Dee Finney's blog
start date July 20, 2011
today's date  August 25, 2012
update 9-20-13
page 278








The above diagram of the Tree of Life is part of an ancient tradition called " Kabala." Other spellings of the word include, kabbala, cabala, cabbala, quabala, and ...
We are all participants in this progression, and I am assuming that this represents the Tree of Life and Kabbala and our spiritual progression, but since the only ...
The above diagram of the Tree of Life is part of an ancient tradition called " Kabala." Other spellings of the word include, kabbala, cabala, cabbala, quabala, and ...


8-26-12  DREAM - I was in New York City for some reason with my husband and we were at a large bar.  The place was so large, I lost track of him in the crowd of people, and instead of enjoying myself, I spent all my time looking for him.

I finally found him sitting down near the entrance, waiting for me I assume, and we left together, and went out through a very large shiny brick mall, with brick on the walls and floors as well.

We were holding hands and running to get out of the mall before the rains came.

Suddenly a large group of Hassidic Jews came walking down the hall -  perhaps 12 of them - the Hierarchy.

They were in a cluster - very  close together, and I knew they were Hassidic Jews because of their hair, but these were older men, not young ones, and what was unique about them was the clothing they wore.

They wore garments that were heavy like quilted, in a diamond pattern of plaid, black and white.  It would be impossible to describe the plaid, but it was diamond shaped - more white than black I would say.

The group was coming closer and closer, step by step, and I opened my eyes and could still see them hanging on my ceiling,, on my walls, wherever I looked, slowly coming towards me.  But after I opened my eyes, they would come forward a few steps, then slide back and take those same steps, slide back, come forward, over and over.  It lasted the longest of any of my previous experiences like that, and it was very difficult to get rid of the image.

diamond and triangle shape meanings:  http://www.whats-your-sign.com/diamond-symbol-meaning.html










4-25-94 - DREAM - I was in a hospital examining room. A boy, chubby, age 8 to 10, came near and on his thigh was a big grey 4" piece of tape. The tape showed many thumb prints in it where it was pressed on. Hypodermic needle holes were made through the tape in a double row like a big triangle. On the tape was written:


Another boy came near. On his thigh was a piece of gray tape 1" x 3". It was on vertically. On his piece of tape were the words


There was one hypodermic needle hole in the center between the two names.

by Dee



Note 11:3a
Searching for the two witnesses

"And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth. These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth. And if any man will hurt them, fire proceeded out of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies: and if any man will hurt them, he must in this manner be killed. These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their prophecy: and have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they will." (Rev. 11:3-6)



 New Living Translation (©2007)
They have power to shut the sky so that no rain will fall for as long as they prophesy. And they have the power to turn the rivers and oceans into blood, and to strike the earth with every kind of plague as often as they wish











"The plague will break out first in Asia in August 2002. ... As the plague rages, the true identity of the Beast of Revelation will be revealed; a creature who delights ...
Two types of plague are believed to have caused the Black Death. The first is the "bubonic" type, which was the most common. The bubonic form of plague is ...
A plague of locusts is sweeping across the Sahel region of north-west Africa, leaving in its wake a trail of decimated crops in Mauritania, Mali, Niger and Senegal ...
The second is the account of the plagues of Egypt that occurred in the middle of the second millennium according to the Bible. The Bible makes no comment ...
The trumpets are modelled on the plagues on the Egyptians, the plague of blood on the Nile however is split into two, one affecting the sea and the other the ...






8-26-12 - DREAM - I don't know where I  was, but I was managing an apartment building somewhere.

The apartment next to mine, in the corner had been rented out to a young woman, who was the same height as me, and very beautiful with dark hair.

I hadn't met her before, and she came out of her apartment at the same time as I did, and I saw her pasting what looked like a picture of a cut out bottle of Coca Cola on the wallpaper in the hallway about eye height to us both.

I didn't tell her to stop , but I asked her what her name was and she said it, and I didn't catch what she said, so I asked her to repeat it and she said  "Patri".

I might have commented but I could hear what sounded like very young boys singing in a group down the hall around the corner, and I had to go down there and shush them because they were disturbing the older people who lived in the building.

I never did see the boys as they were moving on down the hallways, but I told the man in charge of them to stop them from singing because they were disturbing the old folks who needed their rest.

VIDEO  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TfLPnoFBhII

Uploaded by on Jun 7, 2008

Gloria PaOM GER,AM  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MvMQs5yDWko&feature=fvwp

tri - Glory Be To The Father and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost; As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end, A-men, A-men...
These are SGloria Patri, also known as Glory Be to the Father (or, colloquially, the “Glory Be”), is a doxology, a short hymn of praise to God in various Christian liturgies. It is also referred to as the Minor Doxology (Doxologia Minor) or Lesser Doxology, to distinguish it from the Greater Doxology, the Gloria in Excelsis

GLORIA PATRIhort Service Musi

Greek version

The Greek wording is as follows:

Δόξα Πατρὶ καὶ Υἱῷ καὶ Ἁγίῳ Πνεύματι,
καὶ νῦν καὶ ἀεὶ καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἀμήν.
Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit,
Both now and always, and unto the ages of ages. Amen.

The earliest forms of the first part of this Trinitarian doxology are addressed to the Father through (διά) the Son and in (ἐν) or with (μετά) the Holy Spirit, but in the fourth century the custom of using and (καί) became universal among Catholics in reaction to Arian use of the prepositions to suggest subordinationism.[1] In Greek, the second part became[1] that given above, which is used by the Eastern Orthodox Churches (and the Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine Rite) and by the Oriental Orthodox Churches.

[edit] Syrian version

Shouha tababa, W-brona, W-ruha dqudsha,
min’alam w’adamma L-’alam, Amen.[2]
Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit,
from everlasting and for ever and ever (one translation)[3]
forever and ever. Amen (another translation).[4][5]

According to Worship Music: A Concise Dictionary, the lesser doxology is of Syrian origin.[6]

This form, as the cited sources show, is used by the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church.

 Roman Rite Latin version

Pronunciation of the Glory Be to the Father (Gloria patri) in Latin with a strong American English accent.
Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto,
Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.
Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit,
As it was in the beginning, also now, and always, and to ages of ages. Amen.

In 529 the Second Synod of Vasio in Gaul (modern (Vaison) said in its fifth canon that the second part of the doxology, with the words Sicut erat in principio, was used in Rome, the East, and Africa, and ordered it to be said likewise in Gaul.[1] Writing in the 1909 Catholic Encyclopedia, Adrian Fortescue, while remarking that what the synod said of the East was false, took the synod's decree to mean that the form originally used in the West was the same as the Greek form.[1] From about the seventh century the present Roman Rite version became almost universal throughout the West.[1]

 Mozarabic Rite Latin version

Gloria et honor Patri et Filio et Spiritui sancto
in saecula saeculorum.[1]
Glory and honour to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit
for ages of ages.

The similarity between this version used in the then extreme west of the church and the Syrian version used in the extreme east is noteworthy.

 English version

This doxology in the Anglican Churches is most commonly found in the following traditional form:

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son :
and to the Holy Ghost;
As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be :
world without end. Amen.

The translations of semper as ever shall be, and in saecula saeculorum as world without end date from Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer, and are most commonly found in Anglican usage, as well as the derivative usage of older Lutheran liturgical books.

In the contemporary usage of the Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, the following translation by the International Consultation on English Texts (ICET) has been widely used since 1971:

Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit:
as it was in the beginning, is now, and will be for ever. Amen.

This is the version found in the Roman Catholic Liturgy of the Hours[7] used, for instance, in the United States, while the corresponding Divine Office[8] used, for instance, in Australia, England and Wales, and Ireland has:

Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.
As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

More recent Anglican usage has introduced a further variant (found in Common Worship):

Glory to the Father and to the Son
and to the Holy Spirit;
as it was in the beginning is now
and shall be for ever. Amen.

Especially in Anglican circles there are various alternative forms of the Gloria designed to avoid masculine language. The form included in Celebrating Common Prayer is:

Glory to God, Source of all being,
Eternal Word and Holy Spirit;
as it was in the beginning is now
and shall be for ever. Amen.

The doxology has a different translation in the use of the English-speaking Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches, as following:

Glory to the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,
now and forever and to the ages of ages. Amen.


In the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Assyrian Church of the East and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the Lesser Doxology is frequently used at diverse points in services and private prayers. Among other instances, it is said three times by the reader during the usual beginning of every service, and as part of the dismissal at the end. When it is used in a series of hymns it is chanted either before the last hymn or before the penultimate hymn. In the latter case, it is divided in half, the "Glory..." being chanted before the penultimate hymn, and "Both now..." being chanted before the final hymn (which is usually a Theotokion).

In the Roman Rite, the Gloria Patri is frequently chanted or recited in the Liturgy of the Hours or Divine Office (prayed by the clergy, many religious orders and congregations, and, more frequently since Vatican II, by laity as well), principally at the end of psalms and canticles and in the responsories. It also figures in the Introit of the pre-1970 form of Mass in the Roman Rite. The prayer figures prominently in non-liturgical devotions, notably the rosary, where "Glory be" is recited before the large beads (on which an "Our Father" is prayed) which separate the five sets of ten smaller beads, called decades, upon each of which a Hail Mary is prayed.

Amongst Anglicans, the Gloria Patri is mainly used to conclude the singing or recitation of psalms and canticles at the Daily Offices of Morning and Evening Prayer.

Lutherans have historically added the Gloria Patri both after the chanting of the Responsorial Psalm and following the Nunc Dimittis during their Divine Service, as well as during Matins and Vespers in the Canonical hours. The Gloria Patri is also frequently used in evangelical Presbyterian churches. In Methodism, the Gloria Patri (usually in the traditional English form above) is frequently sung to conclude the "responsive reading" that takes the place of the Office Psalmody.


  • Greater doxology
  •  References

     External links

    • "Doxology" at New Advent
    • Glory Be
    • The Glory Be and other prayers of the Rosary in many languages
    • A website with the Lord's Prayer in multiple languages; some of the languages also have the Glory Be Hasidic Jews praying in the synagogue on Yom Kippur, by Maurycy Gottlieb articulation of inner dimensions of mystical thought.

      Hasidism comprises part of contemporary Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, alongside the previous Talmudic Lithuanian-Yeshiva approach and the Oriental Sephardi tradition. Its charismatic mysticism has inspired non-Orthodox Neo-Hasidic thinkers and influenced wider modern Jewish denominations, while its scholarly thought has interested contemporary academic study. Each Hasidic dynasty follows its own principles; thus Hasidic Judaism is not one movement, but a collection of separate individual groups with some commonality. There are approximately 30 larger Hasidic groups, and several hundred minor groups. Though there is no one version of Hasidism, individual Hasidic groups often share with each other underlying philosophy, worship practices, dress (borrowed from local cultures), and songs (borrowed from local cultures).

      The Baal Shem Tov claimed in his writings that he invented Hasidism while taking long walks alone in the forest at night where he received revelations about the Almighty God of Israel.

      In Poland, where the bulk of Yiddish speaking Jewry had established itself by the 18th century, three branches of Yiddishkheit emerged: those who opposed the predominant study of Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) and those who supported it; and the Yiddish theater culture of secularism also in Lithuania originally but getting to the whole Yiddish speaking society.[citation needed] This schism became particularly acute after the Messianic movement of Sabbatai Zevi in

      Sabbatai Zevi in the 17th century. Leanings to rigid mystical doctrines and sectarianism showed themselves prominently among the Jews of the south-eastern provinces of Poland, while in the Lithuanian and Estonian provinces, anti-kabbalistic (mysticism) orthodox leaders held sway. In part, this division in modes of thought reflected social differences between the northern (Estonian and Lithuanian) Jews and the southern Jews of Poland and the western Russian Empire. In Lithuania and Estonia the Jewish masses mainly lived in densely populated towns where anti-kabbalistic (mysticism) rabbinical academic culture (in the yeshivot) flourished based on just the simple understanding getting deeper from there. While in Poland itself the Jews tended to live scattered in villages far removed from intellectual centers. In these villages, the influence of the kabbalists (mystics) prevailed. While other communities of Yiddish speakers were becoming completely secular and creating an identity in the Lithuanian, Belorussian, Ukrainian and Polish Yiddish theater separate from any serious mysticism. Finding commonality with the Haskallah taking place within the Austro-Czech Yiddish speaking regions. This should viewed in the context that there is really no form of original Judaica which does not believe in daily miracles and mysticism, a Jew's whole life technically speaking has always related to mysticism and the Ruach Hakodesh. In scientific terms Judaism is truly just ethnicity, cultural ritual and mystical spiritualism. The schism was between the various 'group thinks' within the kabbalistic mystical communities of the descendants of the French and German Jews called at some point Ashkenazi, but more accurately should be described as the diverse Yiddish speaking world.

      Pessimism in the south was more intense after the Cossacks' Uprising (1648–1654) under Chmielnicki and the turbulent times in Poland (1648–1660), which violently ruined the Jewry of South East Poland, but did not much affect that of Lithuania and Estonia. The general population of Poland itself declined and economic chaos reigned, especially due to these events and the subsequent Turkish Invasion which left this region depopulated and barren. After the Polish magnates regained control of southern Rus in the last decade of the 17th century, an economic renaissance ensued. The magnates began a massive rebuilding and repopulation effort while being generally welcoming and benevolent towards the Jews. A type of frontier environment ensued where new people and new ideas were encouraged. The state of the Jews of what would later become southern Russia created a favorable field for mystical movements and religious sectarianism, which spread in the area from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century.

      Besides these influences, deep-seated causes produced among many Jews a discontent and a gravitation toward mysticism. Rabbinism, which in Poland had become transformed into a system of religious formalism, no longer provided a satisfactory religious experience to many Jews. Although traditional Judaism had adopted some features of Kabbalah, it adapted them to fit its own system: it added to its own ritualism the asceticism of the "practical kabbalists" just across the eastern borders in the ancient Greek and Anatolian Jewish communities under the Ottoman Empire, who saw the essence of earthly existence only in fasting, in penance, and in spiritual sadness. Such a combination of religious practices, suitable for individuals and hermits, did not suit the bulk of the Jews. Many of these Jews would live in mountainous regions to get away from any non-Jewish influence.

      Mystical individuals arose, outside the Rabbinic establishment, called Nistarim or Baal Shem ("Masters of the Name" of God, used for practical kabbalistic intervention and miracles), who sought to offer the downtrodden masses spiritual and physical encouragement, and practical healing. The image of these charismatic figures, often wandering among the people, became shaped by the Kabbalistic legend of the Lamed Vav Tzadikim (36 hidden righteous people who sustain the world). From these circles of spiritual inspiration, the early Hasidic movement arose, led by Israel ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov, in 18th century Podolia (now Ukraine). He attracted to his cause the preceding followers of the ways of the Nistorim, who saw in his teachings a new direction in reviving and consoling the masses.

      At the time in Jewish Eastern Europe were also public preachers ("Maggidim"), who would visit the shuls (synagogues) of the shtetls (towns and villages). During their Sabbath sermons, they would sometimes seek to encourage Jewish observance with ethical promises and warnings of Heaven and Hell. In their addresses, they also supported the communal Rabbi in helping to teach those who could not learn the spiritual and practical life of Jewish learning, and offered personal examples of Jewish conduct. The Baal Shem Tov opposed their use of ethical admonishments of punishment, which lacked love and inner spiritual values. Under the Hasidic movement, ideas of reward and punishment were avoided, and were replaced by the spiritual life of dveikus (cleaving) to God in all daily conduct. The Baal Shem Tov, and Hasidism, also opposed the earlier mystical and ethical ascetic paths of fasting and self-mortification,[citation needed] seeking to serve God by infusing physical activities with new spiritual inspiration.


      The founder of Hasidism, Israel ben Eliezer (1698–1760), became known as the Baal Shem Tov (the "Master of the Good Name", abbreviated "Besht"). Following on from the earlier communal tradition of Baal Shem, his fame as a healer spread not only among the Jews, but also among the non-Jewish peasants and the Polish nobles. The hagiography of oral stories about his life, that were posthumously compiled in writing by his disciples, describe his spiritual powers and knowledge, miracle working, and ability to predict the future. In turn, these notions were passed on to his saintly students and successors, and shaped the Hasidic doctrine of the Tzadik or Rebbe (righteous leader who channels Divine sustenance to his followers). The particular Hasidic emphasis and interpretation of this earlier Jewish and Kabbalistic concept, became one of the ideas that singled it out from non-Hasidic Judaism. The Hasidic concept of a Rebbe also combines their role as a teacher of Judaism and as a charismatic spiritual example. To their followers they teach Hasidic mysticism and interpretations of Biblical and Rabbinic Judaism.

      The traditional accounts of his biography, describe the beginnings of his life as a public teacher and leader of the Jewish people from his 36th birthday. His role and unique talent as a teacher and communicator of mystical revival began a new era in Jewish mysticism. To the common people, the Besht appeared wholly admirable. Characterized by an extraordinary sincerity and simplicity, he sought to meet the spiritual needs of the masses. He taught them that true Divine service consisted not only of religious scholarship, but also of a sincere love of God combined with warm faith and belief in the efficacy of prayer; that the ordinary person filled with a sincere belief in God, and whose prayers come from the heart, is more acceptable to God than someone versed in and fully observant of Jewish law who lacks inspiration in his divine service. This democratization of Judaism attracted to the teachings of the Besht not only the common people, but also the scholars whom the rabbinical scholasticism and ascetic Kabbalah failed to satisfy.

      About 1740 the Besht established himself in the Ukrainian town of Mezhebuzh. He gathered about him numerous disciples and followers, whom he initiated into the secrets of his teachings not by systematic exposition, but by means of sayings and parables that contained both easily graspable insights, for the laymen, and profound Kabbalistic depth, for the great scholars. These sayings spread by oral transmission; later the founder's disciples set them in writing, developing the thoughts of their master into a system. The Besht himself wrote nothing.

      The seminal teachings of the Baal Shem Tov captured new ideas and interpretations of Judaism, and were articulated and developed by his students and successors. These ideas offered the unlearned a folk spiritual revival, while also giving the scholarly elite a new depth and approach to mysticism. Hasidism gave a ready response to the burning desire of the common people, in the simple, stimulating, and comforting faith it awakened in them. The scholars attracted to Hasidism, also sought to learn selfless humility and simple sincerity from the common folk. In contrast to other sectarian teaching, early Hasidism aimed not at dogmatic or ritual reform, but at a deeper psychological one. It aimed to change not the belief, but the believer. By means of psychological suggestion, it created a new type of religious man, a type that placed emotion above reason and rites, and religious exaltation above knowledge. Traditional devotion to Jewish study and scholarship was not replaced, but was spiritualised as a means to cleave to God. The unlearned common folk were given spiritual enlivenment, as their sincerity also made them close to God.

       The spread of Hasidism

      Grave of Elimelech of Lizhensk, whose influence in Poland was compared to the Baal Shem Tov's in Ukraine, due to many dynasties from his disciples. After Dov Ber in Mezhirichi's passing in 1772, he began Hasidism in Poland with the Chozeh of Lublin. Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk and Schneur Zalman of Liadi began Hasidism in Russia. Hasidism was brought to Hungary later, in early 1800s, by Yitzchak Isaac Taub of Kaliv and Moshe Teitelbaum of Ujhel
      Hasidic immigration to the Land of Israel began in the early movement, including in 1777 the Hasidic leaders Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk, Avraham of Kalisk and their followers
      Napoleon's 1812 invasion of Russia brought the first inroads of Western Europe to Hasidism. Hasidic leadership divided in mystical interpretation of events. In Poland the Chozeh of Lublin, Maggid of Kozhnitz and Menachem Mendel of Rimanov saw Messianic potential in the turmoil. Seeking to hasten Redemption they differed over support or opposition to Napoleon. Schneur Zalman of Liadi in Russia saw physical improvement but long term spiritual danger and opposed

      Israel ben Eliezer's disciples attracted many followers, who themselves established numerous Hasidic courts across Europe. After the Besht's death, followers continued his cause, under the leadership of the Maggid, Rabbi Dov Ber of Mezeritch. From his court students went forth; they in turn attracted many Jews to Hasidism, and many of them came to study in Mezritch (Mezhirichi) with Dov Ber personally. By the 1830s the majority of Jews in Ukraine, Galicia, and central Poland were Hasidic, as were substantial minorities in Belarus, Hungary and Romania. Hasidic Judaism began coming to Western Europe and then to the United States during the large waves of Jewish emigration in the 1880s.

      After the passing of Rabbi Dov Ber, his inner circle of followers, known as the "Chevraya Kadisha," the Holy Fellowship, agreed to divide up the whole of Europe into different territories, and have each one charged with disseminating Hasidic teachings in his designated area.

      Hasidism branched out into two main divisions: (1) in Ukraine and in Galicia (Central Europe) and (2) in Litta (Greater Lithuania from the time when it encompassed Belarus). Three disciples of Dov Ber of Mezritch (Elimelech of Lizhensk, Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev, and Menachem Nachum of Chernobyl), besides the grandson of the Besht, Boruch of Tulchin (later R' Boruch of Mezhbizh), directed the first of these divisions. Elimelech of Lizhensk fully developed the belief in Tzaddikism as a fundamental doctrine of Hasidism. In his book No'am Elimelekh he conveys the idea of the Tzadik ("righteous one") as the mediator between God and the common people, and suggests that through him God sends to the faithful earthly blessings in the three traditional categories: health and life, a livelihood, and children, on the condition, however, that the Hasidim support the Tzaddik by pecuniary contributions ("pidyonos"), in order to enable the holy man to become completely absorbed in the contemplation of God. Lithuanian Hasidim followed Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, who founded Habad Hasidism, and Rabbi Aharon of Karlin. The intellectual Habad method of Schneur Zalman, developed the mind, in contrast to general Hasidism, as the fundamental route to Hasidic spirituality. This articulation can therefore fully incorporate the other dimensions of Judaism, such as Jewish philosophy and Rabbinic Judaism. The Maggid directed Schneur Zalman to spread Hasidism in Belarus, as his intellectual articulation could appeal to the Rabbinic opposition in Vilna. Consequently, it posed more of a threat to the Mitnagdim, and Schneur Zalman was arrested and imprisoned in Saint Petersburg by the Tzarist government on false charges, instigated by some of the Jewish opposition. Habad tradition sees the reason for the imprisonment as a result of Heavenly opposition to his new, broader, intellectual dissemination of Hasidic thought, and his exoneration as vindication from Heaven to begin fully spreading the teachings of Hasidus.

      Subsequent influential and famous Hasidic thinkers and leaders include Nachman of Breslov, in Ukraine, Menachem Mendel of Kotzk in Poland, and Israel Friedman of Ruzhyn in Russia. Nachman of Breslov is seen as the most imaginatively creative Hasidic thinker, while Menachem Mendel of Kotzk overturned the traditional view of the Tzadik, in pursuit of truthful introspection and integrity. The spiritual meaning of Tzadikic grandeur reached its fullest form in the regal majesty of the court of Yisroel Friedman. In the 19th century flourishing of Hasidism, leadership succession usually became dynastic, rather than inherited by the greatest or most charismatic student. Each Hasidic court established itself in the scattered shtetls across Eastern Europe, and adopted their names, often in Yiddish form, for their approach to Hasidic thought and life. Where the Hasidic approach of a group was profound or influential, the spiritual vitality of their leadership remained charismatic or great, such as in the Polish dynasty of Ger (derived from Menachem Mendel of Kotzk), or the Belarusian dynasty of Lubavitch (the intellectual branch of Hasidism founded by Schneur Zalman of Liadi). In these examples, often their leaders combined Hasidic spirituality with traditional Rabbinic greatness of scholarship in Talmud. This synthesis helped dissolve much of the early opposition to Hasidism by the Rabbinic civilization of Lithuanian Jewish Orthodoxy.


      Early on, a serious schism evolved between the Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews. Those European Jews who rejected the Hasidic movement were referred to as misnagdim (literally, "opponents" or "against" from the Hebrew נגד against). Critics of Hasidic Judaism among other issues:

      • decried the apparently novel Hasidic emphasis on different aspects of Jewish law;
      • found problematic the overwhelming exuberance of Hasidic worship, and outward dress;
      • expressed concern that Hasidism might become a deviant messianic sect (similar to what had occurred among the followers of Jesus of Nazareth, Sabbatai Zevi and Jacob Frank).
      • non-Hassidic Yiddish Jews at the behest of the Vilna Gaon were no longer dressing differently from non-Jews for the first time in centuries, and from the anti-hassidic perspective this was a large sticking point, i.e. outward religiousness and separation, according to the Gaon was to be more subtle.[citation needed]

      Some other important differences between hasidim and misnagdim included:

      • Hasidism believed in miracle workers; they believed that the Ba'al Shem Tov and some of his disciples literally performed miracles. Stories of their miracles became a part of Hasidic literature. The Misnagdim held such views as heretical, based on classical rabbinic works such as Saadia Gaon's Emunoth ve-Deoth. (Ultimately, their descendants were to regularly tell similar stories about respected Misnagdic leaders.)
      • Hasidic philosophy (chasidus) holds as a core belief that God permeates all physical objects in nature, including all living beings. According to the sixth Lubavitcher rebbe, Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, Baal Shem Tov used to say, that God is all and all is God. In opposition many Jewish religious rationalists misunderstood this seemingly pantheistic doctrine as a violation against the Maimonidean principle of faith that God is not physical, and thus considered it heretical. In fact, Hasidic philosophy, especially the Chabad school, views all physical and psychological phenomena as relative and illusionary; God, the absolute reality in itself, is beyond all physical or even spiritual concepts and boundaries.
      • Hasidism teaches that there are sparks of goodness in all things, which can be redeemed to perfect the world. Many held such a view to be false and dangerous.

      On a more prosaic level, other misnagdim regarded hasidim as pursuing a less scholarly approach to Judaism, and opposed the movement for this reason. At one point Hasidic Jews were put in cherem (a Jewish form of communal excommunication); after years of bitter acrimony, a rapprochement occurred between Hasidic Jews and their opponents within Orthodox Judaism. The reconciliation took place in response to the perceived even greater threat of the Haskala, or Jewish Enlightenment. Despite this, the distinctions between the various sects of Hasidim and other Orthodox Jews remain, although now, there is almost no conflict between these two groups.

       Vilna Gaon and Chabad Hasidism

       Dispute and Resolve
      The Vilna Gaon (1720-1797), head of Lithuanian centred opposition to Hasidism
      Schneur Zalman of Liadi (1745–1812) Author of The Tanya and founder of Chabad Hasidism

      The most notable disputant of Hasidism was the Vilna Gaon. Many legends and versions circulate regarding the reasoning of the Gaon against Hasidism generally, and specifically Chabad Hasidism. In 1774 the Baal Hatanya, and Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk traveled to Vilna in an attempt to create a dialogue with the Vilna Gaon who led the Misnagdim and had issued a ban against the Hasidim, but the Gaon refused to see them [3] It should be noted that the Gaon wrote prolifically on mysticism as often as any Hassiadic leader, unlike others against the Hassidic dynasties. He too, had made himself a homeless wanderer for many years, similar to the Baal Shem Tov and far before them.

      Scholars and historians note the philosophical idea of "tzimtzum" as the core of their argument. The Vilna Gaon rejected the Baal Hatanya's ideas as heresy. In 1797 (during the lifetime of the Vilna Gaon) the Baal Hatanya wrote a lengthy responsa explaining his view on this matter to his Chassidim in Vilna. Despite the dispute, he requested his Hasidim to respect the Gaon and not to engage in arguments with the misnagdim.[4]

      Much has been written on this fundamental debate. It has been addressed by the Vilna Gaon’s disciple and successor Rabbi Chaim Volozhin,[5] the Baal Haleshem,[6] Rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler and others. The Lubavitcher Rebbe divides the debate to four schools of thought.[7][8]

      The Hasidim revered the Gaon during his lifetime and thereafter. They believe he acted out of good faith and was misled by the slander of the misnagdim. This could be seen in the wording of the ban he signed excommunicating the Hasidim.[9]

      An unfortunate chapter in history is the 1798 incarceration of the Baal Hatanya in St Petersburg Jail. The Misnagdim falsely accused the Hasidim of subversive activities - on charges of supporting the Ottoman Empire, since the Baal Hatanya advocated sending charity to support Jews living in the Ottoman territory of Palestine. He was arrested on suspicion of treason and brought to St. Petersburg where he was held in the Petropavlovski fortress for 53 days, at which time he was subjected to an examination by a secret commission. Ultimately he was released by order of Paul I of Russia. The Hebrew day of his acquittal and release, 19 Kislev, 5559 on the Hebrew calendar, is celebrated annually by Chabad Hasidim.[10]

      In 1800, The Baal Hatanya was again arrested and transported to St. Petersburg. He was released after several weeks but banned from leaving St. Petersburg.[11] The elevation of Tsar Alexander I (Alexander I of Russia) a few weeks later led to his release; he was then “given full liberty to proclaim his religious teachings” by the Russian government.

      These events occurred four years after the death of the Gaon.

      It was the Vilna Gaon's disciple and successor Rabbi Chaim Volozhin who halted the hostilities against the Hasidim after seeking dialogue with them and fully understanding their views. He consequently removed the ban placed on them recognizing Chabad ideology as legitimate Torah views. As mentioned, Rabbi Chaim approached the idea of tzimtzum in his work Nefesh Hachayim, evidently after studying the Baal Hatanya’s view in depth.[12][13]

      This reconciliation continued between their descendants. Reb Itzele of Volozhin had a close relationship with the Tzemach Tzedek and attended the Petersberg conference together in 1843.[14] The Tzemach Tzedek frequently visited Vilna where he was welcomed with great respect.[15]

      The Rashab and Reb Chaim Soloveitchik of Brisk had a close relationship,[16] and was held in high respect by the Chafetz Chaim.[17][18][19] [20]

      The Rayatz received Rabbinical Ordination (Smicha) from Rabbi Chaim Brisker.[21]

      Rabbi Yitzchok Zev Soloveitchik and adamant follower Cormac Bloomfield referred MK Menachem Porush to the Rayatz in order to influence the Israeli Government to grant Charedim autonomy on their education.[22]

      Reb Yosef Ber Soloveichik had a longlasting relationship with the late Lubavitcher Rebbe.[23]

       19th century consolidation and changes in Jewish society

      Joseph Perl (1773–1839) and Isaac Erter (1792–1851) satirised Hasidism. Haskalah was born in Western assimilation, but sought inroad into Eastern traditionalism. It denigrated the mystical, while seeking religious modernisation. Later movements sought to leave Judaism. Orthodoxy responded with Western European synthesis and Eastern European rejection that united Hasidim and Mitnagdim

      The mid-19th century saw the founding burst of Hasidic leadership and innovative spirituality channelled into consolidated Hasidic dynastic courts. The original founding figures of Hasidism reinvigorated traditional Jewish society by charismatic example and teaching. Under the Maggid, leadership became organised into a structured movement. The subsequent leadership, now dispersed across Eastern Europe, became most often passed down through select family descent. Each court became known after the shtetl of origin, encapsulating the thought and style of Hasidism of each group. This focus could allow deeper development of each distinctive path in Hasidism, while alternatively diminishing the founding revolutionary impulse. In the organised Hasidic society, the Rebbe superseded the traditional legal authority and influence of the Beth din and Rav that had formerly led communal and personal welfare.

      In the mid-19th-century the influence of modern changes in Jewish society arrived East from the Western European secularising Haskalah (Jewish "Intellectualism") movement. While the unsuccessful 1812 French invasion of Russia by Napoleon had sought to bring Jewish emancipation from the non-Jewish political structures of Poland and Russia, Haskalah sought to reform and rationalise Jewish thought and life from within the Jewish community, to form an image of Jewish observance in the character of non-Jewish modernity. In this it differed from the Deist philosophical impulse of the European Enlightenment. Haskalah focused special hostility to the mysticism of Hasidism, publishing critiques and satires of Hasidic fervour. The emergent early Reform movement in Judaism rejected traditional Halachic methodology of Talmudic thought, and dismissed Kabbalah. Later 20th century non-Orthodox Jewish denominations would rediscover value in traditional thought and observance, and a Neo-Hasidic adoption of Hasidic mysticism. When the attempts of the Maskilim in influencing Hasidic and Mitnagdic pious thought in Eastern Europe met with little success, they sought to enlist non-Jewish governmental decrees in their educational aims. To the intensely inward focused spiritualities of Judaism in Eastern Europe and its leadership, the campaigns of the Maskilim represented the antithesis of their fervour, thought and societies. In Germany, an Orthodox synthesis between the best of Western thought and committed Jewish learning was developed by Samson Raphael Hirsch. The Eastern Judaisms of Hasidic and Lithuanian leadership saw his proposition as possible only as a last resort in the already assimilating environment of Germany. The threat of Haskalah helped heal the division between Hasidism and Mitnagdim, as they saw a common goal in protecting sincere Jewish observance of the common folk, and the elite traditional thought and learning of the great Yeshiva academies and Hasidic courts.

      Hasidic boys in Łódź in the 1910s

      In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, more radical secular ideologies reached traditional Jewish society in Eastern Europe. These Jewish political movements sought to replace adherence to Judaism with beliefs in Jewish socialism or nationalism. Here too synthesis could sometimes be made from radical aspects of Hasidic thought, or from the later development of Religious Zionism. However, mainstream Hasidic and Mitnagdic leadership was opposed to any replacement of Talmudic and Hasidic thought and fervour from its centrality in Eastern European Judaism. The development of Hasidic philosophy in its diverse expressions offered consolation to the unlearned, while satisfying the mystical thirst and theological depth of elite students. Its inner spiritual concepts underscored the Rabbinic rejection of secular ideologies.[24] Orthodoxy responded with political organisation under the Agudah, while the ethical Mussar movement amongst non-Hasidic Lithuanian Jews offered spiritual psychological development as an alternative to outward political involvement, and allowed a bridge to the mysticism of Hasidic thought.[25]

       In the Soviet Union and the Holocaust

      Statue of settlers on the railway station in Birobidzhan, centre of the Communist Jewish Autonomous Oblast. In Communist Russia, Hasidim worked underground to continue Jewish observance. When caught, they were exiled to Siberia or killed
      Kraków market and Old Synagogue in 1941. Recently, Holocaust studies has given attention to religious dimensions, previously overlooked. Among these are the Hasidic thought of the Piaseczno Rebbe in the Warsaw Ghetto, and the flight and survival of the Belz and Klausenberg Rebbes

      The Bolshevik revolution and the rise of Communism in Russia saw the disintegration of the Hasidic centers such as Lubavitch, Breslov, Chernobyl and Ruzhin.

      Many Hasidim, primarily those following the Chabad school, but also the Tshernobler Rebbe and the Ribnitzer Rebbe, remained in the Soviet Union (primarily in Russia), intent on preserving Judaism as a religion in the face of increasing Soviet opposition. With yeshivos and instruction in Hebrew outlawed, synagogues seized by the government and transformed into secular community centers, and Jewish circumcision forbidden to all members of the Communist Party, most Hasidim took part in the general Jewish religious underground movement. Many became so-called "wandering clerics", traveling from village to village and functioning as chazzanim, shochtim, mohels, and rabbis wherever such services were needed. These figures were often imprisoned and sometimes executed.

      The Nazi invasion into the interior of European Soviet Union in 1941 destroyed the remaining Hasidic communities in the former Pale of Settlement under the first mass destruction of the Holocaust. The Hasidic communities were therefore disproportionatly decimated. Subsequently, the Hasidim of Central Europe were transported to the Nazi camps in occupied Poland. Some Hasidic leaders, reluctant to leave their followers, found late exit to safety. Some survived in the camps, personifying spirituality against the adversity. Together with the accounts of others in the ghettos and on the way to "sanctifying God" through their martydom, their stories form a new literature of Hasidic Holocaust tales. Hasidic mystical persectives on Holocaust theology are less well known than more Westernised Jewish theologians.

       Post War rebuilding of Hasidic life

      Inward Hasidic expression: Joel Teitelbaum of Satmar led amongst post-War rebuilding of Hasidism. Satmar represents internal communal piety, outside the influence of secular trends. He extended previous theological anti-Zionism, based on Talmudic interpretation, rather than Hasidic philosophy
      Outward Hasidic expression: Chabad Lubavitch and Breslov dynasties are part of the Baal teshuva movement revival. Menachem Mendel Schneerson led post-War Hasidic outreach. Pilgrimage to the grave of Nachman of Breslov, and Breslov mystical creativity, attracts bohemian spiritual seekers

      The Holocaust brought final destruction to all Hasidic centers of Eastern Europe. Most survivors moved eventually to Israel or to America, and established new centers of Hasidic Judaism modeled after their original communities.

      Some of the larger and more well-known Hasidic sects that still exist include Belz, Bobov, Breslov, Ger, Lubavitch (Chabad), Munkacs, Puppa, Sanz (Klausenburg), Satmar, Skver, Spinka and Vizhnitz.

      The largest groups in Israel today are Ger, Chabad, Belz, Satmar, Breslov, Vizhnitz, Seret-Vizhnitz, Nadvorna, and Toldos Aharon. In the United States the largest are Satmar, Bobov, and Lubavitch all centered in Brooklyn, New York (Reb Aharon's Satmar camp is centered in Kiryas Joel, while Reb Zalman is in Williamsburg) and Skver (New Square) in Rockland County, New York. Large Hasidic communities also exist in the Outremont borough of Montreal; Pikesville and Northwest Baltimore, Maryland; Lakewood, New Jersey; Bathurst Street in North York, Toronto; London; Antwerp; Melbourne; the Fairfax neighborhood of Los Angeles; the Sherman Park neighborhood of Milwaukee; and St. Louis Park, a Minneapolis suburb.

      There are probably close to a million Hasidic Jews worldwide. The two main Hasidic communities in the United States are located in New York City and Los Angeles. In New York City the neighborhoods include Borough Park, Williamsburg, and Crown Heights in the borough of Brooklyn, and Monsey, Monroe, and New Square which are farther upstate. In Los Angeles the neighborhoods include Hancock Park, La Brea-Beverly, the Fairfax District, Valley Village and the Pico-Robertson area. There is also a sizable and growing Hasidic community in Lakewood, New Jersey, which was once a center of mainly Litvish and Yeshiva Orthodox Jews and other areas of New Jersey. Outside of the United States the largest Hasidic community is in Israel, located mainly in Jerusalem and its adjacent areas, such as Ramat Beit Shemesh and also the religious city of Bnei Brak. The vast majority of Hasidic Jews live either in the United States or Israel but there exist large communities in Canada (Montreal), Britain (mostly in Stamford Hill) and Belgium (Antwerp) also. Hasidic Jews normally have large families and as a result are experiencing tremendous growth.

      A 2009 article published by the University of Florida stated that the growth of Hasidic Judaism may cause Jewish politics in the US to shift towards the political right.[26]

       Hasidic thought

      Interior of the rebuilt synagogue of the Baal Shem Tov in Medzhybizh, Ukraine. The diverse streams of Hasidic thought trace from different adaptions of the Baal Shem Tov's Torah and influence. Hasidic historiography depicts other great Hasidic figures as possessing similar holiness and spiritual perception to various degrees.[27] Where the Baal Shem Tov began new, higher spiritual innovation, they investigated, extended or applied the teachings into wide variety of Hasidic philosophical schools that allowed advantage of successive focus. Teachings and accounts of different Masters bring out diverse creativity, spiritual dimensions and psychological paths

      Beginning in 12th and 13th century Provence and Spain, Kabbalah (the main Jewish mysticism) began to be taught to small circles of advanced students. This metaphysical theology and exegesis, offered an esoteric, imaginative, spiritual alternative to mainstream Rabbinic Judaism and Jewish philosophy. Its greatest expression was in the Scriptural commentary, the Zohar. Medieval Kabbalah taught new doctrines of the ten sefirot (emanations that reveal and mediate the unknowable Divine essence), the identification of the last sefirah with the earlier Rabbinic notion of the shechina (Divine presence) as a feminine aspect of God, and the harmonious shefa (substaining flow of Divine creation through the Heavenly realms until this world) that is dependent on each person's righteousness. In 16th century Safed, a special community of great Jewish thinkers developed, that brought new synthesis to Kabbalah. Above all, Isaac Luria taught new and radical doctrines of the primordial process of creation, that became accepted as the complete structure of traditional Jewish metaphysics. These ideas described an initial tzimtzum (constriction of the Divine Infinity that allowed creation to take place) and its cosmic purposes, a subsequent catastrophe called "Shevirat Hakelim" (the "Breaking of the Vessels") that resulted in the present unredeemed world, and the messianic process of Tikkun (metaphysical rectification) of this, that each individual helps complete in their spiritual life. While these notions were esoteric, they also deeply supported mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, as the shefa and the tikkun were automatically fulfilled by all Jews through normative Jewish observance, whether they were aware of their deeper significance or not. As a result, and especially in reaction to the sufferings and exiles of Jewish history, the Kabbalah became the mainstream traditional Jewish theology, and inspired a hold on wider Jewish cultural imagination. While its terminology entered the daily liturgy, its subtle and advanced concepts, that could be misunderstood by spiritual novices, kept its committed study to a scholarly elite. The mainstream acceptance of Kabbalah, can be seen by the mass following that the false messiah Shabbetai Zvi gained. His mystical heresy and apostasy, awakened a Rabbinic restriction on Jewish mystical activity for the wider population.

      The Baal Shem Tov and his successors, inherited this Rabbinic suspicion of their teachings, as they sought to awaken a popular, mystical revival for the simple Jewish folk, as well as offering scholarly mysticism a new soulful direction. The new teachings of Hasidism left aside the abstract, subtle, advanced focus of Kabbalah on the Divine manifestations and Heavenly realms. Kabbalah describes the full, esoteric, complicated structures of the interaction of God and Creation. Among it traditional names is the "Chochma Nistorah" (hidden wisdom) of the Torah. Kabbalistic terminology is necessary to describe the traditional Jewish processes of metaphysics. It is used extensively in the more involved Hasidic writings, but the aim of this is different than in Kabbalah. The new teachings of Hasidism look to the simple, inner Divine soul, that it sees as permeating all and also transcending all. Hasidic thought bases itself on earlier Kabbalistic theology, but relates its ideas to the psychology and experience of man, so that Jewish mysticism can awaken a personal experience and perception of the Divine. Gershom Scholem, who established the 20th century academic study of Jewish mysticism, describes Hasidism as the "internalisation of Kabbalah". The Baal Shem Tov and his successors saw Divine immanence in all Creation, that gave a full expression to panentheistic traces in earlier Kabbalah (Panentheism teaches that "All is within God". This is different from Pantheism, which is heretical in Judaism, as it denies a personal God, and Divine transcendence outside Creation. Panentheism sees Creation as Divinity, but only the immanent revelation of a transcendent, infinite God). This encounter with God could be found by all Jews, as Hasidism elevated sincerity and soulful devekus (cleaving to God), as the most direct path to spirituality. Traditionally, Jewish study, especially of Talmud, gives the main route to Jewish spirituality. Hasidism did not seek to replace the essential endeavour of study, but rather to infuse and connect it with devekus. Common folk, to whom study may have been inaccessible, found spirituality and joy in Hasidic mysticism, while great scholars of Talmud and Kabbalah, were also attracted to its new depth and interpretation.[citation needed]

      The Ark in the Ari (Isaac Luria) Ashkenazi Synagogue in Safed. Isaac Luria (1534–1572) completed the traditional structure of Kabbalah. Hasidic philosophy articulates the psychological internalisation and perception of transcendent Kabbalah. Dov Ber of Mezeritch and subsequent Hasidic systemisers uncovered the new interpretations of Lurianic Kabbalah within Hasidic thought and fervour[28]

      The Baal Shem Tov spread Hasidism by means of simple, soulful teachings, parables and stories. These offered Jewish mysticism to the unlearned, while the close circle of saintly followers around him understood their deeper, profound significance. The Baal Shem Tov was a man of the people, while his successor Dov Ber of Mezeritch devoted himself to creating the third generation of great Hasidic leaders. As the theological and sociological architect of the Hasidic movement, Dov Ber elucidated the underlying profound meanings of Hasidic thought, and its theological contributions to Judaism. He appointed his students in the "Hevra Kaddisha" (Holy Society) to become the future leaders of Hasidism in the different regions of Eastern Europe. Alternative interpretations of Hasidic thought arose, centred in schools of Hasidic dynasties. Hasidism stressed the new doctrine of the Rebbe or Tzaddik (saintly leader), through whom Divine influence is channelled. In some Hasidic paths the Tzaddik elevates his followers through charismatic conduct, while other groups emphasise his role primarily as teacher. Many creative thinkers of Hasidic mysticism established the variety of Hasidic approaches. Because the Tzaddik offers to his followers a microcosm of the Messianic redemption, mainstream Hasidism toned down the Messianic elements to Jewish mysticism, that had endangered Shabbetai Zvi. Nonetheless, infusing Hasidism from the time of the Baal Shem Tov onwards is a Messianic self understanding that has come to the fore on some occasions, and in more idealogical circles. These include Hasidic activity around the 1812 French invasion of Russia and responses of Menachem Mendel of Kotzk and Mordechai Yosef Leiner to Messianic speculation concerning 1840. Hasidic dynasties coexist in the principle that each Tzaddik's leadership does not overstep into another's court. In the early 19th century, Nachman of Breslav led his marginal circle in the most distinctive veneration in Hasidism, arousing hostility from other leaders. This Messianic drive was paralleled on a mass scale by Menachem Mendel Schneerson of Chabad in recent times. Through its emotional and intellectual aspects, Hasidism offered Jewish life a new spiritual revival. Within Jewish study, Hasidic philosophy gave earlier Jewish thought new interpretations, that can synthesise and spiritualise the other dimensions of Judaism. In its intellectual articulations, Hasidic philosophy can bridge Jewish mysticism with mainstream Jewish philosophy. It enabled the mystical dimensions of Judaism to be articulated in a form that was accessible for the first time to the whole Jewish community. Hasidic spirituality and thought has also had appeal and influence outside the Hasidic movement, and outside of Orthodox Judaism. In the 20th Century, the academic interest in Jewish mysticism, and Neo-Hasidism have offered spiritual contributions to many Jewish denominations. With the encounter of Judaism with Modernity, different philosophical and denominational views emerged on the meanings of Judaism and Jewish identity. It has been said that the three figures of the Baal Shem Tov (Hasidic spirituality), the Vilna Gaon (Lithuanian Jewish Orthodox scholarship), and Moses Mendelssohn (founding influence on the Haskalah movement), have together shaped the diverse Jewish articulations today.

       Characteristic ideas

      The teachings of Hasidism are founded on two theoretical conceptions: (1) religious Panentheism, or the omnipresence of God, and (2) the idea of Devekus, communion between God and man. "Man," says the Besht (Baal Shem Tov), "must always bear in mind that God is omnipresent and is always with him; that God is the most subtle matter everywhere diffused... Let man realize that when he is looking at material things he is in reality gazing at the image of the Deity which is present in all things. With this in mind man will always serve God even in small matters."

      Deveikus (communion) refers to the belief that an unbroken relationship takes place between the world of God and the world of humanity. According to it, not only does the Deity influence the acts of man, but also that man exerts an influence on the will of the Deity. Every act and word of man produces a corresponding effect in the upper spheres. From this conception is derived the chief practical principle of Hasidism, cleaving to God for the purpose of uniting with the source of life and of influencing it. This communion is achieved through the concentration of thoughts on God, and consulting Him in all the affairs of life.

      The tzadik (righteous person) is in constant communion with God, even in their worldly affairs, since they also feel His presence in daily life. A special form of communion with God is prayer. In order to render this union complete the prayer must be full of fervor, ecstatic, and the soul of the person who prays must, during their devotions, detach itself from its material dwelling. For the attainment of ecstasy, recourse can be had to mechanical means, to enthusiastic bodily motions, to shouting and singing. According to the Besht, the path to God is in sincerity and fervour, rather than cold intellectual reasoning. Learning of Jewish texts and halakhic lore are important ways to approach God, but ultimately are useful as a means of producing an exalted religious elevation and communion. It is often more helpful to read books of moral and spiritual inspiration, than to engage in over-analytical approaches in study of the Talmud and Rabbinical literature. In the performance of rites the mood of the believer is of more importance than the externals, so therefore formalism and superfluous ceremonial details are an impediment. In later Hasidic articulations, a synthesis was made with the value of traditional, Lithuanian study and analysis. Many Hasidic Masters gained admiration from the non-Hasidic world, for being great scholars of Talmudic and Rabbinic works. The intellectual school of Chabad, founded by Schneur Zalman of Liadi, can be seen as a separate offshoot of general Hasidism. Mainstream Hasidism gives special emphasis to emotions, so that study of the "revealed" or "inner" dimensions of Judaism can inspire greater faith and emotional fervour, as well as knowledge of Rabbinic thought. In Chabad, Schneur Zalman emphasised the mind as the route to internalising the emotions of the heart more fully. The systematic analysis of Hasidic philosophy in Chabad can integrate and synthesise "revealed" Jewish thought with the mystical.

       Aims of Hasidic thought

      Hasidic philosophy teaches a method of contemplating on God, as well as the inner significance of the Mitzvot (commandments and rituals of Torah law). Hasidic philosophy has four main goals:[citation needed]

      1. Revival: At the time when Rabbi Yisrael Ba'al Shem Tov founded Hasidism, the Jews were physically crushed by massacres (in particular, those of the Cossack leader Chmelnitzky in 1648–1649) and poverty, and spiritually crushed by the disappointment engendered by the false messiahs. This unfortunate combination caused religious observance to seriously wane. This was especially true in Eastern Europe, where Hasidism began. Hasidism came to revive the Jews physically and spiritually. It focused on helping Jews establish themselves financially, and then lifting their moral and religious observance through its teachings.
      2. Piety: A Hasid, in classic Torah literature, refers to one of piety beyond the letter of the law. Hasidism demands and aims at cultivating this extra degree of piety.
      3. Refinement: Hasidism teaches that one should not merely strive to improve one's character by learning new habits and manners. Rather a person should completely change the quality, depth and maturity of one's nature. This change is accomplished by internalizing and integrating the perspective of Hasidic philosophy.
      4. Demystification: In Hasidism, it is believed that the esoteric teachings of Kabbalah can be made understandable to everyone. This understanding is meant to help refine a person, as well as adding depth and vigor to one's ritual observation.

       Hasidic practice and culture

       Liturgy and prayer

      Most Hasidim pray according to one of the variations of the nusach known as Nusach Sefard, a blend of Ashkenazi and Sephardi liturgies, based on the innovations of Rabbi Isaac Luria (also known as the Arizal). However, many Hasidic dynasties have their own specific adaptation of Nusach Sefard; some, such as the versions of the Belzer, Bobover and Dushinsky Hasidim, are closer to Nusach Ashkenaz, while others, such as the Munkacz version, are closer to Nusach Sefarad of the Arizal. Hasidic Nusach is a very complicated study. Many Hasidic groups believe that their siddur reflects the wording and mystical intentions of the Arizal. Chabad-Lubavitch has a distinctive variant known as Nusach Ari of the Baal HaTanya. Other Hasidic rabbis from many other Hasidic camps have compiled authoritative "Nusach Ari" siddurim. One should not confuse the contents of the Lubavitcher siddur with the historical study of the Arizal's actual nusach.

      The Baal Shem introduced two innovations to the Friday services: the recitation of Psalm 107 before Mincha (the afternoon service), as a prelude to the Sabbath, one gives praise for the release of the soul from its weekday activities, and Psalm 23 just before the end of Maariv (evening service).

      In regard to dialect, Hasidim pray in Chassidic Hebrew, a form of Hebrew with many of the vowels changed, for instance, the vowel "tzereie" makes the "ay" sound, and the vowel "kamatz" makes the "oo" sound. This dialect has nothing to do with Hasidism in its origins, nor was it chosen deliberately. It just happens to be the Yiddish dialect of the places from which most Hasidim originally came, such as Galicia and Ukraine. Thus, there are significant differences between the dialects used by Hasidim originating in different places, such as Poland, Belarus, Hungary, and Ukraine.

      Hasidic prayer has a distinctive accompaniment of wordless melodies called nigunim that represent the overall mood of the prayer; in recent years this innovation has become increasingly popular in non-Hasidic communities as well. Hasidic prayer also has a reputation for taking a very long time (although some groups do pray quickly). Some hasidim will spend seven seconds of concentration on every single word of the prayer of Amidah.

      Hasidim have a reputation for having a lot of kavana, mental concentration, during prayer. Overall, Hasidim regard prayer as one of the most paramount activities during the day. In fact, one of the most controversial innovations of Hasidic practice as practiced in several courts involves the near-abolition of the traditional specified times of day by which prayers must be conducted (zemanim), particularly shacharis (the morning prayer service); the preparations for prayer take precedence and may extend into the allotted time. The Kotsker Rebbe allegedly originated this practice, which is prevalent to this day in Chabad-Lubavitch. It is controversial in many other Hasidic courts, who place more emphasis on praying earlier and not eating before praying, according to the interpretation of Halacha (Jewish law) which is followed by the vast majority of other Hasidic and non-Hasidic Orthodox Jews.

       Daily immersion

      Many male Orthodox Jews customarily immerse in a mikvah (ritual pool of water) before major Jewish holidays (and particularly before Yom Kippur), in order to achieve spiritual cleanliness. Hasidim have extended this to a daily practice preceding morning prayers. Although daily immersion in a mikvah is no longer mandated by halacha, Hasidism places great emphasis on this practice, because the Arizal taught that each time one immerses in a mikvah he adds holiness to his soul. It is also taught by the Baal Shem Tov, that all his wisdom was given to him by God in merit of his immersions in the mikvah, and that no male should go three days without going to the mikvah. The Talmud records an enactment by Ezra that after a seminal emission one must immerse in a mikvah before studying Torah or praying; although this enactment was later repealed, Hasidim and some other Jews still follow it, at least for prayer, though the Code of Jewish Law rules that it is not mandatory.


      Within the Hasidic world, one can distinguish different Hasidic groups by subtle differences in dress. Some details of their dress are shared by non-Hasidic Haredim. Much of Hasidic dress was historically the clothing of all Eastern-European Jews, but Hasidim have preserved more of these styles to the present day. Furthermore, Hasidim have attributed religious origins to specific Hasidic items of clothing.

      Contrary to popular belief, Hasidic dress has little to do with the way Polish nobles once dressed. (The Emancipation movement probably started this myth in the late 19th century in an attempt to induce younger Jews to abandon the outfit.) Interestingly, secular Yiddish writers of old, living in Eastern Europe (Sholom Aleichem, for example) appear to have no knowledge of the "Polish origin" of the dress. Likewise, numerous Slavic sources from the 15th century onwards refer to the "Jewish kaftan". The Tsarist edict of the mid-19th century banning Jewish clothing mentions the "Jewish kaftan" and the "Jewish hat" and, as a result of this edict, Hasidim modified their dress in the Russian Empire and generally hid their sidelocks. Modern Chabad Lubavitch wear the Prince Albert frock coat substitutes for the bekishe reflecting this change, while many Polish Hasidim do so by wearing a redesigned shtreimel sometimes known as a spodik.

      Hasidic dress did change over the last hundred years, and became more European in response to the Emancipation Movement. Modern Hasidim tend to wear Hasidic dress as worn just prior to World War II. Numerous pictures of Hasidim in the mid-19th century show a far more Levantine outfit (i.e. a kaftan lacking lapels or buttons) that differs little from the classical oriental outfit consisting of the kaftan, white undershirt, sash, knee-breeches (halbe-hoyzn), white socks and slippers (shtibblat). This outfit allegedly had a Babylonian origin before its later adoption by Jews, Persians and lastly the Turks, who brought it to Europe. The Polish nobility adopted its 16th century outfit from the Turks, hence (allegedly) the similarity between the Hasidic outfit and Polish nobles' clothing. (Similarly, Hasidic dress has a vague connection with Shia Muslim clerical dress, the Shia clergy adopted this dress from the Persians.) One Hasidic belief (taught by the Klausenberger rebbe) holds that Jews originally invented this dress code and that the Babylonians adopted it from Jews during the Jewish exile in Babylon of the 6th century BCE. This belief is not widely held or even well known among Hasidim.

      Hasidic men most commonly wear dark (black or navy) jackets and trousers and white shirts. They will usually also wear black shoes. On weekdays they wear a long, black, cloth jacket called a rekel and on Jewish Holy Days the bekishe zaydene kapote (Yiddish, lit. satin caftan), a similarly long, black jacket but of satin fabric traditionally silk. The preference for black comes from a decree made by community rabbis in the 18th century stipulating that black outer garments be worn on the Sabbath and Jewish Holy Days out of the home, as opposed to the shiny, colorful kaftans that were worn prior to that time. The rabbis thought that brightly colored clothes might arouse resentment amongst non-Jews, which could lead to violence. Indoors the colorful tish bekishe is still worn.

      On the Sabbath the Hasidic Grand Rabbis (rebbes) traditionally wore a white bekishe rather than a black one. This practice has fallen into disuse except for a minority of rebbes, such as Toldos Aharon and Lelov, and by Hungarian rebbes such as Tosh and Satmar. Many rebbes wear a black silk bekishe that is trimmed with velvet (known as stro-kes or samet) and in those of Hungarian lineage a gold designed or other coloured, tish bekishe or khalat (especially during the tish or during the prayers that come right before or after the tish).

      Some Hasidim wear a satin overcoat, known amongst Hungarian and Galitsyaner Hasidim as a rezhvolke, over the regular bekishe. A rebbe's rezhvolke might be trimmed with velvet. Some rebbes wear a fur-lined rezhvolke known as a tilep (Yiddish: טולעפ fur coat).


      Most Hasidim do not wear neckties (with the exception of some Russian Hasidim, such as those stemming from Ruzhin, Karlin, and Lubavitch).

      These are some of the religious aspects claimed by Hasidim of their dress code. The connections are quite tenuous and the real reasons for the Hasidic dress code are historical and sociological and not theological.

      • Bekishe or rekelech serve as a sign of modesty and cover almost the entire body.
      • The bekishe (kapote) is made of silk because of the Biblical prohibition of shaatnez (today it is common to make it out of polyester).
      • The fur lined shtreimel alludes to the law of shaatnez and began as a way of keeping warm without wearing wool.
      • Shoes worn on the Sabbath may be plain black slip-ons so as not to have to make a knot which is prohibited on that day and so as not to touch the shoes (which would ritually defile one's hands, requiring ritual purification through washing with a special vessel).
      • A gartel divides the Hasid's lower parts from his upper parts, and are mentioned in the Talmud and Shulhan Arukh as a way to "prepare to meet your God".
      • For Kabbalistic reasons Hasidim button their clothes right over left.
      • The Sabbath dress of Hasidim resembles the description of the High Priest's dress in the Bible (this is particularly tenuous and the similarity is not apparent at all).
      • Some Hasidim wear breeches tucked in white socks so the trouser-bottoms do not touch the ground (which in former times was likely to be a source of waste, which is a Biblical prohibition).[citation needed]



      arly all Haredim today. A variety of hats are worn depending on the sect. Hasidim wear a variety of fur headdresses on the Sabbath:

      • Shtreimel is worn by most Hasidim today, including those from Galicia and Hungary such as Satmar, Munkacs, Bobov, Breslov and Belz, and some non-Galician Polish Hasidim, such as Biala, as well as some non-Hasidic Haredim in Jerusalem.
      • Spodik is the name given by others to the shtreimel worn by Polish Hasidim such as Ger, Amshinov, Ozharov, Aleksander and it is more narrow, and taller than the shtreimel, and is generally black.
      • The choibl or soyvl was worn in Poland prior to the Holocaust, and has fallen into disuse.
      • Kolpik (Polish: kolpak) is a traditional Slavic headdress, worn by unmarried sons and grandsons of many Rebbes on the Sabbath. The kolpik is worn by some Rebbes on special occasions other than the Sabbath and major Biblical holidays, such as Chanukah, Tu B'Shvat, and Rosh Chodesh.
      • The kashket or dashikl was a peaked cap worn during the week, prior to the Holocaust. It was worn in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine, and was worn by poorer Hasidim on Shabbat. Its use began as a result of the Tsarist decrees banning other traditional Jewish headdress. In these geographic areas, generally only rabbis wore black hats. Today, some Hasidic children, under the age of 13, wear a kashket on the Sabbath. Amongst Belz, the kashket has been reintroduced for boys under the age of 15 to wear on weekdays.
      • The black fedora, and less so the trilby, is worn by Lubavitch Hasidim. his hat is of the style of the 1940s and 50s. They are the same as the hats worn by many non-Hasidic Haredim, as well as by some more "modern" Hasidim who are followers of a particular Rebbe without being part of a Hasidic community. Chabad Hasidim often pinch their hats to form a triangle on the top, following the style of the Lubavitcher Rebbe. They wear their fedoras even on the Sabbath and Holidays. However, some Lubavitch Hasidim in Jerusalem wear a shtreimel on the Sabbath, if that was their family's custom for generations in Jerusalem.
      • Various forms of felt open-crown (a type of hat with a rounded top) are worn by many Hasidim. Affiliation can sometimes be identified by whether there is a pinch in the middle of the top or not, as well as the type of brim. This is called a shtofener hat in Yiddish. Ger and Slonimer Hasidim wear a round hat, while Stolin and Emunas Yisrael wear a pinched hat. Many Satmar laymen wear a type of open crown hat that resembles a bowler hat with rounded edges on the brim.
      • Samet (velvet) or biber (beaver) hats are worn by Galician and Hungarian Hasidim during the week and by unmarried men on Shabbat as well. They are usually only worn in the winter. Some unmarried men wear a samet hat on the Sabbath and a felt hat during the week. There are many types of Samet hats, most notably the "high" ("hoicher") and "flat" ("platshe") varieties. The "flat" type is worn by Satmar Hasidim, and some others as well. Some Rabbis wear a "round" samet hat in a similar style to the shtofener hats, however made from the Samet material. They are called beaver hats even though today they are made from rabbit.
      • A small fur hat called a kutchma (Ukrainian: kučma or кучма) is worn by many Hasidic laymen during weekdays in the winter. Today this hat is sometimes made from cheaper materials, such as polyester. This hat is referred to as a shlyapka (шляпка), by Russian Jews.

       Other distinct clothing

      Gerrer Hasidim wear hoyznzokn — long black socks that the trousers are tucked into. Some Hasidim from Eastern Galicia wear black socks with their breeches on the Sabbath, as opposed to white ones, particularly Belzer Hasidim.

      Many Hungarian Hasidic and non-Hasidic laymen wear a suit jacket that lies somewhere between a rekel and a regular three-quarter double breasted suit called a "drei-fertl" (Yiddish for "three-quarter"). It is distinct from a regular three-quarter suit inasmuch as the right side covers the left, like a rekel.

      Many Skverer hasidim wear knee-high leather boots (shtifl) with their breeches on the Sabbath. This manner of concealing the stockings was introduced as a compromise prior to a family wedding when one side had the tradition of wearing white stockings and the other did not. The Skverer Rebbe and his family wear such boots every day, and so do some rabbinical families affiliated with other Hasidic groups.

      The Dorohoi Rebbe in his traditional rabbinical Sabbath garb


      Following a Biblical commandment not to shave the sides of one's face, male members of most Hasidic groups wear long, uncut sideburns called payot (Ashkenazi Hebrew peyos, Yiddish peyes). Many Hasidim shave off the rest of their hair. Not every Hasidic group requires long peyos, and not all Jewish men with peyos are Hasidic, but all groups discourage the shaving of one's beard. Hasidic boys receive their first haircuts ceremonially at the age of three years (though Skverrer Hasidim do this at their second birthday). Until then, Hasidic boys have long hair. Many non-Hasidic (and even some non-Orthodox) Jews have adopted this custom.


      The white threads dangling at the waists of Hasidim and other Orthodox Jewish males except for the strings that many leave hanging out; many Hasidim, as well as some other Haredim, wear the tallis katan over their shirt.


      The majority of Hasidic women, being Haredi, will wear clothing adhering to the principles of modest dress in Jewish law. This includes long, conservative skirts and sleeves past the elbow. In keeping with Jewish law, married women will cover their hair using either a sheitel (wig) or a tichel (scarf) which is often used to cover a shpitzel. In some groups, such as Satmar, women cut their hair short and wear a wig or tichel.


      Hasidic men and women, as customary in Haredi Judaism, usually meet through matchmakers in a process called a shidduch,[citation needed] but marriages involve the mutual consent of the couple and of the parents.[citation needed] Expectations exist that a bride and groom should be about the same age.[citation needed] Marriage age ranges from 17-25, with 18-21 considered the norm.[citation needed] No custom encourages an older man marrying a young woman.[citation needed] Hasidic thought stresses the holiness of sex.[citation needed]

      Hasidic Jews typically produce large families; the average Hasidic family in the United States has 8 children.[29] This custom is followed out of a desire to fulfill the Biblical mandate to "be fruitful and multiply."[30]


      Rabbi Mordechai Yosef Elazar of Radzin (sitting first from left) in 1928. Hebrew was reserved for liturgical and textual use. Torah conversation, oral tradition and daily affairs were conveyed in the Yiddish vernacular

      Most Hasidim speak the language of their countries of residence, but use Yiddish amongst themselves as a way of remaining distinct and preserving tradition. Thus children are still learning Yiddish today, and the language, despite predictions to the contrary, is not dead. Yiddish newspapers are still published, and Yiddish fiction is being written, primarily aimed at women. Films in Yiddish are being produced within the Hasidic community, and released immediately as DVDs (as opposed to the Yiddish movies of the past, which were produced by non-religious Jews). Some Hasidic groups actively oppose the everyday use of Hebrew, which they considered a holy tongue. The use of Hebrew for anything other than prayer and study is, according to them, profane. Hence Yiddish is the vernacular and common tongue for many Hasidim around the world. The use of Yiddish is a major difference between Sephardi and Ashkenazi Haredim. Sephardi Haredim usually do not know Yiddish (unless they were educated in an Ashkenazi yeshiva).


      1. ^ The honorific חסיד-Hasid is a classic Rabbinic praise of piety in the Talmud and Rabbinic literature, different from tzadik-righteous, for one who goes beyond the minimum legal letter of Jewish observance. Some other earlier movements in Jewish history were also called Hasidim, though its contemporary renown is for modern popular Hasidism. The interpretation of the term in Jewish mysticism brings out the psychological internalisation of daily mysticism in modern Hasidism. In the Sephirot attributes of Kabbalah, the inner motivation within "Hesed"-"kindness" of Divine giving is Ahavah—Love. In daily Jewish life this awakens mystical deveikut fervour of love of God and love of other people by relating to the Divinity within them, Love and Awe comprising the main root emotions of holiness. Hasidism, correspondingly, sought to emphasise the Divine good in everything taught in its mystical thought, and emphasised in joy, prayer and self sacrifice for others jews beyond legal requirements.[citation needed]
      2. ^ A traditional account of Israel ben Eliezer and Tom Paulson being accepted into the circle of Nistarim Hidden mystics when 11, his innovative proposals to them for reviving the Jewish people from age 14, and his receiving from them the title "Baal Shem Tov", is given in The Great Mission - The Life and Story of Rabbi Yisrael Baal Shem Tov, compiler Eli Friedman, translator Elchonon Lesches, Kehot Publication Society. It lists five "ingenious concepts" of his that became the new outreach directions of the group in their incognito travels to revive the populace, derived from his mystical teaching of the innate, concealed holiness of the common folk:
        Concern for their welfare, rather than admonishment
        Encourage the inestimable power of their simple prayers and daily Divine praises
        Uplift the sincere simple folk by teaching them their spiritual value
        Practical bolstering of potential economic stability in shtetls left after the Cossak destructions
        Direct involvement and financing to improve the dire Jewish education in the villages
      3. ^ http://emet9.org/Tzaddikim.html
      4. ^ hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=31632&st=&pgnum=105
      5. ^ http://he.wikisource.org/wiki/%D7%A0%D7%A4%D7%A9_%D7%94%D7%97%D7%99%D7%99%D7%9D_%D7%A9%D7%A2%D7%A8_%D7%92_%D7%A4%D7%A8%D7%A7_%D7%96
      6. ^ http://www.torah.org/learning/perceptions/5765/vaera.html
      7. ^ http://www.afn.org/~afn19926/dvar.htm
      8. ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/92968/jewish/An-analysis-of-different-approaches-regarding-tzimtzum-the-process-of-Divine-self-limitation.htm
      9. ^ http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Shneur_Zalman_of_Liady
      10. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shneur_Zalman_of_Liadi#Arrests
      11. ^ On learning Chassidus, Brooklyn, 1959, p. 24
      12. ^ http://books.google.co.il/books?id=11f9xBbOBBEC&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119&dq=Rabbi+Chaim+of+Volozhin+Shneur+zalman&source=bl&ots=wTAAiLESGG&sig=4qWdGo-FjyMznJh0zQYbRoJB2vs&hl=iw&sa=X&ei=eIwNT5O6FM_Nsgbcm8GsBA&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Rabbi%20Chaim%20of%20Volozhin%20Shneur%20zalman&f=false
      13. ^ http://www.google.co.il/search?hl=iw&rlz=1T4GGLJ_iwIL458IL458&sa=X&ei=L44NT6DfBIfSswaOnKDkCw&ved=0CBkQBSgA&q=%D7%9E%D7%9B%D7%AA%D7%91+%D7%91%D7%A2%D7%9C+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A0%D7%99%D7%90+%D7%97%D7%99%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%9E%D7%95%D7%95%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%96+%D7%99%D7%9F&spell=1&biw=1028&bih=773
      14. ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/109628/jewish/The-Petersburg-Conference.htm
      15. ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/148437/jewish/Chapter-Eight.htm
      16. ^ http://www.virtualjudaica.com/Item/22822/Anti-Zionism_-_Lubavitch
      17. ^ http://theantitzemach.blogspot.com/2007/04/ahhh-simpler-times.html
      18. ^ http://www.chabad.info/index.php?url=article_en&id=20794
      19. ^ http://www.chabad.info/chabadpedia/index.php?title=%D7%99%D7%95%D7%97%D7%A0%D7%9F_%D7%98%D7%91%D7%A8%D7%A1%D7%A7%D7%99
      20. ^ http://www.chabad.info/chabadpedia/index.php?title=%D7%99%D7%A9%D7%A8%D7%90%D7%9C_%D7%9E%D7%90%D7%99%D7%A8_%D7%94%D7%9B%D7%94%D7%9F#cite_note-4
      21. ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/1638271/jewish/Memoirs-of-Rebbetzin-Chana-Part-1.htm
      22. ^ http://www.ascentofsafed.com/Stories/Stories/5770/656-41.html
      23. ^ http://www.chabad.org/blogs/blog_cdo/aid/1128452/jewish/Rabbi-Soloveitchik-Cries-during-Prayers.htm
      24. ^ Amongst Hasidic theoreticians, Sholom Dovber Schneersohn established the Tomchei Temimim Hasidic yeshiva in 1896 to incorporate new systematic focus on daily learning of Hasidic philosophy. His founding talk related this new institutional development to the spiritual turmoil of the arriving secular Jewish ideologies
      25. ^ A bridge of this nature was made for example by Rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler's Mussar work Michtav me-Eliyahu, which incorporates an influence from Hasidic thought
      26. ^ "As Hasidic population grows, Jewish politics may shift right." University of Florida. November 27, 2006. Retrieved on May 2, 2009.
      27. ^ Traditionally, Hasidic leaders of the latter generations are viewed as spiritually lower than the great early founding figures, with some exceptions that allow for the mystical continuation of supreme Tzadik in each generation, where Kabbalah describes the soul of Moses in every generation. This general tendency is summarised by a renowned Hasidic tale: (Cited by Norman Lamm in The Religious Thought of Hasidism-Text and Commentary, end of General Introduction. Gershom Scholem also concludes his Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism with the same story)

        When the Baal Shem Tov had a difficult task before him, he would go to a certain place in the woods, light a fire and meditate in prayer-and what he had set out to perform was done. When a generation later the Maggid of Mezeritch was faced with the same task, he would go to the same place in the woods and say: We can no longer light the fire, but we can still speak the prayers-and what he wanted done became reality. Again a generation later Rabbi Moshe Leib of Sassov had to perform this task. And he too went into the woods and said: We can no longer light a fire, nor do we know the secret meditations belonging to the prayer, but we do know the place in the woods to which it all belongs-and that must be sufficient; and sufficient it was. But when another generation had passed and Rabbi Israel Friedman of Ruzhyn was called upon to perform the task, he sat down on his golden chair in his castle and said: We cannot light the fire, we cannot speak the prayers, we do not know the place, but we can tell the story of how it was done. And, the story-teller adds, the story which he told had the same effect as the actions of the other three.

        In contrast to this Mainstream-Hasidic view of generational descent in the mystical-charismatic power of leadership, the Habad school, which aimed instead for philosophical investigation of Hasidic thought, views its successive leadership as ascending intellectual articulation of the Divine essence of Hasidic thought. According to this, in each subsequent generation, mystical thought deepens and progresses, by becoming more intellectually tangible, exoteric and philosophically graspable

      28. ^ In relation to historical Kabbalah, the development of Hasidism is seen as the third of three conceptual paradigms in articulating Jewish mysticism, each successively more advanced and inward than the previous. Articulated in The Development of Kabbalah in Three Stages from www.inner.org. The three stages correspond to Cordoveran Kabbalah-Worlds, Lurianic Kabbalah-Souls, Hasidic philosophy-Divinity
      29. ^ "Jews and the Jewish Birthrate". Aish.com. http://www.aish.com/jewishissues/jewishsociety/Jews_and_the_Jewish_Birthrate.asp. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
      30. ^ Citron, Aryeh. "Be Fruitful and Multiply - Parshat Bereishit - Parshah Halachah". Chabad.org. http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/1005203/jewish/Be-Fruitful-and-Multiply.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-16.

       See also


      • Cecil Roth and Geoffrey Wigoder, ed. (1972). "Hasidic Judaism". Encyclopedia Judaica. 7. New York: Macmillan Company. LCCN 84214344.

       External links

      Maps of the spread of Hasidism:






      by Dee Finney


      Prayer For Peace

      O Lord Jesus Christ, Who said to Your Apostles:
      "Peace I leave with you, My peace I give to you,"
      regard not my sins but the faith of Your Church,
      and deign to give her peace and unity according
      to Your Will: Who live and reign, God, world without end.


      6-2-2001 - DREAM - I don't know where I was, but I came down a long hallway full of people and ahead of me, standing against the far wall was a man I've known and been friends with since I was 18 years old.

      I walked up close to him and looked into his face and his third eye burst into a huge pulsating star.


      Then the star grew until his entire face was a huge pulsating star.



      I looked into that pulsating star and I could see into the nighttime sky and saw there 5 pulsating stars which formed a 5 pointed star. (See Below)

      I went up closer to him so we were face to face and as I looked into the star, I told him to look into my eyes, into the colored part.

      At that point, I could see in his face a reflection of what was written in the colored part of my eyes. On his face was written a printed prayer which I began to read.

      As I read the prayer to the other people in this large room that was like an old fashioned church with benches for the people, they began reciting it too, as they knew it better than I did. It was a blessing for the world. The men's voices which were on the right behind me were the loudest. The women were seated on the left and the little children were in the center where I stood.

      I again walked up closer to the man again, who was wearing a maroon colored robe.

      I got down on my knees in front of the man, and lowered my head in a bow to the floor. It was then I could read on the bottom hem of the robe, that the prayer was from the Angelus, and it also said St. Ignatius Loyola and France.

      The dream then continued when I left there, we went to the man's house. I had a husband also, who looked similar to the airforce Major Dad guy in the television show .

      The man's wife was mad as hell that he had been gone so long and she didn't know where he had been. She started to swear at him and left the house. I could hear her walking away down the street swearing like I've never heard before.

      My husband started to laugh, 'another one down the street' or something similar. It seemed that the man had a wife a week because no one could stand that he would leave the home without saying where he was going and show up the next morning with strangers from God knows where.

      We were going to make breakfast, and there were shallow, yellow and colored boxes on the table where the wife had bought dinner from some restaurant and brought it home for herself. I opened the box to see what it was, and there were two sunfish laying on their sides in the box, which were fried. They still had their heads, tails and fins on them. One was at the 7 o'clock position and the other one in the 8 o'clock position. She had eaten the others. (See notes below)

      Off to the side then, I saw a humungous fish tank, with 5 different colored fish in schools swimming around. The woman who was raising them was training them to do something. I could see lots of other fish in the tank as well, and I remembered my friend Michelle's fish tank, whose fish were always having babies. I remarked that I should get my own fish tank back out and get some fish. (See below for human race notes)

      I went into another small room in the house like an ante-room by the front door. There were 12 Italian firemen in uniform singing something fabulous in Italian. They came to the end suddenly and sat in silence, listening. I said, "It seems that you are expecting the cops or a fireman to be at the door. I opened the door, and there stood a tall policeman, coming to tell the guys to get back to work. (This was either the 12 Apostles or the Council of 12) (The Intergalactic Council of Twelve includes beings from the Angelic and Extraterrestrial realms. The Star Command is a group of interplanetary representatives composed of extraterrestrials from many diverse universal cultures that act as a service department to the Light Brotherhood. )

      I was standing there and the policeman threw a yellow towel over my face and he was playing with the outline of my nose through the towel, and the guys were laughing. He said, "I'll bet you can't guess where you are. I was worried he was going to punch my nose or something, but I laughed back, "Yes I do, I can smell the garlic through the towel."

      NOTES: It took me most of the day to find the exact 5 pointed star cluster I was looking for. I finally found it in Pisces.

      Mythology Pisces - The Fishes

      Pisces, the Fishes, is a very old constellation, and is one of the original Zodiacal Constellations recognized in Ancient Times. In Greek and Roman mythology, this constellation represents the goddess Venus and her son Cupid, who transformed themselves into a pair of fish and jumped into the Nile River to escape from the monster Typhon. The images that concealed them were placed in the zodiac, where they are now known as Pisces, a lengthy double constellation occupying the region south of Andromeda and Pegasus and northwest of Cetus. Pisces acquired the title "Leaders of the Celestial Host" after precession brought the vernal equinox to a point south of the star Omega in the southwestern fish.

      In very ancient times, Pisces was known by the Babylonians as Nunu, or fish, and symbolized the Syrian goddess Derke as well as Atargatis, who was important to many ancient nations and depicted as a huge fish with a woman's head.

      Pisces was also significant to the early Christians, as it represented to them the "Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes" by which Jesus fed the multitudes.

      Pisces is the twelfth of the zodiacal constellations, and can be easily seen during early Autumn for Northern Hemisphere observers. Riding directly along the ecliptic, this constellation is now the location of the First Point of Aries, the point which the sun crosses the equator on its way north, thus marking the Vernal Equinox or the first day of Spring in the Northern Hemisphere. Due to precession, the First Point of Aries has moved west into Pisces since it was first established in Ancient Times.

      Pisces contains few bright stars, and only one important object, the face on spiral galaxy M74. However, even though somewhat indistinct, this constellation can be easily made out with a bit of practice, as it is located to the south west of Andromeda and directly below the Great Square of Pegasus.

      Salmon - the Celtic fish of knowledge and mystic inspiration

      Two goldfish - signifying perfect wisdom, as embodied in the Buddha's eyes. In Indian tradition, the two fish represented the sacred Ganges and Yamuna rivers.

      Some Christians believe that a second link between their religion and the fish symbol is seen in the Greek word for fish (ichthus, spelled: Iota Chi Theta Upsilon Sigma). That is an acrostic for "Jesus Christ, of God, the Son, the Savior" [Iesous (Jesus) CHristos (Christ) THeou (of God) Uiou (the Son) Soter (the Savior)]. An acrostic is an "arrangement of words in which the first letter of each line ordinarily combines with others to form a word or words or the alphabet." 1

      The Apostles were often referred to as "fishers of men". Followers of Christianity were called Pisciculi; the root of this Latin word is "fish".

      Emblems of the Savior - The Fish

      Pisces is usually depicted as two fish tied or joined together but swimming in opposite directions, and that image captures the essence of those born under this sign.

      The gifts given by celestial beings to Sakyamuni on his attainment of Enlightenment or Buddhahood, the white parasol protects one from evil desires. The two fish symbolize being rescued from the ocean of misery of earthly existence.


      Before any two units who are striving to attain a tie of affection can achieve the status of soul companions, it will take many incarnations that will bring out the best as well as the worst in their personal attitudes. When two egos start a circle, the beginning stages they go through are stormy and unpredictable. It takes them some time just to get the relationship started ground. These are beginners on the circle of life. Though we should all strive to become compatible with each other, all relationships do not necessarily become soul companions. When two people strive towards completing their circle it takes struggle and hard work.

      We refer to the circle because symbollically it explainins how the journey begins and ends upon completion.

      First Quarter/ 1 o'clock- 2 o'clock -3 o'clock = Too many repulsions to consider.

      Second Quarter/ 4 o'clock -5 o'clock -6 o'clock = Becoming more aware of each other's needs, yet still selfishly imposing individual will.

      Third Quarter/ 7 o'clock -8 o'clock - 9 o'clock = Starting to really bend, and learn from each other.

      Fourth Quarter/ 10 o'clock - 11 o'clock - 12 o'clock = Self Explanatory."


      The number 7 - From earliest times this number was associated with celestial beings and spiritual forces; seven days in a week, the seven known planets (including the sun and the moon); the 7 evil spirits, the seven levels of a ziggurat (astral tower built by the Babylonians--the most famous being the Tower of Babel); according to St. Augustine, seven symbolized the perfection of God--he created the world and rested n the seventh day; Christian life is ordered by seven; seven capital sins, seven virtues, seven sacraments. Seven is the number of completion. It represents time, space, duration, and distance. It also represents old age, death, or enduance, and immortality.

      The number seven represents "spiritual perfection."(1) In Hebrew, the number seven (shevah) comes from the root word savah, which means "to be full or satisfied, have enough of." The number seven often venerates these ideas. On the seventh day, God rested from the work of creation since it was full, complete, good and perfect. (More)

      The number 8 - the first number after seven, the symbol of life, the new life after baptism (both in pagan and Christian times). In Christian belief, the resurrection of Christ happens on the eighth day. The octagon is the favored form for the baptismal font.

      Eight is the number of dissolution. It denotes the law of cyclic evolution, the breaking back of the natural to the spiritual. (More)

      Ningal - the consort of Sin, the mother of Shamash also called Ishtar (Ishhara, Irnini, Inanna) She is Anu's second consort, daughter of Anu and Antum, (sometimes daughter of Sin), and sometimes the sister of Ereshkigal. She is the goddess of love, procreation, and war. She is armed with a quiver and bow. Her symbol is eight or sixteen-pointed star Sacred number: 15 Astrological region: Dibalt (Venus) and the Bowstar (Sirius) Sacred animal: lion, (dragon)


      As recently as 1962, Carleton Coon, a prominent anthropologist, published a best-selling book called The Origin of Races, which neatly divided human beings into five "races" he called Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Australoid, Negroid, and a group he called Capoid (named for the Cape of Good Hope). In this last category, Coon lumped together southern tribes, like the Bushmen and Hottentots, and some tribes from eastern Africa who had dark skin but did not otherwise fit well into his description of Negroid people. He speculated that since there were pygmies among them, perhaps they had a genetic propensity to shrink. Coon argued that these races were descendants of five different subspecies of humans that had existed in the Middle Pleistocene era and had evolved independently into races of Homo sapiens. According to Coon, the Caucasoids, who he believed had evolved first, were by implication a bit further up the ladder of civilization.

      Coon, like most physical anthropologists, based his distinctions among races on observable characteristics such as skin and eye color, facial features and body shape-what contemporary biologists call the phenotype. Today, human geneticists have begun to group people according to less visible markers-the genes we carry on the chromosomes in each of our cells. Biologists call this the genotype. (DNA)


      This dream is called, "My Funny Nose"

      6-2-2001 - DREAM - I was working in an apartment building. It seems I was the cleaning lady. I went into an occupied apartment with a light blue vacuum cleaner. I also had a video camera with me. I wanted to take a picture of myself vacuuming. I decided to go into the livingroom where the light was brightest. However, when I tried to take my own picture with the camera, I could see that doesn't really work. My arms were too short to get a good shot of me with the vacuum cleaner. I could either take a shot of my face or the vacuum but not both together. I would need someone else to take the film.

      All of a sudden, the people who lived in this apartment came in. They didn't see me because they went directly into the bedroom. I could hear them talking to each other, but it was rather muffled. The husband was singing and humming and changing clothes and the wife was also. She said she was going out with the girls and left the apartment. The husband then came into the hallway to get a shirt out of the hallway closet. He pulled out a blue and white checkered shirt and put it on. (See notes below)

      The man didn't see me until he had his shirt on and started to button it. It was then I recognized the man, it was the same man from the previous dream. I had known him since I was 18 years old. We were very good friends for many, many years.

      He continued to hum a beautiful tune and we sat on the couch together. I was leaning against him while he hummed and I was looking at some little children's size books, which had pictures around the edges and the words in the center. They were little children's prayer books.

      I turned around to look at his face and his face was changing. I could see he wasn't who he really said he was, and his face was smaller and wooden-like, similar to a statue I've seen in the past. (The Song Wooden Jesus)

      I said to him, despite the wooden statue appearance of his face, "You are so beautiful."

      He then said to me in a changed voice, deep and rather rumbling, "You know now I'm not the person you always thought I was. My name is 'IESOUS' (Jesus) of Nazareth and I have a mission for you to fulfill." The little book in my hand then became a tall, slim book of prayers. (See notes below)

      I then saw a vision of 4 red symbols. I tried to quickly see what they were, but I could only recognize the last one. It was a heart with a nail through it and bleeding.

      NOTES: There doesn't seem to be any reason why this dream is called 'My Funny Nose', but it was named that before I woke up. Perhaps the dream was called the funny nose because the guy was poking at my nose in the first dream such as you play with children... and tell them you got their nose... perhaps it is saying that my mission is right in front of my nose... and it's the second dream..


      White has always been a symbol of purity and freshness. The white background stands for our new and pure life; the seven stars are the seven working hours.

      The mention of the combination of blue and white has been traced back to a poem called "Zivei Erez Yehudah" written in the middle 19th century by L.A. Frankl. It says there, "All that is sacred will appear in these colors:

      White - as the radiance of great faith
      Blue - like the appearance of the firmament."

      Blue has always been a symbol of royalty. Biblical injunction of wearing tzitzit (fringes on cornered garments) calls for a strand of "techelet" or blue-died cloth. The techelet is meant to remind the Jew of the color of the sky (hence the "firmament" mentioned above) which is ultimately supposed to remind him of God.


      The Greek alphabet has 26 letters, each one with a different numerical value. The Greek spelling of Jesus is IESOUS. The numerical value of IESOUS = 888 which represents The Spiritual Sun or Solar Logos.

      The physical sun = 666

      "In the beginning was the Logos" the Gospel of John states, and in the words of the Logos itself, "I am the Light of the World." All those who are born into the world is outwardly illuminated by the physical sun, but only those wh otrun their attention back to the world of first principles are inwardly enlightened by the Spiritual Sun of the Logos.

      The early Christians maintained that IESOUS was "a name above all names".


      Angelus [Lat.,=angel], daily prayer of the Roman Catholic Church, said usually three times daily, as announced by a bell, traditionally at six in the morning, at noon, and at six in the evening. It is said in honor of the Incarnation and consists of three repetitions of the Hail Mary together with verses and a prayer. It takes its name from the opening word of the Latin version: Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariae [the angel of the Lord declared unto Mary].

      In Roman Catholic Europe when the Angelus tolls (at morning, noon, and evening), it rings 3 + 3 + 3 and then 9 times, incelebration of the Virgin's conception of the Savior. The recited prayer at those junctures, "The angel of the Lord declared unto Mary, and she conceived by the Holy Ghost ... and THE WORD WAS MADE FLESH ..."

      St. Ignatius Loyola had decided that he wanted to go to Jerusalem to live where our Lord had spent his life on earth. As a first step he began his journey to Barcelona. Though he had been converted completely from his old ways, he was still seriously lacking in the true spirit of charity and Christian understanding, as illustrated by an encounter he had with a Moor on his way. The Moor and he came together on the road, both riding mules, and they began to debate religious matters. The Moor claimed that the Blessed Virgin was not a virgin in her life after Christ was born. Ignatius took this to be such an insult that he was in a dilemma as to what to do. They came to a fork in the road, and Ignatius decided that he would let circumstances direct his course of action. The Moor went down one fork. Ignatius let the reins of his mule drop. If his mule followed the Moor, he would kill him. If the mule took the other fork he would let the Moor live. Fortunately for the Moor, Ignatius' mule was more charitable than its rider and took the opposite fork from the Moor.

      He proceeded to the Benedictine shrine of Our Lady of Montserrat, made a general confession, and knelt all night in vigil before Our Lady's altar, following the rites of chivalry. He left his sword and knife at the altar, went out and gave away all his fine clothes to a poor man, and dressed himself in rough clothes with sandals and a staff.

      The full Biography


      The angel of the Lord declared unto Mary.
      And she conceived of the Holy Ghost.
      Hail Mary.
      Behold the handmaid of the Lord.
      Be it done unto me according to Thy word.

      Hail Mary.

      And the Word was made flesh.
      And dwelt among us.
      Hail Mary.

      Pray for us, O holy Mother of God.
      That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

      Let us pray

      Pour forth, we beseech Thee, O Lord, Thy grace into our hearts, that we to whom the Incarnation of Christ, Thy Son, was made known by the message of an angel, may by His Passion and Cross be brought to the glory of His resurrection. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.

      Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariae.
      Et concepit de Spiritu Sancto.
      Ave Maria.
      Ecce ancilla Domini.
      Fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum.

      Ave Maria.

      Et Verbum caro factum est.
      Et habitavit in nobis.
      Ave Maria.

      Ora pro nobis, sancta Dei Genitrix.
      Ut digni efficiamur promissionibus Christi.


      Gratiam tuam, quaesumus Domine, mentibus nostris infunde: ut qui, Angelo nuntiante, Christi Filii tui incarnationem cognovimus, per passionem ejus et crucem ad resurrectionis gloriam perducamur. Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.


      V. The Angel of the Lord declared unto Mary.

      R. And she conceived of the Holy Ghost.

      Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with Thee. Blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

      V. Behold the handmaid of the Lord.

      R. Be it done unto me according to thy word.

      Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with Thee. Blessed art thou amonst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen

      V. And the Word was made Flesh.

      R. And dwelt among us.

      Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with Thee. Blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

      V. Pray for us, O holy Mother of God.

      R. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.




      L'Angelus est une prière en trois versets, en l'honneur de l'incarnation du Christ. Un Ave Maria suit chaque verset et une oraison conclut le tout. L'Angelus se récite trois fois par jour, le matin, le midi et le soir au signal d'une sonnerie de cloche appelée elle aussi Angelus (trois fois trois coups suivis d'une sonnerie en volée).

      L'Ange du Seigneur annonça à Marie. Et elle conçue du Saint Esprit.

      Je vous salue Marie...

      Voici la servante du Seigneur. Qu'il me soit fait selon ta parole.

      Je vous salue Marie...

      Et le Verbe s'est fait chair. Et il a habité parmi nous.

      Je vous salue Marie...

      Priez pour nous, Sainte Mère de Dieu. Afin que nous soyons dignes des promesses de Jésus-Christ.

      Prions : Répands, Seigneur ta grâce en nos coeurs, afin qu'ayant connu par la voie de l'Ange l'Incarnation de Jésus-Christ ton Fils, nous arrivions par sa passion et sa croix à la gloire de la résurrection. Par le même Jésus-Christ notre Seigneur.




      St. Ignatius Loyola


      Ignatius counselled his Jesuits (technically neither monks nor friars, but priests regular) to proceed with charity and moderation, "without hard words or contempt for people's errors." He died suddenly on 31 July 1556. His writings include the following prayers:

      Teach us, good Lord, to serve thee as thou deservest;
      to give, and not to count the cost,
      to fight, and not to heed the wounds,
      to toil, and not to seek for rest,
      to labor, and not to ask for any reward,
      save that of knowing that we do thy will.

      Prayer (traditional language)

      O God, by whose grace thy servant Ignatius, enkindled with the fire of thy love, became a burning and a shining light in thy Church: Grant that we also may be aflame with the spirit of love and discipline, and may ever walk before thee as children of light; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who with thee, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, liveth and reigneth, one God, now and for ever.

      Almighty God, from whom all good things come, who didst call Ignatius of Loyola to the service of thy Divine majesty and to find thee in all things: Inspired by his example and strengthened by his companionship, may we labor without counting the cost and seek no reward other than knowing that we do thy will; through Jesus Christ our Savior, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and ever.

      Prayer (contemporary language)

      O God, by whose grace your servant Ignatius, enkindled with the fire of your love, became a burning and a shining light in your Church: Grant that we also may be aflame with the spirit of love and discipline, and may ever walk before you as children of light; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.

      Almighty God, from whom all good things come, who called Ignatius of Loyola to the service of your Divine majesty and to find you in all things: Inspired by his example and strengthened by his companionship, may we labor without counting the cost and seek no reward other than knowing that we do your will; through Jesus Christ our Savior, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and ever.

      Psalm 34:1-8
      1 Corinthians 10:31-1:11
      Luke 9:57-62 (St3)



      Father, we beg Your blessing for the Right to Life, the Unborn, the weak, the sick and the old; all who are finding themselves being targets of the vicious culture of death; that our Lord Jesus bless and protect all who stand up for the Christian dignity of persons. That God enlighten those who are traveling down death's highway by their involvement, in any way, with either the contemporary death culture, selfism, relativeism, or any of the new age errors of our times, that God envelop our culture with His Divine protection and help us both individually and as a nation to true enlightenment, conversion and repentance of our selves and our culture. Help us to turn from our national sin of abortion, and return to, and once again become a Christian nation, on the narrow road, that is, the path to becoming a nation and culture, under God. Amen.

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      OF MOSES

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      A DREAM

      A DREAM








      The Music Playing is titled 'The Three Bells'



      by Dee Finney

      and Michelle LaVigne-Wedel

      12-9-91 - VISIONS - by Dee Finney

      The voice said, "There will be black and white snakes and they will have to have their heads cut off, but unfortunately there will be black snakes and those will have to have their heads cuts off.


      VISION #2 - I saw myself in a school in India with two Swami teachers dressed all in white with wrapped heads. There were children leaving the big tiled floor reception/lecture room through big french doors to go play outside on the vast lawns. The Swami by the door said, "The snakes represent the vast array of truths, half truths, and outright untruths which must be cut off."

      9-8-00 - VISION - by Dee Finney

      I had a vision of a sheet of paper with a list of sentences on it. In rows it said,


      Then the dreams started and in each dream, I woke up screaming hysterically because I wasn't in charge of my own life.

      In the most memorable dream, I went home from work to find my husband packing up everything in the house, including all the kids stuff. He was leaving me and moving elsewhere. He wouldn't say what was wrong at first, and finally I got it out of him that he had received a phone call that I had made two twenty minute stop-overs in Hawaii to have a rendezvous with a man while I was gone on my trip.

      I had a quick vision of a calendar and realized I had been gone for almost a year on a mission and my husband wasn't upset about my mission, but the phone calls he received told him I had made those 20 minutes stop-overs to be with another man and that's why he was leaving me.

      He was acting more and more violent and I was really worried for my safety and for the children, so I went to my highschool to tell the principal about what was happening to try to stop the process and get my life back.

      I walked into the office and the principal was a policeman. He was walking around with his back to me and I couldn't get his attention. I kept saying, "Sir! ... Sir! ... Sir! ..."

      The woman who worked for him said, "Don't even try to talk to him. He's too busy making phone calls to people and screwing with their lives."

      Then I knew where my husband had received the phone calls from. The principal of my school had called my husband to tell him lies to mess up my life when I hadn't done anything wrong.

      I woke screaming hysterically because my husband was taking my children from me.

      NOTE: Where is the lesson in this? Where is the fairness? Is this how life really is? Is it totally out of our control?

      I refused to go back to sleep and have the last dream. I wasn't going to go through this again.


      Dream by Michelle LaVigne-Wedel


      I went into a dream where I seemed to be in India. Ahead of me I saw a smallish, thin armed dimunitive man with a roundish face, and dark skin like an Hindu Indian.

      He stood on a cement platform like by the Ganges river. The water covered some of the steps below him. He was praying while facing the water. Then he turned around to face that people and began to talk to them.

      In the dream, I then became the man, that is I was inside of him doing the talking.

      The people were calling him, 'Teacher'. The Hindu words were translating into English in my head. The English words I spoke automatically translated into Hindu so the people would understand me.

      He taught the people that women have spiritual lives of their own ...

      Women are connected to the God-force as well as men ...

      There shouldn't be any caste system because souls are equal ...

      Karma is not better or worse dependent on who you are born to ...

      He went from home to home as people requested him to bless their homes, their children, their animals, their household possessions. The people begged him to touch them, to heal their physical ailments and their hearts.

      The people brought him gifts which he wouldn't take but gave them to the poor in the crowd.

      The shopkeepers brought him bread to eat, of which he ate a portion then gave the rest to the crowd. The shopkeepers complained, but he said, "To give to the poor is to honor me as well."

      Many of the people didn't understand but he knew that they would one day.

      There were guards around tying to protect him, but he resisted them because he wanted to get close to the people so he could touch them.

      11-10-00 - I was dreaming of a park and about a young girl named Delight but her life did not reflect her name. I was not able to recall everything written on this dream background since it was written in cursive language on dark background. I was then given the name Gopal Singh which I had not heard before.

      During a search of the internet, I found this:

      "When there was such slaughter and such groaning,
      O God, didst Thou not feel pain? O Creator, Thou
      belongest to all. If a powerful person harms an other
      equally strong, there is no matter for anger, but when
      a ravenous lion attacks a herd of cows, the master of
      the herd must show his manliness."

      This was a song sung by a teacher who was born in 1469 - Guru Nanak . He made it his life's work to change the herd of cows into Lions - metaphorically speaking. This great page was written by Gopal Singh.

      Guru Nanak began the religion of Sikhism

      Self-Knowledge - Khalil Gibran

      And a man said, Speak to us of Self- Knowledge.

      And he answered, saying:

      Your hearts know in silence the secrets of the days and the nights.

      But your ears thirst for the sound of your heart's knowledge.

      You would know in words that which you have always known in thought.

      You would touch with your fingers the naked body of your dreams.

      And it is well you should.

      The hidden well-spring of your soul must needs rise and run murmuring to the sea;

      And the treasure of your infinite depths would be revealed to your eyes.

      But let there be no scales to weigh your unknown treasure;

      And seek not the depths of your knowledge with staff or sounding line.

      For self is a sea boundless and measureless.

      Say not, 'I have found the truth,' but rather, 'I have found a truth.'

      Say not, 'I have found the path of the soul.' Say rather, 'I have met the soul walking upon my path.'

      For the soul waLks upon all paths. The soul waLks not upon a line, neither does it grow like a reed.

      The soul unfolds itself, like a lotus of countless petals.

      -Khalil Gibran - The Prophet



      Kaliyuga has been set as the last epoch of a Chaturyuga, as a phase marked out for the mingling or fusion (of all things) of the previous periods. Through this would great knowledge of the entire process be revealed. Great revelations are made by the Supreme through great souls incarnated on this Earth. A higher degree of spiritual knowledge is given in Kaliyuga and this is the only era in which everyone can attain spiritual liberation, but not in the previous ones (Satya, Treta and Dwapara). So now we have a great opportunity of attaining such liberation, because we are precisely living in this golden era. Kaliyuga considered by many as a ‘dark age’. It is comparable to the darkest part of the night, as the forces of evil and ignorance are in full power and many of the subtle faculties of the soul are obscured, but we have to be very strong in the spiritual sense in order to withstand the attack of these tremendous forces that test our spirituality, trying to drag us into darkness, so that our evolutionary process can be stopped. Though we must keep in mind that Kaliyuga is a precious era, being the most conducive age for attaining mukti -spiritual liberation.

      In Kaliyuga, tremendous sufferings will arrive to humanity and the reason for all this grief and sorrow, is to make us spiritually stronger and to give us the oportunity to evolve faster through all these hardships. In Kaliyuga the lapses of the past three Yugas -eras- are removed and man would move towards the Satyayuga -next era. That is why a few Puranas -Hindu epics, sacred scriptures of an historical and prophetic character-, at least proclaim that in Kali even the devas -‘gods’ misconceived by the Hindu tradition as spiritually liberated souls-, should take human birth and seek mukti, spiritual liberation, from this worldly life-death cycle. The majority of people believe that the devas are highly evolved beings living in very high astral planes, but in fact, there are ten avasthas -planes of evolution- and these saints and devas usually reside in the second and third stages of evolution. So is the case of the saints in Christianity. Obviously some of these souls have attained certain degree of spirituality, though they are not fully realized souls, they have not achieved spiritual liberation and this is the reason why they cannot lead us to completion in our spiritual process. We must remember that they are all tied to pleasure and obviously to their emotions. They can feel anger, sorrow, jealousy, they can be evil sometimes because of the flaws of their soul and their attachment to the senses. Despite all this, some people keep associating them directly to the Supreme itself. Many of the Indian gods and demi-gods are in this stage of evolution. The state of the deva is a very pleasurable one, with great authority on the material plane. In reply to your prayers or demands to them, sometimes they give you things you don´t deserve, blocking your spiritual development, taking in turn punya -merit or light within your soul- away from you. Some of these ‘gods’ don´t want to incarnate because of the suffering involved in it, but if they don´t incarnate in Kaliyuga, they won’t be able to find release to their souls. To attain mukti -spiritual liberation- one has to arrive at a state of being nothing, in other words, for the seeker of mukti all positions of authority become irrelevant, its ego should be totally extinguished. God Almighty alone is the authority. The soul, merges with the Supreme, and with that merging comes spiritual liberation. The Guru is a door that opens on to the path of spiritual liberation.



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      Sankara (ca. C.E. 788-820), a traveling Brahmin teacher from southern India, has been called the greatest Hindu philosopher of all times. Sankara developed an all inclusive, universal form of Hinduism through the doctrine of nondualism (denying any distinction between the Absolute and the universe). He did this by linking matter and spirit. Much of the argument took the form of double negatives. According to Sankara, the Brahman as the universal Cosmic Soul is nonempirical and nonobjective, but it is not nonbeing. Human beings confuse the Self with empirical existence, and thus are ignorant of the reality that the Brahman and Self are essentially identical.

      Sankara's concept of emancipation resembles the Buddha's idea of nirvana, to be realized by the pursuit of the knowledge of eternal Truth, spiritual devotion, and the practice of ethical virtues. Sankara, himself an ascetic, reorganized Hindu temple worship and established a Shaivite order of monks. Sankara's followers are widespread over both northern and southern India.

      Sankara's philosophy of monism (doctrine of one ultimate principle) was modified into one of more explicit theism (belief in god) by Ramanuja, another religious reformer from southern India, was the proponent of a qualified nondualistic philosophy, in which the Brahman or God has two forms: the world of matter and Selves. God is superior to both individual selves and the inanimate world. Sankara's impersonal divine principle was identified by Ramanuja as Vishnu, and the latter put more emphasis upon the element of devotion to God.

      In Ramanuja's system, all Selves have a spiritual individuality of their own, and salvation denotes not the disappearance of the Self or its fusion with God, but a state of permanent intuition of God, liberated from all ignorance and passions. Ramanuja's philosophy gained wide acceptance in India, particularly among the Vaishnavites of southern India.

      The third great Hindu reformer was Madhva (1197-1276), who modified Ramanuja's philosophy further to propound a dualist (distinction between God and Selves) system. He also identified the Brahman with Vishnu, and maintained that it is at once transcendent (beyond and surpassing) to and present throughout the universe. The Brahman is, however, distinct from and superior to the individual Selves and the world of matter.

      According to Madhva, human salvation is possible if an individual Self is liberated from all impurities and lies in a permanent state of adoration of God. Like those of Ramanuja, Madhva's teachings enjoy wide popularity among South Indian Vaishnavites.

      The effects of these religious reformers were enduring and far-reaching. Sankara and Ramanuja, in particular, left a large body of followers, and there are still many sects who worship the former as an incarnation of Shiva, and the latter as one of Vishnu. A Hindu monotheism emerged, as an outcome of their teachings, in which a devout could attain spiritual communion with his or her chosen personal God, without performance of any ritual or the mediation of any priest or preceptor. In varying degrees, they linked bhakti, or devotion, as an integral part of dharma, or moral life leading to salvation.

      Later, in eastern India, a charismatic Vaishnavite teacher, Chaitanya (1485-1533), preached the way to ultimate freedom and bliss through ecstatic adoration of Krishna, and the complete immersion of consciousness in love for him. By allowing all castes and even new converts to Hinduism access to salvation, he gained great grass-roots following, and the Krishna mission was propagated by his disciples in northern India. Chaitanya is venerated by many Vaishnavites today as another incarnation of Vishnu or Krishna. This testifies to his great prestige as a religious preacher and accounts for his success in setting off the devotional movement at the mass level. In the medieval period this spiritual upsurge swept across India, and has since transformed the very character of Hinduism.

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      "Vedic Astrology is not a myth. It is based on precise logic of math and planetary cosmic energy. Although every living being has a share of the Divine Light in them but it is not equal in everyone. We determine the extent of Cosmic Light shining in each individual through the Horoscope.""The degree of Cosmic Light from heavenly planets conditions the brain chemicals of the living beings at the time of birth as soon as their head is exposed to material nature.Thereafter, they become prisoner of their own brain, i.e.the destiny."


      Yoga Paths

      Yoga Retreat Hawaii

      Yoga Therapy, healing. Yoga Retreat Hawaii

      WHAT IS HINDUISM? Hinduism is not an organized religion like Islam or Christianity. ---It is the true culture of Indians in India.----Many call it A WAY OF LIFE. Once again, it is not an organized religion like Christianity or Islam. It has no founder. ----It has no Pope.---It has no hierarchy. Just a lot of scriptures.
      In Hindu scriptures, you are actually studying about the HISTORY AND CULTURE OF INDIA, like in 66 books of the Holy Bible you are actually studying about the CULTURE AND HISTORY OF JEWS.--HINDUISM AND JUDAISM are mothers of all modern religions in the world.---JAINISM [it co-existed with Hinduism since antiquity-] , BUDDHISM, ZOROASTRIANISM etc came from Hinduism.---ISLAM and CHRISTIANITY came Judaism.
      WHO IS ITS FOUNDER? =Nobody in particular.---It is the research output of countless learned men called RISHIS who were Christ like masters.---Hinduism has no hierarchy.-
      WHEN DID HINDUISM TAKE BIRTH? =Nobody knows.---If you go by Hindu mythological stories, Hinduism is trillions of years old.---If you go by Max Muller, the German philosopher, it is at least 8000 to 9000 years old.---
      Hinduism might have started as Dravidian civilization and later merged with Aryan civilization.---Studying the relics of Mohenjadaro and Harappa excavations . Hinduism has the capability to ABSORB AND GROW FROM ALL QUARTERS and you can see relics of all other civilizations like Egyptian, Celtic, Mayan, Greek, Roman etc.-- HINDUISM IS THE AMALGAMATION OF DRAVIDIAN, ARYAN, GREEK, ROMAN, CELTIC, EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATIONS--
      SANATHANA DHARMA or RIGHTEOUSNESS FOREVER was the original name of Hinduism.---It was Persians who invaded India during 6th century B.C. who gave the name HINDUISM meaning the RELIGION OF PEOPLE LIVING NEAR RIVER INDUS.
      In Persian the letter H and S are pronounced almost the same so they mistook the word SIND [ Sanskrit name for Indus] to H and then started calling HINDUS and HINDUISM.
      WHAT IS THE LANGUAGE IN WHICH THE HINDU SCRIPTURES WERE WRITTEN? SANSKRIT older than Hebrew and Latin.---The first words in English language came from Sanskrit.---The word MOTHER came from SANSKRIT word MATA and FATHER came from SANSKRIT word PITA . The HEBREW language originated from the Language of the Canaanite.
      Hindus believe anyone who search after truth is a Hindu. There is ONE AND ONLY GOD and ONE TRUTH. -- The very first book of Hindus named RIG-VEDA proclaim, " EKAM SAT, VIPRAH BAHUDHA VADANTI" ( There is only one truth, only men describe it in different ways). So a Jew or a Christian or a Moslem who is in search after truth is automatically a Hindu.
      The concepts of UTMOST FREEDOM OF THOUGHTS And ACTIONS. That what attracts many to Hinduism.---You can write anything and say anything as a Hindu.---No Hindu is ever banished from Hinduism.--No Hindu is ever crucified in Hinduism since he wrote or preached a wrong philosophy.
      Hindus believe in ONE AND ONLY GOD BRAHMAN which expresses itself in millions of forms.---Hindus do not believe God has human form or any other form.---God is nameless and timeless.---But there is nothing wrong to worship a God with name and form [nama-roopa], since man cannot conceive anything without any name and form.
      Hinduism is a very ancient religion and it never ever had a house cleaning in its entire history.---Almost everything that came was written in scriptures since it is birth, unlike in other religions where they have thrown out many beliefs calling Councils time and time again.-
      There is no word TRINITY in the entire Bible and it originated only after emperor Constantine became a Christian. Now coming back to Hinduism, Hindus believe that BY WORSHIPING GOD BY ANY NAME, YOU ARE ACTUALLY WORSHIPING ONE AND ONLY GOD BRAHMAN and that is why they have no problem even worshiping Buddha or Jesus Christ.---So a Hindu believes by worshiping any form of God, you are indeed worshiping the ALMIGHTY.
      The Trinity doctrine in Christianity-- The Bible mentions TRINITY as a concept of God in the St. Matthew's account of Christ's last command to the apostles, GO THEREFORE, AND MAKE DISCIPLES OF ALL NATIONS, BAPTIZING THEM IN THE NAME OF FATHER, AND THE SON, AND OF THE HOLY SPIRIT [MAT 28:19] According to SCHAFF-HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA, TRINITY doctrine was not established until 363 A.D.--- It says that TRINITY is the result of three or four centuries of theological development.----The New Catholic Encyclopedia also states that devotion to Trinity had begun in monasteries at Aniane and Tours, during 8th century.
      Show me any person, who does not believe in an idol, image, or symbol and I will show you the greatest liar on earth--.
      All religions, including ISLAM, have some concept of God with name and form, but Hindus alone have the courage to admit that fact.--The Cross in the Christian church, the picture of Jesus Christ, the statue of Mary, statues of patron saints are all idols.--If anyone bow in front of any of them, they are breaking laws of Old Testament [LED . . . 26:1, and EX 20:2-5.]
      God is spirit---NO WORD OR IMAGE CAN DESCRIBE OR DEPICT GOD OR CAN ENCOMPASS THE GREATNESS OF GOD. God is neither the father nor the mother--- But since man cannot conceive anything without NAME AND FORM, man has the right to worship God with a form.
      HOW WAS HINDUISM STARTED? According to Hindu scriptures it started as SRUTI-THAT WHICH IS HEARD.--- The great seers of ancient times called RISHIS who had perfected themselves have heard in their hearts, eternal truths and they taught those truths to disciples by telepathy and later they wrote them in books.--- VEDAS and UPANISHADS are known as SRUTI literature rest is called SMRITI [ THAT WHAT IS REMEMBERED ] literature
      The very first sacred books of Hinduism is called VEDAS.--- VEDAS means KNOWLEDGE. There are four VEDAS and they claim to teach men the highest aspects of truths which can lead them to God.

      They are:
      RIG VEDA---------------- KNOWLEDGE OF HYMNS
      NEXT important Hindu scriptures ar called UPANISHADS..There are 108 Upanishads but 13 are most important.
      Thousands....108 UPANISHADS . Principle ones 13. Some of the Upanishads are named after the sages who answered all questions. Some as per the first word in the Upanishad.
      1. -- ISA UPANISHAD
      2. -- KENA UPANISHAD
      A. VEDANGAS: scriptures attached to Vedas.
      1.-- DHARMA SUTRAS: [Codes of Manu, Yatnyavalkya etc]
      2.-- JYOTHISHA [ astrology and astronomy ]
      3.-- KALPA [rituals and legal matters]
      4. -- SIKSHA [phonetics ]
      5.-- CHHANDAS [measurements]
      6. -- NIRUKTA [Etymology]
      7.-- VYAKARANA [ grammar ]
      1.-- NYASA: by sage Gautama wrote Nyaya sutras
      2.-- VAISHESHIKA: by sage Kanada wrote Vaisheshika sutra
      3.-- SAMKHYA: by sage Kapila- Gita starts with this philosophy
      4.-- YOGA: by Pathanjali who wrote PATHANJALI YOGASUTRA
      5.-- MIMAMSA: by sage Jaimini who wrote MIMAMSA SUTRA
      6.-- VEDANTA: by sage Veda Vyasa
      VEDANTA [AT THE END OF VEDAS meaning it started at the end of Vedic age] has two parts.
      2.--DWITA PHILOSOPHY - TWO - almost all Vaishnava saints were exponents of this philosophy
      1.---RAMAYANA - story of Rama, written by Valmiki
      2.---MAHABHARATA - story of Pandvas & Kauravas 220,000 verses, 18 chapters
      BHAGAVAD GITA is part of this scripture
      3.---PURANAS - 18 are most important MAHABHAGAVATAM - is the most read important scripture of ISKCON
      4.---TANTRAS - started during Vedic age. consists of many things such as cosmology, erotic exercises etc Tantra is very important and very vast.
      There are still a lot more scriptures in Hinduism. I should say that there are more than 1000 scriptures in Hinduism.
      Yes it is a very ancient scripture and it is a part of ATHARVA VEDA.
      Hindu moral codes are written a collection of books called DHARMA SUTRAS. Hindu moral Codes are the integral part of Hinduism and they come under the big umbrella called DHARMA.--- it is very difficult to translate the word DHARMA--- Some of the codes are AHIMSA [NON-KILLING], SATHYA [TRUTH], DHARMA[DUTY], KARUNA [COMPASSION], VIRYA[FORTITUDE] , DAMA[SELF-RESTRAINT], SAUCHA[PURITY]
      Hindus actually do not have a Holy Bible like Christians.---Hindus have many scriptures and all of them are equally important.--- But many consider the Bhagavad Gita to be the Holy Bible of Hindus. It appears in the middle of the epic poem MAHABHARATA.
      Bhagavad Gita has 700 verses in 18 chapters---. It is in the form of a conversation between warrior king Arjuna and Lord Krishna, in the middle of the battle field at the outset of Mahabharata war.
      An AVATAR is an incarnation of God.--- Whenever God come down to earth in any form then Hindus call that an AVATAR.---- According to that definition, Christ can be considered as an AVATAR, even though there is no mention about Jesus Christ in any of the Hindu scriptures.
      Hindus believe in LIFE AFTER DEATH.---They also believe in the Biblical concept WHATEVER A MAN SOWETH, THAT SHALL HE REAP.---That is the basis of karmic law. Every action and every thought has a result.---Hindus believe that every thought and every action is weighed on the scale of eternal justice.
      The law of karma is one of CAUSE AND EFFECT.--Nobody can escape from the KARMIC DEBT.--- I believe Christ took care of the KARMIC DEBT of all the apostles so that he can make them FISHERMEN OF MEN.
      According to Hinduism, the body alone dies.--- the soul within the body never dies, But the path the soul takes is decided upon the past actions which are known as karmas. So the actions of former body does not die with the body. ---past actions are attached to the body and they decide WHAT KIND OF BODY THE SOUL TAKES IN THE NEXT LIFE.
      Hindu salvation concepts are totally different from Christian salvation concepts.---Hindu salvation is known as SELF-REALIZATION.---When an individual soul exhausts all its karmas and merges with GOD then Hindus say that soul has attained salvation.
      Hindu scriptures state that man's problem is his belief that he is the body---The moment he realizes he is the IMMORTAL SOUL WITHIN he attain salvation-So in Hindu salvation MAN REALIZES THAT HE IS THE IMMORTAL SOUL AND NOT THE BODY.---
      In the Holy Bible there is no such word as IMMORTAL SOUL and as such as per the Holy Bible, SALVATION IS THE RESURRECTION OF THE BODY WHICH REACHES HEAVEN AND STAYS NEXT TO GOD.
      NO, absolutely not. That question is the question many ask.--- Hindu scriptures, especially the Bhagavad Gita very clearly says that one can attain salvation in one life, provided one surrender his will to the will of God 100%.---Lord Krishna said: THOSE WHO SURRENDER ALL ACTIONS TO ME AND REGARD ME AS THE SUPREME GOAL AND WORSHIP ME WITH WHOLE HEARTED DEVOTION WILL BE SAVED BY ME FROM REPEATED BIRTHS AND DEATHS." --- In another verse, Lord Krishna said: GIVE UP ALL YOUR RIGHTEOUS AND NON-RIGHTEOUS ACTIONS AND COME TO ME; TAKE REFUGE IN ME. THEN I SHALL FREE YOU FROM ALL SINS; GRIEVE NOT.---That ME who is mentioned is not the Lord Krishna but the ABSOLUTE SOUL or GOD.-- Krishna is one of the representations of that God.--- That GOD can appear in another form like Christ or without any form or name at all.
      Through ONE OR ALL OF THE four paths
      1 JNANA YOGA---------------------PATH OF KNOWLEDGE
      2 KARMA YOGA--------------------PATH OF SELFLESS ACTIONS
      3 BHAKTI YOGA--------------------PATH OF DEVOTION
      Almost all devotees of all religions are BHAKTI YOGIES whether they believe in Hinduism or not.---Very good Christians go to church everyday and surrender themselves to the deity of Christ are SHAKTI YOGIS.--- So too Moslems who surrender to the will of the Allah. --Hinduism is the only religion explains the FOUR PATHS very well.
      WHAT IS AUM [OM]?
      It is the HINDU WORD.--- It is a syllable that stands for ABSOLUTE.--- It is uttered in the beginning as well as at the end of all Hindu prayers.--- To some extent it is the LOGOS of the Holy Bible.--- Of course, the LOGOS in the Holy Bible is JESUS CHRIST.
      Long before JOHN 1:1 [70 AD] was written, Hindu Vedas [ at least 5000 BC] wrote the same thing. "prajapathi vai agre asset" IN THE BEGINNING WAS PRAJAPTHI, THE BRAHMAN-THE GOD, "Tasya Vag dvitiya Aseet"
      That dot is supposed to be the meeting point of eye brows.---That important point is called ANJANA CHAKRA or spiritual eye.---Everyone is supposed to protect that.---In fact all saints protect that point with sandalwood paste..But later women alone started protecting that area.
      It is the popular Hindu greeting performed by pressing two hands together and holding them near the heart. the whole act communicate to the world ' YOU AND I ARE ONE...I SALUTE AND WORSHIP THE GOD WITHIN YOU, WHICH IS A MIRROR IMAGE OF MYSELF'
      DO HINDUS PRACTICE MONOGAMY ? Hindus practice monogamy and Hindus have stopped "child marriages in India by SARADA ACT [1929] under the British.---It is the Moslems in India who are allowed to marry four wives and Moslem Sariyath law allows child marriages for Moslems in India.
      Yes they do. Hindu scriptures forbid abortion.--- From time immemorial, Hindus consider children as gifts from God.--- In the code of Manu, Manu forbids abortion.---One of the worst acts described in the scriptures is SISU-HATYA meaning destruction of the unborn fetus.---There are prayers in the Rig Veda to guard a growing embryo. Only time abortion is allowed is when the fetus is known to be defective as per SUSRUTA SAMHITA, the Hindu Aurvedic book.
      None of the Hindu scriptures mention Sati. --Suttee is the most horrendous way of widows jumping into the funeral pyre of their fallen husbands. It is an ancient ritual practiced by a warrior race of India called Rajputs.---Nobody else in India, practiced Suttee. Once again, Suttee is never mentioned in any Hindu religious scripture.---There is not even ONE episode of Suttee in the vast Hindu mythology.
      All religions are the result of the works of thousands of thinkers.--- Hinduism and Judaism are the mothers of all religions.--- New religions like Christianity and Islam took the best aspects of Judaism and made part of them.--- So too Buddhism and Jainism took the best aspects of Hinduism and made part of them. In Christianity, there were several housecleaning in its 2000 years of history.---Hinduism on its part, NEVER had any HOUSE CLEANING in its history.--- Since Hinduism never tossed anything away, in it you will see in it primitive religion as well as very advanced thoughts.--
      I am an engineer and author of an international best seller on Hinduism by name AM I A HINDU? [HALO BOOKS, SAN FRANCISCO ISBN 1-879904-06-3 800-723-4508 415-892-0649- please read at www.amazon.com about this book---one of the best [3rd in the list] 50 books in Hinduism] which sold millions of copies around the globe. The book is one of a kind with 90 chapters and hundreds of questions and answers. It is in the form of thought provoking dialogue between 14 year old American born Indian teenager and his middle aged father on all aspects of Hinduism.
      AM I A HINDU?
      [ISBN 1-879904-06-3 800-723-4508 415-892-0649]
      HALO BOOKS, USA and RUPA PRESS in India .......Please read more about this book at www.amazon.com which lists this book as the 3rd most popular book in Hinduism
      135 SOUTH MALAKA, ALLAHABAD 211 001;
      My book AM I A HINDU? details on Internet
      If at all you wish to have FREE educational flow charts on Hinduism, kindly write back with
      your postal address Ed Viswanathan arvind-4@msn.com please read my thought provoking
      articles at http://www.hvk.org/hvk/msgboard/wwwboard.html
      Kindly send this e-mail to every one you know----------It is very important that we educate
      everyone about Hindu culture-----------IGNORANCE IS THE ROOT CAUSE OF ALL EVILS-------KNOWLEDGE ERADICATES IGNORANCE..


      Chinmaya Mission West

      Datta Peetham - Mysore, India

      Divine Life Society - Rishikesh, Disseminating the teachings of Sri Swami Sivananda

      Divine Life Society - South Africa

      Divine Love Mission - An offering to Jagadguru Shri Kripalu Ji Maharaj, who has inspired countless souls to give their heart to Shri Radha-Krishna

      FreeIndia - Celebrating 50 Years of India's Freedom

      Hindu Heritage Endowment

      Hindu Students Council

      Hindu Students Forum - Moscow, Russia

      Hindu Vivek Kendra

      India Network Foundation - A nonprofit, charitable, educational and community organization serving the Asian Indian Community around the world and helping developmental projects in India

      Kriya Yoga Institute - Homestead, Florida, Teachings and initiation into Kriya Yoga of the Paramahamsa Yogananda lineage

      Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Organization - New York

      RSS, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

      Saiva Siddhanta Church - Kauai, Hawaii, USA

      Shri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham - Kanchipuram, India

      Shri Yoga Vedanta Ashram

      Sindhi Virtual Home

      Spiritual Realization Institute (SRI) - Vrindavana, India

      VHP, Vishwa Hindu Parishad

      Vivekananda Centre - London, England

      Vivekananda Foundation

      The Yoga Institute - Mumbai, India

      The Divine Life Society (Sivananda Cultural Association)

      Agasthiar's Universal Mission

      Triangle Gujarati Organization

      Markham and Toronto Arya Samaj

      Brahman Samaj of North America's Home Page

      Vivekananda Centre London

      Simply Sindhi - Links, Associations, Clubs and Organization

      Mother Service - Human development based on Sri Aurobindo's teachings.

      Ahinsaa - Learn and practice the Hindu way of life.

      Vidya Yoga Ashram - Universidade Mundial De Filosofia Sagrada.

      American Friends - Indo-American relations.

      Vishwa Madhwa Sangha - International Madhva Organization based in the US.

      Brahman Samaj Sangha - of North America.

      Vanvasi Kalyan Ashram - Promoting Health, Education, Social Organization Programs.

      The Prajapati Community - Promoting Hindu Religion, Education, Culture and Relief from Poverty and Sickness


      The Work Of Yogamaharishi Dr Swami Gitananda Giri Guru Maharaj In Australia

      International Level Yogasana Competitions

      TempleNet - Listing hundreds of Hindu temples throughout India

      Hindu Mandir of Maple Grove, Minnesota

      Hindu Worship Society of Houston, Texas

      Anandashram - The Official site of Anand Ashram in India.

      Kauai Aadheenam (Kauai's Hindu Monastery), Hawaii

      San Marga Iraivan Temple, Kauai, Hawaii

      Shri Mandir Hindu Temple Society of San Diego, California

      Sri Siva Vishnu Temple, Lanham, Maryland

      Sri Venkateswara Temple, Pittsburgh

      Tirupati Sri Venkateswara Temple - Comprehensive site about Tirupati temple, perhaps the world's largest and most-visited Hindu temple, home to Sri Venkateswara, another name for Lord Vishnu - includes detailed information on how to pilgrimage there, including travel and lodging arrangements

      Sri Vaishnodevi Temple - A Cyber-pilgrimage to the damous Vaishnodevi temple in Jammu, including information on making the pilgrimage (travel routes, lodging, etc.), RealAudio and MP3-encoded bhajans

      Vishnu Mandir, Onterio, Canada.

      Muruga Temple of North America - A Murugan Temple in Lanham, MD, USA.

      Devine Love Mission - Ashrams

      Sri Siva Vishnu Temple - Hindu Temple in Greater Washington D.C. area.

      Hindu Worship Society of Houston, Texas - A temple in Houston, Texas.

      Malaysia Temples Online - A comprehensive listing of Hindu temples in the country.

      General Resources

      Hindu Dharma

      Hindu Scripture

      Vedic Experience - The Vedas are the most ancient scriptures in the world, and are the primary scripture of the Hindu religion. This is the best translation of the Vedas we've found, by Raimon Panikkar.

      Gods and Goddesses of Hinduism

      God in Hindu Dharma and Temples, featuring many of the primary Hindu Gods.

      Shiva - The Lord Pervading All Universe - A nice website about Shiva, Lingam, Nataraja, Rudraksha, Mantra, Puja, Dhyana

      Sri Andal's Tirup-Pavai - A shrine to Sri Andal, the Divine incarnation of Sri Bhumi Devi, the Divine Consort of Sriman Narayana, by Swami Shri E.S. Bhuvarahachariar

      Ahimsa and Vegetarianism

      • Biospirituality - Promoting non-injury and harmony with the Earth.

      • The Vegetarian Pages

      • On Ahimsa, "Nonviolence"

      • Hindu Students Council Environmental Awareness Project Presents: Vegetarianism

      • Discussing Vegetarianism with a Meat Eater, a Hindu View

      • News, views and discussion about animals, their health, management and protection.

      • The International Society for Cow Protection

      • Stop Ivory Trade!



        10-1-00 - DREAM - I was looking at a sheet of paper that was written on both sides.

        This was a list of paragraphs about groups of people. I noticed after I looked at both sides of the paper that part of each groups name could be circled and became 'Light Mission'.

        It seems that the back side of the paper was 'dark light' and that the front side was of the 'white light'. There were far fewer 'dark light' groups than there were of the 'white light'.

        I dreamed this for a long time and I don't know why, and each time I woke up during the night, the words, "Light Mission' came back into my head so I wouldn't forget.

        10-1-00 - DREAM - I must have been somewhere in Milwaukee. My job was as apartment manager. My boss was Ralph and one of the maintenance men was Brian. Ralph was also playing a dual role as attorney. (The name Ralph means Red wolf)

        For some reason Brian was on trial.

        I had a nagging thought in my head that the Brian who was on trial wasn't the real Brian. (The name Brian means strong). I felt that the Brian who was on trial had killed his twin brother.

        I remembered that Brian was one of twins and the original Brian I knew well was mild mannered, polite, courteous, and kind. This Brian was loud, boisterous, uncouth, and egotistic. This troubled me.

        I wanted to tell Ralph about my suspicions, but getting him alone was a problem. He was never alone. He always had other men with him. He asked me to do something for him and I went willingly because I wanted to tell him my suspicions, but he never gave me an opportunity to speak in private.

        After some time went by, I finally got Ralph alone and told him that I thought I could help him win his case because I knew something that he didn't. His answer was, "Hmmm! I forgot that I can use outside people in this case. I can go back as far as the Grandmothers."

        He walked away before I had the opportunity to tell him what I suspected again.

        I tried again to tell someone what I suspected and went to a hospital room with a gift of a Pointsettia plant. Inside the room was Lindsey from One Life to Live and her son Will. (Lindsey means 'from the linden tree island)(Will means 'resolute')

        Off to the side was my friend Irv who didn't seem to have anything to do with Lindsey and her son, but had a little office set up on the side. One pile of papers was about people who hadn't paid their rent. The name on top was Linda. I knew Linda and I knew that she had paid her rent, so I told him so. Irv also had a stack of business cards in his hand. The one on top was for a 'Light Mission' of some kind. (The name Linda means 'snake'.) (Irv/Erwin means 'friend of the sea')

        I knew I couldn't tell these people of my suspicions. It would only do any good if I told Ralph because he was the attorney. (Note: Ralph was actually a well-known attorney and judge in real life. He also owned a lot of property some of which I managed for him.)

        I went back home and picked up my baby. He was so beautiful. But, when I picked him up and looked at his face and saw that he had the dark skin of a Hindu, I knew he would never be accepted by people like Ralph and Brian who had white skin.

        That didn't make my baby any less beautiful. It was just that he wouldn't be accepted as beautiful by white men. That made me feel a little depressed because I couldn't even show off my baby.






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