. THE WEAPONS OF THE SEA
. compiled by Dee Finney
|9-27-03 - DREAM - I was up in the air like a 'watcher'. I was
at a wharf where the Navy is berthed and ships are being resupplied
The ships came in to be re-supplied with "Tuuy" and "Uum" weapons. (The word "Tuuy" seemed to be Vietnamese) "Uum" is Latin and means: strength, force, power, might, violence.
The "Tuuy" and "Uum" weapons were loaded on wheels like pinwheels made of spokes like helicopter blades which were perched on top of the supply ships. These were the smaller of the ships that came into the wharf in a convoy - like a flotilla - a convoy of many ships both large and small. The weapons were only loaded on the supply ships that I saw. There were about 25 smaller ships which supplied several larger ships, but they all traveled together.
I saw them come into port and leave again. This was a highly protected area, not fully open to the sea.
I saw the "Tuuy" and "Uum" weapons being prepared in a kitchen/laboratory-like area. When the stuff was mixed together, it looked like sticks of orange-red meat on a skewer, rather like rectangular-shaped corn-dogs that were about 6 feet long and about a foot across. They weren't round like one would expect a missile to appear. The sticks were arranged like helicopter blades perched on a staff atop the small ships, similar to the spoked wheel above.
When I went back to the wharf, the ships were fully loaded, each one with its own spoked wheel full of weapons, then they all sailed back out to sea to go to war.
|Fast Combat Support Ships - AOE
Description: High-speed vessel, designed as oiler, ammunition and supply ship.
Features: The fast combat support ship (AOE) is the Navy's largest combat logistics ship. The AOE has the speed and armament to keep up with the carrier battle groups. It rapidly replenishes Navy task forces and can carry more than 177,000 barrels of oil; 2,150 tons of ammunition; 500 tons of dry stores; and 250 tons of refrigerated stores. It receives petroleum products, ammunition and stores from shuttle ships and redistributes these items simultaneously to carrier battle group ships. This reduces the vulnerability of serviced ships by reducing alongside time. Congress appropriated the funds for the lead ship of the AOE 6 (Supply class) in 1987. Supply was decommissioned 13 July 2001, Arctic was decommissioned 14 June 2002, and Ranier (AOE 7) was decommissioned 29 August 2003. These ships have been transferred to Military Sealift Command and placed back in service as a "United States Naval Ship."
Sacramento Class Fast Combat Support Ship:
USS LONG BEACH, the third ship in the Navy to bear the name, was the first nuclear powered surface warship in the world and the first large combatant in the US Navy with its main battery consisting of guided missiles. She was also the first American cruiser since the end of World War II to built entirely new from the keel up, and, when completed, boasted the highest bridge in the world. She was also the last warship to be fitted with teakwood decks.
Destroyers as Big as Battleships
by James Dunnigan
September 4, 2003
The U.S. Navy is designing a new destroyer, and it's as big as a battleship, at least a battleship of a century ago, The new destroyer design, the DD(X), is to displace 14,000 tons, be 600 feet long and 79 feet wide. A crew of 150 sailors will operate a variety of weapons, including two 155mm guns, two 40mm automatic cannon for close in defense, 80 Vertical Launch Tubes (containing either anti-ship, cruise or anti-aircraft missiles), six torpedo tubes, a helicopter and three helicopter UAVs.
No photographs available yet - development of the MKK into the anti-ship capable MK2 and smart-bomb capable MK3
Can New Nuclear Weapons Prevent Nuclear War?
A Study Paper of The American Lutheran Church
by Martin A. Sövik
"Nuclear war cannot be won, and must never be fought." -- President Ronald Reagan
1. President Reagan's brief sentence sums up the fundamental operating principle of U.S. and Soviet political leaders of the past two decades concerning nuclear weapons. Since at least the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 the actions of both superpowers have been constrained by the knowledge of both countries that nuclear weapons have no military value. The use of them in war is the supremely irrational act.
2. At the same time, the political leadership of both countries has either actively sought or grudgingly approved the growth of nuclear arsenals and the development of new nuclear weapons systems. Why, if there is no military purpose for them? It is clear that nuclear weapons must have great political value in the eyes of political leaders. The danger confronting the world in the late twentieth century is that these political pressures to build nuclear arsenals will create a situation where the fundamental truth as expressed by President Reagan will be ignored, overpowered, or simply forgotten, and that nuclear war will occur.
possession of nuclear weapons can only be justified by their political
usefulness . . .
when nuclear weapons are used to send diplomatic signals, attract votes,
|Amphibious Warfare: Cold War Era
1946 - Lieutenant General Geiger warns that atomic weapons threaten amphibious assaults
In July 1946, the Navy supervised two atomic tests at Bikini Atoll in the western Marshall Islands. These tests, dubbed Operation Crossroads involved more than 70 surplus ships and craft anchored in Bikini lagoon, and were mainly designed to evaluate the effect of atomic weapons on warships.
Operation Crossroads examined the effects of both air and underwater explosions. During Test Able, which took place on 1 July, a bomb was detonated at 518 feet above the surface of the lagoon. Five ships sank, and the resulting blast, shock, and heat caused physical damage to almost 80 percent of the warships of the target fleet. Officials also estimated that, had the ships been manned, radiation effects would have incapacitated the majority of any crewmembers caught topside.
Test Baker was conducted on 25 July. It involved an underwater burst that sank nine ships, including the aircraft carrier Saratoga (CV 3) and two battleships. The mist that resulted from the burst also led to the widespread radioactive contamination of surviving ships and much of the atoll.
First nuclear power submarine delivered to the ship-repairing plant in the city of Polyarny for utilization
On Tuesday representatives of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy reported to the RIA Novosti correspondent that on Monday, 14 October, the first submarine of the first generation of nuclear power submarines written off by the Northern Fleet was delivered to the ship-repairing plant of the city of Polyarny on the Kola peninsula. The submarine would be processed as metal scrap.
Representatives of the Ministry of Atomic Energy pointed out that "supposedly all 16 nuclear power submarines of the first generation which were presently stationed at the Northern Fleet base in Gremikha would be gradually utilized. That would significantly improve the radiation and ecological security of the north-eastern region of the country."
|More Military Ships Head Out To Sea
Jan. 13, 2003
Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld has ordered more than 60,000 U.S. troops to head for the Persian Gulf region, doubling the size of the force already in the area. The Pentagon's goal is to have at least 100,000 there by Jan. 31.
(AP) Two of the seven Virginia-based ships that have received deployment orders in the past week pulled away from a Navy pier Sunday as a military buildup continued ahead of a possible war with Iraq.
Three of the ships left port Friday, and the USS Ashland and USS Kearsarge left Sunday. The USS Bataan and USS Portland were expected to follow. Together, they can carry a landing force of more than 8,000 Marines.
As the Ashland pulled away from its dock, a couple dozen family members waved from a cold, wind-swept parking lot.
Kerri Rodriguez wiped away tears as she said goodbye to her husband, Petty Officer 2nd Class Edgar Rodriguez. She doesn't know when she and their three children will see him next.
"It's their job. If they've got to go, they've got to go," she said. "I'm just very proud of him that he has the opportunity to serve his country and bring a lot of pride and honor to his family."
Elsewhere, the amphibious dock landing ship USS Gunston Hall headed out to sea from Morehead City, N.C. A Marine spokeswoman, Capt. Kelly Frushour, said she did not know how many troops were aboard the amphibious dock landing ship.
The Ashland hadn't been scheduled to deploy until this summer. Leaving six months early is tough on the sailors and their families, said Cmdr. Sam Howard, the ship's commanding officer.
"I have a 7-month old son and I was expecting to see him walk before I deployed," Howard said.
"There's the emotional aspect of it," he said. "But that's also balanced with the emotional aspect of doing something so important."
The Navy declined to say where the ships were headed.
Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld has ordered more than 60,000 U.S. troops to head for the Persian Gulf region, a move that will double the size of the force already in the area. The Pentagon's goal is to have at least 100,000 there by Jan. 31.
© MMIII The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.
|March 14, 2003
Gen. Franks moves Navy ships to War positions
Franks shifts missile vessels to war positions in Red Sea
The U.S. military is moving a dozen or more missile-firing ships from the Mediterranean into the Red Sea, bordering Saudi Arabia, as Gen. Tommy Franks puts the final pieces in place for a war with Iraq.
As the ships were preparing to move as early as last night, the Air Force announced it had deployed an unspecified number of B-2 stealth bombers from Whiteman Air Force Base, Mo., to bases closer to Iraq.
The bat-wing bombers, making their first deployment outside the United States, would play a key role in the opening hours of war by knocking out important military targets in Baghdad. The Air Force has established special shelters for the B-2s on the island of Diego Garcia and in Fairfield, England.
The White House has set Monday as a deadline for Iraq to begin disarming. If it does not, a U.S.-led attack could come any day afterward.[Cool. Let's roll!--Jen]
Two battle groups are in the Mediterranean, headed by the carriers USS Harry S. Truman and USS Theodore Roosevelt. The Navy has in place around Iraq more than 30 surface ships and submarines capable of firing the terrain-following Tomahawk.
A Pentagon official said it is his understanding that Gen. Franks, chief of U.S. Central Command who will oversee any invasion of Iraq, will keep the two carriers and their 140-plus aircraft in place for now. Only surface ships and submarines armed with Tomahawk cruise missiles will move to the Red Sea, the official said.
The official said the reason could be that, since the missiles fly relatively low and slow to their targets, Gen. Franks would rather have them fly over the Saudi desert than population centers over Israel and Jordan.
Tomahawks are typically one of the first weapons fired in war to take out air-defense systems. If citizens spot missiles overhead, it would give Baghdad warning of an attack and perhaps ruin the tactical surprise Gen. Franks is seeking.
"Shooting over Israel and Jordan politically may not be viable," the official said.
The two carriers' strike aircraft are able to fly high, 30,000 feet or more, before descending over Iraq toward the target.
Turkey has not yet granted overflight rights. But Pentagon officials said they believe Israel and Jordan, which is allowing American special operations troops on its soil, will allow flights over their airspace to Iraq.
Three battle groups are in the Persian Gulf, spearheaded by the carriers USS Constellation, USS Kitty Hawk and USS Abraham Lincoln.
The USS Nimitz battle group has left Pearl Harbor and is three to four weeks away from arriving in the Gulf. It is scheduled to relieve the Lincoln, which had completed its six-month deployment and was heading home when the Pentagon told it to reverse course and prepare for war.
The military has 21 of the radar-evading B-2 bombers. Analysts say as many as 16 could participate in the opening night of strikes against Iraqi fixed targets: air-defense centers, command posts and Republican Guard concentrations.[Heads up, any of you human shields who weren't smart enough to go home!--J.T.]
The B-2 holds 16 1-ton bombs, guided by the global positioning system (GPS), meaning each bat-wing aircraft can hit 16 different targets in a single pass over Baghdad.
The capability marks a major improvement from the Gulf war 12 years ago. Then, only the F-117 stealth fighter, with two laser-guided bombs, penetrated Baghdad airspace in the opening nights.
More than 230,000 American troops are in the Iraqi theater, backed by about 40,000 British personnel.
Gen. Franks said at the Pentagon last week that he is ready to wage war if President Bush gives the order to topple Saddam Hussein and rid Iraq of weapons of mass destruction.
The final piece may be the Army 101st Airborne Division, a helicopter assault force of 20,000 soldiers [Go Screaming Eagles!--Jen]. The last of the 101st's helicopters are scheduled to arrive in Kuwait this week by sea. The division is expected to carry out several missions, including opening a northern front and patrolling western Iraq for Scud missiles and launchers.
|SOVREMENNY CLASS (TYPE 956) DESTROYER, RUSSIA
The Sovremenny Class destroyer has a maximum displacement of 8480t and is similar in size to the USA Navy's Aegis-equipped missile cruisers. It is armed with an anti-submarine helicopter, 48 air defence missiles, eight anti-ship missiles, torpedoes, mines, long-range guns and a comprehensive electronic warfare system.
The first-of-class Sovremenny was commissioned in 1985. A total of 18 have been built for the Russian Navy , eleven of which are in service, six are no longer operational and one more (launched in 1994) is awaiting commission. The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) has two Sovremenny destroyers, delivered in December 1999 and November 2000 and has ordered a further two to be delivered by the end of 2005, with an option on two more. All ships were built at the Northern Yard in Saint Petersburg.
COMMAND AND CONTROL
The ship's combat systems can use target designation data from the ship's active and passive sensors, from other ships in the fleet, from surveillance aircraft or via a communications link from the ship's helicopter. The multi-channel defence suite is capable of engaging several targets simultaneously.
The ship is equipped with the Raduga Moskit anti-ship missile system with two four-cell launchers installed port and starboard of the forward island and set at an angle about 15°. The ship carries a total of eight Moskit 3M80E missiles, NATO designation SS-N-22 Sunburn. The missile is a sea-skimming missile with velocity Mach 2.5 and armed with a 300kg high-explosive warhead or a nuclear 200kt warhead. The range is from 10 to 120km. The launch weight is 4,000kg.
Two Shtil surface-to-air missile systems are installed, each on the raised deck behind the two-barrelled 130mm guns. Shtil is the export name of the SA-N-7, NATO reporting name Gadfly. The system uses the ship's three dimensional circular scan radar for target tracking. Up to three missiles can be aimed simultaneously. The range is up to 25km against targets with speeds up to 830m/s. The ship carries 48 Shtil missiles.
The ship's 130mm guns are the AK-130-MR-184 supplied by the Ametist Design Bureau and the Frunze Arsenal Design Bureau in Saint Petersburg. The system includes a computer control system with electronic and television sighting. The gun can be operated in fully automatic mode from the radar control system, under autonomous control using the turret mounted Kondensor optical sighting system and can also be laid manually. Rate of fire is between 20 and 35 rounds/min.
The ship has four six-barrel 30mm AK-630 artillery systems. The maximum rate of fire is 5,000 rounds/min. Range is up to 4,000m for low flying anti-ship missiles and 5,000m for light surface targets. The gun is equipped with radar and television detection and tracking.
The destroyer has two double 533mm torpedo tubes and two six-barrel RBU-1000 anti-submarine rocket launchers, with 48 rockets. Range is 1,000m The rocket is armed with a 55kg warhead.
The ship's helicopter pad accommodates one Kamov Ka-27 anti-submarine warfare helicopter, NATO codename Helix. The helicopter can operate in conditions up to Sea State 5 and up to 200km from the host ship.
The Project 956 destroyer is fitted with an electronic countermeasures system and carries a store of 200 rockets for the two decoy dispensers, model PK-2.
The ship is equipped with three navigation radars, an air target acquisition radar, and fire control radars for the 130mm gun and the 30mm gun. The sonar suite includes active and passive hull mounted search and attack sonar.
The ship's propulsion system is based on two steam turbine engines each producing 50,000hp together with four high-pressure boilers. There are two fixed-pitch propellers. The ship's maximum speed is just under 33 knots. At a fuel-economic speed of 18 knots the range is 3,920 miles.
|North Korea's Air Defense
North Korea has a large number of ground-to-air missiles. It has SA-2 and SA-3 missiles against low-flying enemy planes, and SA-5 missiles for high-altitude planes. SA-5 missiles have an effective range of 250 km. SA-5 missiles can hit enemy planes flying over the middle of South Korea.
North Korea has reengineered US shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles captured in Vietnam, and designed its own missile, wha-sung. North Korea began to manufacture wha-sung missiles in 1980. Wha-sung comes in two models: SA-7 that has an effective range of 5 km and SA-16 with 10 km range. North Korea has more than 15,000 wha-sung missiles in place.
In addition to the missiles, North Korea has 12,000 anti-aircraft guns, including 37mm twin-barrel guns, 23 mm automatics, 57mm, 87mm, and 100mm heavy guns. These are mostly manually operated and thus not subject to electronic warfare.
c. Coastal deferens.
North Korea's coastlines are long and jagged. Coastal guns are placed in fortified tunnels along the coastline. North Korea has six ground-to-ship missile bases. North Korea has anti-ship missiles of 95km range, and of 160km range. The latter are for hitting US carrier battle groups over the horizon. North Korean anti-ship missiles can hit ships anchored at Inchon on the west and Sokcho on the east.
|Military Power of North Korea maintains 1,170,000 troops (Ground forces:
1,000,000, Navy: 6,000, and Air Force: 110,000). If semi-military troops
and reserve forces are added, the total military manpower strength will be
Ground troops are equipped with 3,800 tanks, 2,300 armored vehicles, 12,000 artillery pieces. The Navy has 990 ships which include 430 combat ships, 90 submarines, and 470 support ships. The Air Force has about 2,000 aircraft including 850 fighters, 840 support planes, and 320 helicopters.
Noteworthy is the fact that North Korea possesses 100,000commando troops, along with transportation means to infiltratethem deep into Korean territory at any time. North Korea has also developed long-range surface-to-surfacemissiles (Rodong No. 1, Daepo No. 1 and No. 2), which are modelledafter Soviet Scud missiles, and can deliver nuclear warheads. North Korea has also stockpiled a large amount of biochemicalweapons.
About 65% of ground troops are deployed in advancedpositions near the truce line, maintaining mechanized infantryand tank units within an area 80km from the truce line.
North Korea has built small-size submarines which can beemployed in offensive operations. It has also built 130 landingboats (air-pumping type). About 60% of naval troops are deployedin advanced positions.
About 50% of North Korean fighter planes are in advancedpositions, only a 6 minute-flight distance away from the capitalof the Republic of Korea.
For the past 50 years, North Korea has been engaged instrengthening military power in order to communize the Republic of Korea byforce. It has poured about 25% of the GNP annually on themilitary sector, thus inviting the current economic stagnation as well as serious food shortages.
|S.Korea Develops Surface-to-Air Missile
People's Daily Tuesday, November 16, 1999
South Korea said on November 15 that it has developed a surface-to-air
missile named Chonma with a shooting range of up to 10 kilometers which is
to be deployed in December. Chonma, developed by 13 South Korean companies
and France's Thomson Company, is expected to greatly contribute to enhancing
the country's medium-altitude air defense system. Equipped with eight guided
missiles, it is capable of being fired in all types of weather and is suitable
for South Korea's mountainous topography, said the Agency for Defense
Development. The missile, with a maximum speed of 60 kilometers per hour,
can run in waters one meter deep, according to the agency. South Korea began
to develop Chonma in 1987 and test-fired it in 1997
|Seoul Denies Longer-Range Missile Bid
By Son Key-young
Korean officials have categorically denied as ``groundless'' Saturday's New York Times report that Seoul is seeking to secretly develop longer range ballistic missiles in violation of an agreement with Washington.
Defense and Foreign Affairs-Trade Ministry officials said that Seoul has nothing to hide because it has implemented its missile program, including tests in a fully transparent manner.
U.S. Ambassador to Seoul Stephen Bosworth refused to comment on the report, only noting, ``We don't discuss alleged intelligence reports that appeared in newspapers.''
A Korean official expressed profound displeasure with the report because it surfaced only three days before Seoul and Washington are scheduled to open talks on how to loosen the tight restrictions on Seoul's missile development. U.S. special advisor for non-proliferation Robert Einhorn will make a three-day visit to Seoul from Nov. 18 to launch discussions on missile non-proliferation issues.
In addition, the official said the reports made fabrications by saying, ``South Korea's missile ambitions prompted President Clinton to discuss the issue personally with President Kim Dae-jung of South Korea in July.'' He said that Clinton had not mentioned any concerns over Seoul's missile development program during his summit with Kim.
According to the report, South Korea conducted a short flight test of a new missile in April, which appeared to violate its agreement with the United States.
``That missile went only about 30 miles, but analysts believe the South Koreans did not fully fuel it to avoid a dispute with the United States, and say it may have a range of as much as 300 miles,'' the report reads.
Title=Korea / Missile Range
Intro: News media in Seoul say South Korea has proposed that it be allowed to develop missiles with a longer range of up to 500 kilometers as a deterrent against invasion by communist North Korea, John Larkin reports from Seoul.
Text: South Korea has been pushing for some time to alter a 20-year arrangement with the United States, which restricts it to producing missiles with a maximum range of 180 kilometers.
Newspapers in Seoul report President Kim requested the 500 kilometer range during a meeting with President Clinton in Washington Friday. The two allies had previously been discussing an extension of the allowable range to 300 kilometers only.
The reports say President Clinton listened attentively to President Kim's proposal. But analysts were doubtful Washington will agree, as it fears the step could ignite a regional arms race.
A spokesman for the U-S embassy in Seoul would not comment on the media accounts, but South Korean officials said the proposal was on the table for discussion with Washington.
President Kim's request comes amid fears Pyongyang is about to test a long-range missile last August it sent shockwaves through the region when it test-fired a medium range Taepodong missile over Japanese territory.
Security analysts say South Korea's push for greater missile range is meant to send an uncompromising message to North Korea - after talks between the two Koreas in Beijing last week failed to ease old and new tensions on the peninsula. They say Seoul wants to show Pyongyang that it is not the only regional military power capable of using missiles as a bargaining chip.
The two Koreas have been unable to resolve most differences since the end of the Korean war in 1953. (Signed)
|A Telling Choice
Return of Russia's Pacific Fleet Sends Dual Messages
By Aaron Ortiz
Special to ABCNEWS.com
Jan. 26, 2003 Russia's Pacific Fleet returned to extended naval operations with the sailing of two Udaloy class destroyers to India and Vietnam.
The choice of the Admiral Vinogradov and Admiral Panteleyev, large anti-submarine warfare ships, demonstrates Russian military capability and a willingness to provide assistance in the vital shipping lanes of Southeast Asia.
Russia's extended naval journey is significant in that it marks the Pacific Fleet's first long-term mission in the last five years, Reuters reported Jan. 15. Until now, the Pacific Fleet has been unable to conduct extended operations because of chronic cash shortages.
An Interest in Submarines
Russia had a choice of ships to send on the voyage. The Pacific Fleet, formerly comprised more than 100 submarines and surface ships, now has a much-reduced capability. The fleet maintains surface warships, among them several Sovremenny class destroyers, powerful warships armed with supersonic anti-ship missiles.
Unlike the Sovremenny, the Udaloy primarily is an anti-submarine vessel with large bow-mounted sonar and two KA-7 helix anti-submarine helicopters. The Udaloys serve as a capable anti-submarine platform while posing a limited threat to commercial shipping.
Many nations bordering the South China Sea began purchasing submarines during the economic boom of the late 1980s and early 1990s. The geographic and economic nature of the area dictated the increased investment in submarines. Shipping is vital to Southeast Asia, as raw materials and products primarily move through the shipping lanes of the South China Sea. Submarines provide an effective way to block these naval trade routes.
According to the United States Energy Information Administration, half of the world's supertankers pass through the region. Additionally half of the world's merchant fleet (by tonnage) sails through the region each year.
Submarines probably would provide a valuable tool in controlling the sea lanes in the area. Any conflict in the region probably will focus on controlling the vital shipping and trade lanes of the South China Sea.
China has a number of submarines in the area, more than those purchased by other countries in the region. The United States also maintains a large number of submarines in the Pacific, and many patrol this vital trade route.
Yet the Russian anti-submarine warfare (ASW) ships are capable primarily of detecting older submarines, such as those owned by China, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. U.S. submarines, however, are quieter and more advanced, and therefore harder to detect.
A Boon to Russian Allies
With the proliferation of submarines in Southeast Asia, the Udaloys or their technology could be offered to Russia's allies in Vietnam and India. Russia's choice of sending the Udaloy serves two purposes, reasserting the Russian navy and reminding its allies of the proliferation of submarines in the South China Sea. The Udaloy class ship, with its ASW capability, does not threaten commercial shipping as a Sovremenny might.
India, which has kept China at arms length, is Russia's first stop during this extended trip. Most recently, Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee was out of town for much of a recent visit to India by Li Peng, China's Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress.
As well, India tested an Agni II missile just prior to Li's departure. Additional ASW capabilities would be another method India could use to balance China's power.
India operates in the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean, but competes with its cross-border rival, Pakistan, in the Arabian Sea. Though New Delhi's submarine force outnumbers that of Islamabad, Pakistan is moving to increase its submarine force. Therefore, India probably will move to enhance its anti-submarine capability.
A second stop on the Pacific Fleet cruise is Vietnam. The choice and timing is significant. Moscow is telling Hanoi it is a valued ally. By making Danang the second port of call, it becomes an event of its own. Aside from politics there are also military reasons for the ASW ships visiting Vietnam.
Vietnam maintains longstanding good relations with Russia, as opposed to its relations with China. Following 13 years of hostility, Vietnam and China reestablished diplomatic ties in 1991. Russia supported North Vietnam during its war with South Vietnam and the United States.
Vietnam also purchases military equipment and supplies amounting to between $100 million and $200 million each year. Finally, Vietnam and China have both claimed and fought for the Spratly Islands, which sit on an untapped pool of oil and natural gas. Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines also claim the Spratlys.
No Threat to Shipping
If Russia were attempting to threaten the shipping lanes of Southeast Asia, it would have sent a Sovremenny to accompany the Udaloy. The two are designed to work in cooperation and to complement each other. The Sovremenny is an offensive platform, while the Udaloy is a more defensive, although lethal, ship.
Additionally Russia is bringing the proliferation of submarines to light. By sailing ASW ships to the region, Moscow is reminding its allies that Russia can help defend national security and the economy by helping to keep the sea lanes open.
Aaron Ortiz is an analyst for Stratfor.com, an Internet provider of global intelligence.
|South Korea nervous over interception plans
AM - Friday, 18 July , 2003
Reporter: Mark Simkin
LINDA MOTTRAM: Against the backdrop of an exchange of machine gun fire across the Korean peninsula's demilitarised zone, the Prime Minister John Howard has arrived in Seoul, the South Korean capital, to a very tense situation, for talks with President Roh Moo-hyun.
And the threat posed by North Korea will be the key issue under discussion between the two leaders, though they could disagree on what should be done about it.
Our North Asia Correspondent, Mark Simkin reports from Seoul.
MARK SIMKIN: When he was US President, Bill Clinton looked out over the razor wire, minefields and artillery placements that line the demilitarised zone, and declared it to be the scariest place on earth.
North and South Korea are technically still at war, and the zone is where the two the countries face off. Yesterday, the tension turned into conflict.
(Spokesman for Seoul's Joint Chiefs of Staff speaking)
"North Korea fired four rounds at a South Korean army position," says a spokesman for Seoul's Joint Chiefs of Staff. "The South answered with a warning broadcast and then returned fire with 17 rounds."
No one knows why the Communist soldiers started shooting. The Spokesman says it could have been to draw attention to the crisis surrounding the North's nuclear weapons program.
In recent days, diplomatic efforts to resolve the nuclear standoff have appeared to be making progress. Officials in the United States and South Korea have suggested that Pyongyang is set to agree to further talks with Beijing and Washington.
Australian Prime Minister, John Howard, will be briefed on the developments later today, when he meets the South Korean President, Roh Moo-hyun.
President Roh believes negotiation, not confrontation, is the only way to resolve the crisis, and he's opposed to American moves to take a hard line on the nuclear issue. As a result, Seoul is unlikely to support plans to intercept North Korean ships suspected of carrying missiles or weapons of mass destruction.
PARK HONG-KYU: Intercepting or blockading the North Korean ships is one of the most toughest diplomatic means, except war, to solve the international conflicts.
MARK SIMKIN: Park Hong-kyu is a Professor of International Relations at Kyung Hee University. He believes the interception of North Korean ships would raise tensions further, and could even push the peninsular towards war.
PARK HONG-KYU: It is a little bit risky idea. The South Korean Government thinks that the tough diplomatic stances would bring more strong repercussions from North Korea. So the end result might lead to triggering the military conflict on the Korean peninsular.
So, South Korea is a little bit reluctant to support the idea of intercepting North Korean ships in the open seas.
MARK SIMKIN: So do you believe that there would be a real risk of war breaking out if this plan was put into action?
PARK HONG-KYU: Intercepting the North Korean ships would not exactly lead to a major military conflict, but if we use such a tougher stance on North Korea, I think the negotiations or diplomatic dialogue as peaceful means to solve North Korea would become less plausible options.
North would show a very strong resistance against the intercepting of the ships. It would accelerate its development of nuclear weapons program and resume its long-range missile program.
MARK SIMKIN: This is Mark Simkin in Seoul, for AM.
|US to Send 'Sharp Signal' to N. Korea in Naval Exercise
Steven R. Weisman | New York Times | August 18, 2003
"[The] exercise would consist in part of ships and helicopters practicing the 'nonpermissive boarding' of ships suspected of carrying drugs, missile components, nuclear materials and other items that the United States says are being imported or sold by North Korea. Some diplomats are known to worry that [such] exercises ... might be seen as provocative by the government of Kim Jong Il in North Korea, and perhaps by China and Russia." WASHINGTON The Bush administration, while preparing for talks soon with North Korea, is also stepping up military pressure with plans for a joint naval exercise next month to train for interdicting at sea arms and other materials being transported to and from the North.
Administration officials and Asian diplomats said that the exercise would be carried out in the Coral Sea off northeastern Australia in September and that it was officially described as directed at no one country. A principal intention, however, was to send a sharp signal to North Korea to dismantle its nuclear weapons program, they said.
The next round of talks with North Korea is planned for Aug. 27 in Beijing, with six nations taking part. The United States has been working with its allies to decide which items to present, from economic benefits to security guarantees, that would be provided if the North Korean government agreed to shut down its program verifiably and irreversibly.
North Korea said today that unless the United States changed its policy toward it, the North would use the talks to declare that it could not dismantle its nuclear weapons program.
The official North Korean news agency said such a change in American policy must include the signing of a nonaggression pact, the establishment of formal diplomatic relations and a guarantee that the United States would not interfere in North Korea's foreign trade.
The United States has stepped up efforts with Japan, South Korea and nine other nations to interdict ships doing business with North Korea. Last December, Spanish warships stopped a North Korean ship carrying Scud missiles to Yemen, but released it after Yemen protested.
"We are not saying which countries are being targeted, because it would not be politically wise," said an Asian diplomat, referring to the September naval exercise. "But the American government believes that one of the reasons why North Korea has agreed to the six-party talks in Beijing is that they are feeling the pinch."
An American official said the Coral Sea exercise would consist in part of ships and helicopters practicing the "nonpermissive boarding" of ships suspected of carrying drugs, missile components, nuclear materials and other items that the United States says are being imported or sold by North Korea.
Some diplomats are known to worry that exercises like the one in the Coral Sea might be seen as provocative by the government of Kim Jong Il in North Korea, and perhaps by China and Russia, which oppose confrontational tactics toward North Korea.
But administration officials said it was essential for the United States to have a more aggressive policy aimed at preventing North Korea from obtaining materials for its nuclear program or from selling missile parts, drugs or other contraband to get hard currency to pay for its weapons.
The Coral Sea naval exercise "has not surfaced as much of a factor" in negotiations with North Korea, an administration official said, adding: "If laws are broken or our national security is threatened, then everyone should recognize that we need to take that seriously. We are taking these steps to protect our own societies."
A Pentagon official said planning for the Coral Sea exercise had not been completed. It was not clear which countries, beyond Australia and the United States, would take part with ships. Japan was said to be ready to send a ship if the event could be formally characterized as a "police exercise" and not a military exercise. The Japanese Constitution limits its military to self-defense.
The exercises are part of a program announced by President Bush and leaders of other countries at a meeting in Krakow, Poland, at the end of May known as the Proliferation Security Initiative, with 11 nations participating: the United States, Britain, Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
The Coral Sea naval exercise is to be the Initiative's first such action, and its participants set plans for it in July at a meeting in Brisbane, Australia.
Under a separate program, known as the D.P.R.K. Illicit Activities Initiative, referring to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, North Korea's official name, there has been a quiet crackdown by many nations against the North's narcotics trade, counterfeiting, money laundering and other efforts to earn hard currency.
Among the recent actions under this initiative was the seizure of a North Korean freighter by the Australian authorities in April off Brisbane on suspicion of smuggling heroin and Japanese efforts to shut down a large trading company involved in illicit trade with North Korea.
Organized crime syndicates in Japan have long been believed to be involved in sending remittances to North Korea, money that in many cases generated at pinball casinos that are popular in Japan.
In addition, in early August, the Taiwan authorities boarded a North Korean freighter on a technical customs violation and then found and seized barrels of phosphorus pentasulfide, a lethal material that the United States later said could be used to make chemical weapons.
The Coral Sea naval exercise is to be the Proliferation Security Initiative's first such action, and its participants set plans for it only last month at a meeting in Brisbane.
An administration official said the interdiction exercise would "piggyback" on top of another long-planned naval exercise. But a Pentagon official said that exercise would run concurrently but not as part of the interdiction exercise, which he described as in its "embryonic stages," with a scope that remains undetermined.
The Bush administration's efforts to squeeze North Korea by applying "interdiction" and "seizure" techniques were outlined in a statement by the United States and its allies at the Krakow meeting. This summer, John R. Bolton, under secretary of state for arms control and international security, testified in Congress that the goal was to develop "new means to disrupt the proliferation trade at sea, in the air, and on land." Mr. Bolton is one of the program's champions.
A meeting has been scheduled in Paris in September, after the Coral Sea exercise, to draft criteria for future interdiction efforts.
"We're going to try to reach agreement in Paris on rules of the road," an administration official said.
Some officials involved in the project concede that in some cases, such as the shipment of weapons that were bought or sold legally, the initiative could be hampered by international laws barring the interdiction of ships on the high seas. After authorizing the stopping of the Yemen-bound Scud missiles in December, the United States found no legal basis for blocking the shipment.
But officials familiar with the Coral Sea exercise said this problem could be circumvented in part if a new round of sanctions are imposed on North Korea, and also Iran, because of their refusal to cooperate on the nuclear issue. The sanctions might be used to justify future interdictions, the officials said.
The interdictions could also be carried out because of suspicion of a violation, they said, and then the searches could be conducted for illicit materials. An analogy, an official said, would be stopping a car for speeding when the real reason for the stop was to search for drugs.
The administration speeded up its efforts against North Korea after October,
when the North admitted to a top American envoy that it had secretly embarked
on a program to produce highly enriched uranium for nuclear weapons, in violation
of its 1994 agreement not to pursue such arms.
U.S.-North Korea war seems 'strong possibility'
By Jimmy Carter
We face the strong possibility of another Korean war, with potentially devastating consequences, so the endangered multilateral talks in Beijing are of paramount importance. It is vital that some accommodation be reached between Pyongyang and Washington.
North Korea is an isolated country, poverty stricken, paranoid, apparently self-sacrificial and amazingly persistent in international confrontations, as is now being demonstrated. It is a cultural and almost sacred commitment for its leaders not to back down, even in the face of international condemnation and the most severe political and economic pressure.
A previous example of this stubbornness occurred in 1968, when North Korea captured the USS Pueblo, a Navy intelligence-gathering ship. Despite the best efforts of President Lyndon Johnson to marshal international support and to prevail with economic punishment and military threats, President Kim il Sung never deviated from his basic demands, which included an embarrassing public apology from the United States for "spying" on his country. After 11 months, President Johnson accepted all the demands, and the crew was released.
Notwithstanding their abysmal economic failures and the resulting hardships of their people, North Korean leaders have never deviated from a commitment to military strength. They maintain a formidable army, with artillery and missiles able to wreak great destruction on Seoul and the northern portion of South Korea, regardless of how much punishment North Koreans might have to absorb during a U.S. attack or counterattack. The development of advanced rocketry and now a potential nuclear capability is further proof of their scientific resources.
Avoided in 1994
There was another crisis in 1994, when Kim il Sung expelled International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors and threatened to begin reprocessing 8,000 spent fuel rods from a nuclear power plant. The U.S. government refused to talk to North Korean leaders, and made plans for economic sanctions and a military attack. As the crisis escalated, The Carter Center was finally given reluctant permission from President Clinton for me to visit Pyongyang. A satisfactory agreement was concluded and later confirmed by both governments, with participation by South Korea, Japan and others. But neither side honored all the commitments.
The situation is rapidly deteriorating again. North Korea feels increasingly threatened by being branded an "axis of evil" member; deployment of anti-ballistic missiles in Alaska; Washington voices expressing military threats; interception of North Korean ships; ad hominem attacks on President Kim Jong Il; condemnation of previous efforts by President Clinton and South Korean leaders to resolve issues peacefully; and U.S. refusal to negotiate directly with North Korea. America's newly declared policies of pre-emptive war and first use of nuclear weapons also concern North Koreans.
Even before these more recent threats, the North Koreans began a secret and illicit nuclear program. They have initiated a concerted effort to develop a nuclear arsenal, with the possible production of a half-dozen weapons by the end of 2003 and similar annual numbers thereafter. These could be used by North Korea or sold to other nations or terrorist groups. This is now by far the most serious threat to regional and world peace.
There are other issues, but the basic North Korean demand is a firm non-aggression commitment from the United States, which U.S. officials continue to reject. The U.S. insists first on a complete end to the North Koreans' nuclear program, which they have refused to accept. If neither side will yield or compromise, then an eventual military confrontation seems likely. The United States can prevail, but with terrible human casualties in both North and South Korea.
There must be verifiable assurances that prevent North Korea from becoming a threatening nuclear power, with a firm commitment that the U.S. will not attack a peaceful North Korea. This is a time for sustained and flexible diplomacy between our two governments, to give peace and economic progress a chance within a nuclear-free Korean peninsula.
Former U.S. president Jimmy Carter chairs The Carter Center in Atlanta, a non-governmental organization that advances peace and health.
Russian missiles to guard skies over Vietnam
By Sergei Blagov
MOSCOW - Three decades after the end of Vietnam War, the latest generation of the notorious Russian-made "telephone poles" are due to resurface in Vietnam.
Russia has just clinched a deal to export to Vietnam two of S300 PMU1 air defense batteries (or 12 launchers) for a reported nearly US$300 million. The S300 PMU is an advanced version of the SA-10C Grumble air defense missile. According to Russian missile makers, the new S300 has anti-stealth capability and can shoot down combat aircraft, cruise missiles, as well as ballistic missiles in an anti-ballistic missile mode.
The S300 PMU1 missile system can engage targets flying as low as 10 meters off the ground at a range of up to 150 kilometers. The missile complex is seen as a serious supplement to the combat ability of the Vietnamese air defense forces.
However, Russia is yet to sell more advanced S300 PMU2 complexes to Hanoi, while Beijing has been reportedly considered as a potential buyer of these newer missile complexes.
The first contracts to sell the S300 PMU-1 to China were signed in 1993. In December 2001, Moscow and Beijing reportedly clinched another deal to supply the People's Liberation Army with an undisclosed number of S300 PMU1 air defense batteries for a reported $400 million.
The S300 PMU2 "Favorit" variant, or SA-10C GRUMBLE, is a new missile with a larger warhead and better guidance with a range of 200 kilometers, versus the 150 kilometers of the S300 PMU1.
The S300 PMU2 uses new 48N6E2 missiles, which weigh 1,800 kilograms and are 7.5 meters long. After a catapult "cold" start in the upright position, the 48N6E2 accelerates up to 1,900 meters a second in 12 seconds, and then hits the target from above. The 48N6E2 differs from the older 48N6E in having a new warhead designed for destroying ballistic missiles, with a warhead weight of 145 kilograms versus 70-100 kilograms. The S300 PMU2 can engage targets flying at altitudes ranging from 10 meters to 27 kilometers at a speed of up to 10,000 kilometers per hour.
Apart from official sales, Vietnam has probably mulled some unorthodox ways to get access to Russia's air defense technology. For instance, in October 2002 customs officers in Russia's second city, St Petersburg, reportedly foiled an audacious smuggling attempt. While checking containers bound by sea for Vietnam, they uncovered spare parts for state-of-the-art Russian anti-aircraft systems, labeled as car parts. Yet the incident has had no follow-up and did not derail the S300 sales.
Apart from China, Russia has supplied S300 PMU systems to Cyprus. India is also reported to be mulling the lease of two Russian-made S300 PMU antimissile air defense systems to protect its nuclear command posts and other vital military assets. A formal offer was first made to India in 1995 to sell the S300 PMU, but there have been no reports on actual deals so far.
The deployment of the S300 PMU in the former USSR started in 1986. Various versions of the complex were delivered in various years to Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and the former East Germany. Among post-Soviet countries, only Belarus and Kazakhstan have the S300 system.
Though Vietnam is now fully integrated into the Southeast Asian community, Hanoi remains eager to arm its military with Russian weapons, well tested during decades of the Vietnam war. In March 2001, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Hanoi and announced a new strategic partnership with Vietnam. The Russian leader said that "Vietnam needs not just to maintain its existing weapons bought from the Soviet Union and Russia, but also needs modern weapons." In March 2002, Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov went to Hanoi and pledged to supply advanced weapons to Vietnam.
Bilateral military ties are set to go ahead because Vietnam seeks to modernize its half-million strong armed forces, and it has once again turned to Russia. Vietnam remains an important customer for Russian arms. In recent years, Hanoi has purchased Russian Sukhoi fighter-bombers, and an anti-ship missile system. In 1995, Hanoi bought six Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker fighter jets for $150 million and in 1997 signed a contract for six more planes and spare parts. Moscow has been selling Su-27 aircraft with a combat range of 3,680 kilometers to Vietnam as well as China.
In recent years, the Vietnamese military has also bought six missile boats of the "1241 project" for some $120 million and four radar stations in Russia. Vietnam is also purchasing the Mosquito anti-ship missile complex, with supersonic missiles that can fly at extremely low altitudes - below 10 meters - with an ability to hit targets within a 120 kilometer range.
The Russians reportedly suggested technical assistance in upgrading Vietnam's military infrastructure, notably airfield and command posts. The Russians also suggested the Vietnamese purchase more Sukhoi-27s, and consider buying another jetfighter, the MiG-29, as well as MiG training jets.
In the heyday of ideological ties between Hanoi and Moscow - the three-and-a-half decades between the mid-1950s and 1990 - the former Soviet Union flooded its ideological ally in Southeast Asia with concessionary loans and arms shipments. During this time Moscow supplied Hanoi's army with most of its hardware, because the former Soviet Union considered Vietnam an important outpost of the "socialist camp'' in Southeast Asia. After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, its military aid was replaced by Russian commercial armament sales because Vietnam's 500,000-strong army still needs Russian arms and spare parts.
Between 1953 and 1991, the USSR supplied North - and later unified - Vietnam with 2,000 tanks, 1,700 armored vehicles, 7,000 pieces of artillery and mortars, 5,000 pieces of artillery, 158 missile complexes, 700 warplanes, 120 helicopters, more than 100 naval vessels. Some three quarters of all weaponry now used by the Vietnamese army has been made in Russia, while more than 13,000 Vietnamese officers had studied in the former USSR.
Notably, Moscow contributed weapons essential to North Vietnamese defense capabilities against the American air war, including radar systems, antiaircraft artillery, surface-to-air missiles (SAMs). Without this materiel, Vietnamese air defense would have been hardly feasible.
In August 1965, the first SAMs were fired at four US Phantoms over Vietnam, shooting down three. This marked the first time that US planes were attacked by surface-to-air missiles.
Between 1965 and 1972, the Soviets supplied to North Vietnam a total of 95 missile complexes - initially SA-75M "Dvina" and later S75 "Desna" - as well as 7,658 SAMs. However, both "Dvina" and "Desna" were not the most advanced Soviet designs and Hanoi did not get the more up-to-date S125 "Volkhov" during the war.
The Vietnamese military reportedly complained that they were getting missiles of obsolete designs. In some cases, the Vietnamese even removed fresh paint from missile complexes and discovered old marks suggesting that the weapons were brought from East Germany or Poland.
Some of the missile complexes supplied to Vietnam from the Soviet Union during the war were actually second-hand weapons, produced in 1956-1958. The main reason for Moscow's failure to supply North Vietnam with the newest armaments was the Kremlin's fear that the Vietnamese could leak Soviet military secrets to the Chinese.
Furthermore, the missiles initially were forwarded to Vietnam by rail freight through China and the Soviets were reluctant to leave their newest weapons vulnerable for possible inspections by the Chinese.
On the other hand, Soviet military experts complained that the Vietnamese themselves were handling S75 missiles without proper care, letting them fall from the track, for instance.
Nonetheless, with the Soviet assistance in the North the Vietnamese mounted a strong antiaircraft defense, once dubbed the "most sophisticated and effective" in the history of warfare. This system created an environment in which aircraft tactics designed to escape one type of threat brought the plane under threat from another layer of the system. The Soviet-built "telephone poles" were deadly effective.
In sum, between July 1965 and January 1973, a total of 6,806 missiles were fired, destroyed by US pilots or simply broke down. By January 1973, Vietnam still had 39 operational SA75M complexes, the remaining 56 were destroyed in combat or became non-operational due to poor maintenance.
Now Russian-built "telephone poles" are due to reappear in Vietnam, although Hanoi is highly unlikely to deal with the kind of the air war it faced three decades ago.
(Copyright 2003 Asia Times Online Co, Ltd. All rights reserved.
|16 Sep 2003 1
N.Korea says U.S.-led exercise is a prelude to war
SEOUL, Sept 16 (Reuters) - North Korea said U.S.-led exercises to stop and search ships suspected of carrying weapons of mass destruction were a prelude to a nuclear war and it would strengthen its deterrent force in response.
The threat, issued by North Korea's official KCNA news agency on Tuesday, came after the United States, Australia, Japan and France held manoeuvres off northeast Australia at the weekend in the first of 10 exercises to track and board a ship suspected of carrying weapons of mass destruction.
The United States has said the exercises were not specifically aimed at North Korea but few doubt the target, with Washington and others accusing the isolated state of making clandestine shipments of drugs, counterfeit cash and missiles.
"This is a wanton violation of the sovereignty of the DPRK and intolerable military provocations as it was a prelude to a nuclear war," KCNA said in its latest statement, using the initials for the North's official name, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
North Korea has frequently used bluster when discussing its nuclear capabilities. Last month it talked about carrying out a nuclear test.
The United States says North Korea may already have one or two nuclear weapons.
The North also warned it would take "strong merciless retaliatory measures by mobilising all its military potentials" if the United States imposed any sanctions or conducts a naval and air blockade against it.
North Korea's neighbour, China, also questioned the legitimacy of intercepting ships and aircraft, saying dialogue is the best way to stop the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
North and South Korea, the United States, China, Japan and Russia held a first round of talks on North Korea's nuclear programme in Beijing last month but there was no major breakthrough.
AlertNet news is provided by Reuters
|THE KOREAN LEADER
- ATTACK ON AMERICA?
... 97 - VOICE - "I went to North Korea one time and it was in 1st ... I was reading my life story "Terrorized", then saw a connection to greatdreams.com ...
... lawmakers said. Jiang said China doesn't want to see North Korea develop a long-range missile capability, said Sen. Joseph Biden ...
... then Reagan's campaign manager, and Donald Gregg, now US Ambassador to South Korea, flew with George Bush to Paris ...
... We decide for ourselves what we're going to do." Vice-President Dick Cheney repeated the promise to prevent Iraq, Iran and North Korea from threatening America ...
... John Glenn (D., O.), a Marine Corps jet pilot in Korea. ... In addition, prepositioned equipment is maintained ashore in Korea for one Army brigade. ...
... North Korea's surprise revelation, which confronts the Bush administration with a nuclear crisis in Asia even as it threatens war ...
... Dick Cheney repeated the promise to prevent Iraq, Iran and North Korea from threatening America ...
... In nations like Albania and North Korea, religion is outlawed, and the practice of religion in any form is severely repressed. ...
... Remembering the Forgotten War: Korea, 1950-1953 Though some insist it should be referred to as the "Korean Conflict" or a police action ...
... the American national security apparat - and that the knowledge gleaned from Japan's horrifying germ warfare experiments probably WAS used in Korea
... The events, scheduled to take place throughout the United States, the Republic of Korea and the Pacific from 2000 to 2003, are intended "to honor and thank all ...
... KOREA ON THE 33RD PARALLEL. ... Nor would administration officials who briefed reporters say whether they think North Korea has produced such a weapon. ...
... testimony that Rupp, the late CIA Director William Casey - then Reagan's campaign manager, and Donald Gregg, now US Ambassador to South Korea, flew with George ...
... for counterfeiting. He is believe to have had a $100 million budget from Iraq or North Korea to buy materials for a bomb.
... We may even need to have a war in North Korea, the way things are going. We are definitely on the verge of WWIII and Armegeddon. ...
... civilian populations. 1950 - 1953: An array of germ warfare weapons were allegedly used against North Korea.
... the American national security apparat - and that the knowledge gleaned from Japan's horrifying germ warfare experiments probably WAS used in Korea, just as ...
... The obvious villain would be China, possibly North Korea with Chinese backing. Whichever, a new cold war with China could be launched. ...
... We may even need to have a war in North Korea, the way things are going. ... ..
... He also contended that North Korea had supplied Iran with a medium-range missile and that the two countries were cooperating to develop a long-range missile ...
... Aspects of both philosophical and religious Taoism were appropriated in East Asian cultures influenced by China, especially Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. ...
... them, this weekend on their second trip there in less than two months. South Korea, Indonesia and Thailand all have received IMF rescue packages. ...
... D. Australian-Tasmanian race (Australian Aborigines). V. Mongoloid Subspecies. A. Northeast Asian race (various subraces in China, Manchuria, Korea and Japan). ...
... Asian Development Bank forecast economic losses due to SARS of $20 billion in the four most vulnerable economies China, Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. ...
... The men who went into battle in Korea against tanks and minds of the ... Secretary Cohen reminded the veterans that Americans still stand guard in South Korea. ...
... In South Korea, thousands of government officials and militiamen were put on alert as the center of the storm was expected to reach the peninsula on Saturday. ...
... China, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Korea North, Korea Sourth, Libya, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, Taiwan, Tibet, NEWS. 1997, UN Earth Summit. 1999, UN Earth Climate Debate. ...
... (Civil War, World War I, World War II, Korea, Viet Nam, Desert Storm, 1812, Revolution, Spanish American War). The only answer possible is civilian casualties. ...
... time, accounts began coming into the White House bunker that four international flights were heading toward Washington over the Atlantic and another from Korea ...
... Beach, Florida, since 1999. Students there come from Africa, Korea, and Germany as well as from Arab states. They have told FBI ...
When the program began in 1998 the first US troops to get the vaccinations were those deployed in Korea and the Middle East. ...
... obtaining the machinery and material necessary to produce a nuclear weapon, although the programmes of rogue states such as Iraq and North Korea remain
... Pakistan 200, Paraguay 2, Peru 6, Philippines 117. Portugal 25, Russia 117, South Africa 6, South Korea 27. Spain 8, Sweden 1, Switzerland 6, Taiwan 9. ...
... to take 235,000 barrels of marine diesel fuel from Kuwait to Diego Garcia, site of a US Air Force base in the Indian Ocean, and from South Korea to Japan, ship ...
... `What we're engaged in is something that is very, very different from World War II, Korea, Vietnam, the Gulf War, Kosovo, Bosnia, the kinds of things people ...
... North Korea. Iran. India / Pakistan. Turkey. ... North Korea: (March 12) At this point in time, reference to North Korean military threats must be played down entirely. ...
... Throughout the 1990s, the United States relied on a negotiated framework to keep North Korea from gaining nuclear weapons. ...
... The 1998 report asserted that, within five years of deciding to do so, a rogue state such as North Korea or Iran could acquire a ballistic missile capable of ...
It is aimed at preventing the equipment from reaching Syria, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Sudan, Cuba and Libya.
... similar rallies were planned and held in San Francisco, California, Chicago, Illinois, and cities in Mexico, Japan, Spain, Germany, South Korea, Belgium ...
... to the disputed Spratly Islands. China, along with Japan and South Korea, will meet with ASEAN on Sunday. When asked if ASEAN
... The State of the Union address, in which Bush called Iran, Iraq, and North Korea an ''axis of evil'' that was threatening to the United States, seemed to ...
... a missile programme. There have also been allegations that supplies were sold to Iraq and North Korea. Initial smallpox symptoms ...
... He recently headed a panel that concluded countries such as North Korea and Iran could eventually have the capacity to launch ballistic missiles at the United ...
... Within the field of Asian Studies in the United States, the holy trinity of China, Japan (with Korea included in the space between the first two), and India ...
... documents, Norris and his co-authors said they could identify 17 of those other locations, ringing the globe from Canada to Iceland to South Korea and Japan. ...
. 11-4-99 - VISION/VOICE - "Just because of Korea, Russia, and China...I wouldn't necessarily condemn New York, Washington, and New Jersey.". ...
... As for myself, I was oung, - so it was either Korea or World War II, though it could have been Vietnam. It was scary in the barracks. ...
11-4-99 - VISION/VOICE - "Just because of Korea, Russia, and China...I wouldn't necessarily condemn New York, Washington, and New Jersey.". ...
... Chinese Government. US Secretary of State Colin Powell, in China for talks on Iraq and North Korea, said: "I was sorry to learn...
MAY, 1995. 5-1-95 - DREAM - (Vision or is this a dream?) North Korea will be the first country to shoot down a UFO with a ground to air missile.
. 11-4-99 - VISION - Just because of Korea, Russia, and China, I wouldn't necessarily condemn New York, Washington, and New Jersey.
... The head of an Air Force fighter wing in South Korea recently was relieved of his command for making a derogatory remark to a female officer. ...
... He called North Korea "our biggest problem with weapons of mass destruction," and said the standoff should be handled diplomatically by "moving in now
... Perhaps they want to deter foes. The wild card is that some (Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Syria) are also considered architects of terrorism. ...
When the Ship Comes In
by Bob Dylan
Oh the time will come up
Oh the seas will split
Oh the fishes will laugh
And the words that are used
A song will lift
Then the sands will roll
Oh the foes will rise
Then they'll raise their hands,
Copyright © 1963; renewed 1991 Special Rider Music