LEBANON MAPisrael lebanon map

2-21-12 - DREAM -  It seemed that I was running a school boarding house and I was the house mother or something.  A group of teenage boys came who all looked very similar - some might have been twins or triplets, etc.  They said they were sorry and regretted that they didn't know how to do anything - like cook for themselves.  Because of the color of their skin, I'm going to say they were Lebanese, like in the previous dream.  They turned in a small envelop[e with their phone numbers on.  They weren't all identical, but very similar and were government issued apparently.  I peeked into the envelope which contained stickers similar to license plate numbers and I saw 2 and 4 next to each other on the stickers, and I know there was 7 8  and 1 in the numbers, but can't remember the exact order of the numbers.

I received other mail at the same time, some also in large brown government issued envelopes.  I didn't get around to opening those yet.


It came to be later that these boys were the 'Sons of Lebanon" which is how I found the following:



Psalm 92:12 "The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree; he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon."

"Lebanon" means "the white one," probably referring to the snow-capped peaks of the Lebanon Mountains.

The Hittite word for cypress or juniper is close to the Hittite name for the Lebanon Mountains, so "Lebanon" could refer to the trees of Lebanon.

It is mentioned 71 in the Old Testament.

Lebanon is mentioned 9 times in the Bible as either part of the Promised Land or the northern boundary of the Promised Land.

Both Temples were built with the cedars of Lebanon (1 Kings 5:15-24; Ezra 3:7).

Solomon sent 30,000 workers to Lebanon, 10,000 per month, to obtain the cedar for the Temple (1 Kings 5:13-14)

The "House of the Forest of Lebanon" was a public hall built by Solomon entirely of the cedars of Lebanon (1 Kings 7:2-5).

In the Old Testament, the Targums, and the Qumran texts, Lebanon is symbolically associated with the Temple, probably because the cedars of Lebanon were used to build it.

First-century Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai, the last survivor of the Great Sanhedrin, reported that 40 years prior to the Temple's destruction in AD 70, the Temple doors opened by themselves. He related the incident to Zechariah 11:1-2, in which he saw Lebanon as a symbol of the Temple.

Lebanon is mentioned 7 times in the Song of Solomon. The beloved comes from Lebanon (4:8).

In Hebrew, Lebanon and lebonah (incense) have the same root. Thus, could the words of Song of Solomon 4:11 refer to the fragrance of the believer's (the bride's) prayer to the Lord?

The "cedars of Lebanon" is often used as a symbol of strength (Psalm 29:5).

Ancient Tyre had inhabitants on the mainland, but most lived on an island not far offshore, which proved to be very hard for its enemies to conquer. It wasn't totally destroyed until AD 1291.

Yeshua (Jesus) ministered in Tyre and Sidon in Lebanon (Matthew 15:21-28).

In Jeshua's (Jesus) day, Lebanon was called Phoenicia. Some early Christians moved there to flee persecution (Acts 11:19).

Ezekiel 26 prophesies that Tyre will one day be destroyed forever, never to rise again, when "I shall being up the deep over you and the great waters will cover you (V. 19).

Zechariah prophesies that one of the places that God will bring back the scattered children of Israel will be to Lebanon (10:6-10). Will, then, Lebanon one day be part of Israel?

From "Lebanon in the Holy Scriptures" by Cornelia B. Horn at www.mari.org/jms/january98


Lebanon is the historic home of the Phoenicians, Semitic traders whose maritime culture flourished there for more than 2,000 years (c.2700-450 B.C.). In later centuries, Lebanon's mountains were a refuge for Christians, and Crusaders established several strongholds there.

Between the period of 1200 B.C. and 900 B.C. there was no major military power in Mesopotamia. Therefor smaller states like Phoenicia and the Hebrew kingdom were able to prosper. These kingdoms especially the Phoenicians started to trade throughout the Mediterranean region.

History tells us that the Canaanites, a tribe of Semitic origin, were first to inhabit the Lebanese shores. Indeed their culture is said to form the basis of the Aramaean culture of both Syria and of Israelite Palestine. The Canaanites who traded with the Greeks became known by them as Phoenicians.

Lebanon started to be called such by name sometime in the third Millennium before Christ, when reference is made to the Pharoahs of Egypt importing cedar wood from the mountains of Lebanon.

The term Phoenicia, from the Greek Phoenix, means purple-red, and refers to the purple industry (the dye extracted from the mollusc shell-fish and used to colour cloth) of the early Lebanese.

The word Lebanon itself, is an ancient Semitic term meaning “White”, and the country was so called as the Lebanese mountain summits remain snow-decked for most of the year. Seeking trading partners, the Phoenicians sailed further away from the shores of Lebanon, confident in their legendary vessels crafted in solid cedar wood.

By the end of the second century BC, they had colonised most of the Mediteranean shore, establishing trading depots and spreading the Semitic culture. The greatest of these colonies is said to have been Carthage. From the Mediteranean, the Phoenicians moved westward, eventually discovering the Atlantic Ocean.

They rounded Africa, landed in England and Ireland and built many cities in Western Europe and on the Atlantic coast of Africa. But while the Phoenicians became legendary traders - their wares included works of art, textiles, delicate glassware, precious stones and perfume - their intellectual contribution to society guaranteed their place in history.

They gave the world the twenty-two "magic signs" called the alphabet, the first developed system of modern writing and numerical figures. They also taught mankind the art of stone building and glass manufacturing.

Phoenicia (foh-NEE-shee-ah)

Phoenicia is the Greek name for the country and people living on the coast of Syria, in ancient times at the east end of the Mediterranean Sea. It is believed that economic opportunity and population pressures forced them out into the seas. The Phoenicians colonized many areas along the Mediterranean Sea. Areas where their colonies have been found: Sardinia, Cyprus, and Carthage - the most important and lasting colony. By far they were superior to all peoples of that time in seamanship. Legend has it that an Egyptian pharoah hired a band of Phoenicians to map and circumnavigate the coast of Africa. They are best remembered for their contributions in the establishment to trade with the many peoples living along the Mediterranean Sea. The Greeks received their alphabet from them as late as the 10th century B.C. or as early as the 15th.

Archaeologists have uncovered homes of farmers and fishermen in Gebeil dating back to 7000 B.C. They found one-room huts with crushed limestone floors and stone idol of god El. Because of these discoveries, it is thought that Gebeil (later known as Byblos) may actually be the oldest city in the world.



As far as back as 3200 B.C., the people of Gebeil (Byblos) were cutting down cedar trees in the mountains of Lebanon, to be shipped to Egypt and Mesopotamia for use in building ships and making columns for houses. In return, the Phoenicians brought back gold, copper, and turquoise from the Nile Valley and Sinai. Canaanite ceramic pieces have been found in Egyptian tombs dating back to 2999 B.C. In 1954, archaeologists found Cheops (khufu) at Giza. Cheops lived around 2550 B.C. A barge that was discovered in Cheops tomb was made of Lebanese cedar wood, and faint scent of the cedar was still in the grain at the time of its discovery.



Sumerian cuneiforms (wedge shaped symbols in clay tablets) and Egyptian hieroglyphics (pictographs) were the only known forms of writing before the alphabet as we know it was developed. Both scripts, though separately created, used picture writing. Eventually, pictures or signs represented sounds. Finally, the pictures became so simplified that a whole word was written as a single sign. By about 1200 B.C., the Phoenicians had developed symbols which in time became a real alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet consisted of twenty-two symbols, all consonants. Each one represented its own sound. The Egyptian symbol for the oxhead was given the Semitic name aleph, and was sounded as "a." The symbol for house became beth, and was sounded as "b." It is easily see how the Phoenician alphabet was used to form the other alphabets which followed it. Aleph became the Greek alpha, beth became beta. In time, these letters became the Roman letters A and B and eventually the English A and B, and so on for the entire alphabet. Once a written language was established, it was inscribed on Egyptian papyrus, a type pf paper made of reeds. So, closely linked was papyrus with the city of Byblos, (which traded cedar for the paper) that when the writing of the Hebrew prophets were translated into Greek, the city's name was given to the great book - the Bible. Because the papyrus rotted away in the damp sea air and soil, there are practically no Phoenician writings left. Thus, the literature of the people who influenced the western world in her writing has largely vanished. Still, because Egyptian scribes copied the Phoenician letters after hieroglyphics were no longer used, and because artists in Ninevah inscribed them in stone, the alphabet remains with us.



For the next three centuries, independent Phoenicia reached its height as a nation whose prime interests were trade, the arts, and religion. Organized into individual city-states, each Phoenician city was under its own form of government. Each had its own god and its own ruler, whose usually remained in power for life. Gebeil (Byblos) was a strong religious city-state. Sidon and Tyre were cities of business, industry, and navigation. The city-states were all linked by their common ancestors, language, and writing. Their mutual interests were their trade arrangements, their customs, and their rituals and beliefs. Nevertheless, even though they were only a one or two day march from each other, they never were able to unite as a single power when they were attacked.



Tyre was the major region for thepurple dye industry, which probably began as early as the 18th century B.C. The dye was carefully extracted, a few drops at a time from the murex, a shell-fish found in the waters off of Tyre and Sidon. The process used to extract the fluid was so difficult and so expensive that only the rich could afford to buy the dyed fabric. It is because of this Phoenician fabric that we still use the expression "born in the purple" to mean one who is born rich.


The Mediterranean Sea allowed the Phoenicians to wander, to explore, and to discover. It was their link to a world that awaited their skill and their art. These fine merchants brought their dye, fabric, ceramics, glass, metals, wine, crops, and oil from port to port. They became the world's finest maritime nation. The Phoenicians were not only adventurous merchants but expert sailors and navigators as well. They colonized parts of Cyprus, Rhodes, and the Aegean Islands. Phoenician sailors journeyed east to the Black Sea and west to places such as Corinth, Thebes, Sardinia, Palermo, Marseille, Corsica, and Malta. They were known to have gone as far as Gibraltar and Cadiz in Spain. By about 1000 B.C., they had finally reached the Atlantic Ocean. The Greeks were influenced in their navigation by the Phoenicians, who taught them to sail by the North star. The Greeks have designs on their ships similar to those from Phoenician models.



The Legend

According to the Masonic legend, Hiram Abiff was a man of Tyre, the son of a widow, and the chief architect of the Temple built by King Solomon. He was the central character in the building of the Temple and one of three leading characters along with King Solomon and Hiram, King of Tyre.

Hiram Abiff, Masonry teaches, was the only one on Earth who knew "the secrets of a Master Mason," including the most important secret of all, the "Grand Masonic Word," the name of God (the "ineffable name"). In the Occult, knowing the name of a spirit is a key to having its power, there was a very great power in knowing this word.

Knowing the other "secrets of a Master Mason" would enable the masons/workmen working on the Temple project to go out on their own, working as Master Masons and earning Master Mason's wages."

Hiram Abiff had promised to reveal the "secrets of a Master Mason," including the name of God ("Grand Masonic Word"), upon completion of the Temple, and to make the workmen Master Masons, enabling them to go out on their own as masters (instead of "fellowcraft" Masons). One day Hiram went, as was his custom, into the unfinished Holy of Holies at noon ("High Twelve") to worship and to draw up the work plans (on his "trestleboard") for the workmen to follow the next day. The workmen were outside the Temple for their lunch break ("…the craft were called from labor to refreshment…").

As Hiram was leaving the Temple he was accosted by three men in succession, who demanded that they be given the secrets immediately (without waiting for the Temple to be completed). He was handled roughly by the first man (Jubela), but escaped. Accosted and handled roughly by the second man (Jubelo), he again refused to divulge the secrets and again escaped. The third man (Jubelum) then accosted him and, when Hiram again refused to divulge the secrets, the man killed him with a blow to the forehead with a setting maul.

The body was then concealed under some rubbish in the Temple until midnight ("low twelve") when it was taken out to the a hill and buried. The grave was marked by an Acacia branch, and the three men then tried to leave the country. They couldn't get passage on a ship so they retreated into the hills to hide.

King Solomon was notified that these 3 men were missing in addition to Hiram Abiff who was also missing. Two searches were conducted. The temple was searched (presumably at the King's request) and none of the men were found. At this point 12 "fellowcrafts" reported to the King that they and three others had conspired to extort the secrets of Hiram Abiff from him but they had repented and refused to go through with the plan. They informed the King of the three men that murdered Hiram Abiff and King Solomon then sent out a second search party to look everywhere they could and find the body of Hiram Abiff.

It is unclear at this point how the search party ended up at the proper grave, but apparently, the sea captain who refused to take the three men onboard had some information that could be used. In either case, the search party finally discovered the grave with the Acacia branch at the head. They dug up the body and sent word back to King Solomon. It is then stated that King Solomon sent an "Entered Apprentice" to attempt to dig up the body, but because the body had already begun to decompose, they could not raise it..

King Solomon reportedly then sent a Fellowcraft to attempt to raise the body. This too failed since the "Grip" of the Entered Apprentice and the "Grip" of the Fellowcraft were inadequate for the job. The story then continues that King Solomon himself went to the grave and raised the body up with the grip of a Master Mason, (the "Strong Grip of a Lion's Paw.)"

It is then stated that Hiram was not only brought up out of the grave, but restored to life.

The first word he spoke was the replacement for the "Grand Masonic Word" lost at his death and that word is the one passed down to Master Masons to this day.

Most Blue Lodge Masons believe that this story of Hiram Abiff is a factual, scriptural and historical account.

The Masonic leaders and writers of doctrine agree that it is not only a myth, unsupported by facts, but acknowledge that it is but a retelling of the story of Egyptian gods Isis and Osiris!

Why then, would people believe the story? Is this story actually recorded in scripture?

The Bible and Hiram Abiff

Is there anyone named Hiram Abiff ever recorded in the bible? NO, there is no such person despite the fact that King Solomon's name is used in the Masonic teaching.

The Scriptures do record two men named Hiram (1 Kings chapters 5, 7, 9 and 10) concerning the building of the Temple by King Solomon; one is Hiram, King of Tyre, who was supportive of Solomon and who provided materials and workmen for the project. The other Hiram, called "a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali," who was a worker in brass, not the architect of the entire Temple. He made the brass pillars, the brass lavers, shovels and basins.

The Scriptures record that this Hiram, the widows son, completed all the work that he had come to do on the Temple and then he then returned to his home in Tyre, safe and sound (there is no indication in the Bible of anything to the contrary).



Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the main temple in ancient Jerusalem, on the Temple Mount (also known as Mount Zion), before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE.

According to the Hebrew Bible, the temple was constructed under Solomon, king of the Israelites. This would date its construction to the 10th century BCE, although it is possible that an earlier Jebusite sanctuary had stood on the site. During the kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, the God of Israel and housed the Ark of the Covenant. Rabbinic sources state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE (3338 AM), 165 years later than secular estimates.

Because of the religious sensitivities involved, and the politically volatile situation in East Jerusalem, only limited archaeological surveys of the Temple Mount have been conducted. As no excavations have been allowed on the Temple Mount during modern times, there is no direct archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon's Temple, and no mentions of it, in the surviving contemporary extra-biblical literature. An Ivory pomegranate mentions priests in the house of YHWH, and an inscription recording the Temple's restoration under Jehoash have appeared on the antiquities market, but the authenticy of both have been challenged and they remain the subject of controversy.

The sole contemporary source of information on the First Temple is the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament). According to the biblical sources, the temple was constructed under king Solomon during Israel's period of united monarchy. This puts the date of its construction in the mid-10th century BCE.[1] Some scholars have speculated that a Jebusite sanctuary may have previously occupied the site.[2] During the kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, the God of Israel and housed the Ark of the Covenant.[3] Rabbinic sources state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE (3338 AM), 165 years later than secular estimates.[4]

The following is a summary of the history according to Book of Samuel and Book of Kings, with notes on the variations to this story in the later Book of Chronicles.

The Shekinah (dwelling place) of the God of Israel, was originally the portable shrine called the Ark of the Covenant, which was placed in the Tabernacle tent. King David, having unified all Israel, brought the Ark to his new capital, Jerusalem, intending to build there a temple in order to house the Ark in a permanent place. David purchased a threshing-floor for the site of the Temple (1 Chronicles 21–22), but then Yahweh told him that he would not be permitted to build a temple. The task of building therefore passed to David's son and successor, Solomon. 1 Kings 6:1–38, 1 Kings Chapter 7, and Chapter 8 describe the construction and dedication of the Temple under Solomon.

King Solomon requested the aid of King Hiram of Tyre to provide both the quality materials and skilled craftsmen. During the construction, a special inner room, named in Hebrew Kodesh Hakodashim (Holy of Holies), was prepared to receive and house the Ark of the Covenant (1 Kings 6:19); and when the Temple was dedicated, the Ark—containing the Tablets of Stone—was placed therein (1 Kings 8:6–9).

The exact location of the First Temple is unknown: it is believed to have been situated upon the hill which forms the site of the 1st century Second Temple and present-day Temple Mount, where the Dome of the Rock is situated. However, two other, slightly different sites have been proposed for this same hill: one places the stone altar at the location of the rock which is now beneath the gilded dome, with the rest of the temple to the west. The Well of Souls was, according to this theory, a pit for the remnants of the blood services of the korbanot. The other theory places the Holy of Holies atop this rock. Still another location has recently been proposed between the Dome of the Rock and the gilded dome, based on orientation to the eastern wall, drainage channels, orientation of the platform stones, and the location of a possible Boaz pillar base.[5]

2 Kings 12:4–16 describes arrangements for the refurbishment of the Temple in the time of king Jehoash of Judah in the 9th century BCE. According to 2 Kings 14:14 the Temple was looted by Jehoash of Israel in the early 8th century and again by King Ahaz in the late 8th century (2 Kings 16:8). Ahaz also installed some cultic innovations in the Temple which were abhorrent to the author of 1–2 Kings (2 Kings 16:10–18).

The Temple also figures in the account of King Hezekiah, who turned Judah away from idols;[6] when later in the same century Hezekiah is confronted with a siege by the Assyrian king Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:23, 19:1 and the Taylor prism), Hezekiah "instead of plundering the temple treasuries... now uses the temple the way it is designed to be used — as a house of prayer (2 Kings 19:1–14).[7]

Hezekiah's son, however, is much different from his father and during the reign of Manasseh of Judah in the early and middle seventh century (2 Kings 21:4–9), Manasseh makes innovations to the Temple cult. He has been described as a Solomon who also fell into idolatry, and Manasseh is described as a king who "makes" (2 Kings 21:3–7) or "builds" (2 Kings 21:3) high places (cf. 1 Kings 11:7) (see Deuteronomy 12 for the prohibition against high place worship), yet while Solomon's idolatry was punished by a divided kingdom, Manessah's idolatry was punished by exile.[8]

King Josiah, the grandson of Manasseh, refurbished and made changes to the Temple by removing idolatrous vessels and destroying the idolatrous priesthood c. 621 BCE (2 Kings 22:3–9; 23:11–12). He also suppressed worship at altars other than the Temple's.

The Temple was plundered by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar when the Babylonians attacked Jerusalem during the brief reign of Jehoiachin c. 598 (2 Kings 24:13), Josiah's grandson. A decade later, Nebuchadnezzar again besieged Jerusalem and after 30 months finally breached the city walls in 587 BCE, subsequently burning the Temple, along with most of the city (2 Kings 25). According to Jewish tradition, the Temple was destroyed on Tisha B'Av, the 9th day of Av (Hebrew calendar).

Nebuchadnezzar II (Listeni/nɛbjʉkədˈnɛzər/; Aramaic: ܢܵܒܘܼ ܟܘܼܕܘܼܪܝܼ ܐܘܼܨܘܼܪ ‎; Hebrew: נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר‎‎ Nəḇūḵaḏneṣṣar; Ancient Greek: Ναβουχοδονόσωρ Naboukhodonósôr; Arabic: نِبُوخَذنِصَّر nibūḫaḏniṣṣar; c 634 – 562 BC) was king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC – 562 BC. According to the Bible, he conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and sent the Jews into exile. He is credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and also known for the destruction of the First Temple. He is featured in the Book of Daniel and is also mentioned in several other books of the Bible. The Akkadian name, Nabû-kudurri-uṣur, means "Oh god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son". Nabu is the Babylonian deity of wisdom, and son of the god Marduk. In an inscription, Nebuchadnezzar styles himself as Nabu's "beloved" and "favourite".[2][3]

His name has previously been mistakenly interpreted as "O Nabu, defend my kudurru",[4] in which sense a kudurru is an inscribed stone deed of property. However, when contained in a ruler's title, kudurru approximates to "firstborn son" or "oldest son".[5] Variations of the Hebrew form include נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר and נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר (Nəḇuḵaḏreṣṣar). He is also known as Bakhat Nasar, which means "winner of the fate", or literally, "fate winner".[citation needed]

Nebuchadnezzar was the oldest son and successor of Nabopolassar, who delivered Babylon from its dependence on Assyria and laid Nineveh in ruins. According to Berossus, some years before he became king of Babylon, he married Amytis of Media, the daughter or granddaughter of Cyaxares the Great, king of the Medes, and thus the Median and Babylonian dynasties were united. There are conflicting accounts of Nitocris of Babylon either being his wife or daughter.

Nabopolassar was intent on annexing the western provinces of Syria from Necho II (who was still hoping to restore Assyrian power), and to this end dispatched his son westward with a large army. In the ensuing Battle of Carchemish in 605 BC, the Egyptian army was defeated and driven back, and Syria and Phoenicia were brought under the control of Babylon. Nabopolassar died in August that year, and Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon to ascend to the throne.

Nebuchadnezzar faces off against Zedekiah, the last king of Judah, who holds a plan of Jerusalem, in a Baroque era depiction in Zwiefalten Abbey, Germany.

After the defeat of the Cimmerians/a> and Scythians, all of Nebuchadnezzar's expeditions were directed westwards, although the powerful Median empire lay to the north. Nebuchadnezzar's political marriage to Amytis of Media, the daughter of the Median king, had ensured peace

Nebuchadnezzar engaged in several military campaigns designed to increase Babylonian influence in Syria and Judah. An attempted invasion of Egypt in 601 BC was met with setbacks, however, leading to numerous rebellions among the states of the Levant, including Judah. Nebuchadnezzar soon dealt with these rebellions, capturing Jerusalem in 597 BC and deposing King Jehoiakim, then in 587 BC due to rebellion, destroying both the city and the temple, and deporting many of the prominent citizens along with a sizable portion of the Jewish population of Judea to Babylon.[6] These events are described in the Prophets (Nevi'im) and Writings (Ketuvim), sections of the Hebrew Bible (in the books 2 Kings and Jeremiah, and 2 Chronicles, respectively). After the destruction of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar engaged in a thirteen year siege of Tyre (585–572 BC), which ended in a compromise, with the Tyrians accepting Babylonian authority.

Following the pacification of Tyre, Nebuchadnezzar turned again to Egypt. A clay tablet,[7] now in the British Museum, states: "In the 37th year of Nebuchadnezzar, king of the country of Babylon, he went to Mitzraim (Egypt) to wage war. Amasis, king of Egypt, collected [his army], and marched and spread abroad." Having completed the subjugation of Phoenicia, and a campaign against Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar set himself to rebuild and adorn the city of Babylon, and constructed canals, aqueducts, temples and reservoirs.

According to Babylonian tradition, towards the end of his life, Nebuchadnezzar prophesied the impending ruin of the Chaldean Empire (Berossus and Abydenus in Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, 9.41). He died in Babylon between the second and sixth months of the forty-third year of his reign, and was succeeded by Amel-Marduk.


Saddam's Babylonian Palace

Saddam Hussein's Palace in Babylon

From the ancient palace of Nebuchadnezzar to a lavish new palace for himself, Saddam Hussein used architecture to awe and intimidate.

When Saddam Hussein rose to power in Iraq, he conceived a grandiose scheme to rebuild the ancient City of Babylon. Saddam Hussein said that Babylon's great palaces and the legendary hanging gardens of Babylon (one of the seven wonders of the ancient world) would rise from dust. Like the powerful King Nebuchadnezzar II who conquered Jerusalem 2,500 years ago, Saddam Hussein would rule over the world's greatest empire. The vaulting ambition of Saddam Hussein found expression in vaulting, and often pretentious, architecture.

Nebuchadnezzar's Palace

In 1982, Saddam's workers began reconstructing Babylon's most imposing building, the 600-room palace of King Nebuchadnezzar II. Archaeologists were horrified. Many said that to rebuild on top of ancient artifacts does not preserve history, but disfigures it. The original bricks, which rise two or three feet from the ground, bear ancient inscriptions praising Nebuchadnezzar. Above these, Saddam Hussein's workers laid more than 60-million sand-colored bricks inscribed with the words, "In the era of Saddam Hussein, protector of Iraq, who rebuilt civilization and rebuilt Babylon." The new bricks began to crack after only 10 years.

Saddam's Palace

Adjacent to Nebuchadnezzar's ancient palace and overlooking the Euphrates River, Saddam Hussein built a new palace for himself. Shaped like a ziggurat (stepped pyramid), Saddam's Babylonian palace is a monstrous hill-top fortress surrounded by miniature palm trees and rose gardens. The four-storey palace extends across an area as large as five football fields. Villagers told news media that a thousand people were evacuated to make way for this emblem of Saddam Hussein's power.

The palace Saddam built was not merely large, it was also ostentatious. Containing several hundred thousand square feet of marble, it became a showy confection of angular towers, arched gates, vaulting ceilings, and majestic stairways. Critics charged that Saddam Hussein's lavish new palace expressed exuberant excess in land where many died in poverty.

On the ceilings and walls of Saddam's palace, 360-degree murals depicted scenes from ancient Babylon, Ur, and the Tower of Babel. In the cathedral-like entryway, an enormous chandelier hung from a wooden canopy carved to resemble a palm tree. In the bathrooms, the plumbing fixtures appeared to be gold-plated. Throughout Saddam Hussein's palace, pediments were engraved with the ruler's initials, "SdH."

The role of Saddam Hussein's Babylonian palace was more symbolic than functional. When American troops entered Babylon in April, 2003, they found little evidence that the palace had been occupied or used. Saddam's fall from power brought vandals and looters. The smoked glass windows were shattered, the furnishings removed, and architectural details - from faucets to light switches - had been stripped away.

During the war, Western troops pitched tents in the vast empty rooms at Saddam Hussein's Babylonian palace. For one soldier's view of Babylon, visit our Iraq Photo Gallery.

King Nebuchadnezzar is best known to students of the Bible for his defeat of the southern kingdom of Judah (the northern kingdom of Israel was by then long gone, having been conquered and deported over a century earlier by the Assyrians - see Ancient Empires - Assyria). By 586 B.C., the Babylonian forces conquered the land, devastated Jerusalem, looted and burned the original Temple that had been built by Solomon (see Temples and Temple Mount Treasures), and took the people away into what became known as the "Babylonian Exile." (2Kings 25:1-17)."*

Can it be that Saddam Hussein actually believes he is the reincarnation of one of History's great conquerors?
The Rise of Babylon,
by Charles H. Dyer with Angela Elwell Hunt

…Dyer points out Saddam Hussein's own plans to emulate King Nebuchadnezzar as evidenced in a commemorative medal he had cast with the ancient king's profile and his own side by side. In addition to the hanging gardens of Babylon and the unification of the surrounding nations, King Nebuchadnezzar is perhaps most noted for the sacking of Jerusalem and the captivity of the Jewish people.

The author reveals how Hussein's followers already recognize him as today's equivalent of that ancient king:

The tour guide at a reconstructed palace in Babylon described with enthusiasm the restored monument of the ancient city...she got to the throne room and pointed to the empty platform. "This is where the Saddam Hussein had his throne. This is where Saddam Hussein sat," she said, voice rising in pride.

The short, stout woman looked around at the quizzical faces, then caught herself with a nervous laugh. "I mean Nebuchadnezzar... Nebuchadnezzar had his throne here."

Saddam Hussein: The Last Great Tyrant
By Robert Fisk Independent December 30, 2000

In Baghdad, the palace lawns are better tended, but the same sense of spent taste and vulgarity pervades the president's imagery. Saddam on horseback, in Kurdish clothes, embracing babies and war heroes, riding on a charger in medieval armour to confront the Persians at the Battle of Qaddasiyeh, dressed as Nebuchadnezzar, he who conquered Syria and Palestine, sacked Ashkelon and subdued all the tribes of the Arabs. Like the king of Babylonia, Saddam decided to rebuild Babylon; and so the ancient city was ripped apart and reconstructed, Disney-style, in the image of the great man.

FInspired by his uncle's tales of heroism in the service of the Arab nation, Saddam has been consumed by dreams of glory since his earliest days. He identifies himself with Nebuchadnezzar, the King of Babylonia who conquered Jerusalem (586 B.C.) and Saladin who regained Jerusalem in 1187 by defeating the Crusaders….

Iraq–Lebanon relations

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Iraqi-Lebanese relations

Iraqi-Lebanese relations have been close throughout history, both politically and culturally. Iraq and Lebanon have maintained diplomatic relations since 1943. Both countries have refused to recognize Israel and have supported the Palestinians.

During the regime of Saddam Hussein, the leader of the Ba'ath Party had strong relations with Bachir, and Amine Gemayel; relations grew even stronger when Iraqi officials verbally lashed out against Israel's actions in the 2006 War.

Lebanon's prime minister traveled to Baghdad on August 2008, which was the only third such visit by a top Arab leader since the U.S.-led invasion in 2003. Fuad Saniora called his one-day trip an opportunity to renew contact after more than a decade of chilly relations between Beirut and Baghdad. At a news conference alongside Saniora, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki said the two countries would sign several agreements soon, including one on Iraq exporting oil to Lebanon. [1]

Lebanon's parliamentary majority leader, Saad Hariri (also, of partial Iraqi origin), visited Iraq in July 2008, followed by Jordan's King Abdullah II, the first Arab head of state to fly to Baghdad since the 2003 war.[2]

Some figures in Lebanon's powerful Shiite militia Hezbollah have close personal ties with the religious hierarchy in Najaf, and some Lebanese Shiites trace their family origins back to Iraq. Relations between Lebanon and Iraq soured in the mid-1990s after Iraqi agents killed a dissident in Beirut. But the two maintained embassies in each other's capitals even after the 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. [3]

New evidence: Saddam's WMD in Lebanon

Weapons transferred to Syria before war, then to Bekaa Valley

Editor’s note: WorldNetDaily brings readers exclusive, up-to-the-minute global intelligence news and analysis from Geostrategy-Direct, a new online newsletter edited by veteran journalist Robert Morton and featuring the “Backgrounder” column compiled by Bill Gertz. Geostrategy-Direct is a subscription-based service produced by the publishers of WorldTribune.com, a free news service frequently linked by the editors of WorldNetDaily.

Over the last few months, the U.S. intelligence community has received new evidence a sizable amount of Iraqi WMD systems, components and platforms were transferred to Syria in the weeks leading up to the U.S.-led war in Iraq, reports Geostrategy-Direct, the global intelligence news service.

But chances are the Bush administration won’t be releasing this information for a while.

The convoys were spotted by U.S. satellites in early 2003, but the contents of the WMD convoys from Iraq to Syria were not confirmed.

Confirmation later came from Iraqi scientists and technicians questioned by a U.S. team that was searching for Saddam’s conventional weapons. But all they knew was the convoys were heading west to Syria.

But over the last few months, U.S. intelligence managed to track the Iraqi WMD convoy to Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley.

Through the use of satellites, electronic monitoring and human intelligence, the intelligence community has determined that much, if not all, of Iraq’s biological and chemical weapons assets are being protected by Syria, with Iranian help, in the Bekaa Valley.

The Syrians received word from Saddam Hussein in late 2002 that the Iraqi WMD would be arriving and Syrian army engineering units began digging huge trenches in the Bekaa Valley.

Saddam paid more than $30 million in cash for Syria to build the pits, acquire the Iraqi WMD and conceal them.

At first, U.S. intelligence thought Iraqi WMD was stored in northern Syria. But in February 2003 a Syrian defector told U.S. intelligence the WMD was buried in or around three Syrian Air Force installations.

But intelligence sources said the Syrians kept dual-use nuclear components for themselves while transferring the more incriminating material to Lebanon.

  • Saddam married his first wife and cousin Sajida Talfah (or Tulfah/Tilfah)[95] in 1958[96] in an arranged marriage. Sajida is the daughter of Khairallah Talfah, Saddam's uncle and mentor. Their marriage was arranged for Hussein at age five when Sajida was seven. They were married in Egypt during his exile. The couple had five children.[95]
  • Uday Hussein (18 June 1964 – 22 July 2003), was Saddam's oldest son, who ran the Iraqi Football Association, Fedayeen Saddam, and several media corporations in Iraq including Iraqi TV and the newspaper Babel. Uday, while originally Saddam's favorite son and raised to succeed him he eventually fell out of favour with his father due to his erratic behavior; he was responsible for many car crashes and rapes around Baghdad, constant feuds with other members of his family, and killing his father's favorite valet and food taster Kamel Hana Gegeo at a party in Egypt honoring Egyptian first lady Suzanne Mubarak. He became well known in the west for his involvement in looting Kuwait during the Gulf War, allegedly taking millions of dollars worth of Gold, cars, and medical supplies (which was in short supply at the time) for himself and close supporters. He was widely known for his paranoia and his obsession with torturing people who disappointed him in any way, which included tardy girlfriends, friends who disagreed with him and, most notoriously, Iraqi athletes who performed poorly. He was briefly married to Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri's daughter, but later divorced her. The couple had no children.
  • Qusay Hussein (17 May 1966 – 22 July 2003), was Saddam's second — and, after the mid-1990s, his favorite — son. Qusay was believed to have been Saddam's later intended successor, as he was less erratic than his older brother and kept a low profile. He was second in command of the military (behind his father) and ran the elite Iraqi Republican Guard and the SSO. He was believed to have ordered the army to kill thousands of rebelling Marsh Arabs and was instrumental in suppressing Shi'ite rebellions in the mid-1990s. He was married once and had three children.
  • Raghad Hussein (born 2 September 1968) is Saddam's oldest daughter. After the war, Raghad fled to Amman, Jordan where she received sanctuary from the royal family. She is currently wanted by the Iraqi Government for allegedly financing and supporting the insurgency and the now banned Iraqi Ba'ath Party.[97][98] The Jordanian royal family refused to hand her over.
  • Rana Hussein (born c. 1969), is Saddam's second daughter. She, like her sister, fled to Jordan and has stood up for her father's rights. She was married to Saddam Kamel and has had four children from this marriage.
  • Hala Hussein (born c. 1972), is Saddam's third and youngest daughter. Very little information is known about her. Her father arranged for her to marry General Kamal Mustafa Abdallah Sultan al-Tikriti in 1998. She fled with her children and sisters to Jordan.
  • Saddam married his second wife, Samira Shahbandar,[95] in 1986. She was originally the wife of an Iraqi Airways executive, but later became the mistress of Saddam. Eventually, Saddam forced Samira's husband to divorce her so he could marry her.[95] There have been no political issues from this marriage. After the war, Samira fled to Beirut, Lebanon. She is believed to have mothered Hussein's sixth child.[95] Members of Hussein's family have denied this.
  • Saddam had allegedly married a third wife, Nidal al-Hamdani, the general manager of the Solar Energy Research Center in the Council of Scientific Research.[99]
  • Wafa el-Mullah al-Howeish is rumoured to have married Saddam as his fourth wife in 2002. There is no firm evidence for this marriage. Wafa is the daughter of Abdul Tawab el-Mullah Howeish, a former minister of military industry in Iraq and Saddam's last deputy Prime Minister.

In August 1995, Raghad and her husband Hussein Kamel al-Majid and Rana and her husband, Saddam Kamel al-Majid, defected to Jordan, taking their children with them. They returned to Iraq when they received assurances that Saddam would pardon them. Within three days of their return in February 1996, both of the Kamel brothers were attacked and killed in a gunfight with other clan members who considered them traitors.

In August 2003, Saddam's daughters Raghad and Rana received sanctuary in Amman, Jordan, where they are currently staying with their nine children. That month, they spoke with CNN and the Arab satellite station Al-Arabiya in Amman. When asked about her father, Raghad told CNN, "He was a very good father, loving, has a big heart." Asked if she wanted to give a message to her father, she said: "I love you and I miss you." Her sister Rana also remarked, "He had so many feelings and he was very tender with all of us."[100]

List of government and party positions held

Saddam's wife in gold ... and exile
By Marie Colvin of The Sunday Times
December 15, 2003

SAMIRA Shahbandar, Saddam Hussein's wife, gave the following interview to The Sunday Times before the ousted Iraqi leader was captured.

THE fashionable blonde sat alone at a table in the back of a restaurant north of Beirut in Lebanon. She had hazel eyes and wore a classically tailored trouser suit, gold earrings and a striking gold necklace. There could be no mistaking the attraction of Samira Shahbandar. Striking though she is, in Lebanon she is little-known. But in Iraq she is a legend.

Samira is the woman who so fascinated Saddam Hussein, reviled as one of the world's most evil dictators, that he kidnapped her husband, forced a divorce and persuaded her to marry him.

When Hussein and his regime fell, she fled abroad, with $US5 million ($6.74 million) in cash, a box of gold bars and a false passport, and has since been living quietly under an assumed name. She was reported to have gone to Russia, but The Sunday Times traced her, through a nephew who remained in Baghdad, to Beirut.

She agreed to talk to an intermediary, and spoke about her life with Saddam. It is a relationship that amazingly continues, even as he is in hiding, pursued by coalition forces. They are, she says, in regular contact.

She recalls how when the war came, Hussein was optimistic. ``We were prepared for the war,'' Samira recalled. ``Saddam thought we would win. He believed we were prepared.''

As coalition forces raced into the country, the dictator organised a series of safe houses for Samira. She was taken to various homes in Baghdad and north of the capital. The first was in Mansour, a wealthy Baghdad neighbourhood, where she stayed with an elderly couple who were friends of her mother. She stayed there a week.

After that, she and their teenaged son Ali went to Diyala, near Baquba, where they had to endure the 49C heat in a house without airconditioning. She remembers listening to the increasingly ``bad news'' about the progress of the Americans.

She moved several times, always taken by Hussein's bodyguards, who would show up without warning. In the third week of the war, they moved her back to Mansour and Hussein came to see her.

She told him that she had heard from the radio that things were not good. ``Saddam said, `It's all bull. We have a plan to trap them in Baghdad','' she recalled.

But as the Americans surged into the centre of the capital, Hussein crumbled. ``He came to me very depressed and sad,'' she said. ``He took me to the next room and cried. He knew he had been betrayed.

``He told me not to be afraid. He kissed Ali and said the same, `Don't be afraid'.'' It was the last day he appeared in public in the city.

Eventually, his former bodyguards came with an old pick-up truck and drove her and her daughters towards the Syrian border. Ali followed behind in a taxi.

They stopped in the desert. All she remembers is a small restaurant and a tiny mosque. That is where she saw Hussein for the last time.

He drove up in an ordinary car, disguised as a Bedouin tribesman. It was 12 days after his statue had been pulled down in Baghdad. She did not recognise him at first, then ran to him.

``He said, `Don't ask me how I will be. I want you to be safe'.'' He gave her a briefcase with $US5 million in cash.

One of the men with him put a heavy box in her car, and Hussein told her: ``This one you can use when you are really in need.''

He held her hand, she said, and put it on his heart, and told her everything would be all right.

Samira said she cried all the way to Damascus, where she stayed for eight days before travelling on to Lebanon. When she opened the heavy box, she found that it contained 10kg of gold bars to supplement her fortune. At the border between Lebanon and Syria she was given a Lebanese passport that listed her first name as ``Hadija''. The passport of Hussein's son, Ali, now gives his name as ``Hassan''.

Two decades ago, when they met, Hussein was a peasant boy from Tikrit, in northern Iraq, who had muscled his way to power and married, as is the Arab tradition, his first cousin, Sajida. She bore him five children. Samira was the child of an aristocratic Baghdad family.

She had married an Iraqi pilot and had a son and daughter; but the marriage was not a happy one by the time Hussein's eye fell on her.

Hussein went on a school picnic for his youngest daughter, encountered Samira, and was captivated by her beauty.

``He came to my house two weeks after my husband had travelled abroad,'' she said. ``This was the most powerful man in Iraq and he was holding a bouquet of flowers and chocolates. He was unable to speak. When I saw that, I thought to myself, `this is a man that really loves me'.''

Her father considered Hussein's family unworthy of his daughter. Nevertheless, Samira became his mistress.

Hussein kidnapped her husband, held him for several days and made clear he wanted the man's wife. The husband's agreement to step aside was not without benefits. He was made head of Iraqi Airways.

After they married, she became a gypsy, moving from house to house with him.

``He was a good husband,'' she said, although she was well aware of the dangers of crossing him. ``I'm not afraid of dying, if it is my time to die. I did know that if I said no to Saddam, he might kill me.''

In the early 1980s, she gave birth to a boy, Ali, who is now Hussein's only surviving son. He too is living under an assumed name in Beirut. Hussein's marriage to, and affection for, Samira enraged one of his sons by Sajida. Uday, his eldest son, blamed a valet for helping the relationship flourish between Hussein and Samira.

Qusay, Hussein's other son and his heir apparent, was more restrained. Samira's son by Hussein was never publicly acknowledged, and Hussein's other family hated him.

Not that everything was smooth for the second wife of the tyrant. ``He loved the army. The army meant more to him than anything in his life,'' Samira said. ``He thought that his family should be the first to go into the army. One of the only times he would not listen to me is when I tried to get my relatives out. He did not accept.''

Her son by her former husband went abroad and did not wish to return for military service. Hussein ordered him to be banished for good. ``It was the worst day of my life: my husband told me I could not speak to or see my son again.''

Despite the obvious horrors of Iraq under Hussein, Samira makes few apologies for him. For all her sophistication, she seems not to know how desperate the condition of the ordinary Iraqis was.

``He made mistakes, and we argued,'' she said. ``But he told me that early on he realised the Iraqi people are such that if you give them an apple they will demand a basket of fruit.''

They had to be treated toughly, she seems to say. Yet she sees no contradiction in also boasting that Hussein ``loved to buy me gold jewellery''. Hussein and his regime were notorious for lavish palaces and extravagant lifestyles.

Sajida and her three daughters by Hussein are thought to have escaped to Syria only to be later sent back to Iraq. They are now thought to be being sheltered by tribal leaders in northern areas of the country.

Hussein's two older sons by Sajida, Uday and Qusay, were killed last July by US forces who surrounded a house where they had taken refuge in Mosul. And the hunt for Hussein, who has a $US25 million reward on his head, remains intense.

Samira claims, however, that she is in regular contact with him. ``If he cannot say something in detail on the telephone, I know I will receive a letter in two to three days giving me an explanation,'' she said.

She does not think he will ever be tried by the new international war crimes tribunal, announced last week for Iraq.

``If I know my husband, he will not be captured,'' she said.

The Sunday Times

[Jan 6, 2007] BEIRUT, Lebanon, Jan. 5 — In the week since Saddam Hussein was hanged in an execution steeped in sectarian overtones, his public image in the Arab world ...
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... to Parliament during the 1993 and 1997 elections on a pro-Iraqi and pro- Saddam Hussein ... Hizb Al-Taliyeh Lubnan Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki ‎) is the party cell in Lebanon.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ba%27ath_Party_(Iraqi-led_faction) - Cached


Saddam Hussein's second wife Samira Shahbandar is currently living in Beirut with her children ... Netanyahu: Tyranny Imposed Hizbullah's Medieval Rule on Lebanon: Bahraini ...
Saddam's Second Wife Samira Shahbandar In Beirut

Saddam Hussein's second wife Samira Shahbandar is currently living in Beirut with her children and grandchildren from her first husband before Saddam, Time Magazine said on Monday, citing an unnamed former secretary of the deposed Iraqi leader as the source of its report.
A Saddam valet also denied recently published reports that Saddam had a son from Samira named Ali in addition to his two sons from his first wife Sajida, Odai and Qusai, who were killed by U.S. troops in Mosul last week.

The unnamed valet was quoted as saying Saddam's marriage contract with Samira stipulates that she would not have children from him although she maintained strong bonds with Saddam and had his ear, Time and the London-based Asharq Al Awsat said.

Sajida and her two daughters Raghad and Rana, and their seven children currently live in the sanctuary of a prominent tribal chieftain in Mosul, where Odai and Qusai perished in an air-supported assault by U.S. soldiers on the villa of another tribal chief last Tuesday.

Time quoted a U.S. military official in Baghdad as saying the United States was not interested in any of Saddam's wives or his daughters because the U.S. has no reason to believe that they know anything about his current whereabouts. "If they come here, I will serve them tea," the official was quoted as saying.

Beirut, Updated 30 Jul 03, 11:56











Lebanon is a parliamentary democratic republic within the overall framework of confessionalism, a form of consociationalism in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities. The constitution grants the people the right to change their government. However, from the mid-1970s until the parliamentary elections in 1992, civil war precluded the exercise of political rights. According to the constitution, direct elections must be held for the parliament every 4 years. The last parliamentary election was in 2009.[1] The Parliament, in turn, elects a President every 6 years to a single term. The President is not eligible for re-election. The last presidential election was in 2008. The president and parliament choose the Prime Minister. Political parties may be formed; most are based on sectarian interests. Syria was charged by Arab League with disentangling the combatants and restoring calm from the time of the second Lebanese civil war (which began in 1975) until 2005 when the Lebanese revolted against the Syrian presence and caused the withdrawal of Syrian troops with the support of the International community. Israel occupied parts of Lebanon in 1978 then withdrew from all Lebanese territories in 2000 although they still occupy Shebaa Farms, an area disputed between Syria, Israel and Lebanon. 2008 saw a new twist to Lebanese politics when the Doha Agreement set a new trend where the opposition is allowed a veto power in the Lebanese Council of Ministers and confirmed religious Confessionalism in the distribution of political power.

Since the emergence of the post-1943 state and after the destruction of the Ottoman Caliphate, national policy has been determined largely by a relatively restricted group of traditional regional and sectarian leaders. The 1943 National Pact, an unwritten agreement that established the political foundations of modern Lebanon, allocated political power on an essentially confessional system based on the 1932 census. Seats in parliament were divided on a 6-to-5 ratio of Christians to Muslims, until 1990 when the ratio changed to half and half. Positions in the government bureaucracy are allocated on a similar basis. The pact also by custom allocated public offices along religious lines, with the top three positions in the ruling "troika" distributed as follows:

Efforts to alter or abolish the confessional system of allocating power have been at the centre of Lebanese politics for decades. Those religious groups most favoured by the 1943 formula sought to preserve it, while those who saw themselves at a disadvantage sought either to revise it after updating key demographic data or to abolish it entirely. Nonetheless, many of the provisions of the national pact were codified in the 1989 Ta'if Agreement, perpetuating sectarianism as a key element of Lebanese political life.

Although moderated somewhat under Ta'if, the Constitution gives the President a strong and influential position. The President has the authority to promulgate laws passed by the Parliament, to issue supplementary regulations to ensure the execution of laws, and to negotiate and ratify treaties.

The Parliament is elected by adult suffrage (majority age for election is 21)[2] based on a system of proportional representation for the various confessional groups. Most deputies do not represent political parties as they are known in the West, and rarely form Western-style groups in the assembly. Political blocs are usually based on confessional and local interests or on personal/family allegiance rather than on political affinities.

The parliament traditionally has played a significant role in financial affairs, since it has the responsibility for levying taxes and passing the budget. It also exercises political control over the cabinet through formal questioning of ministers on policy issues and by requesting a confidence debate.

Lebanon's judicial system is based on the Napoleonic Code. Juries are not used in trials. The Lebanese court system has three levels—courts of first instance, courts of appeal, and the court of cassation. There also is a system of religious courts having jurisdiction over personal status matters within their own communities, e.g., rules on such matters as marriage, divorce, and inheritance.

Lebanese political institutions often play a secondary role to highly confessionalized personality-based politics. Powerful families also still play an independent role in mobilizing votes for both local and parliamentary elections. Nonetheless, a lively panoply of domestic political parties, some even predating independence, exists. The largest are all confessional based. The Free Patriotic Movement, although secular, mostly represents the Christians, according to the last elections in 2005. The Kataeb Party, also known as the Phalange Party, the National Bloc, National Liberal Party, Lebanese Forces and the Guardians of the Cedars (now outlawed) have their own base among Christians. Amal and Hezbollah are the main rivals for the organized Shi'a vote, and the PSP (Progressive Socialist Party) is the leading Druze party. While Shi'a and Druze parties command fierce loyalty to their leaderships, there is more factional infighting among many of the Christian parties. Sunni parties have not been the standard vehicle for launching political candidates, and tend to focus across Lebanon's borders on issues that are important to the community at large. Lebanon's Sunni parties include Hizb ut-Tahrir, Future Movement, Independent Nasserist Organization (INO), the Tawhid (Lebanon), and Ahbash. In addition to domestic parties, there are branches of pan-Arab secular parties (Ba'ath parties, socialist and communist parties) that were active in the 1960s and throughout the period of civil war.

There are differences both between and among Muslim and Christian parties regarding the role of religion in state affairs. There is a very high degree of political activism among religious leaders across the sectarian spectrum. The interplay for position and power among the religious, political, and party leaders and groups produces a political tapestry of extraordinary complexity.

In the past, the system worked to produce a viable democracy. Events over the last decade and long-term demographic trends, however, have upset the delicate Muslim-Christian-Druze balance and resulted in greater segregation across the social spectrum. Whether in political parties, places of residence, schools, media outlets, even workplaces, there is a lack of regular interaction across sectarian lines to facilitate the exchange of views and promote understanding. All factions have called for a reform of the political system.

Some Christians favor political and administrative decentralization of the government, with separate Muslim and Christian sectors operating within the framework of a confederation. Muslims, for the most part, prefer a unified, central government with an enhanced share of power commensurate with their larger share of the population. The reforms of the Ta'if agreement moved in this direction but have not been fully realized.

Palestinian refugees, predominantly Sunni Muslims, whose numbers are estimated at between 160,000-225,000, are not active on the domestic political scene. Nonetheless, they constitute an important minority whose naturalization/ settlement in Lebanon is vigorously opposed by most Lebanese, who see them as a threat to Lebanon's delicate confessional balance.[citation needed]

On September 3, 2004, the Lebanese Parliament voted 96-29 to amend the constitution to extend President Émile Lahoud's six-year term (which was about to expire) by another three years. The move was supported by Syria, which maintained a large military presence in Lebanon.

Following the withdrawal of Syrian troops in April 2005, Lebanon held parliamentary elections in four rounds, from 29 May to 19 June. The elections, the first for 33 years without the presence of Syrian military forces, were won by the Quadripartite alliance, which was part the Rafik Hariri Martyr List, a coalition of several parties and organizations newly opposed to Syrian domination of Lebanese politics.



Political parties in Lebanon

This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total

Pages in category "Political parties in Lebanon"

The following 86 pages are in this category, out of 86 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).














N cont.












Ruminations on the changing nature of global conflict in the 21st century. By Greg Grant

May 13, 2008







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  1. the baalbeck distortion. also spelled baalbek. detailed map of the area in question. lebanon from space. beirut - seashore. israeli attack - 2006. more beirut photos
    www.greatdreams.com/lebanon/baalbeck.htm - Cached
  2. Hezbollah Has Been Quiet Since Israel Withdrew From Lebanon BEIRUT, Lebanon, June 8, 2001 (AP) Hezbollah guerrillas, who have largely held their fire since Israel's ...
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  3. The culture later known as Phoenician was flourishing as early as the third millennium B.C. in the Levant, a coastal region now divided primarily between Lebanon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/tyre.htm - Cached
  4. A woman was trying to connect on a telephone to a place named "Lebanon". I felt it was either 'Cedars of Lebanon Hospital' or 'Cedars of Lebanon Organization'.
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  5. Palestinians in Lebanon fire with joy at anti-US attacks. AIN AL-HELWEH, Lebanon, Sept 11 (AFP) - Dozens of Palestinian refugees fired into the air with joy Tuesday at ...
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  6. This news came out the following day after I had the dream: 8 German Warships Set Sail for Lebanon Sep 21, 9:52 AM (ET)
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  7. Shem's descendants became the Semitic peoples who settled parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including what is now Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Jordan, Israel, and Lebanon.
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  8. Boughader's organization, said Korkin's affidavit, "employs several individuals and co-conspirators in various countries including Lebanon."
    www.greatdreams.com/mexican-death.htm - Cached
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  10. An even larger rain of lethal Israeli ordinance fell on Lebanon setting a number of its heavily populated urban forests of high ...
    www.greatdreams.com/israel-saturn.htm - Cached

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    1. F. Armenid race (predominant element in Armenia, common in Syria, Lebanon and northern Iraq, primary element among the Ashkenazic Jews)
      www.greatdreams.com/nwo_good.htm - Cached
    2. It could activate its militant proxies in both Lebanon and the Gaza Strip, from where ...
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      www.greatdreams.com/trees.htm - Cached
    4. In the interim, I think knocking out a Hezbollah stronghold in Lebanon can do a great deal to push back Iran's aggressive designs.
      www.greatdreams.com/political/lion_judah.htm - Cached
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      www.greatdreams.com/reptlan/nephilim.htm - Cached
    6. On page 181 of "The Wars Of Gods And Men", Sitchin shows a diagram of a 'layout' involving the general area of Giza/Sinai/Israel/Lebanon. If you look at this layout, you ...
      www.greatdreams.com/gem3.htm - Cached
    7. a lebanon midas: as i dam lebanon: i'm a lebanon sad: a denial man sob: a mad alien snob: be on a mad slain: a mad inane slob: a insane am bold: islamabad none
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      www.greatdreams.com/iran.htm - Cached
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      www.greatdreams.com/sacred/testimony.htm - Cached
    10. Thus this situation is in Israel and Palestine; not to mention Lebanon who has chosen to get into the fray. And there are the Palestinians who have gone into a Christian ...
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  1. QANA was a town in Southern Lebanon that was destroyed in July by Israeli bombing (see: bbc).
    www.greatdreams.com/radio/movie_script.htm - Cached
  2. World. I am not the first, nor the last, to say that the "rich are getting richer ... 3.2 4.7 147 Lebanon
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  4. Hizbullah regularly shells Israeli targets from Lebanon and more than once has nearly triggered a widening Middle Eastern war in the last eight months of the new ...
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  5. He marched through Syria, Lebanon, Caucasian Iberia (modern Georgia), India, Egypt and Libya accompanied by a retinue of his votaries, dancing ecstatically and shouting ...
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  6. The 27th and 82nd armored brigades of the 3rd division, and the 87th armored brigade of the 11th division are on the ground in Baalbek in eastern Lebanon, a ...
    greatdreams.com/d-day.htm - Cached
  7. This combination has been extremely detrimental for America and disastrous for the people of the region, as the criminal Israeli invasion of Lebanon in ...
    www.greatdreams.com/trade-zionism.htm - Cached
  8. The voice said, "Lebanon should be in the foreground, the sky in the background, and 'something' I can't remember on the ground. Pisses me off because it's so stupid.
    www.greatdreams.com/boats.htm - Cached
  9. Israeli troops and/or Special Forces could enter into Lebanon and Syria. In recent developments, Israel plans to ...
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    www.greatdreams.com/political/peace-45-68.htm - Cached

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  1. ... much later) that in 1952, the same year that the Copper Scroll was found at Qumran two immense Marble Tablets were found in the basement of a museum in Beirut, Lebanon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/ark2.htm - Cached
  2. ... raised a levy out of all Israel; and the levy was thirty thousand men. 14 And he sent them to Lebanon, ten thousand a month by courses: a month they were in Lebanon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/bread_bible.htm - Cached
  3. Baal of Mt. Lebanon(Se), Baalsamame(P), Balsamem, Balshameme, Balshamin, Bardad(Se), Belshim(Se), Ber, Bir(As), Birque(Se), Dadu, Hadad(P,Se,Sy), Haddad(B,P ...
    www.greatdreams.com/anunnaki/grandma-nammu.htm - Cached
  4. Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas and Islamic Jihad in Israel, the Osama bin Laden organization headquartered in Afghanistan, and various Arab ``liberation fronts ...
    www.greatdreams.com/trade_day2.htm - Cached
  5. ... itself; the trowel, the mallet, and the trestleboard; the rough and trued ashlars; the pyramids and hills of Lebanon; the pillars, the Temple, and checkerboard ...
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/rev-19.htm - Cached
  6. ... beehive, emblematic of the Masonic lodge itself; the trowel, the mallet, and the trestleboard; the rough and trued ashlars; the pyramids and hills of Lebanon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/redblack.htm - Cached
  7. DEES DREAMS AND VISIONS - ARCHIVE PAGE. DREAMS OF THE GREAT EARTHCHANGES - MAIN PAGE. Events 1972. The UN sanctioned troops to go to Lebanon. The Last Apollo moonwalk occurred
    www.greatdreams.com/jan2002.htm - Cached
  8. There is many families living in the area of Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria and Lebanon are currently "Grail Barers" holding the genetic codes of the 30 Spirit Races ...
    www.greatdreams.com/masters/thoth.htm - Cached
    www.greatdreams.com/population.htm - Cached
  10. The Hezbollah are stationed in Lebanon, Syria and Iran Will the ...
    www.greatdreams.com/pyramid_database.htm - Cached

Search results

  1. "Thus saith the Lord Yahweh: A great eagle with great wings and long pinions, full of feathers, which had divers colors, came unto Lebanon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/war/gathering-of-eagles.htm - Cached
  2. First Lebanon, now Gaza. The Crusaders are marching. And who says I have absolutely no influence? This week Rabbi Avraham Goldstein of the ...
    www.greatdreams.com/chamish.htm - Cached
  3. city, which will provide the perfect justification for Neo-Fascist bloodsuckers to expand the war from Lebanon into Syria and Iran. Developments today indicate that ...
    www.greatdreams.com/terrorism_august_2006.htm - Cached
  4. and we will cut whatever timber you need from Lebanon, and bring it to you in rafts by sea to Joppa, so that you may take it up to Jerusalem."
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/216_316.htm - Cached
  5. Israel and Lebanon are also warring with each other. Iraq is working towards nuclear capability and other weapons of mass destruction that are biological and chemical.
    www.greatdreams.com/rev916.htm - Cached
  6. There is many families living in the area of Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria and Lebanon are currently "Grail Barers" holding the genetic codes of the 30 Spirit Races ...
    www.greatdreams.com/thoth.htm - Cached
  7. They defeated the U.S. in Lebanon and the Soviets in Afghanistan. Neither country knows how to battle the black serpent, because they are holy warriors.
    www.greatdreams.com/political/black_serpent.htm - Cached
  8. Song of Solomon 4:8 Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon: look from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir and Hermon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/egypt/head_of_the_sphinx.htm - Cached
  9. “Just because Lebanon, Iraq, and Pakistan have ethnic problems, it does not mean that Iran is suffering from the same issue,” Nasr ...
    www.greatdreams.com/war/tulghur-iran.htm - Cached
  10. A woman was trying to connect on a telephone to a place named "Lebanon". I felt it was either 'Cedars of Lebanon Hospital' or 'Cedars of Lebanon Organization'.
    www.greatdreams.com/797.htm - Cached


Search results

  1. ... the dry land appeared, they could use the Landing Place - a vast stone platform that had been erected before the Flood in the Cedar Mountains of what is now Lebanon.
    www.greatdreams.com/eridanus.htm - Cached
  2. Despite Israeli President Ehud Olmert’s misadventure in Lebanon, which has inflamed public ...
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/gog-magog.htm - Cached
  3. The Cosmic Code, p 54] Of the Anunnaki settlements, only the raised stone Landing Place at Baalbek, Lebanon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/sons-of_Noah.htm - Cached
  4. ... the backyard of where I lived as a boy from the mid-1950s to the mid 1960s in a suburb of Pittsburgh, PA, called Mt.Lebanon ..
    www.greatdreams.com/mayan/palenque.htm - Cached
  5. Cedar of Lebanon: Fritillaria meleagnis: E - G: Checkered Lily: Prunus ...
    www.greatdreams.com/herbal_healing.htm - Cached
  6. As was the case with Israel's quick military retreat from Lebanon and inability to stop a year-long terrorist war, they feel that they are definitely on a ...
    www.greatdreams.com/trade_day4.htm - Cached
  7. BEIRUT: "An earthquake measuring 4.7 on the Richter scale hit Lebanon Thursday at 1.05 a.m., 100 kilometers from the Lebanese northern borders ...
    www.greatdreams.com/eclipse-mar-2006.htm - Cached
  8. Another possibility, military sources said, is that Syria would use its proxy - the Hizbullah in Lebanon - to launch an attack against Israel in its place.
    www.greatdreams.com/judah.htm - Cached
  9. Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Syria, Xinjiang in China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Myanmar, Indonesia, Mindanao in the Philippines, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia ...
    www.greatdreams.com/lawrence.htm - Cached
  10. During the 2006 Lebanon war, martial law was declared by Defense Minister Amir Peretz over the North of the country.
    www.greatdreams.com/war/third-pearl-harbor.htm - Cached

Search results

  1. I know about thee that thou wilt be destroyed, for Zechariah ben Ido has already prophesied concerning thee: Open thy doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour thy ...
    www.greatdreams.com/bull.htm - Cached
  2. He has been linked to Islamic terrorism in many countries, including Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco, the ...
    www.greatdreams.com/redline.htm - Cached
  3. • Terry Lloyd, correspondent for Britain's Independent Television News, and translator Hussein Osman of Lebanon, shot in fighting between coalition and ...
    www.greatdreams.com/dead_journalists.htm - Cached
  4. Lebanon Dodge County Wisconsin, USA: Bliese, August W. b. Dec. 5, 1855 d. Oct. 15, 1887: Saint Peters Cemetery Lebanon Dodge County Wisconsin, USA: Bliese, Elisabeth
    www.greatdreams.com/block/block.html - Cached
  5. The figures used are wonderfully instructive and include the freshness of the dew, the fairness of the lily and the fragrance of Lebanon.
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/israel-marriage-bond.htm - Cached
  6. Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas and Islamic Jihad in Israel, the Osama bin Laden organization headquartered in Afghanistan, and various Arab ``liberation ...
    www.greatdreams.com/hamas_database.htm - Cached
  7. In verse 7, it says that there were 200 chiefs on the summit of Mount Hermon, which is located on the border of Lebanon and Syria and stands ...
    www.greatdreams.com/reptlan/lot_the_bigger_picture.htm - Cached
  8. ... and Central Asian nations suffering from drought in 2009 are: The Palestinian Territories, Lebanon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/climate/drought-2009.htm - Cached
  9. He has been linked to Islamic terrorism in many countries, including Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco
    greatdreams.com/north.htm - Cached
  10. ... including the "War on Terror," missile launches in North Korea, the Crisis between Israel and Lebanon, nuclear ...
    www.greatdreams.com/oil/peak_oil_consequences.htm - Cached

Search resultsh2>
  1. ... including the "War on Terror," missile launches in North Korea, the Crisis between Israel and Lebanon, nuclear ...
    www.greatdreams.com/oil/peak_oil_consequences.htm - Cached
  2. RETURN OF THE DOVE. The head of the dove is in Texas and the wings go up to Maine and partly into Canada The coloring represents spiritual type heat
    www.greatdreams.com/return_of_the_dove.htm - Cached
  3. carbon trading conspiracy. the game of ruling the world by controlling the environment
    www.greatdreams.com/climate/carbon-trading-conspiracy.htm - Cached
  4. ... flights to Islamabad in Pakistan while Italy's Alitalia said it canceled flights to Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and ...
    www.greatdreams.com/iran_database.htm - Cached
  5. There's Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, Lebanon, Iraq , Iran , the Palestinians and the rest of the Muslim world. Remember the Iraqi's fired on Israel during Desert ...
    www.greatdreams.com/war/rule_2002.htm - Cached
  6. ... upon every one that is lifted up; and he shall be brought low: And upon all the cedars of Lebanon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/constellations/star_named_Hades.htm - Cached
  7. We will be discussing the Israel invasion of Lebanon and its connection to Mayan, Biblical ...
    www.greatdreams.com/japan_quake_nov_2006.htm - Cached
  8. ... Slovakia and Austria, and Egypt with Saudi Arabia, all the different countries along the Baltic and even in Georgia, and also including Lebanon, Israel ...
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/pope-death.htm - Cached
  9. I suggest China and she says its probably Lebanon, and she starts saying the same thing she told me in DREAM TWO - Rov says that .l... and I stop her and remind ...
    www.greatdreams.com/jan-2012.html - Cached
  10. ... last year , the UN Security Council adopted a resolution put forward by the US and France, demanding the withdrawal of foreign forces from Lebanon and ...
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/death_of_esther.htm - Cached

Search results

  1. Then all the trees of Eden, the choicest and best of Lebanon, all the trees that were well-watered, were consoled in the earth below.
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/hell_saved.htm - Cached
  2. Hizbullah regularly shells Israeli targets from Lebanon and more than once has nearly triggered a widening Middle Eastern war in the last eight months of the new ...
    www.greatdreams.com/blog/dee-blog44.html - Cached
  3. Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas and Islamic Jihad in Israel, the Osama bin Laden ... www.greatdreams.com/hamas_database.htm -
    www.greatdreams.com/israel_database.htm - Cached
  4. I must demand that Israel now provide medical care to all DU casualties in Lebanon and clean up all DU contamination. U.S. and British officials have ...
    www.greatdreams.com/death/deathstar2.htm - Cached
  5. ... year (March 2010) to compensate for their humiliating defeats in the 33-day and 22-day wars in Lebanon and ...
    www.greatdreams.com/war/bombs-fell-1975.htm - Cached
  6. ... Isis searched for her brother who was also her husband until she found that the coffin had become a pillar inside the palace of the King of Byblos (modern day Lebanon).
    www.greatdreams.com/33drm.htm - Cached
  7. Planning groups at the Pentagon will now increase pressure on the White House to expand the action to attack locations in Iraq, Syria and Lebanon, with the ...
    www.greatdreams.com/trade_military2.htm - Cached
  8. 80 Lebanon 81 Fiji 82 Armenia 83 Philippines 84 Maldives 85 Peru 86 Turkmenistan 87 St. Vincent & the Grenadines 88 Turkey 89 Paraguay 90 Jordan 91 Azerbaijan
    www.greatdreams.com/political/united_nations_food... - Cached
  9. The figures used are wonderfully instructive and include the freshness of the dew, the fairness of the lily and the fragrance of Lebanon.
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/feast_of_tabernacles_2008.htm - Cached
  10. On the Syrian satellite station Al-Sham, for example, a pro-Hezbollah series about Israel's occupation of south Lebanon was alternated with a ...
    www.greatdreams.com/being-the-change2.htm - Cached

Search results

  1. ... storm, and the clouds are the dust of His feet. 4 He rebukes the sea and makes it dry, and dries up all the rivers; Bashan and Carmel wither, and the flower of Lebanon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/imprisoned_and_freedom.htm - Cached
  2. At lower levels, the Israel and the Syria/Lebanon desk officers at Defense are imports from the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, a think tank ...
    www.greatdreams.com/political/citizenship.htm - Cached
  3. Rich people | city now Sur, Lebanon. want to intreat the favor of this queen? | Eze. 28 (and 26 & 27) "The king's daughter is all glorious ...
  4. The voice said, "Lebanon should be in the foreground, the sky in the background, and 'something' I can't remember on the ground. Pisses me off because it's so stupid.
    www.greatdreams.com/dec98.htm - Cached
  5. Lebanon; Liberia; Mexico; Monaco; Nicaragua; Dominion of Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Saudi Arabia; Switzerland; Republic of Syria; Uruguay; Venezuela; State of Vietnam
    www.greatdreams.com/blog-2012/dee-blog105.html - Cached
  6. As late as 1890 it was fairly common in southern Lebanon and Carmel, but has now (1912) become ...
    www.greatdreams.com/crop/opener/can-opener.htm - Cached
  7. Doing a search on that word shows some usage throughout Lebanon, Syria and Iraq.
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/morning_star.htm - Cached
  8. ... Morocco, Turkey, Jordan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Syria, Xinjiang in China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Myanmar, Indonesia, Mindanao in the Philippines, Lebanon ...
    www.greatdreams.com/blowback.html - Cached
  9. ... 14:7 14:7 They that dwell under his {f} shadow shall return; they shall revive [as] the corn, and grow as the vine: the scent thereof [shall be] as the wine of Lebanon.
    www.greatdreams.com/sacred/harlot.htm - Cached
  10. The voice said, "Lebanon should be in the foreground, the sky in the background, and 'something' I can't remember on the ground. Pisses me off because it's so stupid.
    www.greatdreams.com/angeldrms.htm - Cached

Search results

  1. Mindanao in the Philippines, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia ... its creation in 1988, Osama bin Laden has controlled ... of Heaven which I revere above all earthly kings.
    www.greatdreams.com/disaster-dreams2.htm - Cached
  2. Yes, Yahweh breaks in pieces the cedars of Lebanon. 29:6 He makes them also to skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young, wild ox.
    www.greatdreams.com/psalms.htm - Cached
  3. In its origin Dartmouth college was a missionary school for Indians, founded in 1754 by the Reverend Eleazar Wheelock, at Lebanon, Connecticut.
    www.greatdreams.com/political/daniel-webster.html - Cached