Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20, 2011

today's date May 21, 2013

page 500







Stunning Astronomical Alignment Found at Peru Pyramid


By Owen Jarus, LiveScience Contributor | – Mon, May 6, 2013


An ancient astronomical alignment in southern Peru has been discovered by researchers between a pyramid, two stone lines and the setting sun during the winter solstice. During the solstice, hundreds of years ago, the three would have lined up to frame the pyramid in light.

The two stone lines, called geoglyphs, are located about 1.2 miles (2 kilometers) east-southeast from the pyramid. They run for about 1,640 feet (500 meters), and researchers say the lines were "positioned in such a way as to frame the pyramid as one descended down the valley from the highlands."

Using astronomical software and 3D modeling, the researchers determined that a remarkable event would have occurred during the time of the winter solstice. [See Images of the Pyramid and Solstice Alignment]

"When viewed in 3D models, these lines appear to converge at a point beyond the horizon and frame not only the site of Cerro del Gentil [where the pyramid is], but also the setting sun during the time of the winter solstice," the research team wrote in a poster presentation given recently at the Society for American Archaeology annual meeting in Honolulu.

Peru stone alignment  Peru flat topped pyramid

The flat-topped pyramid at Cerro del Gentil stands 16 feet (5 meters) tall and is made out of adobe. Pyramid artifacts found nearby the pyramid include textiles, shells and ceramics. A settlement nearby contained around 1,000 people.

Thus someone viewing the sunset from these lines during the winter solstice would have seen the sun setting directly behind, or sinking into, the adobe pyramid," they write. "Thus the pyramid and the linear geoglyph constitute part of a single architectural complex, with potential cosmological significance, that ritualized the entire pampa landscape." (The word "pampa" stands for plain.)

The flattop pyramid is 16 feet (5 m) high and was built sometime between 600 B.C. and 50 B.C., being reoccupied somewhere between A.D. 200 and 400. Finds near the pyramid include textiles, shells and ceramics. The stone lines were constructed at some point between 500 B.C. and A.D. 400.

Lines, settlements and pyramids

But this discovery is just the tip of the proverbial iceberg. Researchers have found about 50 of these stone lines so far in a flat, dry area near the pyramid. The longest of the lines runs for nearly a mile (about 1,500 m). These lines are straight and made out of rock, unlike the Nazca Lines  in southern Peru which were etched into the earth by removing the topsoil and include depictions of animals and plants. [Image Gallery: The Nazca Lines of Russia]

Interspersed with these lines, researchers have also found more than 200 cairns (rock piles). The biggest of these cairns is about 50 feet (15 m) in diameter. Cairns can be found throughout the world and sometimes contain human burials, the examples found here, however, do not.

The stone lines and cairns appear to be connected with nearby settlements and their pyramids. There are four ancient settlements close to them, two of which have large pyramids and one that has a mound. The settlements would have supported populations in the high hundreds or just over 1,000.

"Many of the lines do lead to the pyramids; most lead to within the area of the pyramid," said Charles Stanish, a professor at UCLA's Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, in an interview with LiveScience. "We did a statistical analysis, and it is statistically significant— it couldn't have been by random chance that they do cluster on these settlements," he said, noting that there are a few lines that don't lead to settlements.

Stanish said that the discovery of ancient lines leading to pyramids in Peru is important. "We have lines that run to pyramid complexes, and that's significant, because in the big Nazca pampa and in the Palpa pampa, we don't find that pattern as obvious." These two areas, Nazca and Palpa, contain lines, etched in earth, that depict various motifs, including animals and plants. 

Future exploration

The team has only completed one field season at the site and will be heading back this summer to continue their work. They plan to excavate at the Cerro del Gentil pyramid and search for more stone lines.

"We're also going to do a systematic survey of a fairly large area to find all the other lines and all the other settlements and features," Stanish said. They also plan to dig test pits in structures associated with the lines to try to determine precisely when they were built.

One problem the team faces is that time is against them. "A lot of them [the stone lines] are being destroyed by construction," said Stanish, explaining that modern-day power and gas lines are being built in the area, jeopardizing the ancient stone lines that have stood for well over a millennia. 

Follow us @livescience, Facebook & Google+. Original article on

Copyright 2013 LiveScience, a TechMediaNetwork company. All rights reserved.

Peru Pyramid settlement

"Thus someone viewing the sunset from these lines during the winter solstice would have seen the sun setting directly behind, or sinking into, the adobe pyramid," they write. "Thus the pyramid and the linear geoglyph constitute part of a single architectural complex, with potential cosmological significance, that ritualized the entire pampa landscape." (The word "pampa" stands for plain.)

The flattop pyramid is 16 feet (5 m) high and was built sometime between 600 B.C. and 50 B.C., being reoccupied somewhere between A.D. 200 and 400. Finds near the pyramid include textiles, shells and ceramics. The stone lines were constructed at some point between 500 B.C. and A.D. 400.

Lines, settlements and pyramids

But this discovery is just the tip of the proverbial iceberg. Researchers have found about 50 of these stone lines so far in a flat, dry area near the pyramid. The longest of the lines runs for nearly a mile (about 1,500 m). These lines are straight and made out of rock, unlike the Nazca Lines in southern Peru which were etched into the earth by removing the topsoil and include depictions of animals and plants. [Image Gallery: The Nazca Lines of Russia]

Interspersed with these lines, researchers have also found more than 200 cairns (rock piles). The biggest of these cairns is about 50 feet (15 m) in diameter. Cairns can be found throughout the world and sometimes contain human burials, the examples found here, however, do not.

Researchers have found about 50 of these stone lines, the longest of which runs close to nearly 1 mile (1,500 meters). Many of these lines point to nearby settlements and their pyramids. The lines date to somewhere between 500 B.C. and A.D. 400.

The stone lines and cairns appear to be connected with nearby settlements and their pyramids. There are four ancient settlements close to them, two of which have large pyramids and one that has a mound. The settlements would have supported populations in the high hundreds or just over 1,000.

"Many of the lines do lead to the pyramids; most lead to within the area of the pyramid," said Charles Stanish, a professor at UCLA's Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, in an interview with LiveScience. "We did a statistical analysis, and it is statistically significant— it couldn't have been by random chance that they do cluster on these settlements," he said, noting that there are a few lines that don't lead to settlements.

Stanish said that the discovery of ancient lines leading to pyramids in Peru is important. "We have lines that run to pyramid complexes, and that's significant, because in the big Nazca pampa and in the Palpa pampa, we don't find that pattern as obvious." These two areas, Nazca and Palpa, contain lines, etched in earth, that depict various motifs, including animals and plants.





Belize pyramid structure being destroyed

In this image released by Jaime Awe, head of the Belize Institute of Archaeology on Monday May 13, 2013, a backhoe claws away at the sloping sides of the Nohmul complex, one of Belize's largest Mayan pyramids on May 10, 2013 in northern Belize. A construction company has essentially destroyed one of Belize's largest Mayan pyramids with backhoes and bulldozers to extract crushed rock for a road-building project, authorities announced on Monday. (AP Photo/Jaime Awe)  The owner of the property allowed the bulldozer to destroy this structure.

Belize Mayan pyramid being destroyed

A construction company in Belize bulldozes a 2,300-year-old Mayan pyramid to extract gravel for a road project. Lindsey Parietti reports.
4 / 29
Belize Mayan pyramid

The government said Tuesday it is pursuing a "vigorous" investigation into a road-building company's near destruction of one of the largest Mayan pyramids in Belize.


Mayan Tomb Discovered
This photo taken on May 25, 2012, released on Thursday, Oct. 25, 2012 by Tak'alik Ab'aj Archaeological Project shows a jade piece in the tomb of a very early Mayan ruler at Tak'alik Ab'aj archaeological site in Retalhuleu, south of Guatemala City. (AP Photo/Tak'alik Ab'aj Archaeological Project)



Caral, or Caral-Supe, was a large settlement in the Supe Valley, near Supe, Barranca province, Peru, some 200 km north of Lima. Caral is the most ancient city of the Americas, and is a well-studied site of the Caral civilization or Norte Chico civilization.


Caral was inhabited between roughly 2600 BCE and 2000 BCE,[1] enclosing an area of more than 60 hectares.[2] Caral was described by its excavators as the oldest urban center in the Americas, a claim that was later challenged as other ancient sites were found nearby. Accommodating more than 3,000 inhabitants, it is the best studied and one of the largest Norte Chico sites known.


Paul Kosok discovered Caral in 1948, but it received little attention at the time because it appeared to lack many typical artifacts that were sought at archeological sites throughout the Andes at the time. Archaeologist Ruth Shady further explored the 5,000 year-old city of pyramids in the Peruvian desert, with its elaborate complex of temples, an amphitheater and ordinary houses.[3] The urban complex is spread out over 150 acres (607,000 m²) and contains plazas and residential buildings. Caral was a thriving metropolis at roughly the same time that Egypt's great pyramids were being built.

Main Pyramid

The main pyramid (Spanish: Pirámide Mayor) covers an area nearly the size of four football fields and is 60 feet (18 m) tall. Caral is the largest recorded site in the Andean region with dates older than 2000 BCE and appears to be the model for the urban design adopted by Andean civilizations that rose and fell over the span of four millennia. It is believed that Caral may answer questions about the origins of Andean civilizations and the development of the first cities.

Among the artifacts found at Caral are a knotted textile piece that the excavators have labeled a quipu. They argue that the artifact is evidence that the quipu record keeping system, a method involving knots tied in rope that was brought to perfection by the Inca, was older than any archaeologist had previously guessed. Evidence has emerged that the quipu may also have recorded logographic information in the same way writing does. Gary Urton has suggested that the quipus used a binary system which could record phonological or logographic data.

Lack of Warfare

No trace of warfare has been found at Caral; no battlements, no weapons, no mutilated bodies. Shady's findings suggest it was a gentle society, built on commerce and pleasure. In one of the pyramids, they uncovered 32 flutes made of condor and pelican bones and 37 cornets of deer and llama bones. One find revealed the remains of a baby, wrapped and buried with a necklace made of stone beads.

Scope of Site

Caral spawns 19 other pyramid complexes scattered across the 35 square mile (80 km²) area of the Supe Valley. The find of the quipu indicates that the later Inca civilization preserved some cultural continuity from the Caral civilization. The date of 2627 BCE is based on carbon dating reed and woven carrying bags that were found in situ. These bags were used to carry the stones that were used for the construction of the pyramids. The material is an excellent candidate for dating, thus allowing for a high precision. The site may date even earlier as samples from the oldest parts of the excavation have yet to be dated.[4] The town had a population of approximately 3000 people. But there are 19 other sites in the area (posted at Caral), allowing for a possible total population of 20,000 people for the Supe valley. All of these sites in the Supe valley share similarities with Caral. They had small platforms or stone circles. Shady (2001) believes that Caral was the focus of this civilization, which itself was part of an even vaster complex, trading with the coastal communities and the regions further inland – as far as the Amazon, if the depiction of monkeys is any indication.




caral peru


pyramid caral


caral peru panarama


Musical Instruments

Another notable find on the site was a collection of musical instruments, including 37 cornets made of deer and llama bones and 33 flutes of unusual construction.[5] The flutes were radiocarbon dated to 2170±90 BCE.[3]

See also


  1. ^, "Oldest evidence of city life in the Americas reported in Science, early urban planners emerge as power players" Public release date: 26-Apr-2001 American Association for the Advancement of Science
  2. ^, "Archaeological Site in Peru Is Called Oldest City in Americas" Public release date: 27-Apr-2001 The New York Times
  3. ^ a b Shady, R. Haas, J. Creamer, W. (2001). Dating Caral, a Pre-ceramic Site in the Supe Valley on the Central Coast of Peru. Science. 292:723-726. doi:10.1126/science.1059519 PMID 11326098
  4. ^ Civilization lost? |
  5. ^ Ross, John (August 2002). "First City in the New World?". Smithsonian Museum. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 

External links


Human footprint 5 to 15 million years old found in Bolivia

Investigators Jorge Miranda and Freddy Arce question the theories of human evolution with the anouncement of the discovery of a human footprint near Lake Titicaca which has an antiquity of between 5 and 15 million years. This would put man on the american continent millions of years before previously established dates and also before the existence of the Australopithecus, which lived in Africa around 4 million years ago.

The surprising theory has been transferred to European experts, including a few not identified by the Bolivians, who have shown skepticism. "They asked us if we understood the significance of what we were proposing", commented Miranda. Also they have asked assistance from the chief of Egyptian antiquities, Zahi Hawass, who announced in August 2007 the discovery of a human footprint with an antiquity supposedly of two million years.

Jorge Miranda (b) and Freddy Arce (d) show the footprint in it's place of discovery, a stone which was found in the Aymaran locality of Sullkatiti, where it is a cult object because the inhabitants of the zone consider it to be a footprint of their ancestors, known as the footstep of the Inca.

Bolivia gives the discovery a great imortance and the presentation, which has been under the charge of the investigators (in the photo, Jorge Miranda), took place in the Ministry of Exterior Relations, in La Paz. The human footprint found in the Altiplano will prove "the existence of other societies before ours", according to the experts.....

According to the data found by the investigators, the footprint measures 29.5 cm and belonged to a "body" of 1.7 metres high and around 70 kilos weight which, besides, walked upright for more than 5 million years.

original report in Spanish

Los investigadores Jorge Miranda y Freddy Arce cuestionan las teorías de la evolución del hombre con el anuncio del descubrimiento de una huella humana cerca del lago Titicaca que tendría una antigüedad de entre 5 y 15 millones de años. Esto situaría al hombre en el continente americano millones de años antes de lo establecido hasta ahora e incluso adelantaría la existencia del propio Australopithecus, que vivió en África hace unos 4 millones de años.

La sorprendente teoría ha sido trasladada a expertos europeos, a los que los científicos bolivianos no han identificado, que se han mostrado escépticos. "Nos preguntaron si sabíamos el significado de lo que estábamos proponiendo", ha comentado Miranda. También han pedido ayuda al responsable egipcio de antigüedades, Zahi Hawass, que anunció en agosto de 2007 el descubrimiento de una huella humana con una antigüedad supuesta de dos millones de años.

Jorge Miranda (b) y Freddy Arce (d) muestran la huella en el lugar de su descubrimiento, una roca que se encuentra cerca de la localidad aimara de Sullkatiti, donde es objeto de culto porque los habitantes de la zona consideran que es una huella de sus antepasados, popularmente conocida como la pisada del inca.

Bolivia otorga al descubrimiento una gran importancia ya que la presentación, que ha corrido a cargo de los dos investigadores (en la imagen, Jorge Miranda), ha tenido lugar en el ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Bolivia, en La Paz. La huella "humana" encontrada en el Altiplano probaría "la existencia de otras sociedades" anteriores a la actual, según los expertos.

Según los datos aportados por los investigadores, la huella mide 29,5 centímetros y pertenecería a un "cuerpo" de 1,70 metros de altura y unos 70 kilos de peso que, además, habría caminado erguido hace más de 5 millones de años.



Footprints Show How Our Ancestors Walked


The earliest known human ancestor footprints show that individuals walked like we do 3.7 million years ago.

- A fully upright, two-footed gait likely evolved in Australopithecus afarensis, a tree-dwelling ancestor of living great apes and humans.

- Erect, bipedal walking offered many benefits, especially at a time when forest canopies started to break up.

The oldest known human ancestor footprints, dated to 3.7 million years ago, reveal that some of the earliest members of our family tree walked fully upright with feet similar to ours, according to new research.

The findings, published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface, push back the date for upright walking in our ancestry by nearly 2 million years. That's because previous studies had concluded this trademark gait emerged in the genus Homo about 1.9 million years ago.

The 3.7 million-year-old footprint maker, likely a species called Australopithecus afarensis (of the "Lucy" fossil fame), walked in an even less ape-ish way than some humans do today.

Lead author Robin Crompton told Discovery News that "some healthy humans produce more 'ape like' footprints."

PHOTOS: Faces of Our Ancestors

Crompton, a professor in the University of Liverpool's School of Biomedical Sciences, explained that many researchers believed loss of the "so-called mid-tarsal break," a flexing of the side midfoot, "distinguished humans from non-human apes." This flexing can contact the ground and leave behind a mark in footprints. But Crompton and his colleagues found that certain people today create such footprints, while some of the ancient prints were lacking the distinguishing feature.

The researchers made this determination after studying the ancient footprints, found at a site called Laetoli in Tanzania. At least one, or possibly two, individuals left behind the footprints as they walked through damp volcanic ash.  

Detailed imaging, based on methods employed in functional brain imaging, yielded clear, three-dimensional views of the 11 intact prints in the Laetoli trail. The scientists then compared these ancient footprints with prints made by modern humans and other living great apes.

It's now known that the prehistoric walker moved at just over 3 1/2 feet per second.

"Walking was completely erect," Crompton said. "Push off was substantially by the big toe and a medial arch was present. There was no collapse of the lateral side of the foot, as has been recently suggested."

NEWS: All Non-Africans Part Neanderthal, Genetics Confirm

The probable walker, A. afarensis, is best known via a partial skeleton named "Lucy." Lucy and other members of her species are thought to have lived at least some of their time in trees. Since Lucy was already walking upright in a very human-way, the new study strengthens the theory that erect, two-footed walking evolved in a tree-living ancestor of living great apes and humans.

Crompton explained that this way of moving was "probably faster than quadrupedalism on the ground in an animal built like great apes are." It also may have "enhanced feeding from low branches or bushes."

Upright walking on two feet additionally could have helped with visual displays and showing aggression, he said. All of this may have happened as forest canopies broke up, forcing A. afarensis to leave its tree homes for a more terrestrial way of life.

Unlike modern humans, however, this species had short legs and a long body. When compared to other animals, we have just the opposite: relatively long legs and a short body.

Sarah Elton of the Hull York Medical School told Discovery News, "Although there have been heated disagreements over how to interpret the Laetoli footprints, this incredibly detailed and well thought-out study must surely help to put some of the debate to rest."

She continued, "I was surprised by such clear evidence for a very 'human-like' foot morphology and walking style, particularly the presence of a longitudinal arch, and 'toe off' when walking."

Elton added, "This strongly suggests that the makers of the footprints, although living over 3 million years ago, shared many features of their locomotion with us."

Crompton and his team next hope to determine when our ancestors first walked, or ran, over very long distances, enabling them to colonize the world.




compiled by Dee Finney



2-20-04 - DREAM - IT'S STARTING - I was in Wisconsin, near Eau Claire. 

I went to visit my mother-in-law Lucy B. at her farmhouse. We were having a nice chat and then she told me that five of her sons had spun themselves to death to commit suicide the week before.  There were no funerals for them because it was a sin to commit suicide.  I thought that was atrocious. 

I went out for a walk and when I came back, the house was full of people who were all standing around crying.

I was really puzzled, so I started asking people why everyone was crying. Nobody would tell me and that was making me angry. Finally I saw a priest standing in the midst of the crowd and he had tears in his eyes too. I said "Why is everyone standing around like somebody died?

He didn't answer either, but more or less looked towards the other room. 

So I looked into the other room and there was my mother-in-law laying on her back with her eyes closed on top of the dining room table. People were sitting and standing around her seemingly dead body. 

I said, "Why didn't someone tell me? I was more angry than sad at that point.

I went into the dining room to see her and she opened her eyes and started to sit up. She wasn't dead after all - just asleep. 

The people were stunned to see this. They stopped crying, but didn't know what to say.

My mother-in-law was now sitting up and started singing and moving her hands strangely. I decided I would change the mood of the room by clapping for her and one by one the other people started clapping too because my mother-in-law was not only singing, she was dancing and changing shape. I didn't know what to make of it myself, but she was getting smaller and smaller and turning to a small dark-skinned woman. She ended up about a foot tall, and very thin and masculine appearing - like an African man.

I just kept up the clapping and the cheering to keep the people in a happy mood, so they would think they were going crazy, seeing this weird thing happening. finally, she jumped off the table and ran outside.  

So, I followed her outside and I saw what a mess it was out there. The wind had blown sand around where it didn't belong and stuff was strewn everywhere. I said to some people, "Someone should just come in here with a bulldozer and move this dirt."  So someone went to get a bulldozer and meanwhile, I saw sprouts of roses and rhubarb and other plants coming up through the dir and decided to replant them in a safe place and started doing that. 

The work wasn't done yet and I saw a huge grey demolition crane move into the area. I knew this wasn't a good thing and started yelling to the people, "It's starting! It's starting!" and started scrambling across the windblown sand to get out of there. I climbed up out of the dirt by a concrete wall and found a chunk of pure ice in the dirt. I was amazed by that and I ran down the street yelling, "It's starting!  She went to the Baxter line in Africa." 

NOTE: I never identified the Baxter line in Africa. Many people investigated and wrote about hominids in Africa. 







Timeline of Early Humans:

Chart from;

The Australopithecines and their relatives.

Homo habilis.

All are early bipedal primates.

Most are probably tool-users (as chimps are)

Years Ago Region Species Name


4.4-4.5 mya East Africa Ardipithecus ramidus Found by White, Wolpoff & Asfaw @ Aramis, 1992-1993. 17-40 individuals.

Possible earliest hominid.  Earlier than Lucy, yet more orang-like than chimp-like

4.2 - 3.9 mya East Africa Australopithecus amanensis W. Lake Turkana/ Kanapoi. Maeve Leakey.   1994-95
E. Lake Turkana/Allia Bay.  Maeve Leakey.  1994-95
3.9 Africa/Hadar australopithecus afarensis Found by Donald Johanson and team, 1974-75.  remains of 40 individuals now recovered.
3.85 mya Africa/Laetoli


Mary Leakey found bipedal footprints in volcanic ash dating to this date.
3.5 mya Central Africa/Chad a. afarensis A hominid mandible found 1,500 west of Lucy's body
3.3 mya East Africa/Koobi Fora a. afarensis Richard Leakey & crew have recovered remains of 150 hominids, dating to 1.8 mya in successive layers
3.2 mya South Africa/Makapansgat a. afarensis? early hominid of So. Africa
3.1 mya South Africa/Sterkfontein


early hominid find
2.9 mya East Africa/Omo

a. afarensis?

Sequence to 1 mya, ending with h. erectus
2.6 mya East Africa/Hadar

homo habilis?

first definite manufacturered tool
2.5 mya East Africa/Lake Turkana

homo habilis?

2 kinds of hominids found, with h. rudolfensis the more robust, both apparently tool users

homo rudolfensis

2.4 mya East Africa/W. Turkana australopithecus aethiopicus The "Black Skull." (WT 17000)   A robust hominid, possible descendent of Lucy and her kind.  Cranial capacity: 410 cm-3.
2.3 mya East Africa/Afar homo habilis Definite association of larger brained (600 cm-3) gracile hominid w/digging tool (Johanson)
2.0 mya South Africa/Kromdraai australopithecus africanus

australopithecus robustus

Raymond Dart & others
1.9 mya South Africa/Swartkrans a. africanus & a. robustus cranial capacity for africanus: @ 442 cm-3; robustus @ 530 cm-3.
1.85 mya East Africa/Olduvai australopithecus boisei The famous 1959 find by the Leakeys.   "Zinjanthropus"  Cranial capacity 510-530 cm-3.
1.8 mya East Africa/Koobi Fora homo erectus Richard Leakey, Glynn Issac, Offer Bar Yosef & crew find hominid fossils at this site which date from 1.8 to 3.3 mya.

After this time (1.8 million years ago) hominids are found outside of Africa.  Until recently, the earlist hominids outside of Africa were thought to be a mere 1-1.2 million years old.  Now, some surprising finds from Europe and Java make us scratch our heads.  For that story, see the next timeline, The Genus Homo.

For another perspective on the same early hominid story, look at this brief table which represents the hominid finds by region. (all the regions are in Africa)

Photo from:

Region Date Species
Lake Turkana 4.2-4.4 mya a. amanensis
  2.5 mya h. habilis
  2.5 mya h. rudolfensis
  2.4 mya a. aethiopicus
Afar Triangle 3.9 mya a. afarensis
  2.6 mya manufactured tool
  2.3 h. habilis
South Africa 3.1 mya early hominid
  2.0 mya a. africanus & a robustus
Koobi Fora 3.3 mya a. afarensis
  2.5 mya australopithecines
  1.8 h. erectus



 Africa's Eve is found to be an Adam
 By Graeme O'Neill

 LUCY, the most celebrated of all hominid fossils, is actually a male, : scientists announced this week after 25 years of research.

 Lucy's pelvic bones are far too small to accommodate a baby. And their orientation would have made it impossible for a baby to turn the corner from the uterus and line up with the home straight.

 Even in modern women, this sharp angle between the uterus and birth canal can make birth a tricky and painful affair.

 "Lucy is simply not built for giving birth," said Swiss anatomists Dr Martin Hausler and Dr Peter Schmid in the latest edition of the  Journal of Human Evolution.

It seems the African Eve, celebrated worldwide as the archetypal Dawn Mother, is actually an Adam 3.2 million years old.

 It is a quarter century since American scientist Donald Johansen and his French colleague Maurice Taieb discovered the remarkably preserved fossil skeleton in Ethiopia. It is of a small, short-legged hominid.

The fossil is the oldest species of the proto- human genus Australopithecus- the finders named it Australopithecus afarensis and nick- named it Lucy after the character in a Beatles' song, Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds.

Lucy's skeleton was about two-thirds complete - against the odds, the body was overlooked by scavenging hyenas and lions and was buried rapidly by volcanic ash in the Great Rift Valley before the elements could disperse the bones.

 Even some of the tiny bones from the hands and fingers were preserved but the right half of the pelvis was missing.

 The left side of the pelvis and part of the sacroiliac, which anchors the spinal column, was enough to tell anatomists that Lucy was no recent fugitive from the rainforests of east Africa, which were in retreat as the climate cooled and became drier.

The legs were short in proportion to the trunk and the pelvis was relatively narrow. The femurs-the major bones in the top of the legs- projected almost straight down from their pelvic sockets, rather than angling in under the body's center of gravity.

But they didn't splay outwards, in the manner of a chimpanzee or gorilla.

The evidence was clear-Lucy-had walked upright. "Waddled" may be closer to the mark - the pelvic anatomy was not designed for the curving hips and fluid stride of latter- day great-granddaughters on a Paris catwalk.

A widely published artist's impression of Lucy depicts the creature as dark-skinned and hairy with a protruding, ape-like face, large breasts (an evolutionary innovation in humans) and with a baby balanced on the right hip.

But even for a prototype, whose architecture had yet to be refined and broadened to create a birth canal large enough to accommodate one of  the boof-headed, large-brained babies of homo sapiens descendants, Lucy's pelvis seemed to be strangely shaped.

 For a quarter of a century anatomists have debated various mirror- image reconstructions of Lucy's incomplete pelvis and come to different conclusions.

The pelvis is one of the most critical structures in human evolution. Not only is it crucial to an upright stance, as the fulcrum for the spine and legs; its lower bones and pubis, dictate the maximum size of the head and brain of any newborn baby.

An enormous brain and head, in relation to body size, is the defining characteristic of modern human beings.

Earlier research which showed measurements of Lucy's pelvic dimensions were unreliable because after millions of years the pelvis had become skewed. In their new reconstruction, Dr Hausler and Dr Schmid corrected for this distortion, then compared Lucy's pelvic architecture with that of one of the more recent descendants, a specimen of Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein Cave in South Africa, designated by the serial number S14.

Lucy, designated by the serial number AL-288-I, is separated from S14 by almost the length of a continent and by several hundred thousand years of evolution.

The interval was long enough for S14's species to develop the largest brain of any australopithecine around 580cc, compared with Lucy's 350cc brain.

Dr Hausler and Dr Schmid say that in non-human primates, including chimpanzees and gorillas, the brain of newborns is about 42 per cent the capacity of the adult brain.

But in newborn humans, it is only 29 per cent of the average adult capacity of about one litre-roughly 290cc. Much of the growth in a modern human baby's brain is delayed until after birth. This is why the bones in a human baby's skull remain open for several years after birth.

This innovation, unique to humans, allows the adult human brain to become very large without exposing homo sapiens babies to the fatal prospect of being jammed inside the pelvis at birth. It still happens before caesarean births, natural selection ensured neither mother nor baby survived to pass on the trait.

The Swiss researchers now propose that Lucy be renamed Lucifer, after the Roman god who brought light to the world after a long, dark night.

(O'Neill G., "Africa's Eve is found to be an Adam", Sunday Times:
 Western Australia, 12 November 1995, p62)

In a find called "momentous," researchers had discovered the first complete skeleton of a human ancestor. Researchers say the latest find is about 3.6 million years old, the oldest hominid skeleton yet discovered anywhere. The 4-foot-tall fossil could find long sought-after clues to human evolution. It was discovered at Sterkfontein on the outskirts of Johannesburg, which was also the site of the discovery of South Africa's first hominid, skull in 1924. Previously, the oldest skeleton was "Lucy," found in Ethiopia and estimated to be 3.2 million years old.


New models developed for understanding primate behavior can now be applied to the hard evidence of our ancestors to help us understand how our brains have enlarged three-fold since early hominid Lucy, four million years ago.

  Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has become very relevant to paleoanthropology since the first Neandertal mtDNA sequence was discovered in 1997. Bryan Sykes' book The Seven Daughters of Eve is an excellent book for popular audiences which explains the science behind mtDNA and why it is so useful for investigating population histories. It also provides a good look at the way science is conducted, the conflicts and rivalries that occur, and contains diversions into fascinating topics such as the Iceman, golden hamsters, and the disappearance of the Russian royal family including Princess Anastasia. The book is somewhat Eurocentric, since most of Sykes' data (and the 'seven daughters') come from Europe, but a section at the back of the book discusses some of what is known about the worldwide distributions of mtDNA sequences.

Cover pictureScientific American has released a new special edition issue devoted to paleoanthropology: New Look at Human Evolution. It contains a number of updated reprints of article about human evolution that have appeared in Scientific American over the last decade or so. The articles cover topics such as the Out of Africa and Multiregional models of human evolution, recent fossil discoveries such as Sahelanthropus and Orrorin, neandertals, mtDNA, cannibalism, and the evolution of bipedality and skin color.

Three fossil skulls discovered at Dmanisi in Georgia, in the ex-USSR, between 1999 and 2001 were a big surprise to the paleoanthropological community. Not only were they the oldest and most primitive hominid skulls ever found outside of Africa, in both brain size and anatomy they seemed intermediate between Homo habilis and Homo erectus fossils, and their finders classified them as a new species, Homo georgicus.

Now a similar skull has apparently been found in Africa by Meave Leakey's team. This new skull, 1.55 million years old, was found in Kenya in 2000, and announced at the April 2003 meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. (Science, 300:893, 9 May 2003) The same report also noted that many of the scientists at the meeting were skeptical of the validity of Homo georgicus as a separate species. H. erectus expert Philip Rightmire is quoted as believing that the Dmanisi skulls are erectus. Finally, a fourth and more robust skull, along with some skeletal bones, has been discovered at Dmanisi.

Tim White argues in a recent paper (Early hominids - diversity or distortion? Science 299:1994, March 28 2003) that maybe too many new fossil hominid species are being named. He lists 4 recently-named species as examples. Curiously, two of these are ones for which he was a coauthor. However, he takes particular aim at Kenyanthropus platyops, named in 2001 from a fossil skull found by Meave Leakey's team. White argues that it is so severely distorted that it cannot be confidently identified, and may just be a Kenyan variant of Australopithecus afarensis. White is, by all accounts, both widely recognized as a superb anatomist and feared for the sharpness of both his pen and his tongue. To see why, read this paper (A view on the science: Physical anthropology at the millennium, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 2000), which contains scathing verdicts on many claims from other scientists

March 28, 2003: OH 65

 The latest fossil from Olduvai Gorge, OH 65, is a fossil upper jaw with part of the lower face. It was discovered in 1995, but was not made public until 2003 (Blumenschine et al. 2003, Science 299:1217-21 with a commentary by Phillip Tobias in the same issue). Based on its similarities with both OH 7 (the type specimen of H. habilis) and ER 1470, Blumenschine and his colleagues suggest that 1470 is therefore a member of habilis, making rudolfensis an invalid species.

Naturally, nothing is ever that simple in paleoanthropology. Another scientist I spoke to thought that OH 65 differed from both OH 7 and another couple of fossils that may be rudolfensis jaws. Anatomist Bernard Wood, a major proponent of rudolfensis in the last decade, is another scientist unlikely to accept the demise of that species. So the conclusion of Blumenschine and his colleagues will certainly not go unchallenged.

Tobias' commentary article notes that the number of hominid species and even genera has taken off in recent years. I had noticed the same phenomenon myself: since 1994, we have seen the naming of A. anamensis, Ar. ramidus, A. garhi, A. bahrelghazali, K. platyops, O. tugenensis, S. tchadensis, and H. antecessor. That's 8 new species, and 4 new genera, in less than a decade.

A similar explosion of species and genera occurred in the first half of the 20th century. Scientists and discoverers of fossils cheerfully created new names for just about every significant fossil that was found. This burst of naming had very little to do with biological reality (most specimens weren't very different from existing species), and probably a lot to do with ego-tripping and a desire to leave their mark on science. Happily, most of these names were thrown out in a great rationalization in the 1950's, leaving only a handful of generally accepted taxa remaining.

It wouldn't be surprising if some of the new species named in the past decade also failed to survive the test of time. However, many of them could survive - the recent increase in named species may well be a real phenomenon, caused by the fact that more people are searching for hominid fossils in more places than ever before.
Did Neanderthals breed with humans?
By Steve Connor, Science Editor, in Seattle
17 February 2004

Fossilized human faeces tens of thousands of years old are helping scientists answer one of the most intriguing questions in anthropology: did early humans interbreed with the Neanderthals?

Researchers are sifting through the detritus of two Stone-Age cave sites in Israel to find samples of human excrement that could be analyzed for DNA and point to signs that Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans had children together.

The thick-set Neanderthals seem to have almost disappeared by the time that the first modern humans - Cro-Magnons - arrived in Europe and the Middle East some 50,000 years ago. But there has been intense speculation about whether the Neanderthals died out completely or left some hybrid descendants.

Henrik Poinar, of McMaster University in Ontario, Canada, said that a project to analyse the genetic material of human coprolites - fossilised stools - could help to solve the mystery by looking for hybrid Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal DNA from the same individual. Dr Poinar said: "I take Cro-Magnon DNA and probe for Neanderthal DNA. If they interbred, and the [DNA] is from Neanderthal, I'll pick it up as obvious interbreeding."

Palaeontologists know from bones and artefacts that the Israeli caves were inhabited almost certainly at the same time by Cro-Magnons and Neanderthals, so it is an obvious place to look for signs of interbreeding, Dr Poiner said. "When you take sediments from a cave ... the majority are faeces that have just been trampled in over time," he said.


Zeitlyn, D. 1993. Names for things or ideas? Mambila masks, museums, CmedicinesD and the meaning of Sùàgà Paper presented at: 8African Studies Association Conference9. Boston. Source: printed biblio from Zeitlyn 1994

Zeitlyn, D. 1994. Sua in Somié. Mambila Traditional Religion Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag. Source: BIDS-IBSS


The culture of the peoples of Mediterranean Africa, the Sahara, the Ethiopian Highlands and the Horn of Africa differs markedly from that of the peoples further south. In this course the emphasis is on that southern area, the Sub-Saharan African Major Cultural Region, to give it a formal label. The aim throughout is to improve your detailed knowledge of the societies of this major region during the period since c1890, and to sharpen your judgement of how these societies differ from each other, and from European societies of the same period. Particularly important is the need to focus on the images of 'Africa' which people in Britain have, and to test these against the evidence available on this course. For instance, some people in Britain see Sub-Saharan Africa as covered with wet equatorial forest (which they call 'jungle'), Most of it is not!

There is no textbook fully suitable to the course, and the lectures are designed to provide a framework, and also a commentary on the more important features. However, it is possible to provide a list of books for background reading, covering all the major region or parts of it:-

Allen, Chris and Gavin Williams (eds.), 'Sociology of "Developing Countries"' in Subsaharan Africa, Macmillan.

Birmingham, D. 1995. The decolonisation of Africa London: UCL Press.

Birmingham, D., & Martin, P. M. (eds.) 1983. History of Central Africa. 2 vols. London: Longmans.

Fage, J.D., A History of Africa, Hutchinson.

Davidson, B. 1992. The Black Man's Burden: Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State London: James Curry.

Iliffe, John, The Emergence of African Capitalism (Anstey Memorial Lectures, 1982), Macmillan.

Mair, Lucy, African Kingdoms, Oxford.

Mair, Lucy, African Societies, Cambridge.

Mair, Lucy, Primitive Government, Scolar.

Rodney, Walter, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, East Africa Publishing House.

.You may like to read what is happening south of the Sahara while this course is going on. A useful source is The Economist or Focus on Africa (per DT 1.F6). You should, however, note that for The Economist , and all British journalists, Africa is a Cinderella area, and does not receive the refined attention devoted to Europe and the United States.

African societies become less baffling when you know some of the peoples in detail. It is worth choosing three peoples, and absorbing each of them thoroughly.

  Eades, J.S., The Yoruba Today NB an electronic verion of this is available:

  Heald, S. 1989. Controlling anger : the sociology of Gisu violence (International African library ; 6). Manchester: Manchester University Press for the International African Institute.

 Leakey, L.S.B., The Southern Kikuyu Before 1903 (This is in three volumes. You may like to concentrate on one)

 Bowen, E.S. 1956. Return to Laughter . London: Readers Union.

  Caplan, P. 1997. African Voices, African Lives. Personal narratives from a Swahili village . London: Routledge.

Society, Culture and the Physical Environment

Climate and vegetation. Types of subsistence activity and their distribution. Population distribution. Main linguistic and cultural boundaries.

Fage, J.D., A History of Africa, chapter 1.

Forde, D., "The cultural map of West Africa" (photocopy in Short Loan).

Hopkins, A., An Economic History of West Africa, chapter 1.

Mabogunje, A.L., "The land and peoples of West Africa" in J.F.A. Ajayi and M. Crowder (eds.), History of West Africa, vol.1.

Politics and Social Control in Stateless Societies

States and stateless societies. Definitional problems. Bands, segmentary lineages and age-sets. Social order and dispute settlement.

Fortes, M., and E.E. Evans-Pritchard, "Introduction" in Fortes and Evans-Pritchard (eds.), African Political Systems.

Horton, R., "Stateless societies in the history of West Africa" in J.F.A. Ajayi and M. Crowder (eds.), A History of West Africa, vol.1.

Mair, Lucy, Primitive Government, part 1, chapters 1-4.

Obayemi, A., "The Yoruba and Edo-speaking peoples and their neighbours before 1600" in Ajayi and Crowder (eds.), History of West Africa, vol.1 (2nd edition only).

Shorter, A., East African Societies, chapter 4.

Anigbo, O.A.C. 8Commensality as Cultural Performance: the struggle for leadership in an Igbo Village9, in The Politics of Cultural Performance , edited by David Parkin, Lionel Caplan and Humphrey Fisher, 101-14. (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1996).

Stevenson, Robert F., Populations and Political Systems in Tropical Africa.

Further Case Studies

Bohannan, Paul, "Political aspects of Tiv social organisation" in J. Middleton and D. Tait (eds.), Tribes Without Rulers.

Fortes, M., "The political system of the Tallensi" in M. Fortes and E.E. Evans-Pritchard (eds.), African Political Systems.

Gibbs, J.L. (ed.), Peoples of Africa, chapters on Igbo, Fulani, Tiv.

Mair, Lucy, African Societies, chapters 3, 10, 11, 16.

Gibbs, J.L. (ed.), Peoples of Africa, chapters on Jie, Somali, Bantu Tiriki.

Gulliver, P., Social Control in an African Society.

Hunters and Gatherers 

Foraging techniques. Social structure of hunting and gathering bands. Foraging and the environment. Relations with outsiders. Sedentarisation.

Kalahari Bushmen

Barnard, A. "Kalahari Bushmen settlement patterns" in P. Burnham and R.F. Ellen (eds.), Social and Ecological Systems.

Lee, Richard B., "!Kung Bushman subsistence" in A. Vayda (ed.), Environment and Cultural Behaviour.

Lee, Richard B., "The !Kung Bushmen of Botswana" in M.G. Bicchieri (ed.), Hunters and Gatherers Today.

Lee, R.B. and I. De Vore (eds.), Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers.

Marshall, Lorna, The !Kung of Nyae Nyae.

Marshall, L. "The !Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari" in J.L. Gibbs (ed.), Peoples of Africa.

Shostak, M. 1981. Nisa. The life and Words of a !Kung Woman . Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Katz, R. 1982. Boiling energy : community healing among the Kalahari Kung . Cambridge, Mass.; London: Harvard University Press.


Woodburn, J., "An introduction to Hadza ecology" in Lee, R.B. and De Vore (eds.), Man the Hunter.

Woodburn, J., "Residential stability" in Lee and De Vore (eds.) op.cit.

Woodburn, James. "Egalitarian societies", Man (N.S.) 17 (1982), 431-51.


Turnbull, Colin, "The Mbuti pigmies of the Ituri forest" in J.L. Gibbs (ed.), Peoples of Africa.

Turnbull, C., The Forest People.

Turnbull, C., Wayward Servants.


Dyson-Hudson, N., "Subsistence herding in Uganda" (photocopy in Short Loan).

Monod, T. (ed.), Pastoralism in Tropical Africa, "Introduction" and papers by Baxter, Gulliver and Lewis.

Swift, J., "Sahelian pastoralists: underdevelopment, desertification and famine", Annual Review of Anthropology, 6, 1977, 457-78.

Further Case Material

Frantz, C., "The open niche, pastoralism and sedentarization in the Mambila grasslands of Nigeria" in P. Salzman (ed.), When Nomads Settle.

Gibbs, J.L. (ed.), Peoples of Africa, Chapters on Jie, Karimojong, Somali, Fulani.

Gulliver, P., The Family Herds.

Mair, Lucy, African Societies, chapter 3.

Monod, T. (ed.), Pastoralism in Tropical Africa, select from papers by Baker, Frantz, Horowitz, Jacobs, Swift.

Spencer, P. 1965. The Samburu, a study of gerontocracy in a nomadic tribe . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Spencer, P. 1988. The Maasai of Matapato, a study of rituals of rebellion . Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Stenning, Derrick J. Savannah Nomads. A study of the Wodaabe Pastoral Fulani of Western Bornu Province, Northern Region, Nigeria . (London: O.U.P., 1959).

Riesman, Paul, Freedom in Fulani Social Life.

West Africa

Goody, J., Technology, Tradition and the State in Africa.

Law, R., "Oyo: a West African cavalry state" in Journal of African History, 1975.

MacGaffey, W. 1970. The Religious Commissions of the Bakongo. Man (n.s.) 5.1, 27-38.

Morton-Williams, P. 1960. The Yoruba Ogboni cult in Oyo. Africa 30, 362-374.

Smaldone, J., Warfare in the Sokoto Caliphate.

Wilks, I., "Ashanti in the 19th century" in D. Forde and P. Kaberry (eds.), West African Kingdoms in the 19th Century.

Wilks, I., "Land, labour, capital and the forest kingdom of Asante" in J. Friedman and M. Rowlands (eds.), The Evolution of Social Systems.

East Africa

Gibbs, J.L. (ed.), Peoples of Africa, chapter on Ganda, Rwanda.

Mair, Lucy, African Societies, chapters 12-14.

Mair, Lucy, Primitive Government, part II, chapters 5-10.

Shorter, A., East African Societies, chapter 5.

Concepts of the tribe 

Freid 'The notion of tribe.'

Southall, A. 1970. 'The illusion of tribe', Journal of Asian and African Studies 5(1-2), 28-50.

this is in the library as a BOOK: The passing of tribal man in Africa, ed. Peter C.W. Gutkind .

Kopytoff, I. 1987. The Internal African Frontier: the making of African political culture. In The African Frontier: the reproduction of traditional African societies (ed.) I. Kopytoff. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Peel, J. D. Y. 1989. The cultural work of Yoruba ethnogenesis. In History and ethnicity (eds.) E. Tonkin, M. McDonald, & M. Chapman. London: Routledge.

Davidson 'Blackman's Burden' chapter 4

Case studies:

1) The Tikar

Jeffreys, M. D. W. 1964. Who are the Tikar? African Studies 23(3/4), 141-153.

Chilver, E. M., & Kaberry, P. M. 1971. The Tikar problem: a non-problem. Journal of African Languages 10(2), 13-14.

Price, D. 1979. Who are the Tikar now? Paideuma 25, 89-98.

Fowler, I. & D. Zeitlyn. 1997. Introductory Essay: the Grassfields and the Tikar. In African Crossroads: intersections of history and anthropology in Cameroon (eds) I. Fowler & D. Zeitlyn. Oxford: Berghahn. In Short-term loan and also available electronically at

Slaves and the Slave Trade

Domestic slavery in Africa. Slaves and political systems. Warfare and the production of slaves. The Atlantic slave trade. Impact on African societies. Abolition and the growth of legitimate trade: effects on domestic slavery.

Inikori, J., "Introduction" in Inikori (ed.), Forced Migration.

Fage, J.D., "Slavery and the slave trade in the context of West African history" in Inikori (ed.)

Kopytoff, I. & S. Miers. 1977. African "slavery" as an institution of marginality. In Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives (eds) I. Kopytoff & S. Miers. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Lovejoy, P., "Slavery in the context of ideology" in Lovejoy (ed.), The Ideology of Slavery in Africa.

Law, R. (ed.) 1995. From slave trade to 'legitimate' commerce. The commercial transition in nineteenth-century West Africa . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Further Discussion

Curtin, Philip D., "The Atlantic slave trade 1600-1800" in J.F.A. Ajayi and Michael Crowder (eds.), History of West Africa, vol.1.

Fage, J.D., A History of Africa, chapters 9-11.

Hopkins, A.G., An Economic History of West Africa, chapter 2.

Iliffe, J., The Emergence of African Capitalism, chapter 1.

Inikori, J. (ed.), Forced migration, papers by Fage, Rodney, van Dantzig, Alpers.

Lovejoy, P. (ed.), The Ideology of Slavery in Africa, select from papers by Northrup, Agiri, Klein, Lovejoy and Cooper.

Rodney, W., How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, chapters 2-4.

Burnahm and Goody chapters in Watson, J. L. (ed.) 1980. Asian and African systems of slavery Oxford: Blackwell.

Longer Case Studies

Akinjogbin, I.A., Dahomey and Its Neighbours.

Law, R., The Oyo Empire.

Rodney, W., A History of the Upper Guinea Coast.

Meillassoux, C. 1991. The anthropology of slavery: the womb of iron and gold London: Athlone.

Descent: lineal and cognatic 

The distribution of kinship systems in Africa. The influence of environment on kinship structure. Patrilineal, Matrilineal, double unilineal and cognatic procedures: definitional problems. Kinship and changing economic conditions.Residential flexibility and organisation. Impact on matrilineal procedures of economic change and social mobility.


Lewis, I.M., "Problems in the comparative study of unilineal descent groups" in M. Banton (ed.), The Relevance of Models for Social Anthropology.

James, W. 1993 (1978). 'Matrifocus on African Women,' in S. Ardener (ed.) Defining Females , pp.140-62 Oxford: Berg.

Barber, K. 1991. I could speak until tomorrow: Oriki, Women and the Past in a Yoruba Town Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press for the I.A.I. Chapter 5 'Oriki of Origin' on Kinship and ile.

Classic Unlineal Systems

Fortes and Evans-Pritchard (eds.), African Political Systems, chapters on Nuer and Tallensi.

Gough, K., "Nuer kinship: a re-examination" in T.O. Beidelman (ed.), The Translation of Culture.

Mair, L., Peoples of Africa, chapters 5, 10 (Nuer and Tallensi).

Worsley, P., "The kinship system of the Tallensi: a re-evaluation", Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 86, 1956, 37-75.

Douglas, M., "Is matriliny doomed in Africa?" in M. Douglas (ed.), Man in Africa.

Fortes, M., "Kinship and marriage among the Ashanti" in A.R. Radcliffe-Brown and D. Forde (eds.), African Systems of Kinship and Marriage.

Fortes, M., "Time and social structure" in Time and Social Structure and Other Essays.

Fortes, M., Kinship and the Social Order, chapters 9 and 10.

Longer Monographs

Evans-Pritchard, E., The Nuer.

Evans-Pritchard, E., Kinship and Marriage Among the Nuer.

Agnatic or Cognatic?

Bender, D.R., "Agnatic or cognaticD", Man, 1970.

Eades, J.S., The Yoruba Today, chapter 3.

Lloyd, P., "Agnatic and cognatic descent among the Yoruba", Man, 1966.

Cognatic Systems

Goody, Esther, Contexts of Kinship.

Smith, M.G., "The Hausa" in Gibbs (ed.), Peoples of Africa.

Double Descent Systems

Forde, D., "Kinship and marriage among the Yako" in , op.cit.

Goody, J., "The fission of domestic groups among the LoDagaba" in J. Goody (ed.), The Developmental Cycle in Domestic Groups.


Husbands and wives in a polygynous society. Bridewealth. Terminal separation and divorce. Marriage, class and social mobility. Alternatives to marriage.

Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. 1950. Introduction. In African Systems of Kinship & Marriage (eds.) A. R. Radcliffe-Brown,& D. Forde. Oxford: OUP.

All the chapters in African Systems of Kinship & Marriage (eds.) A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, & D. Forde. Oxford: OUP. are recommended.

Goody, J. R., & Tambiah, S. J. 1973. (eds.) Bridewealth and dowry Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Several chapters are good including Goody

Bohannan, Paul 'The impact of money on an African subsistence economy'. Journal of Economic History 19 , 491-503 (1959) reprinted in ed Dalton CTribal and Peasant economiesD

Marriage Presentations

Evans-Pritchard, E., Kinship and Marriage Among the Nuer.

Gray, R., "Sonjo brideprice" in LeClair and Schneider (eds.), Economic Anthropology.

Goody, E.N. & J.R. Goody. 1967. The Circulation of Women and Children in Northern Ghana. Man (N.S.) 2(2), 226-248.

The Economic Role of Women

Allen, C. and G. Williams (ed.), 'Sociology of "Developing Countries"' in Subsaharan Africa, section 2.

Hafkin, Nancy and Edna Bay (eds.), Women in Africa, read "Introduction" and select from other papers.

Schildkrout, E., "Dependency and autonomy" in C. Oppong (ed.), Male and Female in West Africa.

Schlegel, Alice, Sexual Stratification, papers by Smock and Lewis.

Sudarkasa, N., Where Women Work.

Alternatives to Marriage

Cohen, A., Custom and Politics in Urban Africa, chapter 2.

Dinan, C., "Pragmatists or feminists? The professional single women in Accra" in Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, 65, 1977, 155-76.

Dinan, C., "Sugar daddies and gold diggers: the white-collar single women in Accra" in C. Oppong (ed.), Female and Male in West Africa.

Pitten, R., "Houses of women: a focus on alternative life-styles in Katsina City" in C. Oppong (ed.), Female and Male in West Africa.

Social Mobility and Marriage

Harrell-Bond, B., Modern Marriage in Sierra Leone.

Oppong, C., Marriage Among a Matrilineal Elite.

African Worlds

God and the cosmos. Interpretation of ritual and symbolism.

Cosmic Structure and Social Structure

Douglas, Mary, Natural Symbols.

Evans-Pritchard, E., Nuer Religion.

Horton, R., "The Kalabari world view" Africa, 1962.

Lienhardt, G., Divinity and Experience, especially Part I.

Morton-Williams, P., "An outline of the cosmology and cult organisation of the Oyo Yoruba" Africa, 1964.

The Interpretation of Symbols

Sperber, Dan, Rethinking Symbolism.

Turner, V., The Ritual Process.

Turner, V., The Forest of Symbols.

Wescott, Joan and P. Morton-Williams, "The symbolism and ritual context of the Yoruba laba Shango " in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 1962.

Religion and the Social Order: Social Control and the Explanation of Misfortune 

The explanation of misfortune. Divination and sacrifice. Witches and ancestors. Ritual in politics and social control.

The Explanation of Misfortune

Bascom, W.R., "The sanctions of Ifa divination" in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 1941, 43-51.

Evans-Pritchard, E., Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande.

Horton, R., "African traditional thought and western science" in Africa, 1967, also in M. Marwick (ed.), Witchcraft and Sorcery, and in B. Wilson (ed.), Rationality.

Mendonsa, E., "Etiology and divination among the Sisala of Ghana" (photocopy in Short Loan).

Zeitlyn, D. 1990. 'Professor Garfinkel visits the Soothsayers. Ethnomethodology and Mambila Divination', Man (n.s.) 25(4), 654-66.

Zeitlyn, D. 1995. 'Divination as Dialogue: the negotiation of meaning with random responses,' in E. N. Goody (ed.) Social Intelligence and Interaction , pp. 189-205. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zeitlyn, D. 1993. 'Spiders in and out of Court or "the long legs of the law." Styles of spider divination in their sociological contexts.', Africa 63(2), 219-240.

Indigenous Healing

Prince, R., "Curse, invocation and mental health among the Yoruba" (photocopy in Short Loan).

Prince, R., "Indigenous Yoruba psychiatry" (photocopy in Short Loan).

Maclean, U., Magical Medicine.

Turner, V., The Forest of Symbols, chapters 9-10.

Turner, V., The Drums of Affliction.

Ancestors and Witches 

Kopytoff, I. 1971.'Ancestors as Elders', Africa 41, 129-42.

Calhoun, C. J. 1980. 'The authority of ancestors: a sociological reconsideration of Fortes's Tallensi in response to Fortes's critics', Man (n.s.) 15(2), 304-319. and the ensuing correspondence with Kopytoff in Man: 16(1), 135-138; 17(3), 548 etc

Fortes, M., "Pietas and ancestor worship" in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 1961.

Gluckman, M. 1937. Mortuary customs and the belief in survival after death among the South-Eastern Bantu. Bantu Studies 11, 117-36.

Mambila avatars and the ancestor cult: Problems of History and Interpretation.

Bradbury, R., "Fathers, elders and ghosts in Edo religion" in M. Banton (ed.), Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion.

Goody, J., Death, Property and the Ancestors.

Goody, E., "Legitimate and illegitimate aggression in a West African state" in M. Douglas (ed.), Witchcraft Confessions and Accusations.

Middleton, J., "Witchcraft and sorcery in Lugbara" in J. Middleton and E. Winter (eds.), Witchcraft and Sorcery in East Africa.

Middleton, J., Lugbara Religion.

Gender issues and possession

Possession, trance and mediumship. Gender roles, politics and the coneption of selfhood.

Boddy J. 1988, Spirits and Selves in Northern Sudan: the Cultural therapeutics of Possession and Trance. In American Ethnologist 15(1):4-27.

Boddy J. 1989, Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, Men and the Zar Cult in Northern Sudan. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press.

Boddy J. 1994, Spirit Possession Revisited: Beyond Instrumentality. In Annual Review of Anthropology 23:407-434.

Bourguignon E. (ed.), 1973 Religion, Altered States of Consciousness and Social Change. Columbus, Ohio, Ohio State University Press.

Constantinides 1985, Women Heal Women: Spirit Possession and Segregation in a Muslim Society. In Social Science and Medicine 21(6):685-692.

Corin E. 1979, A Possession Psychotherapy in an Urban Setting: Zebola in Kinshasa. In Social Science and Medicine 13(B):327-338.

Crapanzano V. 1977, Introduction. In Crapanzano V. and Garrison V. (eds.), Case Studies in Spirit Possession. London, Wiley Inter-Science Publications.

Crapanzano V. 1980, Tuhami: Portrait of a Moroccan. Chicago, Chicago University Press.

Csordas T. J. 1987, Health and the Holy in African and Afro-American Spirit Possession. In Social Science and Medicine 24(1):1-11.

Gussler J. 1973, Social Change, Ecology and Spirit Possession among South African Nguni. In Bourguignon E. (ed.), Religion, Altered States of Consciousness and Social Change. Columbus, Ohio, Ohio State University Press.

Kramer F. 1993, The Red Fez: Art and Spirit Possession in Africa. London, Verso.

Lambek M. 1980, Spirits and Spouses: Possession as a System of Communication among the Malagasy Speakers of Mayotte. In American Ethnologist 7(2):318-331

Lambek M. 1981, Human Spirits: A Cultural Account of Trance in Mayotte. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Lambek M. 1988, Spirit Possession, Spirit Succession: Aspects of Social Continuity among Malagasy Speakers in Mayotte. In American Ethnologist 15(4):710-731.

Lambek M. 1989, From Disease to Discourse: Remarks on the Conceptualization of trance and Spirit Possession. In Ward C. A. (ed.) Altered States of Consciousness and Mental Health: a Cross-Cultural Perspective. Newbury Park, London and New Delhi, Sage Publications.

Lévy R. I., Mageo J. M. and Howard A. 1996, Gods, Spirits and History: a Theoretical Perspective. In Mageo J. M. and Howard A. (eds.), Spirits in Culture, History and Mind. New York and London, Routledge.

Lewis I. M. 1971, Ecstatic Religion. Harmondsworth, Penguin Books.

Lewis I.M., El Safi A. and Hurreiz S., 1991. Women's Medicine: the Zar-Bori in Africa and Beyond. Edinburgh University Press for the International African Institute.

Lovell N. I. 1997, Unleashing Spirits and Unbouding Gender: Vocal Gods and Polyvalent Discourse in Watchi possession. In Ethnos, October 1997,3-4.

Zempléni A. 1977, From Symptom to Sacrifice: the Story of Khady Fall. In Crapanzano V. and Garrison V. (eds.), Case Studies in Spirit Possession. London, Wiley Inter-Science Publications.

The following file is courtesy of HUFON REPORT, the newsletter of the Houston UFO Network. 

THE 12th PLANET - by Zecharia Sitchin Reviewed by Vince Johnson In his book "The 12th Planet," Zecharia Sitchin presents evidence not only of contact by extraterrestrial beings thousands of years ago, but that these beings genetically engineered Homo Sapiens to serve them. 

Sitchin began his inquiry when he came across the term Nefilim during Talmudic study as a boy. His teacher explained that the word meant "giants" when describing the "sons of the deities" who married the daughters of Man, although the literal Hebrew translation of Nefilim was "those who were cast down." 

Sitchin never accepted the "giants" explanation, and his curiosity about the Nefilim was the impetus for "The 12th Planet." The book begins with a short anthropological history of Man, starting with Australopithecus some two million years ago. Six hundred thousand years later came the Neanderthal, who, according to Sitchin, used the same tools as his more primitive ancestors (although the latest findings indicate Neanderthals were more sophisticated than Sitchin describes). Then, a mere 35,000 years ago, Homo Sapiens appears. The author quotes a Dr.T. Dobzhansk, "Modern Man has many fossil collateral relatives, but no progenitors; the derivation of Homo Sapiens then becomes a puzzle." 

As far as current archaeological knowledge can reveal, the first true civilization arose in Mesopotamian Sumer, located in present-day Iraq, at least 6,000 years ago. Sumerian culture exploded onto the scene virtually overnight, the cradle of human civilization. A description of Sumer is a list of "firsts" for the human race. Among these "firsts" are: the first schools, the first historian, the first method of writing, the first library, the first doctors and pharmacopoeia, the first agriculture (and first "farmers' almanac"), the first musical notation, the first bicameral legislature, and the first taxes. The Sumerian legal code (also a first) included protection for divorced women and price controls on foodstuffs and wagon rentals. Their religion influenced all that followed, with elements of the Sumerian creation epic filtered through the ages into the Old Testament (the garden of Eden, the evil serpent, the great flood, etc.). But Sitchin's analysis of Sumerian astronomy and cosmology is of most interest. It is Sitchin's belief that astronomical knowledge actually declined from the Sumerian period, with much of the Sumerian astronomical knowledge only rediscovered during the Copernican revolution. To support this thesis, the author describes the astronomical knowledge of the ancient Greeks, who came more than 3,000 years after the Sumerians. It is historical fact that the Greeks not only understood that the Earth was a sphere, but had calculated its size to amazing accuracy. The Greek, Hipparchus, knew of the heliocentric (sun-centered) astronomical system. Hipparchus was also aware of the phenomenon known as precession of the equinoxes, a cyclical wobble of Earth's axis that takes 2,160 years to complete. 

To understand this phenomenon one would assume that Hipparchus had to draw upon astronomical data at least that old. Two hundred years before Hipparchus, Eudoxes of Cnidus designed a celestial sphere representing the constellations and attributed their zodiacal designations to "men of yore." Sitchin writes, "Were the early Greek astronomers living in Asia Minor better informed than their successors because they could draw on Mesopotamian sources?"

Sumerian astronomy and the required mathematics used to describe and predict celestial events were remarkably advanced. They utilized a unit of measure called dub, which has been translated to mean both the 360 degree circumference of the Earth, and the "arch of the heavens." Not only were the Sumerians aware of the spherical nature of the world, they used the concepts of the equator, poles, and lines of longitude and latitude. Also, the apparent retrograde motions of the planets (due to differences in orbital radii) were understood 6,000 years before renaissance-era astronomers would solved the puzzle. An accurate Sumerian calendar dating back to 4400bc acknowledged the precessional shift from 2,160 years before. 

The Sumerians used a 12-based numbering system which still influences numbering today; numbers 1-12 have individual names while subsequent numbers are contractions. The number 12 was very significant to the Sumerians, representing the number of their principle gods which were synonymous with the planets known to them (they included the Moon and the Sun in their count). Does this mean that the Sumerians were aware of all of the planets known to us today, or was it just coincidence? 

Sitchin describes numerous cylinder seals showing what he interprets to be schematic diagrams of the solar system. These diagrams often show a planet larger than Earth between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. These diagrams, along with Sumerian, Babylonian, and Akkadian creation epics lead Sitchin to believe that a collision of planets occurred early in the history of the solar system. Certain aspects of these ancient texts can support Sitchin's theory, for instance: the "gods" (planets) have "destinies" (orbits) and "cast out their nets" (gravitational attraction). According to Sitchin, the 12th planet, Marduk, while making its approach to the sun (in a highly elliptical orbit) interacted with the other planets of the solar system, flinging Pluto into its current peculiar orbit. Marduk, or one of its satellites, then collided with a planet called Tiamat, which occupied an orbit between Mars and Jupiter. The Sumerians described it like this: Tiamat and Marduk, the wisest of gods, Advanced against one another; They pressed on to single combat, They approached for battle. After he had slain Tiamat, the leader, Her band was broken, her host broken up, The gods, her helpers who marched at her side, Trembling with fear, Turned their backs about so as to save and preserve their lives. 

Sitchin interprets "the host, the helper gods" to be the moons of Tiamat which "turned their backs" or changed orbital motions. He suggests that the "shattered band" became the comets and the asteroid belt. But of most importance, the bulk of Tiamat's debris fell into a new orbit and would become Earth. The Hebrew texts mirror the Sumerian in several respects. In Genesis, the Lord hovers over Tehom (the Hebrew version of Tiamat), and the lightning of the Lord (Marduk in Babylonian) lit the darkness as it hit and split Tiamat, creating the Earth and the "hammered bracelet" Raika (the asteroid belt). In the Akkadian version, Marduk creates the "hammered bracelet" by stretching out Tiamat's "lower part" into a great circle. Such is the Sumerian story of creation. Since these events presumably occurred before the dawn of Man, how do the Sumerians come by this account? Sitchin believes it was the Nefilim who told the story to the Sumerians. 

According to Sitchin's theory, the Nefilim were engaged in mining operations on the Earth. To support this, he presents evidence of mining activity in Africa (through carbon-14 dating) 100,000 years ago. To further support this notion, Sitchin presents a Sumerian carving showing the god of mining, Ea, emerging from a mine pit. Lightning-type rays are emitted by the god, servants are seen holding up shields between themselves and Ea. Texts refer to "blue stones that cause ill," which Sitchin interprets as radioactive cobalt. The texts refer to the underworld as Kur.Nu.Gi.A, "the land where gods who work in deep tunnels pile up the ores." 

Ultimately, the Nefilim miners mutinied against their masters, declaring: Excessive toil has killed us, Our work is heavy, the distress much... While the Birth Goddess is present, Let her create a Primitive Worker, Let him bear the yoke... Let him carry the toil of the gods! Marduk responds: I will produce a lowly primitive; Man shall be his name, I shall create a Primitive Worker; He will be charged in the service of the gods that they might have their ease. It is Sitchin's theory that a mutiny of the Nefilim led to the creation of Mankind. The Nefilim genetically altered a hominid with some of their own DNA, producing a useful hybrid - Man. To support this, he quotes a Babylonian text: Let one god be bled.. From his flesh and blood, Let Ninti mix the clay.. The newborn's' fate thou shalt pronounce; Ninti would fix upon it the image of the gods; And what it will be is Man. 

The god chosen to provide the blood was named TE.E.MA, which translates to "that which houses that which binds the memory," which could be interpreted as an allegorical pre-technological description of "genes." Furthermore, the Akkadian term for clay is 'tit' in Hebrew, which is synonymous with bos (mud) and shares a linguistic root with bisa (marsh) and, interestingly, besa (egg). 

To further support the notion that Mankind was created to serve the Nefilim, Sitchin submits that the Hebrew term used to describe Man's relationship to the gods was not "worship" but avod (work). Ancient Man did not worship the Nefilim, he worked for them. Sitchin's theory could explain the rapid rise and technical prowess of Sumerian civilization. But what became of the Nefilim? The author suggests that they either became aware of, or were the cause of, the coming flood.

The Nefilim blasted off, leaving the Earth to Man, or at least the few that would survive the coming catastrophe. All evidence of the Nefilim's existence was buried under tons of mud. While The 12th Planet does present some interesting data, there are some weaknesses in Sitchin's theory. For instance, he believes the Nefilim came from Marduk, the 12th planet. One would have to wonder how life could have evolved on a planet with an orbit that took it far beyond the orbit of Pluto. Sitchin also describes Nefilim space technology with a decidedly Apollo-era slant (the book was written in 1976). He produces evidence for the idea that the Nefilim used LEM (Lunar Excursion Module) style landers, and that they also "splashed-down" in the Indian Ocean. 

He even goes so far as to suggest that the reason the Nefilim chose Mesopotamia for their colony was the availability of fossil fuels. If the Nefilim came from Marduk, a planet presumably locked in a permanent deep-freeze, they would probably have had much more efficient means of energy generation than burning oil. Sitchin also makes many unqualified declarations regarding the goings-on in ancient Sumer. To be objective when dealing with subject matter as speculative as this, he should have incorporated terms like "could, might" and "possibly" rather than making unqualified statements of fact. That being said, Sitchin does present a mystery; how could the Sumerians have so rapidly achieved such a high level of civilization with no predecessors to draw on? That they received instruction from alien beings which they regarded as gods is no more implausible than any other explanation. 


This article originally appeared in the October 1991 edition of HUFON REPORT.


Robert J. Sawyer, David G. Hartwell (Editor)
Book Cover
 Massmarket Paperback Edition, February 2003
Other Formats: Hardcover
skip to cart

 To find these books, check with your local library or OR



... Among the Baganda of central Africa it was customary for a mother to bathe her newborn child by the light of the first full moon. ...

... WHO, as you may recall, is a UN sponsored organization that is rumored to have helped spread AIDS to Africa by way of contaminated hepatitis B and/or polio ...

... NEAR EAST [For Egypt, see under AFRICA] Mythology --This is an extensive site with lots of useful information. Assyro-Babylonian ...

... While EA/EN.KI was in the south of Africa working the gold mines, EN.LIL took over the command of the seven Cities of Gods in the E.DIN ("Home of the Righteous ...

... organisations. He is wanted by a US court for masterminding the bombing in 1998 of two US embassies in East Africa in which 224 people died. ...

... Sister,The Zulu Tribe in Africa believes in the coming change.

... east, and the eastern Indian Ocean; the end visible in Australia, Antarctica, New Zealand, Asia except extreme northern part, eastern Africa, western Pacific ...

... there aree two sets of standards and 72 = 75 and is regarded to be the same) ...CHANNELED MESSAGE - DANGER IN SOUTH AFRICA. ...

... 1787 - Philadelphia’s Free Africa Society organized. ... 1820 - First organized emigration of US Blacks back to Africa, from New York to Sierra Leone. ...

... In the hologram appeared a scene of Africa and coming across the Savannah grass were two ... maitreya.htm. ... ...

... He has written a book titled "The Committee of 300", along with others, lectured on South Africa and the Boer War, and the butchery done on those people by ...

... Origin : Africa and South of Sahara. ... Human populations in Africa and Asia have quadrupled
since the turn of the century, the fastest growth rate on the planet. ...

... Africa is a continent with rich cultural traditionÆbut one ancient ritual has wounded an estimated 130 million girls. ... Mary" is from West Africa. ...

DAVID WILCOCK - PART VIII - The Breath of the Divine and “ ...
... The woman told him that it was really a water buffalo, and that it was one of the three deadliest animals in their section of Africa. ...

... lined, however, Celtic or ancient Aryan-speaking tribes were predated by the Iberians over Great Britain, Ireland, France, Spain, North Africa, South Italy and ...



... The backbreaking work in the gold mines, in southeast Africa, had become unbearable. ... Neanderthals
thrive in Africa. They migrate to Europe and Asia. ...

... There was an island opposite the strait which you call the Pillars of Hercules (Straits
of Gibraltar), an island larger than Libya (Africa) and Asia combined ...
Description: A German historian/scuba diver has recorded the exact location and value of deviations in magnetic...

... The battle for your brain has arrived in South Africa as an international campaign over health fears linked to cellphone use begins to target local consumers. ...

This is Google's cache of ... 170 miles south-southwest
of the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa at latitude ...

... Tracing it to the green monkey in the wilds of Africa, was just one instance. ... Ekwowusi writes from Lagos. The Massacres in Africa ...

 The Hopi - The White Brother/Sister,The Zulu Tribe in Africa believes in

... UK co-operation with other countries in many space science missions, and in ground-based
astronomical facilities in Australia, South Africa, Hawaii and La Palma ...

... Mozarabic, and Ambrosian; three Eastern forms, the Byzantine (see: Hesychasm), Syrian,
and Armenian; and the Coptic and Ethiopian chants of northern Africa. ...

... Life expectancy still falling in Africa Aids, wars and poverty are blamed for driving down the life expectancy of Africans by 15 years within the past two ...

... AFRICA FROM Johannesburg, South Africa. March, 1999. MEC fuels debate about corporal punishment. ...

John Mack - Interview with
... What I know is that we've seen cases in South America., Australia. Turkey, Africa. ... The
core expereince seem similar whether in Africa, or Brazil, or New York. ...

... The 14 are believed to have ties to bin Laden, who is alleged by US officials to have masterminded the bombing of two US embassies in Africa last year. ...

... In South Africa in August, I was subjected to an onslaught of attacks in the national media owned by Illuminati frontman, Tony O'Reilly, friend of Henry ...

... This creature was more massive than even the robustus australopithecine who were discovered in southern Africa. ... ...

... We Are The World. USA For Africa. There comes ... amorric,". ~~~. More Explorers. Chinese sailors made it all the way to Africa in 1424. Cortez ...

Sylvester the Cat and Speedy Gonzales - May 5, 2003
... asteroids dislodged will travel to Earth and strike in the South Atlantic Ocean between lower Africa and lower ... ...

in Southern Africa, 'Me he ki he de' was given a message from spirit. ...

... around local midnight. [NOAA geomagnetic latitude maps: N. America, Eurasia, S. Africa & Australia]. GEOSTORMS: Earth's magnetic ...

... the Ancient Knowledge. Webtrance : Rare downloadable McKenna video footage shot in South Africa. What happens in 2012? The Solar ...

... *****. 6-7-90 Meditation: I saw a map of Africa on the Indian  Ocean side. ... The vision narrowed in on the southeast portion of Africa. ...

... EGYPT AND THE SINAI: Egypt, officially known as the Arab Republic of Egypt, is located in northeastern Africa and includes in its domain the Sinai Peninsula. ...

The Bleeding Heart of Jesus - My Funny Nose -
... In this last category, Coon lumped together southern tribes, like the Bushmen and Hottentots, and some tribes from eastern Africa who had dark skin but did not ...

Florida's Hurricane History: September 1935
... Voodoo (or Voudoun, Vodou, Vaudoun, Vadu) is an religion based on the beliefs of Africans brought from West Africa to Haiti as slaves. ...

... was considered 3/4 god as 3 of his grandparents were extraterrestrials which could not die if they ate a certain plant from off the coast of Africa, and one ...

... Institutions in Africa, Asia and Oceania. ... South Africa Geological Survey of South Africa, Seismic Research Unit ...

... Most deaths would be in developing nations in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia, which would be hardest hit by the spread of malnutrition, diarrhea and ...

... The same symbols type that were (or are) on the fishing canoes of the ( Nubians ) on the shores of WEST AFRICA and other shores of Africa. ...

.. There was a time when Asia, Europe, Africa, and America were covered with the temples sacred to the sun ... (Tablet 988 ...

TE Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) | British Soldier and Author
... - Uprooted weapon scientists from Iraq, Russia and South Africa are hunting for new jobs and spreading germ secrets. ..

... comments, "They were seized by the Vandals and taken to North Africa in 455 ... King Arthur
and the Holy Grail Shroud of Turin ...

... Thus, the central source which supplied the lands of Africa as well as the ... the Egyptians

... hologram picture. In the hologram appeared a scene of Africa and coming across the Savannah grass were two huge patriarchal lions.

... Mohamedans and regains Holy land and Holy city; Muslims are driven out to the far east and North Africa and converted 34 .

... world/articles/rwanda_wrs98.htm Life After Death: Suspicion and Reintegration in Post-Genocide Rwanda by Jeff Drumtra Jeff Drumtra is USCR Africa Policy Analyst ...

... the light (the divine wisdom or intelligence) in the other old countries (India, China, Islamic Nations, Africa). ...

... When hundreds of thousands of members of the Yoruba people were brought as slaves
from Eastern Africa (mostly modern ... See: ...

... the first 18 months. Cases have been reported from archeological sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America. One adult case ...

... Commission on Sustainable Development Sessions and Earth Summit 2002 (officially
the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, Sept. ...

... Some researchers believe the rapid increase in liver and pancreatic cancer in Africa is due to the introduction of soy products there. ...

Constellation Eridanus -Is it connected to Eridu - the first city ...
... we learn from The Eridu Lament, flew away from her city to a safe haven in Africa: "Ninki, its ... NOTE: See this page: ... ...

... NOTE: See this page: ... The content of the map
was amazing: it focuses on the western coast of Africa, the eastern coast of ... -

... In W. Africa's tribes the Turtle originated ju-ju and appears in Fertility rites, representing the feminine to the serpent's masculine power. ...

... To the aid of this small country came nations from North America and Europe, from Asia and South America, from Africa and the Arab world, all united against ...

... VISION: I saw white kittens playing. ... 3-17-98 - 42707 - DREAM - I was in Africa observing a mating ritual dance. ...

... In sub-Saharan Africa the estimate is 300,000-500,000 excess deaths. ... Dust from northern Africa, coming across the Atlantic Ocean, has been found in Texas. ...

... thanks. You are the finest regiment in our army. I know your record from the day you landed in North Africa, and through Sicily. I ...

... Datta Peetham - Mysore, India. Divine Life Society - Rishikesh, Disseminating the teachings of Sri Swami Sivananda. Divine Life Society - South Africa. ...

... The festival of Kavady is celebrated at scores of temples in South Africa and Asia during January and February to honour the Hindu god of healing, Lord Muruga. ...

... In the largest patch, beneath the southern tip of Africa, the magnetic field is pointing towards the centre of the Earth, instead of outwards. ...

... Bushmen in Africa used Topaz in healing ceremonies and rituals to connect with ancestral spirits. MORE. ... and. ...

US and Islamic Holidays 2002 - 2004 - Dream of Terrorism
... Commonly a 4 day holiday. Known as Kurban Bayram in Turkish, Hari Raya Hajj in South East Asia and Tabaski in parts of Africa. As ...

. 6-7-90 Meditation: I saw a map of Africa on the Indian  Ocean side. ... The vision narrowed in on the southeast portion of Africa. ...

... A gift highly developed in Africa is that of divination, using techniques such as reading patterns revealed by a casting of cowrie shells. ...

EXTREME WEATHER - SUMMER 2000 - A New Prophecy by Edgar Cayce - A ...
... droughts and wildfire in Mexico, Indonesia and Brazil; devastating floods in South America; and massive coral bleaching from Panama to Africa to Australia's ...

... A voice said, "Regarding the oceans" . The vision narrowed in on the southeast portion of Africa. ...

Prophecies on the end of the millennium - on 1999-2000
... atomic bombs. Europe will be a vast cemetery. Asia and Africa will be true deserts. Part of America will be horribly destroyed. The ...

... market. They formed the nucleus of settlements in Africa, Italy, Spain, and Gaul. ... Essequibo. 1640 - Slaves arrive in the colonies from Africa. ...

... Weaver birds are found in Africa, South America, Asia, and here in the United States. ... These species live in Africa and South America. ...

... It said, "Let us introduce Jesus Christ. On the side it said, "Africa Presents.". by Dee. ... With all the love. ...

... WASHINGTON -- The bombings of two US Embassies in Africa, as bad as they were, pale against the kinds of terrorist threats envisioned by US officials. ...

... exploded, resulting in positive change in the Southern Hemisphere: democracy and economic improvement in South America, and positive change in South Africa). ...

... However, one of the sizeable asteroids dislodged will travel to Earth and strike in the South Atlantic Ocean between lower Africa and lower South America. ...

... [NOAA geomagnetic latitude maps: N. America, Eurasia, S. Africa & Australia]. ... See: *****. ...

Getting Ready for Impact with 1998 OX4? - Now also 2001PM9
... Evidence from South Africa's Karoo region suggests strongly that many species of plants disappeared at the end of the Permian period, along with oceans teeming ...

... The last reported case was in Africa about 5-6 years ago. You do not need to take any precautions since it does not exist(in the wild). ...

... for the Roman Catholic Church to rise to power; and three of these tribes (which established themselves in Europe and the North of Africa) were eventually ...

... When the task of creating the Adamu was complete, the first of them were put to work in the Lower World of deep, hot mineshafts in southern Africa, where—not ...

... areas. Note: The first time I was shown an "explosion", was over a map of Africa a few months before the genocide in Rwanda. The ...

ET Government Considering "Major or Epic Land Shift"
... and Boeing, who built the aircraft for Hitler (wherein they were shipped to several locations as passenger aircraft and were then retooled in Africa as bombers ...

... I believe this is a calling for the truth. However the black history extends far beyond Africa. ... That many of them survived on earth upon the continent Africa. ...

... ... He said, "Let's not forget the men in Africa and Australia." He closed their book and said, "thank you, thank you!". ...

... by Bryon Smith. *****.
11-21-97 - I saw a map of the Middle East which included Africa and India. ...

... Further, in the same month, US nuclear warning Vela satellites detected a "nuclear flash" over the South Atlantic, off the coast of Africa. ...

Lucid Visit to the Great Hall and Dreams of Fire
... 3-17-98 - 42708 - CHANNELED - "In 1972 - in Southern Africa, Me He Ki He Da, spoke to his people and told them of a great travesty coming. ...

... At the time of the fourth initiation and the Solar Eclipse over Southern Africa, you corrected the spatial rift in the Time Space Continuum created in the ...

Reptilians - The Connection to Dulce - by Branton
... and races. Whole civilizations based upon the worship of these false gods rose and fell in Asia, Africa, and South America. The ...

... I went outside then and saw that I was on the porch of an old dilapidated cabin and I was in Africa. ...

... Pray for the immediate conversion of these souls. A few countries  in Africa will also be assailed by murderous storms. Lightning ...

The Changing of the Guard: Part V: The Oracle
... such as Dr. Len Horowitz, that the AIDS virus was deliberately created by the Illuminati for population control, specifically in Africa through inoculation of ...

... *****. 9-13-98 - DREAM - A web page came up. It said, "Let us introduce Jesus Christ. On the side it said, "Africa Presents.". ***. ...

... +++++. 6-11-89 - Dream: I was shown the world hanging in the sky. A zoom camera showed Africa, then 2 small countries in southern Africa at war. ...

... Adolph Hitler [Germany], Joseph Stalin [Russia], Pol Pot [Cambodia], Radovan Karadzic [Bosnia], genocide in AFRICA and the infamous Spanish Inquisition have ...

... Rare white lions born in South Africa ... Alex Larenty holds triplet cubs, including two rare white lions, born at The Lion Park near Johannesburg, South Africa. ...

... early descendants of Adam (and most of the later ones) exhibited little desire to admix with the darker colored peoples, whether in India, Africa, or elsewhere ...

... It said, "Let us introduce Jesus Christ. On the side it said, "Africa Presents.". 10-30-98 - DREAM - (I had this exact same dream twice). ...

DAVID WILCOCK - PART XIII - Global Grid Part Two: Putting it All ...
... The main grid line passing through Gizeh also obviously has similar power, as it might be responsible for centering the entire landmass of Africa. ...

... Black Panther Photo Archive. Black Panther - A Dream. Black Leopard/Panthera Physical Data. Out of Africa - Always Wild. Panthera. ~~~~~. ...

Uganda - Patricia McFadden, The Challenges and Prospects for the ...
... Uganda is a landlocked country situated in East Africa south of Sudan and north of Tanzania, while to the east lays Kenya and to the west is the Democratic ...

... of the forests into the Stony mountains"; the same would be true of Canada after the conquest he envisioned, while all blacks would be removed to Africa or the ...

Thoth Identity
... Africa=Kundalini Egypt=Crown Seal of Kundalini Eurasia=Solar Plexus/Liver Middle East=mental capacity of Eurasia Australia=Heart Seal Sth America=Throat Seal ...

... large number of tribes in a primitive area. It seemed like Africa but also Native American. The water system was provided by the ...

Ascended Masters - Who They Are
... It was Rechung who recorded in detail the incidents of Milarepa's life for posterity. Afra - Afra is the patron of Africa and of the black race. ...

... show that subduction is merely a feature of the Pacific and that it does not really exist anywhere else where Plate Tectonics demands it should be (eg Africa). ...

... 11-21-97 - I saw a map of the Middle East which included Africa and India. The oceans were blue like in a National Geographic or Atlas map. ...

... 1999: Peak date / time, November 18, 0150 UTC. Most favored areas: Eastern Atlantic, Europe, Africa, Asia. Moon phase: Waxing Gibbous Moon, 9 days. . ...

... If man had remained in the primitive state, such as some tribes in Africa and South America still are, which are hidden from the rest of humanity, there would ...

... The giant elephant came out of the jungle and I was shown the word 'EXITATIONS' in the center of the page. NOTE: In one area in Africa... ...

Indonesia Earthquake - 5-26-03
... Elsewhere around the globe this past few days, quakes in the 4.5 to 5.9 range have  struck at key plate junction points, Africa, Eurasia, Carib, Alaska - much ...

India - A Quilted Nation
... can the terrorists come from?'' he said. ``They are not coming here from Kenya or Africa. They're from Pakistan.'' Syed Salahuddin ...

... The English name "Egypt" comes from the Greek word aegyptos, not from Arabic or Hebrew. The descendants of Ham gradually populated Africa and are Hamitic. ...

... It was only in the 1970's that French scientists in Gabon, Africa, discovered the first evidence of a nuclear reaction which had occurred on the surface of the ...

... In the 1970's, French scientists discovered a site at Oklo, Gabon, Africa, where a nuclear fission reaction had taken place millions of years ago. ...

... 9-13-98 - DREAM - A web page came up. It said, "Let us introduce Jesus Christ. On the side it said, "Africa Presents.". 9-13-98 - DREAM - I was in my 16th St. ...






BLOG INDEX 2012  - page 1







JAN, FEB, MAR, APR. 2013

BLOG INDEX - PAGE 2 - 2013