci ordered those two to encircle the world and hold it together. He also crushed five bad dogs and threw them in a ditch. They gave rise to water monsters. Soon after, his companion smoked for three days and created a house from which a woman emerged. Xowalaci told his companion to be her husband. Xowalaci straightened out the world, made more animals, and went up into the sky, saying as he went that the companion, his wife, and their sixteen children would speak different languages and become progenitors of the different tribes. [Sproul, pp. 232-236; von Franz, p. 174]

Shasta: 
Coyote encountered an evil water spirit who said, "There is no wood" and caused water to rise until it covered Coyote. After the water receded, Coyote shot the water spirit with a bow and ran away, but the water followed him. He ran to the top of Mount Shasta; the water followed but didn't quite reach the top. Coyote made a fire, and all the other animal people swam to it and found refuge there. After the water receded, they came down, made new homes, and became the ancestors of all the animal people today. [Clark, p. 12]

Pomo (north central California): 
Coyote dreamed that water would soon cover the world, but nobody believed him. It rained, and the water started rising. The people climbed trees because there were no mountains to escape to. Coyote and a number of people escaped on a log. With the help of Mole, Coyote created mountains; then he created people for the new world. [Roheim, p. 153]

One day, the Thunder People found trout in their spring. At first, the people were afraid of them, but driven by hunger, the people ate them, except for three children who were warned by their grandmother not to eat them. The next morning, all but those three children had been transformed into deer. The children went to a very high mountain. Rain came and flooded all but the mountaintop. The children asked an old man what he could do; he said he didn't know, but he dug all night while the children slept. In the morning, he woke the children. The flood was gone, and the world was beautiful. [Roheim, pp. 153-154]

Everyone but Gopher was killed in a flood. He climbed to the top of Mt. Kanaktai, and just as the water was about to wash him off, it receded. He had no fire, so he dug into the mountain until he found fire inside, thus bringing fire again to the world. [Roheim, p. 154]

Coyote lived with two little boys whom he had got by deceit from one of the Wood-duck sisters. Everybody abused the boys, so Coyote decided to set the world on fire. He dug a tunnel at the east end of the world, filled it with fir bark, and lit it. With his two children in a sack, he called for rescue from the sky. Spider descended and took Coyote back up through the gates of the sky. When they came back, everything was roasted. Coyote drank too much water and got sick. Kusku the medicine man jumped on his belly, and water flowed out and covered the land. [Roheim, p. 154]

Salinan (California): 
The old woman of the sea, jealous of Eagle's power, came with her basket in which she carried the sea. She continually poured out water until it covered the land, almost to the top of Santa Lucia Peak where the animals gathered. Eagle borrowed Puma's whiskers, made a lariat from them, and lassoed the basket. The sea stopped rising, and the old woman died. Eagle told Dove to fetch up some mud, and he made the world from it. Eagle shaped the first people, a woman and two men, from elder-wood. After sweating in a sweat-house, he blew on them and gave them life. Then they had a great fiesta. [Sproul, p. 236]

Luiseno (Southern California): 
A great flood covered high mountains and drowned most people. A few saved themselves on a knoll called Mora by the Spaniards and Katuta by the Indians, staying there until the flood went down. The hill still has stones, ashes, and heaps of seashells showing where the Indians cooked their food. [Gaster, pp. 115-116]

Blackfoot (Alberta and Montana): 
The Sun, the Moon, and their two children "Old Man" and "Apistotoki God" began creating the world. They were given sand, stone, water, and the hide of a fisher with which to complete the creation. A flood came, and they could save only those four things. Later, they create an old man, a dog, a man, and a woman. After a second flood, only those four are left on earth, and they create the rest of the world. [von Franz, p. 163]

Chippewa (Ontario, Minnesota, Wisconsin): 
While the medicine man Wis-kay-tchach was hunting, his young wolf, his nephew, was killed by some water lynxes. Wis tried to kill one of the lynxes to get revenge. First, he turned himself into a stump at the edge of a lake. Frogs and snakes tried to pull the stump down, but Wis kept himself upright. The lynx, suspicions lulled, went to sleep. Wis returned to normal shape and, though warned to shoot the lynx's shadow, forgot and shot its body. He shot a second arrow at the shadow, but the lynx escaped into a river, which then overflowed and flooded the whole country. Wis escaped in a canoe. Land was recreated from mud obtained by a diving animal. [Roheim, p. 157, Kelsen, p. 147]

A wolf which Wenebojo considered his nephew and which hunted for him was captured and killed by the manidog, evil underwater spirits. To get revenge, Wenebojo turned himself to a stump and waited for the manidog to sun themselves. When they emerged, the king was suspicious of the stump and had a snake squeeze it and a bear claw it, but Wenebojo withstood these attacks. When the manidog slept, Wenebojo shot and wounded the king and the next to the king, then he ran away as the water was rising behind him. Woodchuck saved him by digging a shelter until the water receded. Later, Wenebojo encountered an old woman who was treating the wounded manidog. He killed and skinned her, put on her skin, and disguised as her went to the wigwam of the wounded manidog and killed them. As he ran away, he heard a roar of water behind him. He climbed a pine tree on a hill, and the tree stretched higher, saving Wenebojo from the flood. Wenebojo asked loon to dive down to get some dirt, but the loon died in the attempt. Otter and beaver failed similarly. Muskrat, however, was able to get a few grains of dirt before he passed out. Wenebojo used this dirt to recreate land. Wenebojo cut up the body of the king manido and made a lake of fat from it. The animals that ate or touched it acquired fat in their bodies. [Barnouw, pp. 64-69]

The evil serpent Meshekenabek carried off Manobozho's cousin into a deep lake. Manobozho caused the sun to shine fiercely on the lake to drive out Meshekenabek and his companions. When they emerged, Manobozho shot an arrow into the serpent's heart. The serpent, in his dying rage, stirred up the waters of the lake and spread waves over the land. Fleeing, Manobozho warned the Indians also to retreat to a mountain top. The waters still rose, though, and Manobozho made a raft for them to take refuge on. However, Manobozho couldn't disperse the flood without some earth to use as a nucleus. Muskrat finally succeeded in diving for some dirt, and Manobozho used it to make the waters recede. [Howey, pp. 291-293]

In the beginning of time, in September, there was a great snow. A mouse nibbled a hole in the leather bag which contained the sun's heat, and the heat escaped and melted all the snow in an instant. The waters rose to cover even the highest mountains. One old man had foreseen the flood and warned everybody, but the others had thought to escape to the hills; they drowned in the flood. The old man had prepared a canoe and survived, rescuing animals he came across. After a while he sent, in turn, the beaver, otter, muskrat, and duck to find land. Only the duck returned, with some mud in its bill. The old man cast the mud on the water and blew on it, making solid land. [Vitaliano, p. 170]

Cheyenne (Minnesota): 
The Great Spirit created three kinds of men: red men, white men with hairy heads, and hairy men with hair all over their body. The hairy men went to the barren south and eventually dwindled in numbers and disappeared. The red men went south after the Great Spirit taught them culture. They went north again when the Great Medicine told them the south would be flooded. In the north, they found that the white men had gone and they could no longer talk to the animals, though they could still control them. Later, they went south again, but another flood came and scattered them, and they never came together again. They traveled in small bands to the north, but they found it barren, so they returned south and lived the best they could. One particularly hard winter had earthquakes, volcanoes, and floods which destroyed all the trees. The people spent the long winter in caves and were almost famished the following spring. The Great Medicine, in pity, gave them corn and buffalo. Since then, there have been no more famines or floods. [Erdoes & Ortiz, pp. 112-113]

Lakota: 
In the world before this one, the people didn't know how to behave or how to act human, and the creating power was displeased. He placed three dry buffalo chips under a sacred pipe rack and saved a fourth for lighting the pipe. He sang three songs to bring rain, which caused the rivers to overflow; then he sang a fourth song and stamped on the earth. The earth split open, and water flowed from the cracks and covered everything. The Creating Power floated on the sacred pipe and his huge pipe bag. All people and animals were destroyed except Kangi, the crow. It was very tired and three times asked the Creating Power to make a place for it to rest. The Creating Power opened his pipe bag, which contained all manner of animals and birds, and selected four known for their diving abilities. He sang a song and commanded the loon to dive and bring up mud, but the loon failed. Likewise, the water was too deep for otter and beaver.

But the turtle succeeded in bringing up a little mud. The Creating Power took the mud and, singing, spread it out on the water. After the fourth song, there was enough land for himself and the crow. He waved two long eagle feathers over the ground, and it spread until it replaced the water. He named it the Turtle Continent. The Creating Power thought, "Land without water is not good," and wept for the earth and the creatures he would put upon it. His tears became oceans, streams, and lakes. He scattered the animals across the land; they came to life when he stamped on the ground. He created four colors of people from red, white, black, and yellow earth. He created the rainbow as a sign that there would be no more great flood. But warned that he had destroyed the first world by fire because it was bad, and the second world by flood, and he would destroy this world too if people make it bad and ugly. [Erdoes & Ortiz, pp. 496-499]

Unktehi, a water monster, fought the people and caused a great flood. The people retreated to a hill, but the water swept over them, killing them all. The blood gelled and turned to pipestone. (Pipes made from that rock are sacred today.) Unktehi was also turned to stone; her bones are in the Badlands now, forming a long ridge. A giant eagle, Wanblee Galeshka, swept down, saved one girl from the flood, carrying her to a tree on the highest pinnacle, the only place not covered by water. He made her his wife. She bore twins, a boy and a girl, which are the ancestors of the Sioux. [Erdoes & Ortiz, pp. 93-95]

Unktehi puffed up her body to make the Missouri overflow, and the little water monsters, her children, did the same with other streams and lakes. This caused a great flood which covered the country. Only a few people escaped to the highest mountain, and the waves threatened to kill them. The thunderbirds liked people, so they fought the water monsters for several years. In time, it became clear that the thunderbirds were losing when they fought close, so they retreated to the sky and, all together, sent their lightning bolts. This burned the forests, boiled the water, and turned the earth red hot, except where the people had taken refuge. Unktehi and the water monsters were defeated. Their bones can still be seen in the Badlands. [Erdoes & Ortiz, pp. 220-222]

Choctaw (Mississippi): 
A prophet was sent by the high god to warn of a coming flood, but nobody took notice. When the flood came, the prophet took to a raft. After several months, he saw a black bird. He signaled it, but it just cawed and flew away. Later, he sighted and signaled a bluish bird. The bird flapped, moaned dolorously, and guided the raft towards where the sun was breaking through. Next morning, he landed on an island with all kinds of animals. He cursed the black bird (a crow) and blessed the bluish one (a dove). [Gaster, p. 116]

Navajo (Four Corners area): 
The first world, where Navajos originated, was inhabited by Insect People of twelve types. For their sins of adultery and constant quarreling, the gods expelled them by sending a wall of water from all directions. The Insect People flew up into the second world, guided through a hole in the sky by a cliff swallow. The second world was a barren world inhabited by Swallow People. They decided to stay anyway, but after 24 days, one of the Insect People made love to the wife of the Swallow People's chief. They were expelled to the third world; the white face of the wind told them of an opening. The third world was a barren world of Grasshopper People. Again, the Insect People were expelled for philandering after 24 days.

The red face of the wind guided them to the hole to the fourth world. This world was inhabited by animals and Pueblos, with whom the Insect People coexisted peacefully. The gods made people in human form from ears of corn, different colors of corn becoming different tribes. The Insect People intermarried with them, and their descendants eventually looked fully human. In time, the men and women argued and decided to live apart. But both groups engaged in unnatural sex acts, and eventually the women were starving, so they got back together. The gods were displeased by their sins, though, and sent a wall of water upon them. The people noticed animals running and sent cicadas to investigate. They escaped the floodwaters by climbing into a fast-growing reed. Cicada dug an entrance into the fifth world, which was inhabited by grebes. The grebes said that people could have that world if they could survive plunging arrows into their heart. The cicadas met this challenge (they bear the scars on their sides still), and people live in the fifth world today. [Capinera, pp. 226-228]

In the last world before this one, the people lived in peace. One day First Anger (Coyote) saw two babies playing by the waters. Finding them cute and seeing no parent around, he took them. Their mother (Water Monster) became enraged when she returned and found them gone. She demanded that her babies be returned or she would flood the lands. The waters began to rise, so First Man sent the bird and insect people to find some way of escape. They found a hole in the sky to escape through, and they placed four mountains, one on top of the other, then a corn stalk, and finally a hollow reed to reach it. Everyone made it safely into this world, but the waters kept rising. First Man searched for the babies and found them in First Anger's pouch. He forced the old Coyote to return them and apologize to the mother. Once he had returned the babies, the waters ceased rising. Some of the people returned to the last world, and others decided to stay and make a life here on this world. [Carlos Nakai Rodriguez, personal communication] .

Hopi: 
The people repeatedly became distant from Sotuknang, the creator. Twice he destroyed the world (by fire and by cold) and recreated it while the few people who still lived by the laws of creation took shelter underground with the ants. When people became corrupt and warlike a third time, Sotuknang guided the ones who had retained their wisdom to Spider Woman, who cut down giant reeds and sheltered the people in the hollow stems with a little water and food. Sotuknang caused a great flood with rain and waves, and the people floated in their reeds for a long time. Finally, they came to rest on a small piece of land, and Spider Woman unsealed their reeds and pulled them out by the tops of their heads. They still had as much food as they started with. They sent out birds to find more land, but to no avail.

They grew a tall reed and climbed it, but they saw only water. But guided by their inner wisdom (which comes from Sotuknang through the door at the top of their head), the people traveled on, using the reeds as canoes. They went northeast, finding progressively larger islands. The last of these was large and fruitful, and people wanted to stay there, but Spider Woman urged them on. They went further northeast, paddling hard as if going uphill, until they came to the Fourth World. The shores were rocky with seemingly no place to land, but by opening the doors at the tops of their head, they found a current that took them to a sandy beach. Sotuknang appeared and told them to look back, and they saw the islands, the last remnants of the Third World, sink into the ocean. [Waters, pp. 12-20]

Spider Clan, Blue Flute Clan, Fire Clan, Snake Clan, and Sun Clan traveled together on the Hopi migrations. On their northward journey, they were blocked at the Arctic Circle by a mountain of ice and snow. This was the Back Door of the Fourth World, which Sotuknang said was closed to them. Spider Woman and the Spider Clan, however, urged them to go on, and all the clans used their powers to try to melt and bread down the mountain. They tried four times but failed. Sotuknang told Spider Woman that if they had succeeded, the melted snow and ice would have flooded the world. He punished her by letting her grow old and ugly, and Spider Clan became breeders of wickedness. [Waters, pp. 39-40]

Jicarilla Apache (northeastern New Mexico): 
Before the Apaches emerged from the underworld, there were other people on the earth. Dios told an old man and old woman that it would rain forty days and nights. People were warned to go to the tops of four mountains (Tsisnatcin, Tsabidzilhi, Becdilhgai, and another whose identity isn't known), and not to look at the flood or sky. The people didn't believe the old couple. When the rains came, only a few people made it to the mountain tops and shut their eyes. Those who looked at the flood turned into a fish or frog (as did some who were caught in the flood); if they looked at the sky, they turned into a bird. The people sitting on the mountains were told, when they got hungry, to think of food, and Dios would feed them. After eighty days, Dios told the 24 people remaining to open their eyes and come down. These 24 people went into 24 mountains. Eight other people survived the flood who were able to travel by looking where they wanted to go, and they were there. These people told the Apaches about the flood before going into two mountains themselves. Dios told them to say there until the world is destroyed. Around the year 2000, when the Apaches dwindle in number, the surface of the earth will again be destroyed, this time by fire. [Opler, pp. 111-113]

When people still lived in the underworld, the chief, after an argument with his mother-in-law, decided that men and women should live apart for awhile, so the men all moved to the other side of a river, and the chief prayed to Kogulhtsude (a water spirit) to widen the river. They lived four years like this. The women's farms became less and less productive, and they began to go hungry. The men wanted sexual satisfaction and began some sexual perversions; the older girls, likewise affected, began to masturbate with elk horns, eagle feathers, and other things. These things impregnated them and produced the monsters that afterwards killed men. About that time, Coyote found a baby in a whirlpool in the river and took it out to raise himself.

But the baby was Kogulhtsude's child, and he sent water out to draw it back. Some people were drowned and turned into frogs and fish; the other men and women escaped together to a tall mountain. Coyote used his magic to make the mountain grow, but the waters kept rising, finally overflowing onto this world. The people suspected Coyote was causing the trouble and found the baby hidden under his coat. They threw the baby (which was almost dead from drying) into the water, and the water receded. The people went down into the underworld again. When they later emerged, the surface of the earth was covered with water from that flood. The four Holy Ones made black, blue, yellow, and glittering hoops and threw them in each compass direction, and the water receded. They commanded the four winds to dry the land further. [Opler, p. 20, 265-268]

As the waters rose, a chief led his warriors into the Superstition Mountains in Arizona. When it became clear that even the mountain peaks would be submerged, the chief told his braves that, rather than let them drown ignominiously, he would turn then to stone. They are there guarding the heights even today. [Vitaliano, p. 170]

Yaqui (Sonoran, Northern Mexico): 
On the 17th day of February, in the year 614, it rained for fourteen days all over the world. The waters rose and destroyed all living things. Yaitowi, a just and perfect man who walked with Dios, was saved, along with thirteen others and eleven women, on the hill of Parbus (today called Maatale). A few other people, seven birds, seven asses, and seven little dogs were saved on other mountains. After the flood, two angels appeared to two of the survivors, and the angel San Gabriel came, sent by Dios, telling the people to "go by the way of our Dios and Father." When they arrived at Venedici, they heard the voice of Dios, who promised the rainbow as a sign that no other flood would destroy earth. [Giddings, pp. 106-108]

Toltec (Mexico): 
One of the Tezcatlipocas (sons of the original dual god) transformed himself into the Sun and created the first humans to show up his brothers. The other gods, angry at his audacity, had Quetzalcoatl destroy the sun and the earth, which he did with a flood. The people became fish. This ended the first age. The second, third, and fourth Suns ended, respectively, with the crumbling of the heavens, a rain of fire, and devastating winds.

Maya (southern Mexico and Guatemala): 
The Puzob, an industrious dwarf people, were the first inhabitants of the earth. God destroyed them with a flood because of their carelessness in their observation of custom. They heard that a terrible storm was coming, so they put some stones in a pond and sat on them, but the dwarfs were all destroyed. Jesucristo sent down four angels to investigate what was happening on earth. They removed their clothes and bathed, whereupon they became doves. Some other angels were sent down; they were turned into buzzards when they ate the dead. [Horcasitas, p. 194]

After people were created, the sky fell upon the earth, and the waters followed them. The world was destroyed. The four Bacab gods managed to escape and now hold up the four corners of the sky.

Two floods had destroyed humanity. Three people escaped a third and final flood in a canoe. [Horcasitas, p. 191]

Nicaragua: 
The world was once destroyed by a deluge. After its destruction, the gods created all things afresh. [Gaster, p. 121]

Panama: 
One man, with his wife and children, escaped the flood in a canoe. Mankind are descended from them. [Gaster, p. 121]




South America

Quechua: 
The world wanted to come to an end. A llama buck, knowing that the ocean would soon overflow, was depressed. When its human owner complained that it wouldn't eat, the llama told him that the flood would occur in five days and suggested they go to Villca Coto mountain with five days' food. The man left in a hurry, carrying both the llama and the supplies. They arrived at the mountain to find the peak already filled with all kinds of animals. The flood came as soon as they arrived and lasted five days, then it dried to the ocean's normal position. The fox's tail was soaked, which turned it black. Afterwards, the man began to multiply once more. [Salomon & Urioste, pp. 51-52]

Paria Caca, a god born from five falcon eggs, heard about a man called Tamta Namca who called himself a god and had himself worshipped, and about other people's sins. He went into a rage, rose up as rain, and washed them all away to the ocean, together with their homes and llamas. At that time a tree called the Pullao formed an arch between the Llantapa and Vichoca mountains; in it lived monkeys, toucans, and other birds. These too were swept to sea. [Salomon & Urioste, pp. 59-60]

Paria Caca went to the village Huauqui Usa, which was celebrating a festival. He sat at the end of the banquet like a stranger. No one offered him a drink while he sat there, until at the end of the day a woman finally did so. Paria Caca told the woman that these people had made him mad, told her that in five days something terrible would happen to the village, and warned her to take her family away and not to tell anyone else, or he might kill her, too. Five days later, the woman and her family left. The other villagers continued drinking without a care. Paria Caca climbed Matao Coto, a mountain which overlooks the village, and rising up as red and yellow hail, caused a torrential rainstorm. It washed all the villagers to the ocean and shaped the slopes and valleys of the area. [Salomon & Urioste, pp. 61-62] He similarly exterminated another village where no one offered him a drink. [Salomon & Urioste, p. 127]

The Inca summoned people from every village to help defeat their enemies. Paria Caca sent his child Maca Uisa. When nobody else at the meeting offered to help, Maca Uisa said he would defeat the enemies completely. Strong litter bearers carried him to the battle front, and as soon as he got there, he started raining on them, gently at first, then pouring rain. He washed away their villages in a mudslide and killed their strong men with lightning bolts. Only a few common people were spared. [Salomon & Urioste, p. 115]

Inca (Peru): 
The water rose above the highest mountain in the world. All created things perished, except for a man and woman who floated in a box. When the flood subsided, the floating box was driven by the wind to Tiahuanacu, about 200 miles from Cuzco. [Gaster, p. 127]

Toba (Northern Argentina): 
Rainbow does not like menstruating women to enter the water, or even to drink from it. One day a young woman broke this taboo because her mother and sisters didn't leave her any drinking water when they left for the day. Driven by thirst, she went to the lagoon. When she had returned, Rainbow, full of anger, caused a strong wind, accompanied by whirlwinds and heavy rain. All were drowned in the ensuing flood. [Bierhorst, 1988, pp. 142-143]

Chiriguano (southeast Bolivia): 
The evil supernatural being Aguara-Tunpa declared war against the god Tunpaete, Creator of the Chiriguanos. He set fire to the prairies in autumn, destroying all the plants and land animals. The people, who had not then begun farming, nearly died of hunger, but they retreated to the banks of rivers and survived on fish. Seeing people still surviving, Aguara-Tunpa caused a torrential rain. Acting on a hint given them by Tunpaete, the Chiriguanos placed two sibling babies, a boy and a girl, on a large mate leaf and set it afloat on the water. The flood rose, covering the earth and killing the rest of the Chiriguanos, but the two babies survived and eventually landed on solid ground when the flood sank. There, they found fish to eat, but they had no way to cook it. Fortunately, before the flood, a frog had taken some hot coals in his mouth, and it kept them alight during the flood by blowing on them. He gave the fire to the children, and they were able to roast their fish. In time, they grew up, and the Chiriguanos are descended from them. [Gaster, pp. 127-128]

Araucania (coastal Chile): 
Two great serpents made the sea rise to determine which of them had the more powerful magic. The flood came after a strong earthquake and volcanic eruption. The people took refuge on a mountain which floated close to the sun. Afterwards, whenever the Araucanians felt an earthquake, they would flee to the hills carrying bowls to protect their heads from the sun's heat. [Vitaliano, p. 173]




In the News ...

"Noah's Flood" Not Rooted in Reality, After All?   National Geographic - February 6, 2009 

The ancient flood that some scientists think gave rise to the Noah story may not have been quite so biblical in proportion, a new study says. Researchers generally agree that, during a warming period about 9,400 years ago, an onrush of seawater from the Mediterranean spurred a connection with the Black Sea, then a largely freshwater lake. That flood turned the lake into a rapidly rising sea. A previous theory said the Black Sea rose up to 195 feet (60 meters), possibly burying villages and spawning the tale of Noah's flood and other inundation folklore.


 

 

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