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S     O      S

(Hear the Code)

this site updated 2-21-14


10-11-03 - DREAM - I went to work in an office as a secretary. Everything in it was really old. There were two old-fashioned telephones in it that hadn't been used in so long that they were covered in cobwebs.

I asked the boss if we could order new telephones. He said, "Yes!" and that made me really happy.

Then I went to get some pencils and pens to use. There was a small box there with pencils and pens standing in it - the size of a Spam can. They were all sharp, but so short, one could hardly use them. They had obviously been used a lot in the past.

The boss saw what the problem was and he came over and opened up a double-door cabinet and told me and the others working there to take out whatever we needed.

Inside the cabinet were all brand new pencils, colored pencils and colored ink pens, and large and small drawing pads. He told us to get the best because we were going to be drawing maps.

This was even more exciting to hear.

Then a young woman came down from upstairs and she put some music on a piano there and said she was going to play something for me.

The melody was really nice, but the left hand played a difficult and strange staccato sound - all on the same note that looked like morse-code to me.

I thought that was really strange and wondered if I could even play it that well as she did.

NOTE: I woke up and heard a telephone ring in my right ear very faintly.

I said mentally, "I'm ready for a message if there is one."

Then I saw a young man, dressed in a brown tweed suit and cap. He was rising upward - it appeared that he was carrying a large portfolio or satchel.

The name Samuel B Morse was impressed in my mind at that point.

I started to think if there was a connection between the dream and Samuel B Morse and the morse code.

Was there code in music?
Is there coded music?
Why were we going to be drawing maps?
Are there coded maps?

Joe Mason and his Granny Zora Curry
Joe is age 13 in this pic.
Zora's poetry page

NOTE: After I got up and told Joe the dream - he said there was a huge connection to his life about Samuel B Morse.  He said when he was going to Junior College, he was given the Samuel B Morse award for educational and sports excellence. (He played football)  He wrote a letter of thanks to the organization which was run by Samuel B Morse's cousin. He received a really nice letter back inviting him to visit the property.  The organization was Del Monte Properties. It runs a gated community on the West Coast, which includes Pebble Beach Golf Course, and many nice homes.

Joe decided not to go to visit the property - he used to live in Carmel and had been to Pebble Beach Golf Course many times since his early childhood. Joe found out while reading a book on art that Samuel B Morse was an incredible artist. He painted pictures of life size angels and other things. Angels were out of favor at the time he was painting so he didn't get rich and famous for that, so as a side-line, he invented the Morse Code.

A few years later, Joe went to the Smithsonian Institute in Washington DC, and while walking around the buildings, he came upon the exact painting of the angel that he had seen in the art book earlier.


The telegraph began as an optical system in France after the revolution, invented by Claude Chappe. His systems of towers, telescopes, and various signaling devices spread across Europe so that by the mid 1830's there were almost 1000 telegraph towers in a half-dozen countries. But, the optical telegraphs suffered from many drawbacks, not the least of them being rain, mist, and darkness, all fairly frequent occurrences in much of Europe.

The idea of an electrical telegraph was bandied about by many, often with enough fervor that it joined the perpetual motion machine as one of those topics that signaled the presence of a perhaps-crazed inventor. In 1832, Samuel B. Morse, a painter, was on a ship back from Europe when he caught the telegraph bug. Seven years earlier, he had been traveling to Washington, D.C. to do Lafayette's portrait and had received a letter that his wife had died. He raced back home, but the letter took so long in transit that he missed her funeral. That experience marked him, and the idea of an electric telegraph hit home.

Morse got off the boat from Europe with the sketches for an electric telegraph in hand and the beginnings of the Morse code already done. In Europe, William Fothergill Cooke started work on the electrical telegraph in 1836, a few years after Morse. He had the same problem Morse did, trying to get the electrical signal to go long distances. As Morse was doing in the United States, Cooke sought advice from a variety of experts on the electrical transmission issue, consulting with Michael Faraday, Peter Roget, and ultimately teaming up with Professor Charles Wheatstone, the inventor of the concertina.

Morse in the United States and Cooke and Wheatstone in England met with many skeptics, but finally in 1844 Morse got his line up and running between Washington and Baltimore and transmitted his first message:

Samuel F. B. Morse conceived of his version of an electromagnetic telegraph in 1832 and constructed an experimental version in 1835. He did not construct a truly practical system until 1844, when he built a line from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.  This model incorporates basic features of the 1844 receiver. It accompanied an application for a patent, granted in 1849, in which he described a method for marking dots and dashes on strips of paper.

Morse's invention transformed communications almost overnight. Within ten years after the first telegraph line opened, 23,000 miles of wire crisscrossed the country. The development of the telegraph had a significant impact on the development of the West, made railroad travel safer, and allowed businessmen to conduct their operations more quickly and profitably. Very few inventions have had such an immediate and long-lasting impact.

Adapted from America's Smithsonian, Celebrating 150 Years, © 1996 Smithsonian Institution

With this new method of communication messages could travel over telegraph lines and be received in seconds. Telegraphs made sending and receiving messages much quicker, but there were also problems. Telegraphs needed to be sent and received by trained people in telegraph offices. Not every town had its own office, and sending messages was expensive. Telegraphs improved communication, but it was not easy for everyone to use.





[Note from Editor: I personally don't believe in the Bible Code, though they are intriguing.]

The Bible (or Torah) Code

The Bible (or Torah) Code is a code alleged embedded in the Bible by God. The code is revealed by searching for equidistant letter sequences (ELS). For example, start with any letter ("L") and read every nth letter ("N") thereafter in the book, not counting spaces. If an entire book such as Genesis is searched, the result is a long string of letters. Using different values for L and N, one can generate many strings of letters. Imagine wrapping the string of letters around a cylinder in such a way that all the letters can be displayed. Flatten the cylinder to reveal several rows with columns of equal length, except perhaps the last column, which might be shorter than all the rest. Now search for meaningful names in proximity to dates. Search  horizontally, vertically, diagonally, any which way. A group of Israeli mathematicians did just this and claimed that when they searched for names in close proximity to birth or death dates (as published in the Encyclopedia of Great Men in Israel) they found many matches, for example, the date of the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin was in close proximity to letters spelling out his name.. Doron Witztum, Eliyahu Rips and Yoav Rosenberg (1994) published their findings under the title of  "On Equidistant Letter Sequences in the Book of Genesis." The editor of the journal commented:

When the authors used a randomization test to see how rarely the patterns they found might arise by chance alone they obtained a highly significant result, with the probability p=0.000016. Our referees were baffled: their prior beliefs made them think the Book of Genesis could not possibly contain meaningful references to modern-day individuals, yet when the authors carried out additional analyses and checks the effect persisted.

That is, the probability of getting the results they did was 16 out of one million or 1 out of 62,500. The authors state: "Randomization analysis shows that the effect is significant at the level of 0.00002 [and] the proximity of ELS's with related meanings in the Book of Genesis is not due to chance." Harold Gans, a former cryptologist at the US Defense Department, replicated the work of the Israeli team and agreed with their conclusion. Witztum  later claimed that, according to one measure, the probability of getting these results by chance is 1 in 4 million. He has apparently changed his mind and now claims that the probability p = 0.00000019 (1 out of 5.3 million).

As further evidence of the statistical significance of their results, the Israeli team analyzed the Hebrew version of the Book of Isaiah and the first 78,064 characters of a Hebrew translation of Tolstoy's War and Peace. They found many names in close proximity to birth or death dates, but the results were statistically insignificant. (The book of Genesis used in their study, the Koren version, has 78,064 characters.)

What does this all mean? To some it means that the patterns in Genesis are intentional and that God is the ultimate author of the code. If so, should the Book of Isaiah, and any other book in the Bible that fails the ELS test, be dumped? Should we conclude that these statistics verify the claim that the Jews are the chosen people of God, or that no more names should be added to list of Great Men in Israel unless they pass the ELS test? Unless other religions can duplicate such statistically improbable results, the mathematically minded supernaturalist might well consider them to be imposters. Should we translate all the sacred books of all the religions of the world into Hebrew and see how many great men of Israel are encoded there?

Can a computer really read the mind of God? Apparently. For on this theory God dictated in His favorite language, Hebrew, a set of words that are more or less intelligible if taken at face value, containing stories of creation, floods, fratricide, wars, miracles, and so on, with many moral messages. But this Hebrew God chose his words carefully, encoding the Bible with prophecies and messages of absolutely no religious value.

Many, however, are not at a loss at all. Some Christian "creation scientists" claim the Bible Code provides scientific proof of God's existence. If they are right, they should convert to Judaism. Doron Witztum can't do that, since he is already a Jew. But he has taken the work done on Genesis a bit further than his colleagues. Witztum went on Israeli television and claimed that the names of the sub-camps on a map of Auschwitz appeared remarkably close to the phrase "in Auschwitz." The odds of such occurring, he said, are "one in a million." Some of his students did the math and claim their mentor was off by "a factor of 289,149." Witztum's math may not be as good as his intentions, but it is difficult to see what those intentions might be. Was God revealing in an odd way that the sub-camps of Auschwitz are in Auschwitz?



The Bottom Line - 20 Questions Answered

1. Are Bible codes real?

Some ELS phenomena [see 13-16 below] must be real because they are far too improbable to be due to chance.

2. Isn't the Bible just a collection of myths and fables?

The existence of real code phenomena provides compelling evidence that when the text was written 2,500+ years ago, the author(s) of the Hebrew Bible had knowledge of modern day events. Given the prescience and super-human intelligence of the author(s), the view that the Bible is merely a collection of ancient myths should be rejected.

3. Has any relationship been discovered between the content of the literal text and its underlying codes?

Yes. there is a very strong relationship. For virtually all significant code clusters, such a relationship is immediately evident.

4. Who wrote the Bible?

Because of 1, 2 and 3, considered together, and the clear message of the literal text regarding its authorship, the claim that the author of the Bible is God, not human beings or aliens, has compelling support.


5. Why would the author of the Bible go to the trouble of encoding it?

Of the two likely purposes for encoding [a) authentication of the super-human authorship of the literal text and b) extraction of reliable new information/predictions by decoders)], only the first is potentially valid. The primary reason that b) is not a valid purpose is that real codes only express a viewpoint.
If the viewpoint is that of an untruthful person, the content of the code is not reliable. This would also be true of some verses in the Bible if attribution were eliminated [e.g., the serpent’s statements in Genesis 3:4]. With very few exceptions, codes lack attribution as well as sufficient context to determine who was speaking. For this reason, it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to use codes to conclusively support or refute any specific doctrine of an established religion—other than 4. To do so, it would appear to be necessary to find a large, concentrated number of lengthy codes almost all supporting the same position, together with the assumption that a high percentage of codes must be from God's viewpoint.

6. What are some of the problems in deciding which ELSs are real and which aren't?
The relative improbability of appearance of different ELSs can be accurately gauged. However, even the messages of the most improbable ELSs are inherently not reliable, for one or more of the following reasons:

    a) Codes only express a viewpoint (see 5), which could be that of God, terrorists, or any person, notable or otherwise.
    b) Spaces selected between words may differ from those originally intended.
    c) Interpretations of Hebrew experts may differ.
    d) Copying errors in manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible can create unintended ELSs and eliminate intended ELSs. However, the possibility that the most recent copying errors corrected earlier ones, should not be ruled out.
    e) Some intended encoded words may now be extinct (i.e., not part of the vocabulary of either Biblical or contemporary Hebrew).
    f) Any individual word or phrase in an ELS may be coincidental, in part or in whole, or its translation may differ from its original content and/or meaning.
    g) A long ELS could represent a conversation where the viewpoint shifts.

7. Why would God encode unreliable messages?

If individual Bible codes were truly reliable, their messages would compete with the literal text and Bible code researchers would become prophets on whom many people would rely. Neither of these would be positive situations, so it is best that the content of Bible codes should always be subject to question.

8. What about the millions of short ELSs in the Bible?

Short (three to six-letter) ELSs are everywhere, and their individual appearance, either by alone or close to other short individual ELSs, should not be construed as having any intended existence or relationship.

9. What is your opinion of the codes presented in Michael Drosnin's two books on codes?

Nearly all examples in Drosnin’s books are trivial (i.e., they are not remarkable in comparison with those extractable from a non-encoded Hebrew text).

10. How do you respond to the Mathematicians' Statement against Bible codes?

The Mathematicians’ Statement is severely outdated and should be retracted (see our response to the petition).

Key Findings

11. Why do you place so much emphasis on longer codes?

The longer an intelligible ELS is, the less likely it is to be a coincidence.

12. Is it possible to find longer ELSs in non-encoded texts?

Yes. The extension discovery rate (d) to an existing ELS is 16 % - 20 % in a widely accepted non-encoded Hebrew control text (a Hebrew translation of War & Peace). A realistic benchmark for the total number of final ELSs in a cluster that consists of k extensions expected to emerge from a search around n initial ELSs, is

n ( k + 1 ) dk ( 1 – d )2

None of the cluster examples in published books significantly exceed this benchmark.

13. Why are clusters of codes important?

Some extensive clusters of lengthy codes (e.g., Ezekiel 37 and Isaiah 53 must be real, at least in part, because the total number of lengthy ELSs in them decisively exceeds the benchmark in 11. For example, Bible Code Digest researchers examined 295 initial ELSs about post-911 events in Ezekiel 37. According to the formula in 12, they should have found only seven ELSs with three or more extensions if the text were not encoded. In actuality, they found 33 such ELSs-more than four times expected. This is very compelling evidence of the extreme improbability of their appearance by chance. The indicated discovery rate in these clusters is decidedly higher than in the non-encoded control text.

14. What other phenomena tell you that Bible codes are real?

King David ELS underscoring is highly improbable.

15. Are there any others?

Some ELS mosaics are so improbable that they must be real.

16. Do Bible codes show up only in the Old Testament?

Highly improbable mosaics have been discovered in the Aramaic New Testament.

17. Are the codes you find in both ancient and modern Hebrew?

Nearly all ELSs discovered to date (by BCD) are expressed in Biblical Hebrew.

18. Can codes predict the future? Why can't we use them to avert disasters like the September 11 attacks?

Some intended prophecies may have been preserved intact. But although many codes appear to be prescient, none are completely reliable as predictions [see 6].

19. What is the connection between Bible codes and the Kabbalah?

The scientific exploration of improbable Bible code phenomena has no connection to the mystical practices of the Kabbalah.

20. What about the claim that aliens wrote the Bible?

Though some have claimed that real codes are evidence that aliens wrote the Bible, to our knowledge no one has formulated a substantive hypothesis that can be examined (or tested statistically) in support of such a belief.




Coded maps include elevation maps, rainfall maps, sea surface temperature, detailed maps show just where future earthquakes could cause damage, demographic and business data, geographic data, maps of countries, states, cities, counties, parks, city recreation maps, etc



An American agent named Charles Dumas, a Swiss journalist and friend of Benjamin Franklin, planted stories in a Dutch newspaper, Gazette de Leide, intended to give the United States a favorable rating in Dutch credit markets.

Foreign Intelligence

The first intelligence agent enlisted by the Committee of Secret Correspondence was Arthur Lee, of Stratford, a physician then living in London. On November 30, 1775, the day after its founding, the Committee appointed Dr. Lee as its agent in England and informed him that "it is considered of utmost consequence to the cause of liberty that the Committee be kept informed of developments in Europe." Following the first Congressional appropriation for the work of the Committee on December 11, 1775, two hundred pounds was forwarded to Lee with the urging that he find out the "disposition of foreign powers towards us, and the admonition that we need not hint that great circumspection and impenetrable security are necessary."

The next agent recruited abroad by the Committee of Secret Correspondence was Charles W. F. Dumas, a Swiss journalist at The Hague. Dumas was briefed personally by Thomas Story, a courier of the Committee, and instructed on the use of cover names and letter drops to be used for his reports to the Committee and for communication with Dr. Lee in London.

On March 1, 1776, the Committee of Secret Correspondence appointed Silas Deane, a former delegate to the Continental Congress, as its agent in France. He was instructed to pose as a Bermudian merchant dealing in Indian goods. He was also appointed as an agent of the Secret Committee, charged with making secret purchases and with attempting to gain secret assistance from the French Crown. Later, both Deane and Lee would be converted from agents to commissioners to the French Crown, albeit secret ones, until the open and formal alliance of France with the Americans.

Other agents of the Committee of Secret Correspondence included William Bingham, who served first in France and then in Martinique, where he had once been British Consul; Major Jonathan Loring Austin, William Carmichael, and William Hodge.

Wartime Special Operations

After Benedict Arnold turned traitor, several special operations, none successful, were mounted in an effort to capture him. In September 1780, Major Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee presented to General Washington a secret plan to return the defector to American control and bring him to the gallows. Washington approved the plan, but insisted that Arnold not be killed or injured in carrying it out, even at the risk of allowing him to escape. "Public punishment," said Washington, "is the sole object in view."

Lee's sergeant major, John Champe of Loudoun County, Virginia, was assigned to this special mission, and on the evening of October 19, 1780, "deserted" to the British under a hail of gunfire. The official documents he carried and his cooperative attitude during interrogation convinced the British of his bonafides. He was appointed sergeant major of Benedict Arnold's so-called American Legion, which was made up of deserters and Tories. Champe, now wearing a British uniform and having obtained freedom of movement in British-occupied New York, made contact with Patriot agents there and laid plans for Arnold's capture. Arnold's legion embarked for Virginia on the night the operation was to take place, and the plan was aborted. Champe accomplished his other mission, however: finding out if other American officers were collaborating with the enemy. He found no evidence that any were. In March 1781, an attempt to capture Arnold during his daily ride to the Virginia shore of the Chesapeake Bay was foiled by the chance anchoring of some British ships in the area. Yet another plan, devised by Thomas Jefferson, called for General John Peter Muhlenberg to send hand-picked soldiers "to seize and bring off this greatest of traitors" at Portsmouth, Virginia. Unusual security precautions at the British outpost thwarted the attempt.

Recognizing the value of an important hostage, General Washington in 1782 approved a plan to capture the son of King George III, Prince William Henry (the future William IV), during the young naval officer's royal visit to New York. The operation failed to come off after British intelligence heard about it and the Prince increased security around himself. After William later became monarch, the American ambassador told him of the wartime plan and of Washington's edict that, if the mission were successful, the young Prince should suffer no "insult or indignity." Upon hearing the story, William IV responded: "I am obliged to General Washington for his humanity, but I'm damned glad I did not give him an opportunity of exercising it towards me."

On the high seas, British supply ships and troop ships often fell to American privateers operating under letters of marque and reprisal from the Continental Congress. Franklin, for example, ran a flotilla of Irish and French privateers from the American mission in Paris. Success in intercepting British vessels was so great that the British accused their captains of taking bribes from the Americans to surrender their ships. One privateer, operating under contract to Silas Deane and a French business associate and utilizing a French ship obtained by Benjamin Franklin, was the Bonhomme Richard, commanded by John Paul Jones.

Of the sabotage operations conducted by the American patriots, only one mission is known to have been launched in England. Sometime after his arrival in Paris, Silas Deane was visited by young James Aitken, recently returned from America. Aitken produced crudely drawn but accurate plans of Royal dockyards in England and proposed to sabotage them by utilizing a unique incendiary device of his own design. Deane engaged his services and issued Aitken a passport signed by French Foreign Minister Vergennes with instructions to French officials: "We will and command you very expressly to let pass safely and freely, Mr. James Actzen, going to England, without giving him or suffering him any hindrance; but on the contrary giving every aid and assistance that he shall want or occasion for." In late November 1776, Aitken landed at Dover, and on December 7, he ignited a fire at the Portsmouth dockyard that burned from late in the afternoon until the following morning, destroying twenty tons of hemp, ten one-hundred-fathom cables, and six tons of ship cordage. After failing to penetrate the security at Plymouth, Aitken proceeded to Bristol, where he destroyed two warehouses and several houses. On January 16, 1777, the British cabinet met in emergency session and urged immediate measures to locate the mysterious "John the Painter" (Aitken was a house painter). Guards were augmented at all military facilities and arsenals, and a reward was posted. By January 20 the cabinet, again in extraordinary session, discussed suspending habeas corpus and placing the country under martial law. Five days later the reward was increased to one thousand pounds and newspapers reported panic throughout England. Aitken was soon apprehended, with a pistol and inflammables in his possession. He would not admit to the sabotage when interrogated, but eventually confided in a friendly American visitor-who was secretly in the pay of the British. Based on these confidences, personal effects, including the passport from Vergennes, were located, His trial was speedy, and on March 10, 1777, Aitken went to the gallows at Portsmouth dockyard, where his exploits had begun.


Probably the first Patriot organization created for counterintelligence purposes was the Committee (later called the Commission) for Detecting and Defeating Conspiracies. It was made up of a series of groups established in New York between June 1776 and January 1778 to collect intelligence, apprehend British spies and couriers, and examine suspected British sympathizers. In effect, there was created a "secret service" for New York which had the power to arrest, to convict, to grant bail or parole, and to jail or to deport. A company of militia was placed under its command to implement its broad charter. The Committee heard over 500 cases involving disloyalty and subversion. John Jay has been called the first chief of American counterintelligence because of his role in directing this Committee's work.

Nathanial Sackett and Colonel William Duer were particularly successful in ferreting out British agents, but found their greatest success in the missions of one of the dozen or so agents of their own, Enoch Crosby. Crosby, a veteran of the Continental Army, had been mistaken by a Westchester County Tory as being someone who shared his views. He confided to Crosby that a secret Tory military company was being formed and introduced him to the group. Crosby reported the plot to the Committee and was "captured" with the group. He managed to "escape" and, at Committee direction, infiltrated another secret Tory unit. This unit, including Crosby, was also taken and he "escaped" once more. He repeated the operation at least two more times, before Tory suspicions made it necessary for him to retire from counterintelligence work. Crosby was the model for the central character in James Fenimore Cooper's book The Spy (1821)-the first espionage novel written in English.

Another successful American agent was Captain David Gray of Massachusetts. Posing as a deserter, Gray entered the service of Colonel Beverly Robinson, a Tory intelligence officer, and became Robinson's courier. As a result, the contents of each of Robinson's dispatches were read by the Americans before their delivery. Gray eventually became the courier for Major Oliver DeLancey, Jr., the head of the British secret service in New York. For two years, Gray, as DeLancey's courier to Canada, successfully penetrated the principal communications link of the British secret service. Upon completing his assignment, Gray returned to the ranks of the Continental Army and his name was struck from the deserter list, where George Washington had placed it at the beginning of the operation.

Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge, a senior intelligence officer under Washington, is credited with the capture of Major John Andre, who preceded DeLancey as chief of the British secret service in New York. Although Tallmadge declined to discuss the episode in his memoirs, it is said that one of his agents had reported to him that Major Andre was in contact with a "John Anderson" who was expecting the surrender of a major Patriot installation. Learning that a "John Anderson" had passed through the lines en route to General Benedict Arnold, the commander at West Point, Tallmadge had "Anderson" apprehended and returned for interrogation. "Anderson" admitted to his true identity-he was Major Andre-and was tried, convicted, and executed as a spy. Arnold, learning that Andre had been taken and that his own traitorous role no doubt was exposed, fled West Point before he could be captured, and joined the British forces.

General Washington demanded effective counterintelligence work from his subordinates. On March 24, 1776, for example, he wrote: "There is one evil I dread, and that is, their spies. I could wish, therefore, the most attentive watch be kept... I wish a dozen or more of honest, sensible and diligent men, were employed... in order to question, cross-question etc., all such persons as are unknown, and cannot give an account of themselves in a straight and satisfactory line.... I think it a matter of importance to prevent them from obtaining intelligence of our situation." Washington occasionally had to deal with rogue intelligence officers in his own ranks who used their positions for personal gain or undertook unauthorized or illegal operations that might have compromised parts of the Patriot intelligence apparatus. In one instance, Washington discovered that two of his agents who supposedly were collecting intelligence on Long Island actually were "mere plundering parties." He set up a special team to investigate and arrest the renegade operatives.

Deception Operations

To offset British superiority in firepower and number of troops, General Washington made frequent use of deception operations. He allowed fabricated documents to fall into the hands of enemy agents or be discussed in their presence. He allowed his couriers -carrying bogus information-to be "captured" by the British, and inserted forged documents in intercepted British pouches that were then permitted to go on to their destination. He had army procurement officers make false purchases of large quantities of supplies in places picked to convince the British that a sizeable Continental force was massing. Washington even had fake military facilities built. He managed to make the British believe that his three-thousand-man army outside Philadelphia was forty thousand strong!

After learning from the Culper Ring that the British planned to attack a French expedition that had just landed in Newport, Rhode Island, Washington planted information with known British agents indicating that he intended to move against New York City. The British commander was tricked into holding back the troops headed for Rhode Island. With elaborate deception, Washington masked his movement toward Chesapeake Bay-and victory at Yorktown-by convincing the British initially that he was moving on New York.

At Yorktown, James Armistead, a slave who had joined Lafayette's service with his master's permission, crossed into Cornwallis' lines in the guise of an escaped slave, and was recruited by Cornwallis to return to American lines as a spy. Lafayette gave him a fabricated order that supposedly was destined for a large number of patriot replacements-a force that did not exist. Armistead delivered the bogus order in crumpled, dirty condition to Cornwallis, claiming to have found it along the road during his spy mission. Cornwallis believed him and did not learn he had been tricked until after the Battle of Yorktown. Armistead was granted his freedom by the Virginia Legislature as a result of this and other intelligence service.

Another deception operation at Yorktown found Charles Morgan entering Cornwallis' camp as a "deserter." When debriefed by the British, he convinced them that Lafayette had sufficient boats to move all his troops against the British in one landing operation. Cornwallis was duped by the operation and dug in rather than march out of Yorktown. Morgan, in turn, escaped in a British uniform and returned to American lines with five British deserters and a prisoner!


Upon receiving accurate intelligence that the British were hiring Hessian mercenaries for service in America, the Continental Congress appointed a three-man committee "to devise a plan for encouraging the Hessions and other foreigners... to quit that iniquitous service." The result was a resolution, believed to have been drafted by Thomas Jefferson, offering land grants to German deserters. It was translated into German and sent among the Hessians.

Benjamin Franklin, who joined the committee to implement the operation, arranged for the leaflets to be disguised as tobacco packets to make sure they would fall into the hands of ordinary Hessian soldiers. Christopher Ludwick was dispatched by Washington into the enemy camp, posing as a deserter, to contact the Hessians and encourage them to defect. He is credited with the defection of "many hundred soldiers" from the German ranks.

In 1777, after his arrival in France, Benjamin Franklin fabricated a letter purportedly sent by a German prince to the commander of his mercenaries in America. The letter disputed British casualty figures for the German troops, arguing that the actual number was much higher and that he was entitled to a great amount of "blood money," the amount paid to the prince for each of his men killed or wounded.

The prince also encouraged the officer to be humane and to allow his wounded to die, rather than try to save men who might only become cripples unfit for service to their prince. Between 5,000 and 6,000 Hessians deserted from the British side during the war, in part because of American propaganda.

Franklin also produced a newspaper report purporting to describe the transmittal of scalps of soldiers, settlers, women and children to the Royal Governor of Canada by Britain's Indian allies. The Indian transmittal letter indicated that a certain mark on scalps indicated they were those of women who "were knocked dead or had their brains beat out."



Jefferson's Cipher

While Jefferson knew that for much of the journey he and his travelers would be out of touch, the president thought Indians and fur traders might carry small messages back to him. A life-long fascination for gadgets and secret codes led Jefferson to present Lewis with this key-word cipher. Lewis was instructed to "communicate to us, at seasonable intervals, a copy of your journal, notes & observations, of every kind, putting into cipher whatever might do injury if betrayed." The scheme was never used but the sample message reveals much about Jefferson's expectations for the expedition.

Click on photo to see large image


Objects in the Dark, 1638-1775 - The Black Codes



Very prominent in African textile tradition in the use of the diamond pattern. The diamond is symbolic of the cycles of life. Each point represents a stage in life: birth, life, death, and rebirth. The circle shape is similarly representative of this cycle. Also used in African textiles is protective script, either in native language or symbol, or more recently in English. The words and symbols stitched in to the patterns are sacred and protective in that they convey the knowledge, power, and intelligence of the quilt creator and wearer. During slavery years, members of the Underground Railroad would use quilts to send messages. Log Cabin quilts made with black cloth were hung to mark a safe house of refuge. Some quilts marked escape routes out of a plantation or county, others marked the stars that would act as a night-time map through the country to freedom.


Free Blacks, fugitive slaves and those who assisted them in their escape used secret words and songs to communicate important messages. One of the most famous of these code songs, "Follow the Drinking Gourd", gives the escape route from Alabama and Mississippi. The drinking gourd are code words for the Big Dipper. Secret messages were also hidden in their work songs. Follow the Drinking Gourd devised by. Peg Leg Joe, a white abolitionist, posed as a traveling handyman and went from plantation to plantation teaching the slaves this song to freedom. The drinking gourd simply means find the Big Dipper and follow the North Star out of bondage. The song also included clues for the fleeing slaves to watch for as they attempted their escape. Many slaves found their freedom by following the word map cleverly disguised as a song.

Those colorful quilts created by African-American slaves are beautiful to look at, it turns out they contained coded maps to the Underground Railroad.

One of the most loved types of music to come from this kind of message sending was the African American Spiritual. Many of these spiritual talked about how God saved his people, the Israelites, from bondage and enslavement. Boy, did the African Americans relate! Naturally, their songs reflected these stories of Moses and the Israelites, but they also continued to include secret coded messages. "Pharaoh" would refer to slave owners or "Egypt" to the slave states, while "the promised land" referred to Canada.

Secret Songs and Words of the Underground Railroad

Follow the Drinking Gourd

When the Sun comes back
And the first quail calls
Follow the Drinking Gourd.
For the old man is a-waiting for to carry you to freedom
If you follow the Drinking Gourd.

The riverbank makes a very good road.
The dead trees will show you the way.
Left foot, peg foot, travelling on,
Follow the Drinking Gourd.

The river ends between two hills
Follow the Drinking Gourd.
There's another river on the other side
Follow the Drinking Gourd.

When the great big river meets the little river
Follow the Drinking Gourd.
For the old man is a-waiting for to carry you to freedom
If you follow the Drinking Gourd.

American quilter and co-author (with Jacqueline Tobin) of "Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad." tells Jim Fleming how slaves encoded secret maps of the route north into quilts that were hung in sequence over the fences on the plantation. Dobard explains some of the code, and how escaped slaves used it. We also hear another such coded map set to music - the Negro Spiritual "Follow the Drinking Gourd."

'Bed rug' might hold Underground Railroad map

BEAUFORT: Couple's yard sale discovery sheds light on slaves' coded messages.

By Rob Dewig
Carolina Morning News

Aesthetically, it's not much to look at, all browns and pinks and swirls and lines, all jumbled together in a confusing mess.

But it wasn't made to be pretty. It served a functional purpose for the slaves who made it.

It was a map to freedom.

At least, that's what Dan and Daphne Battle think it was.

The Beaufort couple, owners of Cypress Cultural archaeological consultants, found the small, colorful cloth recently at a yard sale near Augusta, Ga., and bought it for $10.

Daphne, an archaeologist, thought the blanket-looking thing was old and, probably, important. She was right about its age: Both a quilt specialist and a textile restorer date the cloth to the 1850s.

If she's right about its purpose, she would be right about its importance, as well. The cloth might very well be a carefully coded map of the famous Underground Railroad.

It takes a little imagination to see what the Battles see, but that was, they say, the point. By hiding their coded maps "in plain sight" -- as Daphne puts it -- the slaves could keep their plans for escape from falling into their owners' hands. Those owners would think it was an ugly slave quilt, nothing more.

The cloth is technically known as a "bed rugg," in the spelling of the time, which both whites and blacks used prior to the Civil War as an extra blanket or to hang on the wall over cracks. They were rarely, if ever, used as rugs. The Battles' bed rug bears no sign of footprints or stains.

A jagged line marks the center of the bed rug, its meandering path from one side to the other marked by what can only be leaves. The Battles believe those mark either landmark-type trees or even safe places to stay. The line's jaggedness, they think, marks bends in a river that, if followed, would lead slaves to freedom.

Other symbols surround the center path. The big dipper -- the "Drinking Gourd" in a famous old Underground Railroad song -- marks one side, meant to be north. A flower is visible at the opposite end, but the Battles aren't sure what that means.

Other noticeable symbols include big letters on all four sides -- "AB," "WB," "NB," and "DB." The Battles think they represent either conductors or stops on the "railroad," or perhaps just the initials of the family owning the rug.

The Battles also say they can make out a leg in one corner, perhaps referring to the "peg foot" mentioned in the drinking gourd song. They say they can also see two hills, geese, a setting sun, a quail's head, and a symbol for crossroads.

Nothing, not even the bed rug's ultimate purpose, is certain, the Battles admit.

"We threw up our hands when it came to some of these symbols," Dan said. "We need help from the African-American community."

The Battles' main source for what little they know for sure about their bed rug is a book called "Hidden in Plain View, A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad" by Jacqueline Tobin and Raymond Dobard.

That book details the authors' interpretation of symbols on various old slave quilts. Various reviews have questioned its accuracy. But it's all the Battles have to go on.

They tried contacting a center for African-American studies in Charleston, only to be dismissed by an official who didn't even ask Dan to unroll the bed rug. The Smithsonian Institution didn't seem interested, either.

They plan to contact the Penn Center, but haven't yet. They eventually plan to display the bed rug in a museum, hopefully locally. But the only interest they've had so far is from a museum of unusual items in New England; they turned that offer down.

"We don't want to see it go into a private collection because it's really unusual," Daphne said. The bed rug will need to be stabilized and preserved. Donations will be sought once a future home for the artifact has been found.

The Battles, in the meantime, are asking for help to figure out exactly what they found. Anyone who knows anything about ancient African-American symbology can call them at 986-0706. More detailed photos of the bed rug can be found online at


Swing low, sweet chariot
Coming for to carry me home…
I looked over Jordon
And what did I see…
A band of angels
Coming after me.

(author unknown)

As a religious song, “Swing Low Sweet Chariot” spoke of being carried up to heaven. As a secret coded message it expressed the desire to be carried to a better place by the angels of the Underground Railroad.

Slaves wishing to run away learned of safe houses where they could hide in the daytime and find food and water. In preparation for the journey, the women who worked in the main plantation houses would hide supplies for the journey under their large skirts (Hubert). Many slaves made quilts with coded designs that gave directions for finding their way north. Quilts of a certain design were also hung outside abolitionist homes to let runaways know they had reached a stop on the Underground Railroad (Hubert). Another type of coded message was transmitted through music. When African slaves first came to North America they made and played drums as they had in their homelands (Jones, par. 3). The masters “thought the slaves were just making their African music. They knew those drum sounds carried far, even to the next plantation, but it didn’t occur to them that the drumbeats were a sort of ‘Morse Code’ that slaves used to make plans for revolts or escapes” (Jones, par. 3). When drumming was banned, the slaves turned to song. Singing while working was another tradition brought from Africa (Belafonte, 88). The masters actually thought the slaves were happy with their situation because they were always singing. In truth, the songs provided work rhythms so that a group could work at a common pace and stay on task (Epstein, 322). In Africa songs were also used to send factual information and relate histories (Jones, par. 6). It was through that singing tradition that African American slaves were able to communicate secret plans and messages. “The traditional spiritual “Let Us Break Bread Together” was a coded call for a secret meeting in the morning (at or before sunrise) to discuss issues of concern, plans for escape, or a time for prayer” (Harris).

Let us break bread together,
On our knees. On our knees.
When I fall on my knees with my face to the rising sun,
Oh Lord, have mercy on me.

(author unknown)

Code words were used in slave songs to send messages which were interpreted by the masters as songs of faith. By singing these coded messages the slaves were able to pass on information to each other, to slaves in the neighboring fields of other plantations, and to persons who might be in hiding nearby as they attempted to escape (see Appendix). An abolitionist named Peg Leg Joe spent his winters as an itinerant carpenter in the South. He would pass on escape route instructions to the slaves on the plantations where he worked (James, par. 7). His wooden peg leg left distinctive footprints for runaways to follow. A reference to “left foot, peg foot” would let slaves know that he was in the area and leaving a trail. The “drinking gourd” referred to the Big Dipper constellation which contained the North Star. That star guided runaway slaves to freedom in the North. “When the first quail calls” refers to early spring. The song “Follow the Drinking Gourd” gave instructions for escaping from Alabama and Mississippi (James, par. 7).



By: John Shepler

Private First Class Mitchell Bobb had the weight of the battalion on his shoulders that day. The message he spoke into the field telephone was almost certain to be intercepted by German troops who had tapped their lines and knew every move of the American forces whom they surrounded. To Ben Carterby, stationed at headquarters, Bobb spoke the message intended for the Battalion Commander, certain that it would remain a secret. He was right. To the listening Germans it sounded like someone had scrambled the transmission. But that was impossible. Voice scrambling technology wouldn't be available for decades. How were they doing it?

This secret of Carterby and Bobb turned the tide of the battle within 24 hours after they implemented their "scrambled" voice messages. Within 72 hours the Germans were in retreat, and the Allies had taken the offensive. The amazing invention they deployed that day had no new technology at all. The men were simply speaking in their native Choctaw language. The Choctaw Code Talkers saved their battalion and invented secure communications in the closing days of World War I. It was to remain their secret, however, as the Armistice was signed and the Chocktaw men returned to their reservations.

Twenty five years later, America was embroiled in another World War. Again, it was a war with few secrets. Allied Intelligence had broken the German and Japanese communications codes. But the Japanese had also broken every code the Americans thought up. Many of the top Japanese code breakers had been educated in the United States and were savvy even to local references and slang that the American forces tried to use to disguise their intentions. Perhaps the Choctaw Code Talkers might have had some success again, but there had only been eight of them in that test of World War I and they had long since been forgotten...or had they?

Seventeen Comanches were assigned to the Comanche Signal Corps of the Army and, like the Chocktaws before them, passed messages among themselves that could not be understood by the Germans. Little did the Germans listening-in realize that the words posah-tai-vo meant crazy white man, and were used to identify none other than Adolph Hitler.

The most ambitious effort to employ native languages as secret codes was championed by Philip Johnston. Johnston was a World War I veteran who had come by covered wagon to settle on Navajo land in northern Arizona with his missionary family. By age 9, he had gained such proficiency in Navajo language that he acted as interpreter between two Navajo leaders and President Theodore Roosevelt when they met in 1901. Johnston had heard of the Choctaw Code Talkers, and he was convinced that the Navajo language would also be nearly impossible for an enemy to understand. After all, he was one of perhaps 30 non-natives who understood the complex and subtle Navajo expressions. Now, all he needed to do was convince the skeptical military that he had the answer to their security problems.



What better way to conceal a message than to shrink it until it's virtually invisible? During World War II, German agents traded secret codes in the form of dots hidden within the period of a sentence. Now Carter Bancroft, a molecular biologist at New York's Mount Sinai School of Medicine, has concealed a message in a site hundreds of times smaller than a period--human DNA (hereditary material in cells that determine physical and personality traits)!

How did Bancroft do it? Each strand of human DNA contains just four chemical bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine (A, T, C, G). The four bases line up in countless ways to form more than 3 billion pairs in a single DNA strand. "Since DNA is itself a code, why not use its enormous complexity to hide a message?" says Bancroft.

In his lab, Bancroft took a human cell and rearranged a sequence of about 100 bases to embed a message in DNA. Three A's in a row, for example, might mean "Hi!" The 100 bases should easily go undetected in a sequence of 3 billion pairs of A, T, C, and G. Bancroft then took other strands of DNA and mixed them together in a process of concealment called steganography, or hiding one thing among many similar things. Shades of "Where's Waldo?" End result: an encoded message virtually impossible to detect or decode.

To test the success of his message, Bancroft mailed a letter to his own laboratory, hiding the encoded DNA in a period at the end of a sentence! On receiving the letter, Bancroft's lab partner--who was told which DNA strand to search--used a microscope to find and decipher the message. Would a spy be able to crack the code?

"To decode our message you not only code-cracking skills but expert knowledge of biochemistry [science of chemicals in cells]," Bancroft says. Guess that leaves most spies out in the cold.



'D-Day knowledge could have killed me'
Arthur Ingham was one of the few people taking part in the D-Day landings who had access to top secret invasion maps before heading for northern France.

The fear that the maps would be worth more to the enemy than his life was stronger than the fear he felt on the Normandy beaches.

The 24-year-old was a liaison officer under Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay, Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Naval Forces, and on the day worked with the RAF to notify shipping of impending air raids.

" We sailed on 4 June and by nightfall on 5 June we were off the Isle of Wight. We sailed across overnight and arrived [off the French coast] at about 0600.

At the point when the BBC made the announcement of the landings we were anchored about five miles off Omaha beach.

Our job was made more difficult because we had no beach marshals. They had been killed in the fateful exercise at Slapton Sands shortly before the D-Day landings.

On D-Day we gave a brief outline to the paratroopers and glider people, but I did not know at this time that all the beach marshals were dead.

For this reason I was given the name 'Optimistic Englishman'.

Looking at the way things turned out I think they were right - many didn't last the day - but I'm glad they didn't tell us what had happened at Slapton.

So there was no guidance for the landing and for that reason I was put on a sand bank.

The water got deeper as we went in shore, until it came over the bonnet of the vehicle we were in.

When the engine stopped we had to bail out over the windscreen onto the bonnet.

It was there that the driver of the vehicle we were in, an RAF vehicle, told me he couldn't swim so I told him this was a very good time to learn.

I had on me a bag of my own belongings and a bag with the secret codes in it, which I had been told to guard with my life.

So when the driver said to me he couldn't swim I was torn between looking after him and looking after the bags.

But I chose him, and I lost everything I had, but was still one of the first to get onto the beach.


I had joined up in 1939, and trained as an observer in Fleet Air arms before flying Swordfish aircraft from HMS Ark Royal, so I was very experienced by the time D-Day came around.

For this reason perhaps I didn't feel fear on D-Day. We were busy training and it was work to us - that's what I was there to do.

The greatest fear I had was the day I was given the information about Overlord.

The officer who had briefed me rolled up a chart with all the beach heads marked on it and the times of the tides and when everything would take place.

He put it under my arm and said "Keep it there - it'll be safer there than trying to hide it."

I knew I had information the Germans would have killed for and that was fear for me when I left the office - there was nothing to match it on D-Day.


When we went ashore on Omaha, a lot of our equipment was ruined, and we had to wait eight to 10 days for new equipment to be sent to us.

On D-Day I slept on a table and used my helmet as a pillow - not very comfortable - but by 7 June I was in luxury because the Americans sent some sleeping equipment and we were given a tent!

Then they announced the Germans had pulled out of Bayeux and so I got on my motorcycle and went there. I think I might have been the first Allied troop to arrive, so I celebrated by having a coffee and buying a postcard that I still have.

There's no question that D-Day was well worth it.

But I think it's quite a good thing that the German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder is coming to the commemorations this year.

Are we going to harbour a grudge ad infinitum? The closer we can get to one another the better.



Generals red-faced as secret codes free to air

By Chris McGreal Jerusalem
November 8, 2003

Reality TV has finally caught up with the Israeli military.

But the country's generals had no idea that their every move was being watched, their secret missile codes broadcast to their enemies or their conversations potentially overheard from Libya to Iran.

For two days this week, Israel's communications satellite accidentally beamed a live feed from the control room of a highly classified test missile firing, meaning that they could be viewed by anyone in the Middle East with the simplest satellite dish.

Four of Israel's most senior generals and their foreign guests were shown in the control room discussing the relative merits of weapons systems and who they might be used against. Officials were seen punching in launch codes, and the latest missile control equipment and maps were on display to anyone viewing.

At one point, believing they were in a secure area, Israeli officials were heard discussing access codes to defence industry computers.

The broadcast went out when someone - as yet none of the agencies involved wants to accept responsibility - failed to encrypt the live feed that is sent from one testing control room to another via the satellite.

The mistake became known to the broader public after an Israeli television station taped the preparations and launch over 48 hours, and then broadcast segments to the nation.

The Israeli newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth called it "one of the most embarrassing fiascos ever to happen to the security establishment".

The defense contractor that developed the missile in question, Israel Aircraft Industries, tried to claim otherwise. "This is a completely unclassified project," its security officer, Naor Zeidman, told Ha'aretz newspaper. "Had this been anything connected to the Israel defense forces, I assure you that there would have been IDF encryption on the launch."

But that was not what Channel 10 television found when it told the army it planned to broadcast the feed.

Considerable pressure was put on the station not to screen the footage. The military censor ordered significant cuts to the news report, including reference to anything that identified the type, range and flight path of the test missile.

Perhaps the most embarrassing part of the fiasco was the test firing itself, from a barge off the coast. The missile was supposed to fly straight for three minutes and then hit a target at sea. But after two minutes it strayed from its course and fell into the water.

The defence contractor was terse on the subject. "Not all the goals of the test were achieved," it said.

- Guardian


Who Gave Chalabi Top-Secret Info?

NEW YORK, June 2, 2004
(CBS) FBI agents are questioning Defense Department officials in an effort to find out who told Iraqi leader Ahmad Chalabi that the U.S. had cracked secret codes used by Iran.

CBS News has learned that Chalabi recently told an Iranian intelligence official that the U.S. had cracked the codes, allowing the U.S. to read communications on everything from Iran's sponsorship of terrorists to its covert operations inside Iraq.

Chalabi has denied passing any classified information to Iran, and Chalabi supporters have asserted that the CIA is out to destroy the former exile.

In Najaf, Iraq, Chalabi said Wednesday it was "false" and "stupid" to assert he had tipped Iran to the code break.

"Where would I get this from?" he asked. "I have no such information. How would I know anything about that? That's stupid from every aspect."

Chalabli was once touted as a strong candidate to lead postwar Iraq by some White House and Pentagon officials, but he has suffered a rapid fall from the grace, in no small measure because the U.S. learned he was giving secret information to Iran.

On May 20, Iraqi police backed by American soldiers raided Chalabi's Baghdad home and offices. Chalabi is a controversial figure who provided the Bush administration with prewar intelligence on supposed weapons of mass destruction in Iraq -- including the now-discredited information about mobile weapons labs.

After the raid on his home and offices, 60 Minutes Correspondent Lesley Stahl reported that the U.S. had evidence Chalabi has been passing highly classified U.S. intelligence to Iran.
The New York Times, citing U.S. intelligence officials, said the U.S. learned of Chalabi's activities when an Iranian intelligence agent in Baghdad sent a coded message to Tehran reporting that Chalabi had told him the U.S. had broken the codes.

According to the message, which was read by the U.S., Chalabi claimed to have gotten the information from an unnamed American who was drunk, the Times said.

Chalabi is still active and visible on the scene in Iraq where he is a member of the Iraqi Governing Council.

Over the Memorial Day weekend, Chalabi was reportedly involved in negotiations to maintain a faltering ceasefire in the city of Kufa between U.S. military and radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr.

Chalabi and other Shiite leaders met with al-Sadr representatives and declared there was "a momentum for peace."

©MMIV, CBS Broadcasting Inc. All Rights Reserved.





Mozart’s famous comic opera “Don Giovanni” contains musical codes about the rising importance of the middle class in 18th century Europe, according to PCC music professor Dr. Kay Lipton. Mozart’s message made for a provocative social statement in its time, signaling in effect “the times they are a changin.”

“Mozart was writing opera at the end of the Age of Enlightenment, when the middle class was emerging strongly,” Dr. Lipton said. “He saw that they were the ones who were really going to be in charge. In fact, he magnifies the role of the middle class in his three operas, ‘Le nozze di Figaro,’ ‘Don Giovanni’ and ‘Così fan tutte.’ Previously middle class characters did not have leading roles and equal numbers of arias as did the opera seria or high-style characters. This change was Mozart’s way of letting everybody know about the change in society,” Lipton said.

Not incidentally, Lipton’s dissertation on 18th century opera showed that Mozart and his contemporary composers were often at the mercy of famous singers, any one of whom might demand that a favorite composer rewrite portions of another composer’s work to suit the singer’s vanity and capabilities.


As Chief of Radio, Paley Sr. worked closely with General Eisenhower in London. Bill Paley Jr. implied that the Reveille with Beverly broadcasts were used at times for larger purposes than entertaining our troops. Sure enough, Dean Opperman dove into the National Archives and unearthed a stack of GI Jive programs which I had hosted. They were identified as "UNIT FIVE - Parts A through F, June 1944".

Instead of the usual chatter and hot swing music, Beverly sounded wooden and stilted. Her record introductions were sparse and mechanical as she announced strange song titles --- Opening Night, Torpedo Junction, I Dug a Ditch and Knocking One Out for (Uncle) Sam. Two organizations BMI (Broadcast Music Inc.) and ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers) keep updated records of all musical numbers published in the United States. Not one of the above named songs could be found listed. Some of the orchestras involved also used names unrecognized in the music industry.

"This was the missing link to something that I had often wondered about. At times I would receive orders from 'on high' as to which records to play; they were handed to me personally, along with written introductions that I was required to read word for word . It was mystifying to me, but I never argued with the top brass."

"In the years since, we have all heard stories about Radio London playing certain songs at certain times preceding the D-Day Invasion. The BBC was said to have broadcast a recording of the French folk song Sur Le Pont d' Avignon fourteen times in one day. I feel sure that they were using me for something similar. Apparently I was a 'carrier pigeon' relaying secret messages to the French Underground on behalf of the Allies."

"Even though I didn't carry a lipstick case with a bullet inside, I nevertheless became part of a long list of women who spied throughout history --- Including Mata Hari and Marlene Dietrich, the glamorous agent of WWI."


Part of the legacy of the repressive Soviet regime is that we may never satisfactorily resolve the controversy that now swirls around its most respected composer, Dmitri Shostakovich. Twice reprimanded by his government for writing subversive music, Shostakovich nevertheless seemed to have been a model Soviet citizen overall, quietly accepting these rebukes and turning his attention ever more diligently to writing music that officially celebrated the state. But there have long been rumors that his music has a secret subtext: thus, heard "properly," it represents a passionate indictment of his government rather than an endorsement. Central to the controversy has been the supposedly autobiographical Testimony (1979), in which he appears as a secret dissident, but the book has proven more distracting than clarifying. While responsible music historians have denounced Testimony as a fraud, and while those who support the book's authenticity have seemed more like conspiracy theorists than scholars, the picture of Shostakovich presented by Testimony is not as easy to dismiss as the book itself. Even if it would be hard to imagine a composer outwardly serving his state more loyally than Shostakovich, his status as a "secret dissident" has been attested to by many intimates, and there is no doubt that he embedded secret (if cryptic) messages in his music. Thus, for example, his Tenth Symphony (1953) is built around his own initials ("D. Sch." after the German spelling of his name, which according to convention produces the notes D / E-flat / C / B), forming a motive that emerges ever more powerfully as the symphony progresses. But what does this musical obsession with his own initials actually mean? Does it represent the individual voice against the state? Are these notes the proud signature of the first major symphonist after Beethoven to complete a tenth symphony (which Schoenberg believed to be metaphysically impossible)? Is the symphony a coded record of his own persecution under Stalin, who had died earlier in 1953? Certainly it is easy to hear personal pain, and perhaps even political protest, in the repetitions of these four notes, but to interpret beyond these general qualities is to incite passionate confrontation with those who would understand things quite differently. Nor, ultimately, are Shostakovich's own intentions, whatever they might have been, the final arbiter. To quote Richard Taruskin (a prominent Russianist who has denounced Testimony while arguing persuasively for covert anti-Soviet protests in much of Shostakovich's music), "no one owns the meaning of this music, ... and no one can ever own it." And, as Taruskin goes on to say, this applies above all to Shostakovich himself, whose control in this area ended as soon as he surrendered the symphony to the world: "Imagine Edgar Bergen making himself very small and trying to sit on Charlie McCarthy's lap."




Preludes and Fugues, Opus 87: Prelude No. 3 in G

MIDI format. Track 1: acoustic grand piano, Track 2: acoustic grand piano

Prelude no. 3 in G major
op87_03a.mid 7 KB Feb 13 1997
Fugue no. 3 in G major op87_03b.mid 12 KB Feb 13 1997




Secret Language

Hijackers May Have Used Secret Internet Messaging Technique

By Brian Ross

Oct. 4, 2003 —— The terrorists responsible for the Sept. 11 attacks may have communicated over the Internet using a computer version of invisible ink that allows secret messages to be concealed in image and music files.

Western intelligence officials say they have learned that instructors at Osama bin Laden's camps in remote Afghanistan train his followers in the high-tech secret-messaging technique.

And French investigators believe that suspects arrested in an alleged plot to blow up the U.S. Embassy in Paris were to get the go-ahead for the attack via a message hidden in a picture posted on the Internet, former French defense official Alexis Debat told ABCNEWS.

One of the men in custody, described by French officials as a computer nerd well-versed in the messaging technique, was captured with a notebook full of secret codes. "This code book is major breakthrough in the investigation," said Debat.

Covered Writing

To transmit a hidden message, the sender uses specialized software to hide a text message — or a graphical file such as a building plan — inside another file, such as an image file or an MP3 music file.

"Criminal organizations, terrorist organizations around the world use this," said Chet Hosmer, an Internet security expert who has been helping the FBI and military intelligence since Sept. 11 track down hidden communications on the Internet.

"Images that might be in an e-mail message that I send to you, that has a picture of my dog or my cat — I hide an actual secret message inside that image that no one else would be able to detect or see," Hosmer said.

For example, with a few clicks and the right password, a terrorist could use a picture of the Mona Lisa, or an MP3 of the U.S. national anthem, to carry a secret coded message, such as a seating chart for an airliner or a list of flights out of Boston.

The technique is known as "steganography," meaning covered writing.

"It actually goes back to Roman times when they used to shave the head of messengers, and tattoo secret messages on their scalp," said Hosmer. "It really doesn't have very many legitimate purposes. The purpose is to actually hide the fact that you are communicating."

Instructions Via E-mail

In addition to low-tech equipment like box-cutters, the alleged hijackers in the Sept. 11 attacks also had e-mail accounts at Yahoo! and Hotmail.

Suspected ringleader Mohamed Atta was seen repeatedly by witnesses using his Hotmail account at public libraries in Florida to surf the Internet, downloading what appeared to be pictures of children and scenes of the Middle East.

Special FBI squads are working full-time on the Internet connections of the 19 alleged hijackers, going through accounts at America Online and other service providers.

Investigators are also searching cyberspace for more deadly messages and warnings that could help them take precautions against future terrorist attacks.

November 12, 2001

Scientists clued in to secret code transmitted on the Web

By Lesley Harding

Take a good look. Can you unravel the secret code in this picture? U-M graduate student Niels Provos and other CITI researchers embedded the first chapter of Lewis Carroll’s “The Hunting of the Snark” into this image. Chances are you don’t see a thing. That’s the key to stegonagraphy. Delivering secret message in an existing image without altering the original content. (Photo courtesy of CITI)

It’s the stuff spy novels are made of and according to some published reports, could be the means of communication for many terrorists around the world. Steganography is peaking the interest of law enforcement agencies and spurring more in-depth research at places like the University.

Steganography, Greek for hidden writing is “the art and science of secret communication,” says Peter Honeyman, scientific director at the Center for Information Technology Integration (CITI). It’s the ability for people to communicate without anyone else knowing that communication is taking place. It’s different from cryptography which carries an encrypted or coded message. People see the means of communication, know the message is taking place but don’t know how to decipher it. The whole basis of steganography is to conceal that the communication is even taking place.

The digital world has opened the door for this type of coded communication. That means e-mails, CD-ROMS, photos, even compressed music files or MP3s. “Any digital representation of information offers an opportunity for steganography,” says Honeyman, who also is an adjunct professor of electrical engineering and computer science. “It doesn’t require any special equipment, just someone who knows their way around a computer and can use a mouse.”

A few extra spaces, dots or dashes to any original program or file is all that’s needed to create a steganographic message . These additions don’t disturb the original content but embed a secret note. A simple computer program can break the code.

“About 10 percent of an image or file can be used to hide a message,” says U-M graduate student Niels Provos. Beyond that, you run the risk of altering the original content. But 10 percent is enough to get the word out.

Steganography has always been of research interest at CITI, but it’s now more in the global spotlight because of a Feb. 2001 article in USA Today in which it was reported that terrorists are using steganography to hide communication in Internet images.

Spurred by these reports, Provos developed a steganographic detection framework. He analyzed two million images from the Internet auction site eBay using several computer tools, including a crawler that downloads images from the Web; Stegdetect, which identifies images that might contain hidden messages; Stegbreak, which then tries to conjure up a key to break the code; and a distributing computer framework that runs multiple instances of Stegbreak on a cluster of workstations.

Despite all the hype, Provos came up empty handed. Not a single image contained any steganographic message. “This could mean one of three things,” says Honeyman. “One, stegano-graphy isn’t being used. Two, our analysis techniques aren’t effective. Or, three, we just can’t break the encrypted codes.”

Even though the CITI group found no evidence of steganography on eBay, the government may still believe these messages are out there. An Oct. 30 article in the New York Times cites several computer experts who are working with government agencies to detect possible hidden messages on the Internet. So far, these agencies aren’t saying what, if anything, they’ve found hidden while surfing the Web.


Barak Jolish argues that it is impossible for the U.S. to stop terrorists from using advanced encryption technologies and attempting to do so would sap U.S. economic strength.

Relatively weak encryption appears to have been used to protect files recovered from two computers believed to have belonged to al-Qaeda operatives in Afghanistan.

Andy Carvin of the Benton Foundation reviews the practice and history of steganography, the science of hiding secret messages in publicly accessible material. He argues that there is insufficient proof that terrorists are using steganography to communicate to justify legislation restricting its use.

The investigation of the terrorist attacks on the United States is drawing new attention to a stealthy method of sending messages through the Internet. The method, called steganography, can hide messages in digital photographs or in music files but leave no outward trace that the files were altered.

FBI officials have stated that the agency has as yet found no evidence that the hijackers who attacked America used electronic encryption methods to communicate on the internet. But this has not prevented politicians and journalists repeating lurid rumours that the coded orders for the attack were secretly hidden inside pornographic web images, or from making claiming that the hijacks could have been prevented if only western governments had been given the power to prevent internet users from using secret codes.

The terrorists responsible for the Sept. 11 attacks may have communicated over the Internet using a computer version of invisible ink that allows secret messages to be concealed in image and music files. Western intelligence officials say they have learned that instructors at Osama bin Laden's camps in remote Afghanistan train his followers in the high-tech secret-messaging technique.

Leading cryptographers and others whose work spawned the commercialization of high-level cryptography are wondering if they did the right thing. They are haunted by the idea that law enforcement agencies may have figured out what the terrorists were planning, if only powerful encryption techniques had been kept secret.

Three in four Americans favour tough anti-encryption laws, in the wake of last week's terrorist atrocities, a survey finds. Seventy-two per cent believe anti-encryption laws will be "somewhat" or "very" helpful in combating terrorism, according to the survey, conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates.

John Horvath argues against calls to search the internet for terrorist use of steganography because by invoking the evils of terrorism, the government is able to justify "the loss of privacy and a state of surveillance [society] would otherwise not accept."


Hacker Seizes Top Secret U.S. Computer Codes For Missiles


STOCKHOLM, March 4 (News Agencies) - An unidentified computer hacker has seized top secret U.S. computer codes used for guiding missiles, satellites and spacecraft, according to press reports here.

Computer experts raided the offices of the Stockholm internet company Carbonide on February 6th and found a copy of the so-called "source codes" for the software program OS/COMET stored on the company's internet server, the daily Expressen reported.

A person with access to the source codes can copy the OS/COMET program to see how it is designed. The codes are the key to the program, which is used by the U.S. Navy and space administration NASA to guide numerous satellites, missiles and spacecraft.

Johan Starell, legal counsel in Sweden for the U.S. company that developed the software, Exigent Software Technology, told Expressen the hacker managed to infiltrate the computer system of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in Washington on Christmas Eve from Kaiserslauten University in Germany.

The hacker then placed the codes on the Swedish company's server.

Starell, who stressed that Carbonide's employees were not suspected in the case, said the hacker's trace ended at Carbonide.

"If you are smart enough and know enough about computers to penetrate a security code and pinch a source code, then you're also smart enough to hide your tracks," he said.

"This is not some 13-year-old hacker that broke into the Pentagon's home page. This person knew exactly what he was after - the source codes," he added.

Carbonide president Erik Wickbom said his company had some 90,000 registered users for its server, called

According to Wickbom, the hacker broke his way into one of the user's accounts to put the source codes on the server, which is available to all users.

According to Expressen, a criminal investigation is being carried out in the U.S. by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Naval Criminal Investigative Service, and by police in Germany.




Morse Code is an International Language. The code was developed by Samuel Morse (1791-1872). All Morse code alphabets are a combination of two elementary characters: a dot (.) and a dash(-). A dot has a length of one time unit and the dash have a length of three units. The length of pause between dot or dash in character is one time unit and length of pause between characters is three units. Similarly length of pause between words equals six time units.

Morse Code is the simplest mode which can be operated upon with simple equipment and can cover large distances that any other mode and therefore will become handy in any emergency situation. Morse code have the ability to override noise and static and still make itself readable. It occupies only a fraction of the bandwidth of radio telephony signals.

Learning morse code is considered as a major stumbing block in passing the examination for a license. The best way to study morse code is by associationg the sounds with the particular letter. For example the sound dah-di-di-dit is letter B. You can practice morse code by listening to morse code transmissions. I have written a program on C++, which can be used for practicing Morse code. Click here to find more about Morse Tutor.

Below are the morse code characters.

A   .-       di-dah
B   -...     dah-di-di-dit
C   -.-.     dah-di-dah-dit
D   -..      dah-di-dit
E   .        dit
F   ..-.     di-di-dah-dit
G   --.      dah-dah-dit
H   ....     di-di-di-dit
I   ..       di-dit
J   .---     di-dah-dah-dah
K   -.-      dah-di-dah
L   .-..     di-dah-di-dit
M   --       dah-dah
N   -.       dah-dit
O   ---      dah-dah-dah
P   .--.     di-dah-dah-dit
Q   --.-     dah-dah-di-dah
R   .-.      di-dah-dit
S   ...      di-di-dit
T   -        dah
U   ..-      di-di-dah
V   ...-     di-di-di-dah
W   .--      di-dah-dah
X   -..-     dah-di-di-dah
Y   -.--     dah-di-dah-dah
Z   --..     dah-dah-di-dit


1   .----    di-dah-dah-dah-dah
2   ..---    di-di-dah-dah-dah
3   ...--    di-di-di-dah-dah
4   ....-    di-di-di-di-dah
5   .....    di-di-di-di-dit
6   -....    dah-di-di-di-dit
7   --...    dah-dah-di-di-dit
8   ---..    dah-dah-dah-di-dit
9   ----.    dah-dah-dah-dah-dit
0   -----    dah-dah-dah-dah-dah

(   -.--.    dah-di-dah-dah-dit
)   -.--.-   dah-di-dah-dah-di-dah
+   .-.-.    di-dah-di-dah-dit
=   -...-    dah-di-di-di-dah

Full Stop   .-.-.-     di-dah-di-dah-di-dah        [AAA]
Comma       --..--     dah-dah-di-di-dah-dah       [MIM]
Semi-colon  -.-.-.     dah-di-dah-di-dah-dit       [NNN]
Hyphen      -....-     dah-di-di-di-di-dah         [BA]
Mark        ..--..     di-di-dah-dah-di-dit        [IMI]
to transmit -.-        dah-di-dah                  [K]
Wait        .-...      di-dah-di-di-dit            [AS]
End of 
Message     .-.-.      di-dah-di-dah-dit           [AR]
Error       ........   di-di-di-di-di-di-di-dit    [HH]
Received    .-.        di-dah-dit                  [R]
Sign        -...-      dah-di-di-di-dah            [BT]





Morse Code and Radio Guide for Beginners
Secret Agents
... The problem with some secret agent codes is that the other secret agents are just as smart as you are! ... Read more about the use of codes by secret agents. ... Staff/IPAS/ipelm/Math/ELMA17.html





... This page was last updated on May 7, 2001. The URL of this page is INDEX. PART ONE Introduction. ...

... codes that are keyed to frequencies ... Alternative Health Database. ... ... Second Insight.
... do our dream research and our website was born. ... ...

DINOTOPIA - Codes, Rules and Regulation
... Click on map to get larger version. THE CODES. 1 - One raindrop raises the sea. ... REPTILIANS.

... [Blue] in order to co-exist in both domains, it is not just simple to obtain some
DNA wiring codes and sequences, you ... your sun now is pulsing you codes ..... ...

... code ..... it will be as if no gravity, no impedence and the new codes
for a new civilasation will be set likened unto a new program .. ...


... THE VILNA GAON (1720-1797). Bible Codes - The Real Story. Jesus Codes - The Myth
Unveiled. ... Bible Codes. The Internet Diary of the man who cracked the "Bible Code". ...

Crop Circles - Their Meaning and Connections to Dreams. Research From: Joseph
E. Mason and Dee Finney. Click on picture to see large size cover of book. ...

... Awakening the Flame of Orion within the human body begins activation
of the higher chakra centers (8-15), the KA and dormant DNA codes. ...

... which is liquid crystal, becomes spiritualised Light encoded with the key codes
of the ... DID WE REALLY GO TO THE MOON? ...

Page is: INDEX. PART ONE Introduction. ...

but how should you know that? ...

... measures followed, and revolutionary committees patrolled the streets enforcing Islamic

Arguments Against the Hoax Theory of Crop Circles
... Coincidence? I think not! See: ... Planetary
Codes in the Barbury Castle Crop Circle by Krsanna Duran. ...

... Neutral water, for example, has a pH value of 7 and a hydrogen-ion concentration
10-7. Water and Sewers From: ...

... Native American Constitution and Law Digitalization Project Tribal constitutions
and codes are the heart of self-government for over 500 federally recognized ...

... 1.-- DHARMA SUTRAS: [Codes of Manu, Yatnyavalkya etc] 2.-- JYOTHISHA [ astrology
and astronomy ] 3.-- KALPA [rituals and legal matters] 4. -- SIKSHA [phonetics ...

... com/hands.htm. which was one of those once in a lifetime type dreams. ****.
8-10-03 - DREAM SNIPPETS. I saw more of those same zip codes from ...

... ... 72 is the number of Divine Names, used as
codes in creation, according to "The Keys of Enoch." It is also the second ...

The Symbolism and Spiritual Significance of the Number Three
... representation of ideas and energies that materialize in magical, mysterious fashion
while obeying precise, universal laws, which the numerical codes and their ...

... This is from this page: LIFE BEFORE AND AFTER
- A VISION. ... Inserts are perceived through codes externally pulsed into DNA. ...

... begins activation of the higher chakra centers (8-15), the KA and dormant DNA codes. ... the
url of this page is: BACK TO MAIN ...

... Through manipulating the impulse codes intrinsic to the human biology literal
"reality pictures" can be created for the unsuspecting human to perceive. ...

... I was looking at a chart that had series of numbers set up in grids like the periodic
table and the words codes and grids ... ...

... The manufactured type is viable, but transmits less of the "Grace factor" light codes
into the body. ... Integrated Ascension The Andromedan Holographic Codes ... ...

"EROICA" Beethoven Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major. The Napoleon ...
... However, in the states he created, Napoleon granted constitutions, introduced
law codes, abolished feudalism, created efficient governments and fostered ...


... German naval codes had been broken by the British, who knew approximately where all
U-boats near the British Isles were ... .. ...

... Just a natural downloading of remembering from the heavens initiating our dormant
light codes. ... NOTE: See this page: ...

... Indian schools also often fail to meet basic safety, fire and health codes,
and typically do not provide access to individuals with disabilities. ...

The American Tragedy: A Symbolic Event, Part Two
... I had a coincidence about this. I read in Dr. Hurtak's book, The Keys Of Enoch,
that there are 72 Divine Names used as codes in creating realities. ...

Brehan Law - The History - Everything Celtic - The Druids
... of Wiccans. Beyond civil law is another body of codes that we feel
necessary. They are the codes of honor and our religion. These ...

... and 9 to the moon symbol at the southwest corner of the triangle, and multiplied
to get 72, which are the number of Divine Names used as codes in Creation ...

THE MAYAN FACTOR... In The Mayan Factor I refer to Pacal VOTAN as the head navigator of the Mayan technical
expedition to planet Earth, which left behind keys and codes of time. ...

... leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic fields offers additional evidence that proximity
to power lines may increase leukemia risk." When wire codes were used ...

Thoth Identity
... These archetypes, with the exception of SET, were all Light-embued in that
they addressed spiritual values and universal codes of Divine Order. ...

... risk of leukemia; the association between exposure to measured 24-hour fields and
leukemias risk for children; and the association between wire codes and risk ...

The Changing of the Guard: Part V: The Oracle
... The Russians have also published the exact means by which others can
break US codes. New codes and systems are being rushed through ...

THE CHANGING OF THE GUARD - Part Two: Illuminati Revealed
... By the time they are 21, they are well trained combat/killing machines with command
codes to kill and they have been tested over and over to prove that they ...

The Changing of the Guard: Part III: Illuminati Life and ...
... special profile that tells me everything about him: his favorite colors, foods, sexual
preferences, soothing techniques, and a list of all the codes that will ...

Washington State Meteor Footage
... The ones manipulated by the watchers. No more old stories. No more codes. People
do not want to hear this nonsense any longer because time is too short. ...

... around the world for their followers to come and activate sacred sites and do special
dances and have their followers stand on and paste special codes on their ...

... 2003-2008 to 'clear the real estate', allowing the humans of Earth to survive just
long enough to be used to access Earth' Star Gate opening codes, at which ...

The Changing of the Guard Part Four: Secrets of Skolnick
... series, "Greenspan Aids and Bribes Bush", where the secret Federal Reserve wire transfer
records, showing Greenspan's and other secret codes, are attached and ...

... SURNAME SEARCH-allows the investigator to search an entire geographic region (ie,
state, county, city, zip codes etc.) when the only information known is the ...

... DNA all over the world always has 20 of these codons turned on and the rest of them
are turned off, except for 3 which are the stop and start codes, much like ...

Cinnamon Buns and the BeaST
... This Divine Body contains Light codes for the complete template of the Hue-mon Being,
the Adam Kadmon. ... FROM: ...

... Hoyle's panspermia theory, there are probably other stellar influences on Earth
which manifest via the personal, group or racial genetic codes, but for those ...

... 1-2-99 - DREAM - I was looking at a chart that had series of numbers set up in
grids like the periodic table and the words codes and grids were mentioned. ...

... When alternative discipline codes are put in place, disruption is usually
significantly reduce. Myth: The kid must have deserved it. ...

... altar to Jehovah. (Isa. 19:19, 20) which contains the Wisdom codes of
the divine plane of "deliverance". NEW JERUSALEM. A City cosmos ...

American Masonic History - What Are America's True Roots?
... This is not to say that they were not noble men. Freemasons pride themselves
in their noble attitudes and adherence to strict moral codes. ...

... had eluded the best scientists from the United States and Europe and has awesome
potential for practical application including unbreakable codes and, in the ...

... character. However, similarity in ethical codes does not mean the religions
are the same. The key difference can be illustrated this way. ...

... activity. While codes of Jewish law focus on what it is God wants from
man, kabbalah tries to penetrate deeper, to God's essence itself. ...

... reported. Ms. Martinez said she believed that building codes are likely
to be changed to add requirements for backup generators. Also ...

Ascended Master Lanto - Lord of the Illumination Ray
... creativity of humanity. He transmits forms of beauty and music to
the crystal codes within receptive humanity. He radiates waves ...

... Computers are down.". A magnitude-6 quake can cause severe damage under a populated
area, though damage is often much less in places with strong building codes. ...

... son of Jacob? Second part of question: When you say the Earth Codes
have been undone, I'm not quite sure what that is. 5. This is ...

... The White House has said it received specific threats which revealed knowledge
of security codes for Air Force One and the White House on Tuesday morning. ...

... The next day, I went back downtown again where the big buildings were and I went
to look at the pictures and watched as the codes rathcheted over to the next ...

... started appearing on the door. One was an 800 number, but the others
listed were of various area codes. I woke up thinking ..." Orson ...

... For the law of God is not in any way a matter of written or legislated codes, but
is itself a living dynamic stream of upward- flowing evolutionary growth. ...

... They carry very high-vibrating genetic codes that are keyed to frequencies
of the fifth-dimensional energetic blueprint for Earth. ...

... It instructs them how to act toward the deity and toward one another. Religious
codes of conduct differ in many ways, but most agree on several major themes. ...

... The side door opened and closed. NOTE: Mikkel Dahl is a biblical scholar,
dealing in prophecy through number codes. ++++. ...

... The ships are the old ideas of war and confrontation, also of regimentation,
conforming to codes and subjugation of individuality. ...