compiled by Dee Finney

10-5-03 - DREAM - I was working in a large office, putting together a list of information that included coordinates of places where events were going to happen. All that had to be in the correct order. I had more information that was more specific and I was at the point where I had to decide whether to include the detailed information or not.

We also lived in this place and we had to feed the women and girls who worked here.

My friend Michelle was making a fresh vegetable salad so I pitched in to help her cut up the vegetables for it.

I was supervisor of the food supplies. Most of the women pitched in their income to buy food - all except for one. All she had left in the freezer was a package of corn on the cob which had 6 large ears in it. All the rest of the food had been eaten. All she did was hang around. She wasn't helping with anything.

My friend Mary was given a package of corn on the cob and a box of macaroni and cheese which she could feed her children.

Everyone could be fed one last time and then the food would be gone. After that, only those who were working and contributing would be fed. Even Mary's young daughter was working.

While I was walking through the office, I noticed a puddle of water on the floor. I looked up and there was water coming down from a light fixture where our only light was coming from. There was a great danger here - a big blackout in the whole building could occur if the wires shorted out.

Mary's daughter was working quite near this area . We were worried about her safety.

I called Clarence, the electrician/ maintenance man to turn off the electricity and water and fix the problem.

He came immediately, but that meant that when he started the work, we would have no light, no water, no heat, no cooked food, and besides that, the woman who didn't contribute would not be getting fed once she ate her last package of corn.

Nobody Home
by Pink Floyd

I got a little black book with my poems in.
Got a bag, got a toothbrush and a comb.
When I'm a good dog they sometimes throw me a bone.
I got elastic bands keeping my shoes on.
Got those swollen hands blues.
Got thirteen channels of shit on the TV to choose from.

I got electric light,
And I got second sight.
Got amazing powers of observation.
And that is how I know,
When I try to get through,
On the telephone to you,
There'll be nobody home.

The Lamp: and the great blackouts of 2003 - (North America and Italy)
The Symbolism



Lose power, lose water

By Tom O'Konowitz Daily Herald Staff Writer

Posted October 05, 2003

The massive blackout that left much of the Northeast in the dark this summer also left millions of people in the Cleveland and Detroit areas without running water.

If such a far-reaching and extended blackout ever hit Chicago's suburbs, many taps here could go dry as well, officials say.

It's simply because water treatment plants and pumping stations rely on electricity to run, and not all suburbs have adequate generators to keep things running very long and at full capacity.

That frightening reality has some municipal leaders thinking about spending millions of dollars to equip their water facilities with emergency generators that would ensure the water doesn't stop flowing when the power goes out.

"Water utilities are really looking strongly at having more backup power, but it can get pretty expensive," said Rob Renner, deputy executive director of the American Water Works Association. "It's a big decision for a community, but you have to remember water is a very essential commodity for a community. Human beings need water."

Elgin is one such community looking to take the plunge with a big investment. Elgin is considering setting aside $2 million over the next two years to buy and install a massive generator at its Riverside water treatment center along the Fox River.

Elgin, with nearly 100,000 residents, tentatively set the money aside for the generator after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks pushed city council members to reconsider disaster preparedness measures.

While the generator has yet to be purchased, Elgin water Superintendent Larry Deibert says he expects it to be up and running in the next year.

It would allow water operations to run indefinitely at normal levels during a major blackout.

"What happened in the Northeast only shows ... the need for them," Deibert said. "If that happened here, we'd be without water in a few days."

Deibert pointed out Elgin has five water towers, a second water treatment plant on the city's west side and two separate electrical lines serving its Riverside plant, which pumps out 20 million gallons a day.

But if a blackout spread throughout the city and lasted more than a few days, Elgin's water operations would shut down, Deibert said, leaving all houses and businesses without running water.

Today, the same likely would happen in nearly all of DuPage County, officials say.

Robert Martin, operations manager for the DuPage Water Commission, said he believes it's very unlikely an outage as broad as the one in the Northeast would blanket the Chicago area. But if it did, he acknowledged, the commission would have to stop pumping water to the municipalities it serves.

All DuPage County towns, with the exception of West Chicago and Warrenville, tap into the water commission's pipeline, which brings in water from Lake Michigan.

Before August's big blackout, though, the DuPage commission already had decided to buy more generators at some pumping substations to increase its ability to operate in case the main power grid fails.

"What happened Aug. 14 made it more imperative that we proceed with that," Martin said. "We've already hired an engineer."

Some other municipal water facilities are ahead of DuPage County and Elgin, having already bought big generators in recent years.

Geneva, for example, spent more than $300,000 to install a generator that could fully sustain the city's water plant and other essential operations indefinitely should the city's electrical plant go down. That step was taken in preparation for the turn of the millennium, which brought fears of chaos and potential power outages.

St. Charles in the past five years has equipped all of its six water pumping stations with diesel- or natural gas-powered generators that could keep them running at full capacity.

St. Charles, like Geneva, runs its own electric utility, but both cities buy their power wholesale and get it over the same lines as other communities.

"We realized we wanted to be able to run independently of any power considerations," said Cliff White, environmental services superintendent for St. Charles.

Evanston's water treatment plant has more than one backup system in place, said Assistant Superintendent Regina Lucas, but it does not disclose what those are.

Evanston's plant supplies water to its 73,000 users, as well as more than 300,000 more served by Skokie and the Northwest Water Commission, which represents Arlington Heights, Buffalo Grove, Palatine and Wheeling.

"It is something we don't discuss because we are a secured facility, but we absolutely do have plans in place to handle an emergency with a power outage," Lucas said. "It is something Evanston has looked at and taken precautions for."

Officials in some other towns also say they already have enough backup power, but others say they don't believe the threat of a widespread blackout is strong enough to warrant the cost.

In Lake County, Wauconda has several portable generators that could be hooked up at its water facilities in an emergency. While the generators wouldn't be available immediately because they're in storage, workers likely could get them in place before water stopped flowing, officials said.

"They would give us plenty of strength for the system to last," said Betty Harrison, assistant public works director.

In Huntley, though, there are generators at just two of its four wells. The village also stores 3.2 million gallons in five towers.

The two Huntley generators, one of which was added just recently, are at wells on opposite ends of town, according to public works Director Jim Schwartz.

"If we had a major disaster, it's unlikely it would hit both ends of town," Schwartz said.

Conversely, the village of Fox River Grove, just a few towns away, has backup generators at all of its wells.

"We'd be able to last through an extended power outage," public works Director Dan Hughes said.

Though it costs more to make municipal water available during a power outage, Renner at the American Water Works Association says buying backups is worth it.

"Over a period of time, water is the thing most essential to human life," he said. "The risks and the expenses have to be evaluated, but you probably would consider (Elgin's) $2 million a pretty good investment."

Water: Some suburbs already have backups at treatment facilities


Blackout prevention technology - the Israeli way

By ISRAEL21c staff October 05, 2003

"To manage power successfully, it?s critical to be able to predict events - to know what the state of the power load is at any point in time, in order to see trouble coming before it hits," says SATECH CEO Daniel Branover.

It took less than 20 seconds for the power outage to spread across more than 20 power lines and blacken the East Coast last summer. Sensors on the power lines registered failures - but at that point, every housewife and subway rider in Manhattan had personally registered the failure.

According to Daniel Branover, the CEO of the Israeli-based company SATEC, the problem is that utilities are simply not in control of energy distribution.

"To manage power successfully, it's critical to be able to predict events - to know what the state of the power load is at any point in time, in order to see trouble coming before it hits," says Branower.

Utilities today lack those means to control energy, anywhere in the system - from the sub-station to the residence, and nothing like last month's experience demonstrates how obsolete the existing information and control system is.

"It's like a circuit breaker in your house. The master breaker goes down, and then you lift it up to restore electricity. But you had no idea what caused it to go down in the first place or any premonition that something was wrong," Branower told ISRAEL21c from the company's U.S. headquarters in New Jersey.

A power outage in modern-day America is an event that is responded to instead of prevented. But Branower says SATEC may have the solution. By utilizing advanced data collection and transmission technologies that gather important power usage information, SATEC's ExpertPower, processes the information and presents final reports on a website - accessible by everyone from the substation to the household.

By controlling every aspect of energy distribution, utilization, and management, ExpertPower, has the capability to predict, respond and prevent future energy crises.

How? By synchronizing power information down to one millisecond resolution. ExpertPower capabilities can quickly and precisely respond to power loading conditions to shed (and restore) load via either underfrequency or demand conditions and prevent a catastrophic chain reaction or collapse of the electrical system.

"ExpertPower takes all the devices and connects them into an information service station which provide information to utilities in real time and shows the complete picture," said Branower. "Our device measures and analyzes over 1000 parameters. It knows in advance if there's a problem upcoming and can make plans to deal with it. For instance, it can cause little power outages in staggered neighborhoods, or even buildings, to alleviate the load, instead of resulting in a massive blackout."

SATEC was established in 1987 in Jerusalem by a group of young engineers and scientists who set out to develop advanced, highly reliable and user friendly electrical power instruments.

Today SATEC is internationally recognized as a leading developer and manufacturer of Digital Powermeters and Power Quality Analysis equipment. The company exports to more than 38 countries worldwide through a distribution network throughout Europe, North and South America and the Far East. SATEC's products range from simple digital multifunction powermeters designed to replace analog metering, to high-end power quality analysis and automation solutions that provide detailed waveform, fault, power quality, harmonic, and energy analysis, to ethernet gateways and web enabled software to allow world-wide accessibility.

Over the past three years, SATEC has combined its metering and communications expertise to develop ExpertPower.

According to Branover, ExpertPower collects information from everywhere in the system, and by making it accessible through 2-way communication over the Internet, enables the full range of management capabilities, from Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) to load control to fault detection. And, because the information provided covers the entire system, control can be pinpointed to exactly the places where it is needed.

ExpertPower has been deployed in several test sites both in Israel and the US, with positive results..

"Had eXpertPower been deployed by the utilities on the East Coast, the source of the problem would have been identified and action could have been taken to avoid the crisis," says Branover.


Saturday, October 4, 2003

Meeting's participants hash over blackout-related issues

By John Hanna

Associated Press Writer

TOPEKA -- Avoiding a major power blackout in Kansas ultimately could come down to whether utility employees believe they have the authority to deal with problems developing along electric transmission line.

That sentiment emerged Friday from a meeting of about 50 legislators, state regulators and utility officials who gathered to discuss the largest blackout in U.S. history, which on Aug. 14 cut power to parts of the Northeast, Midwest and Canada and affected 50 million people in eight states.

Though Kansas is on the western edge of the massive Eastern power grid, its electricity users were not affected. The grid covers most of the United States and Canada east of the Rockies outside of Texas.

Participants in Friday's meetings said Kansas' system is reliable now but hashed over a series of issues, including tapping into wind power, whether transmission issues must be resolved regionally and how to ensure that utility employees feel comfortable enough to "shed load" when they see a potential line overload.

"The operators have to know that they have the ability to make those tough decisions," said Carl Monroe, vice president of operations for the Southwest Power Pool, a regional group that oversees planning and transmission operations regionally. "The authority line has to be clear."

And, state Rep. Tom Sloan, R-Lawrence, said, a utility may find itself in a situation in which, "I've got somebody who's an hourly employee, particularly a new hire, whose supervisor is at home or has run to the store and hasn't taken a cell phone."

Last year, then-Gov. Bill Graves appointed a council to study energy issues, and that council in turn recently appointed a transmission task force to study the reliability of Kansas' electric grid, assess the state's power needs and make recommendations for ensuring the future flow of electricity.

The Kansas House Utilities Committee organized Friday's meeting, and Chairman Carl Dean Holmes, R-Liberal, said he was looking for "an interchange of ideas."

"I don't anticipate that there will be any legislation," he said.

One issue is the cost of improving transmission lines and generating stations -- and who pays. Lee Allison, chairman of the energy council, said cost comes into play especially when people talk about Kansas tapping wind power to generate electricity, because utilities don't yet see a way to get wind-generated power to market.

"We built a federal interstate highway system," Allison said. "Should we now be looking at building an interstate transmission system?"

But David Springe, chief attorney for the Citizens' Utility Ratepayers Board, said missing from the discussion is any assessment of the cost of improvements versus their ultimate benefits to consumers.

"It's always the residential and small business customers who end up, at the end of the day, paying the bill," he said.

"When was the last time we had a cascading blackout?" Springe asked. "Our system is good and resilient."


On the Net:

Kansas Corporation Commission:http://www.kcc.state.ks.us/

Kansas Legislature: http://www.kslegislature.org

Southwest Power Pool: http://www.spp.org/


Blackout leaves Cottonwood Mall in dark for 13 hours

The power went out in the shopping center just before 7 p.m. Thursday. The mall’s management said they were forced to close the food court early.

Last Update: 10/03/2003 12:47:38 PM

By: Kurt Christopher

A 13-hour blackout at Albuquerque’s Cottonwood Mall forced many food vendors to throw out food on the eve of a busy tourist weekends.

The power went out in the shopping center just before 7 p.m. Thursday. The mall’s management said they were forced to close the food court early.

Several vendors say the outage cost them a lot of sales Thursday evening, especially from tourists in town for the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta.

When the vendors arrived at the mall Friday morning, many were angered to find the power was still off.

Cottonwood Mall’s management says several restaurants and businesses offered additional freezer space for those in need, but some vendors were still forced to throw out food.

Remaining food was inspected Friday morning and vendors say it is safe.

PNM says an underground cable failed, knocking out power to the mall and three other nearby businesses.


After the Blackout, Greater Interest in Backup Power


Published: October 5, 2003

JUST as the Sept. 11 attacks forced major financial institutions to confront the need for backup data and disaster recovery sites, the August power blackout compelled all kinds of businesses to consider the need for backup power sources and emergency work space.

New Jersey real estate specialists say some companies had been rather hesitant about investing in backup operations during an economic slowdown — at least until the approval of federal regulations requiring resumption of business by financial institutions "crucial to the national economy" within 24 hours of any disaster. Since those regulations were put in place last spring, followed within a few months by the widespread blackout, interest in backup capabilities has again surged, brokers and developers say.

A few companies established "fail-safe" backup operations well before terrorists attacked the World Trade Center; Bear Stearns, the investment bank, for instance, set up secondary offices in New Jersey in the early 90's. Companies are generally secretive about their disaster recovery operations, but one real estate industry professional with knowledge of Bear Stearns's capacity in its Morris County office said there are three turbine generators that could provide enough power for an entire small city.

The recent blackout spurred renewed concern among some companies affected by the Sept. 11 attack and wider concern among smaller and medium-size companies and property owners, commercial real estate specialists say.

Citicorp, based in Manhattan, is searching for a large backup data center in New Jersey, said CB Richard Ellis's managing director in Paramus, Geoffrey L. Schubert, but it has yet to find a site with enough emergency power to meet its capacious needs. State Street Bank is also looking in the state, Mr. Schubert said.

Some New Jersey companies and building owners are adding backup power sources to their existing buildings, according to several brokers and builders. Other companies from Manhattan and elsewhere in the New York metropolitan area are leasing disaster recovery space where workers could go in the event of an emergency and where computers mirror all the data generated at their home offices.

Matthew B. Jarmel, a principal with Jarmel Kizel Architects & Engineers in Livingston, said his firm had recently developed a specialty in emergency power systems. "We have worked with a number of large financial institutions that are required to have disaster recovery and redundant systems since 9/11," he said. "But now we're also seeing small companies outfitting basic office buildings with generators."

Mr. Jarmel said that while each company has specific needs, they all look for "power and fiber, the infrastructure in place to the building."

THERE are various ways to insure a building will not lose power, Mr. Jarmel said. "Uninterrupted power supply" service is available from power companies, which involves installation of a transfer switch to change the building over to battery power in the event of a power failure. Batteries can keep elevators running, lights shining and computers going for a time, depending on the size of the batteries and the power demands, he said.

In addition, Mr. Jarmel said, a building's power source can be rigged to switch automatically to generators when electrical service is lost. Smaller generators can be powered by natural gas, he said, and larger ones by diesel fuel.

In some cases, companies decide that it is more efficient or economical to lease space from companies providing backup office space equipped with backup power.

A 172,000-square-foot facility in Carlstadt was released leased in its entirety to SunGard, a company that provides backup work space to all types of enterprises — including 47 of the 50 largest financial services companies, said Edward Russo of Russo Development, the Hackensack company that handled the deal. "The blackout made the type of service they provide increasingly sought after," Mr. Russo said.

New Jersey is a prime backup-data center locale, Mr. Russo said, because of its proximity to Manhattan's financial center and its position on the fiber-optic "infrastructure backbone" for the entire Northeast. Mr. Russo said that for a data center and its backup to operate in synchronous fashion, they must be within 62 kilometers — about 38 miles — of each other. "It's basic physics," he said.

The first draft of the federal regulations would have required backup data centers to be 100 to 250 miles from Manhattan, he noted, but many companies argued this was farther than the optimal distance technologically.

Last spring, months before the blackout, a 108,355-square-foot building in Somerset that was a former office of WorldCom, telecommunications giant, was leased in its entirety to the Bank of New York as a backup data center. Somerset, which is 60 miles southwest of New York City, has "excellent wiring," Mr. Jarmel said, is well situated on power grids and is equipped with up-to-date fiber-optic capability.

Since the blackout, noted Barbara Martinez, senior vice president for asset management with Alexander Summer property managers, some office building owners are at least contemplating the purchase of backup generators and other emergency power equipment.

"Some tenants are also installing their own backup power," Ms. Martinez said. "We have a tenant like that in Ridgefield Park — a financial services company. During the blackout, the tenant never had a disruption. First, the building's backup generator kicked in, and then the company's own generator kicked in for its individual floors."

Because of security concerns, she would not identify the tenant. SunGard also has a policy against identifying any tenant of its facilities, which are set off from downtown areas, and protected with armed guards — inside and out. Likewise, the Bank of New York's name was not disclosed in the announcement of its real estate deal, although its participation has been widely reported.

Ms. Martinez said she believed that building codes are likely to be changed to add requirements for backup generators. Also, landlords may increasingly find that they must install backup generators to maintain their properties' marketability. "I think this is going to become a `must,' " she said.

In Paramus, which Ms. Martinez described as "prone to blackouts and power surges," the Atrium office building had to be closed in the summer of 2000 during extensive "brownouts." In the August blackout, she noted, an employee was trapped in the elevator for an hour, and the fire department had to be summoned.

"In some cases, what is needed is maybe something less than full backup power," she said, "for emergency lighting and services, so tenants can at least work by daylight, and people can be evacuated if there's an outage."

Mr. Jarmel said many smaller companies that would have to shut down in a general emergency choose to have just enough battery power in place so computer systems do not crash when the power goes out, and they can shut down smoothly.

A STANDARD emergency battery power system can keep basic lighting and computer systems operating for up to an hour, he said.

Paul Giannone, managing principal of Newmark Real Estate of New Jersey, said his company was working with a Manhattan paper distributor that is currently looking for a warehouse building with a diesel generator — or the potential for installing one — for use as backup office space.

The Carlstadt building leased to SunGard was built as "flex space," Mr. Russo pointed out, meaning it could also have been used as a warehouse. However, SunGard, a leading company in the field of disaster recovery providers, immediately leased 100,000 square feet when the building was completed last year and recently signed a lease for the rest of the facility.

The building is single-story — which is somewhat unusual in the realm of disaster recovery facilities, according to Mr. Russo — with brick veneer, energy-efficient glass and abundant landscaping.

"The idea is you don't want to stick a displaced worker from Manhattan in some standard Jersey warehouse," he said.

Then again, Mr. Jarmel pointed out, "All this backup is very expensive."

"There are a lot of cases," he said, "where it could be better to focus on making sure the primary power source is reliable."


2003-10-01 00:10:55

ROME, Oct. 1 (Xinhuanet) -- Italian Turin prosecutors opened Wednesday an investigation into the blackout which struck Italy in the early hours of Sunday morning as grid operators continued to argue over responsibility.

Although the outage is believed to have begun in Switzerland, the nationwide cut occurred after a key energy distribution plant near Turin was unable to cope with the consequent surge in demand.

The northern investigators will be working with counterparts in Rome, who on Tuesday opened an inquiry into the events preceding the outage, to determine the causes of the blackout, possible knock-on effects and legal responsibility.

Rome prosecutors have tasked judicial police with acquiring documents from the national grid company GRTN and meeting with its technicians and directors, while the Turin inquiry will focus on the Rondissone station, which is a conduit for two very high-voltage power lines from France.

The Italian government and national Energy Authority have launched their own investigations into what happened.

Meanwhile, in its first official statement after Sunday's events, GRTN on Wednesday blamed Swiss suppliers for aggravating the situation following the initial breakdown.

"Communications center Etrans, which coordinates the six Swiss electricity operators, failed to inform us of what had happened promptly or adopt the agreed emergency procedures," it said.

"This lack of information ... prevented a swift identification of the causes and blocked the adoption of necessary countermeasures".

Italy's blackout, its worst ever, began shortly before 3:30 on Sunday morning, plunging all regions except the island of Sardiniain to darkness for hours on end.

At least four deaths were indirectly attributed to the blackout,including two elderly women who fell down stairs and another whose clothes were set on fire by a candle.

Another person died in a car accident caused by traffic light failure.

On Wednesday, four top consumers associations launched a campaign encouraging the public to request compensation for the blackout.

Adoc, Adusbef, Codacons and Federconsumatori noted that customers are legally entitled to 25.82 euros for lengthy power cuts. Enditem


Blackout blamed on a tree cripples Italy; at least 3 people dead


Canadian Press

Sunday, September 28, 2003

CREDIT: (AP/Gregorio Borgia)

Sunday morning on Rome's Fori Imperiali Avenue, facing the Colosseum, during Italy's countrywide blackout. (AP/Gregorio Borgia)

ROME (AP) - A storm-tossed tree branch that hit Swiss power lines helped trigger a massive blackout in almost all of Italy on Sunday, trapping thousands on trains and forcing the Pope to use a backup generator to proclaim his new cardinals. The outage, blamed for three deaths, underlined the dangers of Italy's reliance on imported power.

It was Italy's worst power outage since the Second World War. Most of the country's 58 million people were affected - more than in North America's biggest blackout, which left 50 million people without power in Canada and the United States on Aug. 14-15.

As in the North American blackout, there was initially confusion about the cause and finger-pointing among neighbouring countries. With scant domestic supply and swelling public demand, Italy imports most of its electricity.

The blackout began at 3:25 a.m., hitting all of Italy except the island of Sardinia. The lights came back on in northern Italy by early morning and in most of Rome shortly after noon. Power was restored to the rest of Italy late Sunday, according to television news reports.

The blackout was blamed for the deaths of three elderly women, the ANSA news agency said.

Two women - one 81 and the other 72 - died in separate accidents when they fell down darkened stairs, the agency said. A 92-year-old woman died of burns after a candle set her clothes on fire.

The outage tripped a burglar alarm at the home in Rome where Lonia Liscio, 21, was babysitting an eight-year-old boy. She woke up in a panic.

"The baby woke up too - he sleeps with the light on," she said. "I was scared. I didn't know what was happening."

Tommaso Primavera, 17, was riding his motor scooter at the time in Rome.

"There was panic on the streets," he said. "The tourists went mad - everyone was thinking about themselves."

As experts tried to work out the cause, none of the three countries involved wanted all the blame. Swiss and French energy officials said the responsibility was Italy's, while the Italians noted that the power cut came from France.

Initial investigations indicated a chain reaction that started in Switzerland and moved through France.

In Switzerland, a tree branch hit and disabled a power transmission line. This caused another Swiss line to overload, which then knocked out French transmission to Italy.

"After that, all connections to Italy dropped out," said Rolf Schmid, spokesman for the Swiss power company Atel.

Authorities said there were no indications of foul play.

Italian energy company Enel agreed with the Swiss description of the chain reaction. But France's electricity grid operator RTE said it was too early to speculate about causes.

Whatever the cause, the blackout was an ordeal across Italy.

It brought to a halt some 110 trains with 30,000 passengers on board, and delayed numerous flights in addition to a few that had to be cancelled.

Hospitals were forced to rely on generators, which was crucial for one man undergoing a liver transplant in Turin. The blackout occurred during his six-hour overnight surgery, but emergency power helped doctors finish the operation successfully, ANSA reported.

In Rome, the city had been holding an all-night festival with museums, bars and shops still open at the time of the blackout. The result was that many people who had been encouraged to use public transport found themselves stranded at subway stations.

The Vatican was also affected, with St. Peter's Basilica - normally lit up overnight - in darkness. When Pope John Paul announced a slate of new cardinals from his window overlooking St. Peter's Square, the Vatican had to amplify his remarks with a backup generator, while journalists wrote by candles and flashlights in the Holy See press office.

The fact that the blackout happened in the slow-moving morning hours of a Sunday at least lessened the effect. The outages might not be over, however. Energy officials warned of the potential for cuts on Monday.

The Swiss power company accused Italy of a lack of co-ordination that aggravated the situation.

"Because of the high volume of exported power to Italy, it is vital that the network operators can be quickly co-ordinated and react correctly," Atel said in a statement.

Italian officials acknowledged that the domestic energy system was gravely insufficient.

Enel energy company spokesman Ralph Traviato said Italy imports up to 17 per cent of its energy, compared with a European average of about two per cent. He noted that Italy's own production is reduced overnight, meaning that any late-night problem from international suppliers has a magnified effect.

Some Italians have worried that new power plants could damage the environment - a position that has slowed new plant construction. Also, national demand has shot up in recent years, prompting energy officials to warn of possible blackouts.

"I would like my fellow citizens to know that we must build new plants and networks on our territory or the situation will remain the same," Enel chief Scaroni said.

President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi urged that "we must not slow down the construction of new power plants."

Italy was hit with partial power cuts in June, when people - suffering in the scorching summer - overloaded the system with air conditioners and other electricity-guzzling appliances. That was the first time in more than 20 years that the national operator of the electrical grid ordered power cuts.

Last week, nearly four million people in eastern Denmark and southern Sweden were without electricity for more than three hours after a rare power outage plagued parts of Scandinavia.

On Aug. 28, power briefly went out in parts of London and southeast England, shutting off traffic lights in the British capital and stranding hundreds of thousands of people on subways and trains.

Authorities are still investigating the British outage, as well as the Aug. 14-15 blackout in North America.

© Copyright 2003 The Canadian Press

Copyright © 2003 canada.com, a division of CanWest Interactive Inc., a CanWest company. All rights reserved.


Blackout affects 49,000 customers in the Ogden area

October 2, 2003 - OGDEN, Utah (AP) - A blackout hit the Ogden area just as the Thursday evening rush hour was getting under way, snarling intersections and forcing businesses to close early.

Utah Power spokesman Dave Eskelsen said the outage at 4:27 p.m. affected about 49,000 customers in Ogden and communities as far away as Willard, Plain City, Harrisville, Liberty and Huntsville.

The El Monte substation adjacent to the Pioneer power generation station at the mouth of Ogden Canyon lost four large fuses when a surge of some sort, possibly lightning, hit it.

Ogden police reported numerous small accidents during the outage, but there were no major accidents.

Utah Power spokeswoman Nancy Verekamp said power was restored to about 7,000 customers, chiefly in central Ogden, about 6 p.m. and to the rest at 7:03 p.m.

Ogden Regional Medical Center, McKay-Dee Hospital and the tower at Ogden-Hinckley Airport never lost power.

AP-WS-10-03-03 0441EDT



The blackout that left thousands of London commuters stranded has been blamed on the faulty installation of new equipment.

Energy regulator Ofgem said a preliminary inquiry had found that "new protection equipment" was incorrectly installed.

Ofgem said it would investigate whether the National Grid Company had fulfilled its legal obligations to ensure the system operated effectively.

The National Grid Company is a private firm that operates the high-voltage electricity transmission system in England and Wales.

The August 28 blackout lasted 40 minutes and plunged central London into darkness during the evening rush hour.

It affected around 250,000 Tube passengers and thousands more on mainline trains, as well as motorists.

Even after power was restored, it took ours for train services to return to normal.

London Mayor Ken Livingstone has blamed the blackout on a lack of investment in Britain's electricity network.

However, Ofgem ruled that out as a cause, saying investment levels were much higher than before privatisation in the early '90s.

Ofgem said a blackout near Birmingham in September was also caused by new equipment failure.

Last Updated: 10:43 UK, Wednesday October 01, 2003


London blackout blamed on faulty installation of equipment

London-AP -- It looks like human error may be to blame for the blackout that stranded thousands of commuters in London.

Britain's energy regulator says a preliminary inquiry finds that so-called "new protection equipment" was incorrectly installed. It didn't give further details.

The 40-minute outage occurred at rush-hour on August 28th. Some 250-thousand train passengers and others were affected.

The energy regulator says it will investigate whether the private firm that owns and operates the high-voltage electricity transmission system in England and Wales had fulfilled its legal obligations to ensure the system operates well.

Copyright 2003 Associated Press. All rights reserved


Posted on Tue, Sep. 30, 2003

Thousands of residents lose power in LA blackout

Associated Press

LOS ANGELES - Nearly 2,000 residents in the San Fernando Valley were without power Monday night, officials said.

The blackout occurred about 7:30 p.m. in parts of Studio City and Sherman Oaks, and was expected to return later in the evening, said Winifred Yancy, spokeswoman for the Department of Water and Power.

The cause of the power outage was under investigation, Yancy said.

Officials believe the blackout was related to a fire at an electricity pole and smoke coming from one of the department's vaults.

No Evidence Blackout Was Act of Terror

by Associated Press

Seattle Post-Intelligencer - August 14, 2003

WASHINGTON -- Law enforcement officials quickly determined Thursday that the blackout was not caused by terrorists.

The FBI, the Homeland Security Department and New York City police all agreed there was no evidence of a terrorist attack or criminal act in the power outages affecting the eastern United States and Canada.

"We are not aware of anything at this time that would indicate anything of a criminal nature or an act of terrorism," FBI spokesman Bill Carter said.

The agencies quickly made public their conclusions to quell any fears that al-Qaida or other groups had made good on their previous threats to strike U.S. economic targets. Power plants, nuclear facilities, dams and chemical plants are considered on the terror network's hit list.

As reports of the blackouts rolled in, the Homeland Security Department readied teams to respond to terrorist strikes, telecommunications outages and other problems that might be related. They weren't needed.

As of 9 p.m. EDT, "there has not yet been one request for federal assistance to respond to this," department spokesman Brian Roehrkasse said.

Associated Press


Ohio Finds Glitches that Caused Blackout

Ohio's section of the regional power grid had at least 64 glitches in the four hours before the nations' worst blackout.

The timeline the Ohio utility regulator sent Governor Bob Taft this week is showing that most problems involved power plants and major transmission lines shutting off momentarily or going down completely.

The timeline is consistent with reports released earlier by power companies investigating last months blackout.

The August 14th outage darkened homes and businesses in eight states and parts of Canada.


Blackout Timeline Shows Many Problems

COLUMBUS (AP) -- State regulators have produced the most comprehensive timeline yet of what happened the day northern Ohio lost power during the worst blackout in U.S. history. The Public Utilities Commission of Ohio isn't assigning blame in the report, leaving a final analysis to federal investigators. ``Due to the integrated nature of the electric grid, these events should not necessarily be interpreted as a direct cause of the blackout,'' said PUCO spokeswoman Shana Gerber.

Ohio's section of the power grid experienced at least 64 glitches in the four hours before the nation's worst blackout, according to the timeline sent to Gov. Bob Taft this week. The PUCO timeline shows most problems involved power plants and major transmission lines that tripped off momentarily or went down completely.

The Aug. 14 outage darkened homes and businesses in eight states and parts of Canada. The blackout affected 50 million people, shut down more than 100 power plants and knocked Cleveland's water supply off line. American and Canadian investigators are focusing on failures of a power plant and lines owned by Akron-based FirstEnergy Corp. The PUCO's draft timeline is consistent with those released earlier by power companies and the joint U.S.-Canadian task force, which showed glitches across the grid hours before the blackout.

For example, the timeline includes the 12:05 p.m. trip of circuit breakers at a unit of American Electric Power's plant in Conesville in eastern Ohio. The U.S./Canada Power Outage Task Force identified the same problem almost two weeks ago. However, the PUCO report goes further, pinpointing problems -- even some considered minor like a small line tripping off for a few seconds -- that occurred on all parts of Ohio's portion of the grid that connects four major Ohio power companies.

An AEP line in Findlay, for example, tripped for half a second at 3:51 p.m., the timeline shows. Such brief line trips happen constantly, caused by anything from a bird or a tree limb hitting a line, AEP spokesman Pat Hemlepp said Friday. The ability of a line to trip and then immediately reset is a normal function of the power grid, he said. ``When that becomes unusual is when you have a whole series of events on a variety of lines, which was what was encountered that day,'' Hemlepp said.

More than 50 of the highlighted events involved FirstEnergy or AEP. The rest involved Cinergy Corp. and Dayton Power & Light Co. FirstEnergy provided the commission with the information in the timeline, said spokesman Ralph DiNicola. The company's own investigation is ``down to milliseconds,'' he said. Such timelines are important in determining whether interconnected systems were experiencing voltage problems, DiNicola said. ``One utility doesn't know all that,'' he said.

DPL spokesman Tom Tatham said the company had no comment. Most of the Cinergy incidents involved southern Indiana lines that tripped between noon and 12:30 p.m. Both the PUCO timeline and the task force report are ``consistent with what we've determined all along, which was that the events that occurred in southern Indiana on the 14th did not have any impact on what occurred in northern Ohio,'' Cinergy spokesman Steve Brash said Friday.

Posted 7:00pm, Friday, September 26, 2003


Task Force Notes Problems Before Blackout

U.S.-Canadian Task Force Says Events Prior to Blackout 'May Be Relevant' to Power Outage

The Associated Press

WASHINGTON Sept. 12, 2003 —

Voltage shifts, line problems and power plant shutdowns were observed "well before" midday and across several states on the day of the nation's worst blackout, a government task force said Friday.

A time line released by a U.S.-Canadian task force did not provide any new indication on what precisely triggered the Aug. 14 blackout which investigators believe started with power line problems in Ohio.

The blackout began to cascade from Ohio and Michigan into southern Canada and New York state at about 4:11 p.m., investigators have said previously.

"Most of the events that appear to have contributed to the blackout occurred during the period from about noon to about 4:13 p.m.," the task force said Friday.

But "many things happened well before 12 p.m." on Aug. 14 and some of those problems also "may be relevant in a causal sense to the blackout," it added.

The task force said unusual transmission problems were observed "well before 12 p.m. ... across several states."

"An apparent voltage collapse" on the day of the blackout occurred on parts of the transmission systems around and within the northern Ohio and Eastern Michigan grid, the task force said.

However, it said more work needs to be done before a cause of the massive outage and particularly what caused it to spread so widely and so quickly can be determined.

"While we are making good progress, this investigation is far from complete," Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham said in a statement.

The blackout, the worst in the nation's history, cascaded from Ohio and Michigan across southern Canada and New York state and knocked out electricity to 50 million people. At one point more than 100 power generating stations were shut down because of the transmission voltage surges.

The task force said it was looking into whether the voltage collapse may be tied to a lack of "reactive power" a portion of the energy moving through power lines that is essential for keeping proper voltage levels and balance.

"Sufficient voltage is maintained by supplying the transmission system with reactive power from generating stations and static devices called capacitors," said the task force. "...When reactive power is limited, the increased loading will cause a voltage drop along the line."

Canadian Natural Resources Minister Herb Dhaliwal, who with Abraham co-chairs the task force, said that the sequence of events released Friday are "only a first step in the process of uncovering what happened."

The initial task force findings reflected timelines that generally had been made public previously by investigators and by FirstEnergy Corp., the company that has been at the center of the investigation because of a power line failure in its northern Ohio system during the hour before the blackout.

The task force's timeline noted that the Conesville power generating plant in central Ohio shut down at 12:05 p.m. and that two other plants Greenwood north of Detroit and Eastlake in northern Ohio shut down between then and 1:31 p.m. EDT.

By 2:02 p.m., a transmission line from southwestern Ohio to northern Ohio disconnected from the system "because of a brush fire under a portion of the line," the task force said.

Three transmission lines failed between 3:05 p.m. and 3:41 p.m. in northern Ohio. All belonged to FirstEnergy. These power line problems, which have been widely reported, became an early focus of the investigation.

The task force said two more lines failed in Ohio between 3:45 p.m. and 4:09 p.m. followed by the failure of three lines between Ohio and Michigan. When these lines failed it blocked the transmission paths from Ohio into eastern Michigan, the task force said.

Abraham called the establishment of a timeline of what happened on the day of the blackout a major step toward learning why the blackout occurred.

"The critical first step has been passed," he said. "Now we can focus on to answering the question why."


ETSA probes south-eastern SA blackout

Monday, 29 September 2003

Power provider ETSA says it should know today the cause of Saturday's blackout in South Australia's Mallee, which caused 8,000 customers to be without power.

Households in Pinnaroo, Lameroo, Murray Bridge and as far south as Meningie were without power for five hours on Saturday morning.

Power was restored to about 5,000 customers by lunchtime, with the remaining 3,000 brought back on line within an hour.

ETSA says repair crews traced the problem to a major substation at Tailem Bend, but are yet to determine what went wrong.


Another blackout hits Sault area

R.J. Frost

A police officer directs traffic at the corner of Second Line and Great Northern Road during the 80-minute power outage that hit Sault Ste. Marie on Tuesday afternoon.

‘Malfunction’ leads to power outage from Montreal River


Wednesday, October 01, 2003 - 09:00

Local News - For the second time in 47 days it was ‘lights out’ for Sault Ste. Marie and area. For nearly 80 minutes Tuesday afternoon, two separate incidents left the traditional Great Lakes Power Ltd. service area in the dark, from Montreal River to east of Bruce Mines.

“All we know at present is that there was a malfunction on a (transmission) circuit between Sault Ste. Marie and Blind River that resulted in the circuit tripping out on two separate occasions,” said Kim Osmars, GLP vice-president of transmission and distribution.

“We’re conducting a technical analysis to find out what actually happened but likely won’t have a definitive answer for several days.”

Electricity was first disrupted for about 23 minutes, beginning around 12:20 p.m. Then, about five minutes after being restored, it went off again for another 54 minutes, restored a second and final time about 1:40 p.m.

PUC Distribution, which services about 33,000 commercial and residential customers in the Sault, said power was restored to the vast majority of its customers within six minutes of the electrical feed being connected. The exception was an east-end circuit, which was about 20 minutes behind the rest of the city.

Osmars said one of two Hydro One transmission circuits east of the city was undergoing scheduled maintenance at the time of the outage. The remaining circuit was transmitting the electrical load for the region.

GLP Ltd. is responsible for 76 kilometres of 230-kilovolt transmission circuits, stopping east of Bruce Mines, he said. Hydro One is responsible for a further 60 kilometres of circuits to the Mississagi transformer station near Blind River.

“Monitoring equipment detected a malfunction in the open circuit carrying the (electrical) load and tripped out the circuit twice in a matter of minutes,” he said.

When the malfunction was detected the equipment switched itself off to prevent equipment damage.

No injuries or damage were reported as a result of Tuesday’s outage.

Service was restored by activating the circuit that was undergoing maintenance. Osmars said during maintenance it's required that the circuit can be brought back into service within two hours.

Electricity was again flowing through both circuits later Tuesday, he said.

The lights stayed on in Wawa because Hydro One has 230 kV circuits running from the Lakehead through Wawa to connect with the Mississagi transformer station.

“If the refurbishing of our transmission corridor (from Wawa to the Sault) had been completed there wouldn’t have been any extended outage — we could have brought in power from the North,” he said.

GLP Ltd. is awaiting regulatory approval to refurbish its 167-kilometre transmission corridor, an estimated $85-million project that would increase system capacity from 115 to 230 kV, and upgrade five transformer stations along the way.

Osmars said portions of the current transmission system are more than 70 years old and approaching the end of their service life.

If approved by the Ontario Energy Board — the Independent Electricity Market Operator endorsed the application more than three months ago — then GLP would like to launch the 30-month project in the spring and bring it on service in mid-2006.

GLP Ltd. would contribute $81 million to the project and Hydro One Networks Inc. the remaining $4 million.



From: monshelli@lxxx

To: Dee777@aol.com

I live here in Sault Sainte Marie, U.S.A side, Canada's side only 3 minutes from me. The electricity here on the U.S side only quivered, but Sault Canada has had quite a few black outs since the big grid was hit.  I feel we are in for a big wind of change with all these major events leading up to it.




23 Sep 2003 14:15:11 GMT

Wide power blackout hit Sweden, Denmark

By Per Thomsen

COPENHAGEN, Sept 23 (Reuters) - A major power blackout briefly struck southern Sweden and eastern Denmark on Tuesday, leaving millions people without electricity and crippling industry, airports and trains.

Power went out in the early afternoon including at two Swedish nuclear power plants, apparently after a storm hit transmission lines. The national grids of the two countries began restoring electricity within a few hours.

The blackout, highly unusual in Scandinavia, follows the huge outage that left 50 million North Americans without power for up to two days in August.

Power was cut in southern Sweden and throughout the Zealand island where the Danish capital Copenhagen is located.

"Most of the power supply to southern Sweden and Zealand are back in operation after restoration," Swedish grid operator Svenska Kraftnat said in a statement to Nordic power exchange Nord Pool.

Power was coming back on in central Copenhagen by 1400 GMT, though an official at Danish grid Elkraft said it was uncertain how long it would take to restore electricity fully.

"We can reckon that a couple of million consumers are hit," technical director Sture Larsson at Swedish grid operator Svenska Kraftnat said before power supplies resumed.

Swedish nuclear safety officials said the outages at the Oskarshamn plant and the Ringhals nuclear power stations, where capacity of about 3,000 megawatts was closed down, posed no safety threat.


"The security systems there are worked just as they should," Anders Jorle, chief spokesman at the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, told Reuters.

He said the nuclear units shut down as a safety measure if there were big imbalances in the electricity network and pressure in the network fell suddenly.

Copenhagen airport began checking passengers in for their flights after earlier closing to all landings and takeoffs, redirecting or returning incoming flights, airport spokeswoman Bente Kornbo said.

The Copenhagen Metro said two trains were caught underground but both were emptied of passengers without problems. State railways said trains all over Zealand were stopped and passengers were asked to remain inside during the blackout.

Public radio news said hospitals were running on emergency power, and the Oeresund Bridge linking Denmark to Sweden was closed.

The economic impact of the outage was unknown.

Several big industrial plants in southern Sweden were forced to halt production due to the power outage. Sodra Cell Morrum, a pulp producer, told Reuters it would lose millions of crowns due to the stoppage.

Sweden's TT news agency said big companies such as packaging firm Tetra Pak and vehicles maker Scania <SCVb.ST> also stopped production, and telecoms operator TeliaSonera<TLSN.ST> <TLSN.ST> used reserve power to keep its network running.

(With additional reporting by Anna Peltola in Stockholm, Nils Heggland in Copenhagen)


Two quakes hit Hokkaido, leaving 1 dead, 278 hurt

Friday, September 26, 2003 at 13:00 JST

TOKYO — Two powerful earthquakes registering magnitudes of 8.0 and 7.1 on the Richter scale struck Hokkaido early Friday, injuring more than 450 people and leaving one man dead from a quake-related accident, while two people went missing.

The quakes caused power outages, tidal waves and a fire at an oil refinery, while air, sea and land transportation was also disrupted for most of the day in Japan's northernmost main island.

The first quake rocked Hokkaido at 4:50 a.m., measuring a lower 6 on the Japanese seismic intensity scale in the towns of Shizunai, Urakawa, Kushiro, Niikappu and five other municipalities on the southern coast of Hokkaido.

The second came at 6:08 a.m., registering a lower 6 in Urakawa and upper 5 in Niikappu.

A quake of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale can cause widespread destruction and is regarded as severe. In the Japanese seismic classification scale of up to 7 measuring the intensity of tremors on Earth's surface, an intensity-6 earthquake can damage houses, trigger landslides and crack roads.

Dozens of aftershocks have followed the two temblors, with one at around 3:30 p.m. having an estimated magnitude of 6.2 and registering 4 on the Japanese scale in the Kushiro area.

Some 41,000 people in Hokkaido evacuated their homes on the advice of local authorities after tsunami warnings were issued, according to the Fire and Disaster Management Agency.

The Geographical Survey Institute said the measurement point for the satellite global positioning system in the town of Erimo had moved about 87 centimeters to the east-southeast as a result of the tremors and similar land movements were also observed in nearby regions.

Damage was concentrated in the towns of Shizunai and Urakawa where the effects of the temblors were the greatest, with items in homes and stores scattered around and cracks made in roads and buildings.

In 1994, a magnitude-8.2 quake also off the eastern coast of Hokkaido hit the Kushiro area and injured 436 people.

On Friday morning, the government set up an emergency task force at the prime minister's office in Tokyo, disaster management minister Kiichi Inoue told reporters.

The central government dispatched a survey team of about 30 members to Hokkaido.

Concerning casualties, Seiichi Ogasawara, 61, a garbage collector, was hit by a car and killed in the town of Nakashibetsu, eastern Hokkaido, as he was cleaning up beer bottles that had scattered on the road.

The Hokkaido government said 455 people were injured while two people went missing.

In the town of Toyokoro, Hokkaido police are searching for two men who are unaccounted for having left their cars at the mouth of a river, with the possibility they may have been washed into the river.

The first earthquake originated 42 kilometers below sea level off the coast of the Kushiro area, and the second had its epicenter around 21 km below sea level off the Tokachi area of southern Hokkaido, the Japan Meteorological Agency said.

A tsunami of 1.3 meters struck the coast of Urakawa on Hokkaido's southern shoreline at 6:24 a.m. and another tidal wave about 1.2 meters high hit the Kushiro shoreline at 9:03 a.m.

The Sapporo regional meteorological observatory is warning residents in Hokkaido, especially on the Pacific side, to beware of landslides as rainfall of between 10 to 20 millimeters per 24 hours is predicted through Saturday.

An express train run by Hokkaido Railway Co. (JR Hokkaido) derailed in Ombetsu, injuring one of the 39 passengers on board. JR Hokkaido said the company temporarily suspended all train services.

Kushiro airport was shut down because the ceiling of the control tower was damaged, but there was no harm done to the runway, the transport ministry said. Airport operations resumed at 3 p.m., but airlines had canceled most of the day's scheduled flights to and from Kushiro airport.

Road traffic was suspended on some sections of Hokkaido's key highways to check for damage, while police officers were directing traffic as stoplights were not working due to a power outage.

Water supply was also disrupted over extensive parts of the affected areas as a result of damage to water pipes.

A fire broke out at a petroleum tank in Idemitsu Kosan Co's refinery in Tomakomai, a coastal city in southern Hokkaido, but it was contained just past noon, company officials said. There were no injuries resulting from the fire.

Hokkaido Electric Power Co. said 370,000 homes were initially hit by a blackout in Hokkaido. Electricity was restored by 9 p.m.

Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi instructed cabinet ministers Friday morning to find out whether there has been any damage on four Russian-held islands off Hokkaido claimed by Japan and to consider providing assistance if needed, Japanese government officials said. (Kyodo News)


Report: City could have responded better to blackout

By Kevin McCallum

Staff Writer

September 23, 2003

STAMFORD -- The city did many things right during last month's blackout, including protecting elderly and infirm residents, rescuing people trapped in elevators, preventing looting and ensuring raw sewage did not spill into Long Island Sound.

But city workers could have responded better in traffic control and the operation of emergency generators, according to a city report released yesterday.

"I think, in the big picture, that things went relatively well," Mayor Dannel Malloy said yesterday after reviewing the report. "Clearly you can learn from every event."

The six-page report by Ben Barnes, former director of public safety, health and welfare, outlines how the police, fire, EMS, operations and health department employees responded and suggested improvements.

Barnes, now director of administration, said one of the gravest problems Stamford faced never fully materialized because the blackout was relatively brief, with power returning overnight.

Had the crisis extended two or three days, however, several facilities in the city that care for elderly or infirm people -- including Stamford Hospital -- apparently did not have sufficient backup electric generation capability to keep their buildings cool.

Health department employees did a good job of identifying vulnerable populations and developing emergency plans for the following day should they become necessary, Barnes found.

"However, the instance of a regionwide blackout did create some potentially intractable problems," Barnes wrote. "There was nowhere to move people out of harm's way if necessary, as there would be in a localized emergency."

Barnes advised the city to ensure its emergency shelters can remain air-conditioned through a lengthy blackout and recommends institutions that serve people with special needs do the same.

The media have made much of the traffic congestion downtown immediately after the blackout, Malloy said, but the inconveniences drivers experienced need to be kept in perspective.

"I think (the criticism) fails to reflect certain realities that there are priorities that have to be addressed," Malloy said. "People got home from Stamford in a timely fashion, and, considering the fact many left work early, along the lines of when they normally would have."

Barnes noted that 38 additional police officers and supervisors were called back to deal with the emergency, some on their way home from a previous shift. Others were pulled off extra-duty jobs.

The department's priorities immediately after the blackout were to prevent looting and head off serious accidents as a result of traffic backing up on Interstate 95 and the Merritt Parkway, Barnes wrote.

To accomplish this, eight plainclothes officers were ordered to put on uniforms and direct traffic at these intersections.

But with 210 signalized intersections in the city, officers could not possibly staff them all.

"As additional officers became available, they were sent to key intersections to try and alleviate gridlock and establish main east-west and north-south routes," Barnes wrote.

It took more than an hour for a police officer to respond to Tresser and Washington boulevards, which was jammed with angry motorists jockeying for position. An officer arrived shortly after Malloy marched in and began directing traffic himself.

Malloy refused to fault the police response. He said he agreed with Barnes' recommendation that the Police Department should, with the Department of Operations, prioritize which intersections should receive manned traffic control in a blackout.

Although this would help, Barnes said the criticism of the police response to intersections was not entirely off-base.

"Should they have started to get an officer there more quickly? Maybe they should have," he said.

But if drivers had done a better job of following the traffic laws regarding inoperative traffic signals, things would have gone better, Barnes noted.

"When the traffic signals are down, you're supposed to treat it like a four-way stop," Barnes said.

To ensure the public is reminded of this law, Barnes suggests the city work with the state General Assembly to pass strong penalties for motorists who "block the box."

He also suggested more Operations Department employees receive flagmen training to help in such situations and noted that additional reflective clothing, portable signs and flares have been ordered.

Investing in battery backups for key traffic signals also would help, Barnes wrote.

The city also should do more to inventory and maintain its numerous backup generators, which he said would prevent the "scrambling and running around madly" that characterized the city's efforts to keep its generators running.

Copyright © 2003, Southern Connecticut Newspapers, Inc.


Tuesday, September 23, 2003

Water chief defends blackout response

Metro Detroit's system worked well, legislative panel told

By Mike Wowk / The Detroit News

CLINTON TOWNSHIP -- The head of Metro Detroit's regional water system did not back down Monday night when a legislative committee grilled him on why it took days for the system to return to normal after the Aug. 14 power blackout.

A backup generator was working within one hour after the electricity failed in southeastern Michigan, Victor Mercado told a sparsely attended public hearing at Macomb Community College.

Thirty hours after the blackout from New York west to mid-Michigan, all three Detroit water plants that supply its 4.3 million customers were working normally again, he said. But boil-water advisories remained for two more days to satisfy state rules on water quality.

"I believe our response (to the Aug. 14 blackout) was one of the department's finest hours," said Mercado, director of the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department.

He testified at a hearing called by state Sen. Laura Toy, R-Livonia, on why water pressure was so low when electric power went out.

"We lost almost all our water pressure shortly after the power went out," Robert Beckley, public works director for Livonia, told Toy's committee.

Emergency police communications also were affected because the Livonia police backup generator was water-cooled. "It kept overheating, and that took out the police phone system," Beckley said.

Similar problems were reported throughout the 126-community network supplied by the Detroit water system, Toy said.

Mercado said his department is preparing a report on where to add backup generators in case of another power failure. The report will be presented in mid-November to a suburban water consortium, he added.

You can reach Mike Wowk at (586) 468-0343 or at mwowk@ detnews.com.


Posted on Wed, Sep. 24, 2003

Detroit Regional Chamber says blackout costs region $220 million

Associated Press

DETROIT - Blackout-related financial losses to the region will reach $220 million, the Detroit Regional Chamber and a University of Michigan professor said Wednesday.

The chamber worked with senior researcher Donald Grimes of the University of Michigan's Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, who created the estimate of the overall impact of the blackout on the Detroit region's economy.

The estimate includes lost wages in private, service-producing industries, lost perishable business inventories, household food losses, losses to eating establishments affected by the water ban and direct losses to county governments.

The Detroit Regional Chamber is one of the largest chambers of commerce in the nation with more than 20,000 members.

President Bush authorized federal aid for Michigan on Wednesday, providing up to $5 million to deal with the consequences of the blackout, which began Aug. 14 and left 2.3 million Michigan customers without power. The outage stretched from New York to Michigan and into Canada.

Gov. Jennifer Granholm said she was pleased that the state will get federal help. State officials estimate local governments and the state of Michigan spent nearly $20.4 million on emergency measures during the blackout.

Fourteen counties are eligible for federal assistance: Calhoun, Eaton, Genesee, Hillsdale, Ingham, Kalamazoo, Lapeer, Livingston, Macomb, Monroe, Oakland, St. Clair, Washtenaw and Wayne.

Businesses and individuals aren't eligible for reimbursement with the federal money.


On the Net

Detroit Regional Chamber, http://www.detroitchamber.com

State of Michigan, http://www.michigan.gov


Blackout still being investigated

BY E.J. SCHULTZ, The Island Packet

Published Saturday, September 27th, 2003

Utility officials still are investigating the cause of the power outage that blacked out most of southern Beaufort County for several hours a month ago.

The blown transformer that caused the outage, which affected 36,000 customers on Hilton Head Island and parts of greater Bluffton, has been sent to its manufacturer for inspection, said Palmetto Electric Cooperative spokesman Jimmy Baker.

The five-foot tall piece of equipment is owned by Santee Cooper, the power supplier for Palmetto Electric and 19 other cooperatives in South Carolina.

The transformer, which regulated power at the Burnt Church Road substation, had shown no signs of failure during routine testing, according to Palmetto Electric.

The last time Santee Cooper had a similar piece of equipment fail was in 1978.

As officials investigate the cause of the blown transformer, Palmetto Electric and Santee Cooper are taking steps to lessen the impact of any future, similar failure.

Santee Cooper has three back-up generators on Hilton Head that were called on during the outage. One of the generators, though, did not work, and as a result the outage lasted longer than it should have, Baker said. It has since been fixed, he said.

Santee Cooper also is progressing with plans to add a third transmission line to carry electricity to Hilton Head. The project is set to begin next year.

Neither utility on Friday afternoon could detail exactly how much the outage and associated repairs will cost. But Baker said Palmetto Electric does "not anticipate that these costs will lead to any rate increase in the immediate future."

The Aug. 26 outage, which began before morning rush hour and persisted intermittently until midafternoon, forced schools on Hilton Head to send students home, the Beaufort County Sheriff's Office to direct traffic at major intersections and some businesses to close temporarily.

Contact E.J. Schultz at 706-8137 or eschultz@islandpacket.com.


Flush with power, South casts wary eye on blackout

Associated Press

September 23, 2003

CHARLESTON, W.Va. -- Southern governors expressed concern Monday that federal energy regulators will go overboard in their zeal to prevent the sort of blackout that briefly crippled the Northeast this summer.

"We really don't know what happened yet, but we're going pell mell toward a national solution," Georgia Gov. Sonny Perdue told fellow governors and other panelists at the 69th annual meeting of the Southern Governors' Association.

Governors joined industry representatives and policy experts for a panel session on energy issues co-hosted by the SGA and the Southern States Energy Board, which helps guide the region's power policy.

Panel members weighed Congress' proposal to mandate national standards meant to ensure utilities reliably produce and transmit power. Outside of state regulations, the industry follows voluntary guidelines.

"We're solidly behind mandatory reliability standards," said David Mohre of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. "We can't wait around for this to happen."

Panel moderator Lawrence Makovich, a senior director of Cambridge Energy Research Associates, said the details behind those standards could prove vexing to the states. The proposed standards might, for instance, give federal regulators the power to condemn private property in the name of stringing up new power lines.

Several governors advocated a state-based or regional approach over broadening federal regulations.

"We're talking about tough policy decisions that must be made within states by their regulatory boards and by their public," Perdue said.

"It seems that every crisis that hits us these days, we look to the federal government," said Gov. Mark Sanford of South Carolina. "I would be very resistant to this expansion of federal power."

Several governors said the South shouldn't have to pay to upgrade power systems left fragile or insufficient elsewhere. Arkansas Gov. Mike Huckabee cited the federal taxes his residents already pay to upgrade roads in other states.

"We're being asked to be donor states in terms of energy policy," Huckabee said. "I think the response from the governors in the southern part of the country is going to be a great big 'no."'

Huckabee expressed sympathy for the damage suffered in the August blackout. But he also noted policy decisions made by Connecticut, hit by this summer's blackout, and California, recently beset by power supply problems.

"They didn't want to dam up their rivers," Huckabee said. "They didn't want to burn coal because they said it wasn't clean. They wouldn't go with nuclear power because they said it wasn't safe. But they still want to plug things in."

West Virginia Gov. Bob Wise said the South can offer businesses low energy costs because it previously invested billions of dollars in its power systems. A proposal to spread other states' upgrade costs across the nation will harm that, he said.

"(Cheap power) is one of our main economic incentives," Wise said. "This threatens that, and it threatens to charge our consumers more."

Wise is chairman of both the SGA and the energy board, which elected him to another, one-year term Monday. He recounted his years in Congress, and said that body has difficulty reaching quick agreement on complex issues that involve rapidly evolving technology.

"I don't know that there is going to be a one-size fits all solution that's going to come out of the Congress," Wise said.

Huckabee agreed.

"Congress is very good at eight-track-tape solutions in a compact disc world," he said.

This year's SGA meeting is the first to be held in West Virginia's capital in the group's history. The SGA encompasses the Southeast as well as Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Founded in 1934, SGA is the oldest and historically the largest of the regional governors' associations.

Copyright © 2003, The Associated Press


Some Ventura residents hit by blackout

By From staff reports

September 27, 2003

A power outage in Ventura Friday left more than 100 people in the dark.

At 3:14 a.m. a residential area of north Ventura near Foothill Road lost power, Southern California Edison Region Manager Nancy Williams said.

It was a run of bad cable," Williams said of the cause. "It was just old."

A repair crew had to wait until daylight to begin working on the problem, which affected 127 residents.

Williams did not know when crews expected to have power restored.


September 12, 2003

Hacker Danger For Power Supply?

NEW YORK, Sept. 11, 2003

"I know enough about where the holes are. My team and I could shut down the grid."

Eric Byres,

British Columbia Institute of Technology

(AP) Since last month's blackout, utilities have accelerated plans to automate the electric grid, replacing aging monitoring systems with digital switches and other high-tech gear.

But those very improvements are making the electricity supply vulnerable to a different kind of peril: computer viruses and hackers who could black out substations, cities or entire states.

Researchers working for the U.S., Canadian and British governments have already sniffed out "back doors" in the digital relays and control room technology that increasingly direct electricity flow in North America.

With a few focused keystrokes, they say, they could shut the computer gear down — or change settings in ways that might trigger cascading blackouts.

"I know enough about where the holes are," said Eric Byres, a cybersecurity researcher for critical infrastructure at the British Columbia Institute of Technology in Vancouver. "My team and I could shut down the grid. Not the whole North American grid, but a state, sure."

Security experts have warned about the grid's growing vulnerabilities before, especially after U.S. National Security Agency hackers showed they could break into grid control networks in 1998.

Byres and other researchers say the holes exploited then have gone unpatched. With an expected spate of post-blackout upgrades, the computer-heavy grid will be even more vulnerable to terrorists and hackers, they say.

Computer viruses are another new worry.

The "Blaster" worm that flummoxed an estimated half-million computers around the world last month might have exacerbated utilities' problems during the August blackout, bringing down — or perhaps blocking communications — on computers used to monitor the grid, said Joe Weiss, a utility control system expert.

"It didn't cause what happened but it could've exacerbated what happened," said Weiss, with Kema Consulting in Cupertino, Calif., The blackout followed the Aug. 11 Blaster outbreak by just three days.

The Ohio utility that is the chief focus of the blackout investigation, FirstEnergy Corp., is investigating whether the Blaster worm might have caused computer trouble that was described on telephone transcripts as hampering its response to multiple power line failures.

"We haven't detected a worm or a virus but we're not ruling anything out," said FirstEnergy spokesman Ralph DiNicola. The bi-national task force investigating the country's biggest blackout is also looking into the issue, said U.S. Energy Department spokesman Joe Davis.

In January, the "Slammer" Internet worm took down monitoring computers at FirstEnergy's idled Davis-Besse nuclear plant near Toledo, Ohio. A subsequent report by the North American Electric Reliability Council said the infection blocked commands that operated other power utilities, although it caused no outages.

In the past, the grid's old electromechanical switches and analog technology made it more or less impervious to computer maladies, Weiss said.

But now, switches and monitoring gear can be upgraded and programmed remotely with software — and that requires a vulnerable connection to a computer network. If that network runs on Microsoft Corp. operating systems — which virus-writers favor — or connects to the Internet, the vulnerabilities are sharpened, say experts who test such gear for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Assurance and the Department of Homeland Security.

In one test, Byres found that a tiny piece of corrupted data could crash a crucial computerized control device that is installed in most grid substations.

Byres said he contacted the well-known manufacturer — whom he declined to name for security reasons — and urged that the weakness be fixed before hackers found it.

"I've been trying to get these guys to patch and they won't patch it," he said. "I've been on their case for over six months."

Other researchers have figured out how to hack into the device, known as a remote terminal unit, and command it to trip and reset a breaker.

That would incapacitate a substation, the electricity distribution points for towns and neighborhoods where high-voltage electricity is transformed for local use.

One feared hacking scenario involves changing the settings on substations' programmable circuit breakers. A hacker could lower settings from, say 500 amperes to 200 on some breakers, while raising others to 900, said Gary Seifert, a researcher with the Energy Department's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Normal power usage could trip the 200 amp breakers and take those lines out of service, diverting power and overloading neighboring lines.

With their breakers set at 900 amps — too high to trip — the overloads would cause transformers and other critical equipment to melt down, requiring major repairs that would prolong a blackout, Byres said.

"We have a plethora of intelligent electrical devices going into substations and power stations all over the United States," Seifert said. "What's to keep somebody from accessing those devices and changing the settings?"

Some of the most technically advanced relays, made by companies like Schweitzer Engineering, General Electric and Siemens, can be programmed over a telephone modem connection after typing a simple eight-digit password, Seifert said.

"Hackers have very little trouble cracking an eight-digit password," he said, and finding substation phone lines that connect to these relays can be done with so-called "war dialers," simple PC programs that dial consecutive phone numbers looking for modems.

Seifert said he and other researchers are asking manufacturers to take countermeasures, including programming their control devices to accept calls only from certain phone numbers, or simply disconnecting idle modems.

Like anyone dependent on networked computers for crucial operations, grid operators will be vulnerable to hackers, said Seifert.

"We're still going to have back doors no matter how hard we try," he said. "You can't keep them out but you hope to slow them down."

By Jim Krane

©MMIII The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.


Sep. 19, 2003. 01:00 AM

Blackout claims total $4.9 million

Today's storm could be costlier

It depends `where it hits,' insurers say



The August blackout that left millions of Ontarians without electricity resulted in just $4.9 million in insurance claims, but today's remnants of Hurricane Isabel could result in more damage, according to the Insurance Bureau of Canada.

"It depends on how the wind and rain comes in and where it hits,'' said Eve Patterson, Ontario regional manager for the insurance bureau. "We paid out less in the blackout than we would on a violent storm.''

The 1998 ice storm, for example, cost the industry $1.6 billion because property damage was greater and many people were forced out of their homes and into hotels. The insurance bureau had predicted blackout claims would be minimal.

Preliminary estimates from the massive power failure include $496,000 in claims for food spoilage in home freezers, just over $1 million in other claims from homeowners, about $3 million in commercial claims, such as for business interruption, and $207,000 in automobile damage claims resulting from fender-benders at intersections on roads with no traffic lights.

The Aug. 14 power failure affected more than 50 million people in Ontario and the northeastern United States.

"The home-freezer claims were interesting,'' Patterson said. "One person claimed $1,800 and it was all lobster tails. I think there might be an investigation on that one."

The smallest home-freezer claim was about $100, but so far there have been just 860 such claims — almost half the 2,029 total blackout-related claims.

"A lot of people just barbecued up whatever they had thawed.''

Today's potential danger is mainly from falling tree limbs, which can damage cars and buildings, plus flooding and objects that could become airborne in high winds.

"Some people are not going to be smart enough to put their lawn furniture away and we're going to have a lot of flying debris," Patterson said.

Homeowners should put away or batten down anything that can blow away, from lawn furniture to hanging planter pots, recycling boxes and metal garden-storage sheds, he said.


Friday, September 19, 2003. 9:45am (AEST)

Hurricane Isabel batters the US coast at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. (Getty)

Massive blackout in US as hurricane comes ashore

More than one million homes are without power as Hurricane Isabel batters the east coast of the United States.

The hurricane slowly started losing power after it came ashore from the Atlantic Ocean but it still generated winds of almost 150 kilometres an hour.

Torrential rain fell over a wide area.

Towns along the coast of North Carolina and Virginia coast were desolate and boarded after their residents fled inland yesterday.

President George W Bush declared parts of North Carolina to be in major disaster.

Airlines cancelled more than 2,000 flights and moved aircraft out of the path of the hurricane.

The eye of the storm is now moving towards the capital, Washington.

Ian Donald, who works in the Australian embassy in Washington, says the city has shut down with Isabel expected to strike in several hours.

"The main public transport system is called the metro which is an above and underground rail system, it feeds the whole metropolitan area, and I'm not sure why, but when the winds got to 40 miles an hour, they closed the above ground stations, and because they shut down the system, that means basically no public transport, and so the government shuts down their public offices," he said.

Flooding was immediately reported in parts of North Carolina and resident Fred Gentry said the hurricane tore down his house in the beach resort of Kitty Hawk, despite his wall of wood and sand bags to keep out the waves.

"I was pumping water out with my buddy Mike, but the front wall caved in," he said.

"We were in the hallway, I jumped in one bedroom, he jumped in another. It scared the hell out of us.

"The wall literally just split in half horizontally, it just caved in, taking the furniture with it. It just blew it up. It sounded like a bomb blowing off.

"Debris came down the hallway, slammed the back door, trapping us in," he said.

New York on guard

New York Governor George Pataki warned New Yorkers to take cover.

"While the storm may not be quite as intense as experts initially feared, heavy rains and high winds are still expected and I urge all New Yorkers to take necessary precautionary measures to help protect themselves and their families," Pataki warned.

Isabel is the first major storm to hit the East Coast since Hurricane Floyd in 1999 which left 56 dead and caused $US 4.5 billion in damage.

Hurricane Andrew in 1992 left $26.5 billion of damage and 41 deaths.


Sep. 19, 2003. 04:51 PM


Residents of Washington, D.C. woke up today to survey damage caused overnight by Hurricane Isabel. Downgraded to a tropical storm, Isabel passed through the Toronto area today and the weather was expected to improve by this evening.

Toronto Hydro crews taken off high alert



About 2,000 homes and businesses throughout the GTA remained without power late this afternoon as crews worked to restore disruptions caused by winds from now-Tropical Storm Isabel that gusted up to 76 km/h .

Karen Zeppa, spokesperson for Toronto Hydro, said that extra staff were asked to stay until 8 o'clock tonight to respond to customers who return home from work and find their power off.

But since the remnants of Hurricane Isabel have largely passed through the area, she said all power should be restored by the end of the day.

"Things have stabilized," Zeppa said. "We're not on high alert at this point."

At the worst point of the day, 12,000 customers throughout the GTA were without power and Toronto Hydro was getting an average of a call a minute. As of about 4 p.m., there were 35 crews out responding to problems caused by tree limbs and branches falling on power lines.

Many of the areas affected were in central Toronto, including Leslie and Lawrence, Leslie and Sheppard, Davenport and Ossington, Ossington and Dupont, and Bloor and Lansdowne. Also, pockets of West Hill and North York were still without power.

"We're expecting to be normal by the end of the day," Zeppa said. "We have 35 crews out there responding at this time. There are pockets all over the city."

Zeppa said the winds are still strong enough that there could still be downed lines at any time.

Meanwhile, rush-hour traffic on Highway 403 was expected to be clogged through the early evening hours after a fuel tanker hit a bridge abutment and jackknifed on Hwy. 403 east of the Aberdeen exit at Main St., killing the driver.

"The rig has jackknifed across the eastbound lanes," said Sgt. Cam Woolley of the OPP.

Woolley said the accident was under investigation and it isn't known if it was weather-related.

"There's a sharp curve there. It appears the truck lost control on the curve and hit an abutment," Woolley said.

Westbound drivers were stopping to look at the accident and it was causing delays for commuters out of Toronto, Woolley said.

The gale-force conditions (65 km/h to 100 km/h) didn't disrupt GO trains or many flights at Pearson International Airport.

Only a few outbound flights were cancelled by Air Canada today, most of those to the Washington-Baltimore area, that was hardest hit by what-was-then Hurricane Isabel.

By tomorrow, normal weather conditions will return.

"This will be a one-day wonder," said David Phillips, senior climatologist for Environment Canada.



(4/6/01 12:00 pm)

[FARM] PREPS - Just a Whole Lotta Info!!

Found this among my stored information. Can't give credit for it, because I no longer remember who/where I got it from, and there was nothing on the page to give me a clue. Just look at it as a mini refresher course. At any rate, here it is.......... (all links are active, I checked them before posting this)










Once a disaster hits, individuals won't have time to shop or search for supplies. But if they've gathered supplies in advance, they can endure an evacuation or home confinement.


When preparing a Disaster Supplies Kit, review the checklists provided.  Gather the supplies that are listed. The items may be needed if confined to home.  There are six (6) basics people should stock in their home: water, food, first aid supplies, clothing and bedding, tools and emergency supplies and special items.  Place the supplies most likely needed for evacuation in an easy to carry container. These supplies are listed with an asterisk (*). Possible containers include a large, covered trash container, a backpack or a duffel bag.


Keep food in a dry, cool spot---a dark area if possible.
Keep food covered at all times.
Open food boxes or cans carefully so they can be closed tightly after each use.
Wrap cookies and crackers in plastic bags and keep them in tight containers.
Empty opened packages of sugar, dried fruits and nuts in air-tight containers to protect them from pests.
Inspect all food for signs of spoilage before use.
Use foods before they go bad and replace them with fresh supplies, dated with ink or marker.
Place new items at the back of storage area and older ones in the front.


Store water in plastic containers such as soft drink bottles. Avoid using containers that will decompose or break, such as milk containers or glass bottles. Food-grade plastic containers are most suitable for storing water.

A normally active person needs to drink at least two (2) quarts of water each day. Hot environments and intense physical activity can double that amount. Children, nursing-mothers and ill people will need more.

Store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food. Select foods that require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking and little or no water. If food must be heated, pack a can of sterno. Select food items that are compact and lightweight.

Never use empty bleach containers to store water. Clearly mark containers "drinking water only" with the current date.


Dried beef Jerky
Vienna sausages
Corned beef hash
Ready to eat canned meats, fish, fruits and vegetables
White rice
Dry pasta
Baking powder
Sugar, salt, pepper
Dried spices
Instant coffee
Tea bags
Hot cocoa mix
Canned soups
Bouillon cubes
Soft drinks, fruit drinks, canned or boxed beverages (Note: Soft drinks with Nutrasweet don't keep in hot summer weather. They must be kept cool or they lose their sweetness. I wouldn't drink it after a period of hot weather if its left out in the heat)
Trail mix
Hard candy
Dried fruit
Fruit rolls
Canned fruit
Fruit drinks
Granola bars
Bottled water
Powdered milk
Vegetable oil
Peanut butter
Honey, jelly
Energy food bars
Meals ready to eat (MRE'S)
Food (elderly and special needs)

NOTE: If at all possible, have a garden growing during the growing season, so that if there is a power outage, you have an opportunity to eat fresh food from your own garden.


Canned formula
Powdered milk

Medications For Adults*

Prescription drugs
Denture needs
Extra eye glasses
Contact lenses and supplies
Heart and High blood pressure medication

Entertainment -- Games and books, crayons and paper or coloring books


(Keep these records in a waterproof container)

Birth certificates
Social security cards
Education records
Religious documents (baptisms, blessings, confirmation)
Marriage licenses
Credit card statements
Mortgage papers
Bank loans
Bank statements
Medical records
Dental records
Earnings and benefits estimates statements
Utility bills
Insurance policies


Food (canned or dry)
Chew toys


Individuals should assemble a first aid kit for their home and their vehicle.

Iodine wipes
Zinc oxide
Surgical blades
Saline solution
Insect repellent
Two (2) tongue blades (or you can get a whole pkg at a crafts store)
Butterfly sutures
Ammonia inhalants
Activated charcoal
Antibiotic ointment
Wet wipes
Burn gel (preparation H works wonders)
Latex gloves
Petroleum jelly
Alcohol pads
Triangular Bandages
Anti-diarrhea medication
Hypo-allergenic adhesive tape
Snake bite kit
Assorted sizes of safety pins
2-inch and 4-inch sterile gauze pads
Oil of Cloves (for dental pain)
Medicine dropper
Aspirin or non-aspirin pain reliever
Syrup of Ipecac
Sterile roller bandages
Various sized sterile adhesive bandages


Emergency preparedness manual*

Needles and thread
Mess kits, or paper cups*, plates and plastic utensils*
Non-electric can opener or utility knife*
Battery-operated radio and extra batteries, or a solar-powered radio*
Flash light and extra batteries*
Chemical light sticks
Cash or traveler's checks*
Map of area (for locating shelters)*
Fire extinguisher (small canister, ABC type)
Waterproof matches
Hand axe
Camp shovel
Fold-up saw
Pry bar
Dust masks
Roll of twine
Duct tape
Shut-off wrench, to turn off household gas and water
Tube tent
Cooking stove and fuel
Water purification tablets
Plastic storage containers
Siphon hose and pump
Plastic sheeting
Rope (100 feet, nylon) (can use parachute cord)
Razor blades
Pocket knife or survival knife
Signal flare
Metal mirror
Paper and pencils
Aluminum foil
Solar blanket
Electrical kit
Electrical tape
Fish hooks
Fish and snare line
Sanitation supplies
Soap and liquid detergent
Personal hygiene items
Feminine supplies
Toilet paper and towelettes
Household chlorine bleach
Plastic bucket with tight lid
Plastic garbage bag and ties for sanitation

NOTE: If you have an ill or elderly person in your family whose life depends on the electricity to be guaranteed 24 hours a day, be certain to have battery operated equipment or an electrical generator always ready for emergencies.


Check to see if neighbors have electricity. Perhaps the problem is a new fuse needed, or the circuit breaker may need to be reset. If there's a problem, contact the utility company. Turn off major appliances to avoid overload when the power is restored. Don't open the freezer or refrigerator doors. This will preserve what cold air is in there. Leave one light turned on to know when power is restored. Be alert for downed power lines. Don't go near them. Report them to the utility company.


If a storm warning is issued, or if there's lightening, disconnect sensitive electronic equipment such as computers, television sets, and videocassette recorders to avoid damage to them. Keep an emergency kit in a handy location stocked with flashlights,candles, matches, a portable battery operated radio and extra batteries. Have a supply of drinking water.


*Include at least one complete change of clothing and footwear for each person.
Rain gear*
Thermal underwear
Hat and gloves
Blankets or sleeping bags*
Emergency reflective blanket
Hand and body warm packs


Dress warmly. Eat high-energy food to generate body heat. Raisins, nuts or candy are a good start. Close off as many rooms as possible. Heat only one room, and center everyone's activity in that one room. Select a room on the warm side of the house away from prevailing winds if possible.

Keep doors and curtains closed. Use the fireplace if there is one. If not using it, be sure to close the flue. If heating with an open flame, be sure to ventilate properly. Cross ventilate by opening a window an inch on each side of the room. It's better to let in some cold air than to risk carbon monoxide poisoning.


Keep drapes drawn. Stay in the lowest part of the building, usually the basement. Conserve water. Stop watering lawns and gardens. If there isn't any water stored as part of the emergency kit, it's a good idea to store some water in a bathtub or other container. Keep access to the freeze and refrigerator at a minimum to preserve the cold air.

Edited by: Bandrui at: 4/8/01 7:23:21 pm

FROM: http://pub5.ezboard.com/fyourdonfrm64.showMessage?topicID=446.topic


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... down tent material around his feet which were in about 6" of water. ... There were other words relating to the subject of electricity and frequencies there


... both AM and FM radio on it with a portable battery for use when there is no electricity and a ... I told her that there was a problem with the water by someone else ...


... he touched the ends of my fingers, 1, 2, 3, 4, and the most incredible electricity went up ... All of a sudden, someone discovered a water leak in the laundry room ...


... By the time we crossed the valley, all the water had drained away and it was dry. ...  (Trying to save electricity for the California electric crisis. Grrrr! ). ...


... and that there was a channel for water though there was no water in it ... ahead of me became electrified and the whole building flashed with electricity and turned ...


... shoe top high and I kept running until I got to my house above the flooding water. ... I felt a jolt of electricity go from this point in my ribs to the right side ...




... Don't throw out the baby with the bath water." .. The other ones were all about electricity and circuits and how they ...


... I turned up the heat just a smidge and we discussed the overuse of electricity with a man ... There was a water tube in it that made the water change to clean