EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD
Dee Finney's blog
start date July 20, 2011
Today's date Nov 29, 2011
I had a dream this morning in which I was in a classroom. One our desks
was a computerized gadget with the names of the planets in our solar system.
We were told to keep track of the magnetic field numbers on each of the planets.
I looked at a couple ofo them - it was 19 and the other was 3.
I was told that the hiigher the number, the more likely it would be that
'something' would happen. We were not told what 'something' meant. After I
woke up thinking I saw the month JUN on the cover of the computerized data.
All I've found so far in my research is earth. This is from
I will update it for a few days to see how it goes, while I do further
research on the other planets.
X-ray Solar Flares
speed: 449.3 km/sec
density: 4.3 protons/cm3
Updated: Today at 0324 UT
6-hr max: C3 1830 UT
24-hr: C3 1830 UT Nov28
| more data
Updated: Today at: 2359 UT
speed: 432.6 km/sec
density: 1.3 protons/cm3
Updated: Today at 1934 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: B9 1546 UT
24-hr: C2 0900 UT Nov29
| more data
Updated: Today at: 1900 UT
speed: 427.3 km/sec
density: 0.9 protons/cm3
Updated: Today at 1436 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: C1 1035 UT
24-hr: C2 0011 UT Nov30
| more data
Updated: Today at: 1400 UT
speed: 378.7 km/sec
density: 7.5 protons/cm3
Updated: Today at 1805 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: C1 1642 UT
24-hr: C1 1642 UT Dec02
| more data
Updated: Today at: 1800 UT
speed: 469.6 km/sec
density: 4.7 protons/cm3
Updated: Today at 0055 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: C1 2119 UT
24-hr: C1 1123 UT Dec03
| more data
Updated: Today at: 2359 UT
THERE WAS A SHIFT IN THE SUN BEFORE
The magnetic polarities of the sun have gone through a
significant shift, ... The earth's
magnetic fields hold
our collective thoughts, feelings, and consciousness.
EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD
Earth's magnetic field (also known as the geomagnetic field) is
the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's
to where it meets the
a stream of energetic particles emanating from the
Sun. It is
approximately the field of a
magnetic dipole tilted at an angle of 11 degrees with respect to the
rotational axis—as if there were a bar magnet placed at that angle at the center
of the Earth. However, unlike the field of a bar magnet, Earth's field changes
over time because it is really generated by the motion of molten iron alloys in
outer core (the
Magnetic North Pole wanders, fortunately slowly enough that the
useful for navigation. At random intervals (averaging several hundred thousand
the Earth's field reverses (the north and south
geomagnetic poles change places with each other). These reversals leave a
record in rocks that allow
paleomagnetists to calculate past motions of continents and ocean floors as
a result of
plate tectonics. The region above the
and extending several tens of thousands of kilometers into
The Earth's magnetosphere is a highly dynamic structure that responds quite
dramatically to changes in the dynamic pressure of the solar wind and the
orientation of the
interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Its ultimate source of energy is the
interaction with the solar wind. Some of the energy extracted from this
interaction goes directly into driving various magnetospheric processes, while
some is stored in the magnetotail, to be released later in
The principal means by which energy is transferred from the solar wind to the
magnetosphere is a process known as "reconnection," which occurs when the
IMF is oriented antiparallel to the orientation of the Earth's field lines. This
orientation allows interplanetary and geomagnetic field lines to merge,
resulting in the transfer of energy, mass, and momentum from the solar wind to
the magnetosphere. The viscous interaction of the solar wind and the
magnetosphere also plays a role in solar wind/magnetosphere coupling, but is of
secondary importance compared with reconnection.
SEE THESE LINKS FOR PICTURES OF THE BEAUTIFUL AURORAS THAT EARTH HAS:
NOTE FROM DEE:
This is not the first time I've written about this topic, but I never worried
about the other planets, only earth. This obviously is a little different
scenario. I'll have to do more research to see ifi any other planet's data
HERE IS MERCURY:
"Earth's magnetic field is about 100 times larger than
Mercury's magnetic field, and we're much farther from the
HERE IS JUP;ITER
... a bubble of charged particles trapped within Jupiter's
magnetic field. The bubble is so big that if it were visible to
the eye, ...
ANOTHER PAGE ON JUPITER
Plunging into Jupiter could shed new light on the planet's
magnetic fields ... While Goliathan’s might be a bit
technical for those outside of his field of study, ...
The magnetosphere of
is the cavity created in the
wind by the planet's
magnetic field. Extending up to seven million kilometers in the Sun's
direction and almost to the orbit of
the opposite direction, Jupiter's
magnetosphere is the largest and most powerful of any planetary
magnetosphere in the
Solar System, and by volume the largest known continuous structure in
the Solar System after the
heliosphere. Wider and flatter than the
Earth's magnetosphere, Jupiter's is stronger by an
order of magnitude, while its
magnetic moment is roughly 18,000 times larger. The existence of
Jupiter's magnetic field was first inferred from observations of radio
emissions at the end of the 1950s and was directly observed by the
10 spacecraft in 1973.
Jupiter's internal magnetic field is generated by electrical currents
flowing in the planet's outer core, which is composed of
metallic hydrogen. Volcanic eruptions on Jupiter's moon
eject large amounts of
sulfur dioxide gas into space, forming a large
around the planet. Jupiter's magnetic field forces the torus to rotate with
angular velocity and direction as the planet. The torus in turn loads
the magnetic field with
plasma, in the process stretching it into a pancake-like structure
called a magnetodisk. In effect, Jupiter's magnetosphere is shaped by Io's
plasma and its own rotation, rather than by the
wind like Earth's magnetosphere. Strong currents flowing in the
magnetosphere generate permanent
aurorae around the planet's poles and intense variable radio emissions,
which means that Jupiter can be thought of as a very weak
radio pulsar. Jupiter's aurorae have been observed in almost all parts
electromagnetic spectrum including
The action of the magnetosphere traps and accelerates particles,
producing intense belts of
radiation similar to Earth's
Van Allen belts, but thousands of times stronger. The interaction of
energetic particles with the surfaces of Jupiter's largest
moons markedly affects their chemical and physical properties. Those
same particles also affect and are affected by the motions of the particles
within Jupiter's tenuous
planetary ring system. Radiation belts present a significant hazard for
spacecraft and potentially to human space travellers.
- HERE IS SATURN
... magnetic field and weather patterns -- including its
lightning and stormy ammonia clouds. "It's going to be the star
Saturn has an intrinsic
magnetic field that has a simple, symmetric shape—a magnetic
strength at the equator—0.2
µT)—is approximately one twentieth than that of the field around Jupiter and
slightly weaker than Earth's magnetic field.
As a result Saturn's magnetosphere is much smaller than Jupiter's and extends
slightly beyond the orbit of Titan.
Most probably, the magnetic field is generated similarly to that of Jupiter—by
currents in the metallic-hydrogen layer, which is called a metallic-hydrogen
Similarly to those of other planets, this magnetosphere is efficient at
particles from the Sun.
The moon Titan orbits within the outer part of Saturn's magnetosphere and
contributes plasma from the
ionized particles in
Titan's outer atmosphere.
When Voyager 2 entered the magnetosphere, the
pressure was high and the magnetosphere extended only 19 Saturn radii, or 1.1
million km (712,000 mi),
although it enlarged within several hours, and remained so for about three days.
Saturn's magnetosphere, like
Orbit and rotation
The average distance between Saturn and the
Sun is over
1,400,000,000 km (9
AU). With an average orbital speed of 9.69 km/s,
it takes Saturn 10,759 Earth days (or about 29½ years),
to finish one revolution around the Sun.
The elliptical orbit of Saturn is inclined 2.48° relative to the orbital plane
of the Earth.
Because of an
eccentricity of 0.056, the distance between Saturn and the Sun varies by
approximately 155,000,000 km between
which are the nearest and most distant points of the planet along its orbital
The visible features on Saturn rotate at different rates depending on
latitude and multiple rotation periods have been assigned to various regions (as
in Jupiter's case): System I has a period of 10 h 14 min 00 s (844.3°/d)
and encompasses the Equatorial Zone, which extends from the northern edge of the
South Equatorial Belt to the southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt. All
other Saturnian latitudes have been assigned a rotation period of 10 h 38 min
25.4 s (810.76°/d), which is System II. System III, based on
radio emissions from the planet in the period of the Voyager flybys, has a
period of 10 h 39 min 22.4 s (810.8°/d); because it is very close to System II,
it has largely superseded it.
A precise value for the rotation period of the interior remains elusive.
While approaching Saturn in 2004, the Cassini spacecraft found that the radio
rotation period of Saturn had increased appreciably, to approximately 10 h 45 m
45 s (± 36 s).
The cause of the change is unknown—it was thought to be due to a movement of the
radio source to a different latitude inside Saturn, with a different rotational
period, rather than because of a change in Saturn's rotation.
Later, in March 2007, it was found that the rotation of the radio emissions
did not trace the rotation of the planet, but rather is produced by convection
of the plasma disc, which is dependent also on other factors besides the
planet's rotation. It was reported that the variance in measured rotation
periods may be caused by geyser activity on Saturn's moon
Enceladus. The water vapor emitted into Saturn's orbit by this activity
becomes charged and "weighs down" Saturn's magnetic field, slowing its rotation
slightly relative to the rotation of the planet. At the time it was stated that
there is no currently known method of determining the rotation rate of Saturn's
The latest estimate of Saturn's rotation based on a compilation of various
measurements from the Cassini, Voyager and Pioneer probes was reported in
September 2007 is 10 hours, 32 minutes, 35 seconds.
HERE IS VENUS
One possibility is that a magnetic field induced by the solar wind
may have swept charged oxygen particles away from the planet, he says.
Magnetic field and
Size comparison of terrestrial planets (left to right):
Venera-4 found that the Venusian
magnetic field is much weaker than that of Earth. This magnetic field is
induced by an interaction between the
rather than by an internal
dynamo in the
core like the one inside the Earth. Venus' small
induced magnetosphere provides negligible protection to the atmosphere
cosmic radiation. This radiation may result in cloud-to-cloud lightning
The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Venus was surprising given that it
is similar to Earth in size, and was expected also to contain a dynamo at its
core. A dynamo requires three things: a
conducting liquid, rotation, and
The core is thought to be electrically conductive and, while its rotation is
often thought to be too slow, simulations show that it is adequate to produce a
This implies that the dynamo is missing because of a lack of convection in the
Venusian core. On Earth, convection occurs in the liquid outer layer of the core
because the bottom of the liquid layer is much hotter than the top. On Venus, a
global resurfacing event may have shut down plate tectonics and led to a reduced
heat flux through the crust. This caused the mantle temperature to increase,
thereby reducing the heat flux out of the core. As a result, there is not an
internal geodynamo that can drive a magnetic field. Instead the heat energy from
the core is being used to reheat the crust.
One possibility is that Venus has no solid inner core,
or its core is not currently cooling, so that the entire liquid part of the core
is at approximately the same temperature. Another possibility is that its core
has already completely solidified. The state of the core is highly dependent on
the concentration of
is unknown at present.
Orbit and rotation
Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 108 million
kilometers (about 0.7
), and completes an orbit every 224.65 days. Venus is the
second planet from the Sun and it revolves round the Sun
approximately 1.6 times (yellow trail) in Earth's 365 days (blue
The orbital position and rotation of Venus shown at 10 Earth-day
intervals from 0 to 250 days. The position of the point of the
surface that was the antisolar point at day zero is indicated by a
cross. As a consequence of its slow retrograde rotation, any given
point on Venus has nearly 60 terrestrial days of continuous
illumination and an equivalent period of darkness.
Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 108 million kilometers
AU), and completes an orbit every 224.65 days. Although all
planetary orbits are
Venus is the closest to
eccentricity of less than 0.01.
When Venus lies between the Earth and the Sun, a position known as "inferior
conjunction", it makes the closest approach to Earth of any planet, lying at an
average distance of 41 million km during
The planet reaches inferior conjunction every 584 days, on average.
Due to the decreasing eccentricity of Earth, the minimum distances will become
greater. From the year 1 to 5383, there are 526 approaches less than 40 million
km; then there are none for about 60,200 years.
During periods of greater eccentricity Venus can come as close as 38.2 million
All the planets of the Solar System orbit in a counter-clockwise direction as
viewed from above the Sun's north pole: most planets also rotate
counter-clockwise but Venus rotates clockwise (called
"retrograde" rotation) once every 243 Earth days—by far the slowest rotation
period of any major planet. The equator of the Venusian surface rotates at 6.5
km/h while on Earth rotation speed at the equator is about 1,670 km/h.
sidereal day thus lasts longer than a Venusian year (243 versus 224.7 Earth
days). Because of the retrograde rotation the length of a
solar day on Venus is significantly shorter than the sidereal day. As a
result of Venus's relatively long solar day, one Venusian year is about 1.92
Venusian days long.
To an observer on the surface of Venus the Sun would appear to rise in the west
and set in the east and the time from one sunrise to the next would be 116.75
Earth days (making the Venusian solar day shorter than
Mercury's 176 Earth days).
Venus may have formed from the
solar nebula with a different rotation period and obliquity, reaching to its
current state because of chaotic spin changes caused by planetary perturbations
and tidal effects
on its dense atmosphere, a change that would have occurred over the course of
billions of years. The rotation period of Venus may represent an equilibrium
state between tidal locking to the Sun's gravitation, which tends to slow
rotation, and an atmospheric tide created by solar heating of the thick Venusian
A curious aspect of the Venusian orbit and rotation periods is that the 584-day
average interval between successive close approaches to the Earth is almost
exactly equal to five Venusian solar days. Whether this relationship arose by
chance or is the result of
locking with the Earth is unknown.
Venus currently has no natural satellite,
2002 VE68 presently maintains a
quasi-orbital relationship with it.
In the 17th century
Giovanni Cassini reported a moon orbiting Venus which was named
Neith and there were numerous reported sightings over the following 200
years but it was ultimately determined that most were stars in the vicinity.
Alex Alemi's and
David Stevenson's 2006 study of models of the early Solar System at the
California Institute of Technology shows that it is likely that billions of
years ago Venus had at least one moon created by a huge
About 10 million years later, according to the study, another impact reversed
the planet's spin direction and caused the Venusian moon gradually to
until it collided and merged with Venus. If later impacts created moons these
also were absorbed in the same way. An alternative explanation for the lack of
satellites is the effect of strong solar tides, which can destabilize large
satellites orbiting the inner terrestrial planets.[6NARS
MARS: MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETOSPHERE J. G. Luhmann and C.
T. Russell. Originally published in: Encyclopedia of Planetary
Sciences, edited by J. H. Shirley and R. W ...
MAGNETIC FIELDS AND MARS. Even though Mars
is one of Earth's two sister planets, it is still in large part a
mystery to scientists. Did life ever exist there?
The first indication of the weakness of the magnetic field of Mars was
obtained during the Mariner 4 spacecraft flyby in 1965. At a closest approach of
3.9 Mars radii, no indication of the Earth-like dipole magnetic field predicted
by scaling arguments from theory was detected. Still, a shock-like disturbance
in the solar wind signaled the presence of an obstacle approximately the size of
Mars. Most subsequent magnetic field measurements in the vicinity of Mars were
carried out on a series of five MARS spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union
between 1971 and 1974 (see Soviet MARS missions). Several of these successfully
operated in orbit for periods long enough to both confirm the Mariner 4 results
and to measure the disturbance of the interplanetary magnetic field caused by
the obstacle. However, none of these spacecraft approached Mars closer than ~
1300 km or ~ 1.3 Mars radii from the center of the planet, and none probed the
solar wind wake inside of the optical shadow, where the magnetotail of an
intrinsic magnetosphere resembling a weak version of Earth's would be found. The
Viking landers reached the surface of Mars in 1976, but did not carry magnetic
field experiments its part of their scientific payloads. although they made
ionospheric measurements of relevance to the magnetic field question. Because
the available measurements could be interpreted front the viewpoint of either a
small Earth-like magnetosphere, or a Venus-like ionospheric obstacle, different
researchers have adopted both of these paradigms for over a decade. Their
divergent views depended on the techniques and arguments used in analyzing the
still ambiguous data (Luhmann and Brace, 1991).
These differences in opinion have to some extent been altered by the most
recent magnetic field measurements on the Soviet Phobos-2 spacecraft in 1989
(e.g. Nature. 341. 19 October 1989, describes the first results). The
orbit of Phobos 2 went into the deep wake of Mars, for the first time providing
magnetic field data in the optical shadow at distances as close as ~ 2.7 Mars
radii and as distant as ~ 20 Mars radii. These data unambiguously showed that
the magnetic fields in the wake of Mars are determined by the interplanetary
field orientation, and are thus not Earth- like, at least in the near-equatorial
spacecraft orbit plane. The current upper limit on the dipole moment remains at
~ 10-4 times that of Earth, a value established on the basis of the
previous observations. This moment is derived not from the wake data but from
estimates of the subsolar altitude of the Martian obstacle to the solar wind of
~ 400 km. Additional indirect information concerning the magnetic field of Mars
derived front ionospheric observations and the understanding of solar wind
interactions is described below.
Today, the only other 'direct' information that Martian magnetism is from a
special class of meteorites known as the SNC meteorites (q.v.) which are thought
to come from Mars. Magnetic field analyses of these possible samples of the
Martian crust indicate that magnetic fields of ~ 1000 nT may have been present
on the surface of Mars at the time that these meteorites were ejected by a giant
impact some 180 million years ago. (For comparison, the present field on Earth
near the equator is about 3 X 104 nT. The present upper limit on the
dipole moment implies surface fields of only a few tens Of nanotesla.)
The dynamo theory of planetary magnetism indicates that Mars may have had a
dipole moment of about one-tenth of Earth's when it was first formed (Schubert
and Spohn, 1990). The rotation rate Of Mars is approximately that of Earth and
is thus sufficient for the operation of this initial dynamo. The other necessary
ingredient of a convection driver in the core was supplied by heat left over
from the accretion of the planet, which may have been effective for up to a few
billion years. If such a field did indeed exist, evidence of it may still be
present on the surface in the form of magnetized rocks and crustal regions like
those observed on the Moon. No observations indicating the presence of such
fields have been reported other than the aforementioned SNC meteorites'
olar Wind Interaction
To date, the observations at Mars suggest that it great deal o similarity
exists between near-Venus space and near-Mars space. Mars, like most of the
other planetary obstacles, is preceded in the solar wind by a 'bow shock'-like
structure that reflects the slightly greater than planet-size scale of the
weakly magnetized Martian obstacle. The subsolar distance of the bow shock is ~
1.5 Rm while its terminator position is ~ 2.7 Rm. Within
the bow shock, the solar wind plasma is diverted around the obstacle. Within it,
the imbedded interplanetary magnetic field is compressed against the obstacle
nose. The field distortion associated with the divergence of the flow gives the
'draped' configuration of field lines illustrated in
Figure 1.. This 'magnetosheath' is a common feature of all planetary
We do not know if Pluto has a magnetic field. Because
Pluto has a small size and a slow rotation rate (1 day in Pluto
= 6.4 Earth days), ...
Even if NASA says it doesn't know - here is a drawing of what other experts
think it is:
magnetosphere is the
volume of space around an astronomical object that is controlled by that
object's magnetic field. The Earth's magnetosphere is the cavity formed by the
Earth's magnetic field in the flow of
the Sun known as the
The interaction with the solar wind deforms the Earth's basically dipolar
magnetic field, compressing the field lines on the day side and stretching them
out to form a long comet-like tail (the magnetotail) on the night side. On the
day side, the magnetosphere extends out to a distance of approximately 10
(under quiet conditions), while the magnetotail extends several hundred Earth
radii in the antisunward direction. The magnetosphere contains various
large-scale regions, which vary in terms of the composition, energies, and
densities of the plasmas that occupy them. The sources of the plasmas that
populate these regions are the solar wind and the Earth's
the relative contributions of these two sources to the magnetospheric plasma
vary according to the level of geomagnetic activity. (See the glossary entry on
the DST index,
which is one of the measures of geomagnetic activity.)
It takese 54 years for Uranus to go around the sun and has a 97 percent tilt,
so its seasons are highly unusual.
Uranus has an
of 97.77 degrees, so its axis of rotation is approximately parallel with the
plane of the Solar System. This gives it seasonal changes completely unlike
those of the other major planets. Other planets can be visualized to rotate like
tilted spinning tops on the plane of the Solar System, while Uranus rotates more
like a tilted rolling ball. Near the time of Uranian
one pole faces the Sun
continuously while the other pole faces away. Only a narrow strip around the
equator experiences a rapid day-night cycle, but with the Sun very low over the
horizon as in the Earth's polar regions. At the other side of Uranus's orbit the
orientation of the poles towards the Sun is reversed. Each pole gets around 42
years of continuous sunlight, followed by 42 years of darkness.
Near the time of the
the Sun faces the equator of Uranus giving a period of day-night cycles similar
to those seen on most of the other planets. Uranus reached its most recent
equinox on December 7, 2007.
One result of this axis orientation is that, on average during the year, the
polar regions of Uranus receive a greater energy input from the Sun than its
equatorial regions. Nevertheless, Uranus is hotter at its equator than at its
poles. The underlying mechanism which causes this is unknown. The reason for
Uranus's unusual axial tilt is also not known with certainty, but the usual
speculation is that during the formation of the Solar System, an Earth sized
protoplanet collided with Uranus, causing the skewed orientation.
Uranus's south pole was pointed almost directly at the Sun at the time of
flyby in 1986. The labeling of this pole as "south" uses the definition
currently endorsed by the
International Astronomical Union, namely that the north pole of a planet or
satellite shall be the pole which points above the invariable plane of the Solar
System, regardless of the direction the planet is spinning.
A different convention is sometimes used, in which a body's north and south
poles are defined according to the
right-hand rule in relation to the direction of rotation.
In terms of this latter coordinate system it was Uranus's north pole
which was in sunlight in 1986.
Like the other
giant planets, Uranus has a
ring system, a
magnetosphere, and numerous
moons. The Uranian system has a unique configuration among the planets
axis of rotation is tilted sideways, nearly into the plane of its revolution
about the Sun. As such, its north and south poles lie where most other planets
Seen from Earth,
Uranus's rings can sometimes appear to circle the planet like an
archery target and its moons revolve around it like the hands of a clock; in
2007 and 2008 the rings appeared edge-on. In 1986, images from
showed Uranus as a virtually featureless planet in visible light without the
cloud bands or storms associated with the other giants.
Terrestrial observers have seen signs of
and increased weather activity in recent years as Uranus approached its
wind speeds on Uranus can reach 250 meters per second (900 km/h, 560 mph).
Before the arrival of Voyager 2, no measurements of the Uranian
magnetosphere had been taken, so its nature remained a mystery. Before 1986,
astronomers had expected the
magnetic field of Uranus to be in line with the
since it would then align with the planet's poles that lie in the
Voyager's observations revealed that the magnetic field is peculiar,
both because it does not originate from the planet's geometric center, and
because it is tilted at 59° from the axis of rotation.
In fact the magnetic dipole is shifted from the center of the planet towards the
south rotational pole by as much as one third of the planetary radius.
This unusual geometry results in a highly asymmetric magnetosphere, where the
magnetic field strength on the surface in the southern hemisphere can be as low
µT), whereas in the northern hemisphere it can be as high as 1.1 gauss (110
The average field at the surface is 0.23 gauss (23 µT).
In comparison, the magnetic field of Earth is roughly as strong at either pole,
and its "magnetic equator" is roughly parallel with its geographical equator.
The dipole moment of Uranus is 50 times that of Earth.
Neptune has a similarly displaced and tilted magnetic field, suggesting that
this may be a common feature of ice giants.
One hypothesis is that, unlike the magnetic fields of the terrestrial and gas
giant planets, which are generated within their cores, the ice giants' magnetic
fields are generated by motion at relatively shallow depths, for instance, in
the water–ammonia ocean.
Despite its curious alignment, in other respects the Uranian magnetosphere is
like those of other planets: it has a
located at about 23 Uranian radii ahead of it, a
magnetopause at 18 Uranian radii, a fully developed
Overall, the structure of Uranus's magnetosphere is different from Jupiter's and
more similar to Saturn's.
magnetotail trails behind the planet into space for millions of kilometers
and is twisted by the planet's sideways rotation into a long corkscrew.
Uranus's magnetosphere contains
with small amount of H2+
No heavier ions have been detected. Many of these particles probably derive from
the hot atmospheric corona.
The ion and electron energies can be as high as 4 and 1.2
The density of low energy (below 1
kiloelectronvolt) ions in the inner magnetosphere is about 2 cm−3.
The particle population is strongly affected by the Uranian moons that sweep
through the magnetosphere leaving noticeable gaps.
The particle flux
is high enough to cause darkening or
space weathering of the moon’s surfaces on an astronomically rapid timescale
of 100,000 years.
This may be the cause of the uniformly dark colouration of the moons and rings.
Uranus has relatively well developed aurorae, which are seen as bright arcs
around both magnetic poles.
Unlike Jupiter's, Uranus's aurorae seem to be insignificant for the energy
balance of the planetary thermosphere.
Neptune also resembles Uranus in its
magnetosphere, with a
magnetic field strongly tilted relative to its
axis at 47° and offset at least 0.55 radii, or about 13500 km from the planet's
physical centre. Before Voyager 2's arrival at Neptune, it was
hypothesised that Uranus's tilted magnetosphere was the result of its sideways
rotation. In comparing the magnetic fields of the two planets, scientists now
think the extreme orientation may be characteristic of flows in the planets'
interiors. This field may be generated by
fluid motions in a thin spherical shell of
electrically conducting liquids (probably a combination of ammonia, methane
resulting in a
The dipole component of the magnetic field at the magnetic equator of Neptune
is about 14
magnetic moment of Neptune is about 2.2 × 1017 T·m3
(14 μT·RN3, where RN
is the radius of Neptune). Neptune's magnetic field has a complex geometry that
includes relatively large contributions from non-dipolar components, including a
quadrupole moment that may exceed the
dipole moment in strength. By contrast, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn have only
relatively small quadrupole moments, and their fields are less tilted from the
polar axis. The large quadrupole moment of Neptune may be the result of offset
from the planet's center and geometrical constraints of the field's dynamo
bow shock, where the magnetosphere begins to slow the
occurs at a distance of 34.9 times the radius of the planet. The
magnetopause, where the pressure of the magnetosphere counterbalances the
solar wind, lies at a distance of 23–26.5 times the radius of Neptune. The tail
of the magnetosphere extends out to at least 72 times the radius of Neptune, and
very likely much farther.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest
the Sun in the
Solar System. Named for the
Roman god of the sea, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter and
the third largest by mass. Neptune is 17 times the mass of
Earth and is
slightly more massive than its near-twin
which is 15 times the mass of Earth but not as dense.
On average, Neptune orbits the Sun at a distance of 30.1
AU, approximately 30 times the Earth–Sun distance. Its
astronomical symbol is ♆, a stylized version of the god Neptune's
Discovered on September 23, 1846,
Neptune was the first planet found by mathematical prediction rather than by
empirical observation. Unexpected changes in the orbit of
Alexis Bouvard to deduce that its orbit was subject to
perturbation by an unknown planet. Neptune was subsequently observed by
Johann Galle within a degree of the position predicted by
Urbain Le Verrier, and its largest moon,
Triton, was discovered shortly thereafter, though none of the planet's
moons were located telescopically until the 20th century. Neptune has
been visited by only one spacecraft,
which flew by the planet on August 25, 1989.
Neptune is similar in composition to
both have compositions which differ from those of the larger
Saturn. Neptune's atmosphere, while similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in
that it is composed primarily of
along with traces of
hydrocarbons and possibly
contains a higher proportion of "ices" such as water,
Astronomers sometimes categorize Uranus and Neptune as "ice
giants" in order to emphasize these distinctions.
The interior of Neptune, like that of Uranus, is primarily composed of ices
Traces of methane in the outermost regions in part account for the planet's
In contrast to the relatively featureless atmosphere of Uranus, Neptune's
atmosphere is notable for its active and visible weather patterns. For
example, at the time of the 1989 Voyager 2
flyby, the planet's southern hemisphere possessed a
Great Dark Spot comparable to the
Great Red Spot on
These weather patterns are driven by the strongest sustained winds of any
planet in the Solar System, with recorded wind speeds as high as 2,100 km/h.
Because of its great distance from the Sun, Neptune's outer atmosphere is
one of the coldest places in the Solar System, with temperatures at its
cloud tops approaching −218
Temperatures at the planet's centre are approximately
Neptune has a faint and fragmented
ring system, which may have been detected during the 1960s but was only
indisputably confirmed in 1989 by Voyager 2.
Its magnetic field had probably
began to effect Earth even earlier. Remember "El Nino" and the 500 year
floods of 1993? Weather patterns have changed ...
HERE IS A CANDIDATE FOR PLANET X
... and so as the orbits of the two planets get closer their
gravitational and magnetic fields exert forces on one
another. Hercolubus never ...
HERE IS A PAGE ABOUT CYGNUS 3
After all, cosmic magnetic fields are embedded in
plasmas, which are much thinner in intergalactic than in
interstellar space. According to x-ray ...
HERE IS ALDEBARAN
... magnetic field, atmosphere, and interior. These
measurements of the intense radiation environment near Jupiter were
crucial in designing the Voyager and Galileo ...
TOWARD THE END OF TIME?
warning about an hour before they reach Earth's magnetic field, it
said. The recent flares erupted during largest solar radiation storm since
These electrons would follow the earth's magnetic field and quickly
circle toward the ground where they would be finally dampened. (To add to
HERE IS SOME PREVIOUS DATA FROM OUR WEB SITE:
THE MAGNETIC FIELD. A CROP CIRCLE OF
JULY, 2000 UNDER SCRUTINY FOR MEANING. JULY 22,
2000 (This page is graphics intensive) VIEW IN
FULL SCREEN updated - 9-27-08
This means that we need to be watching the sun
and magnetic fields because we do
not know the exact nature of this phenomenon ...
why are we so afraid of the sun? maybe we know a
little too much of what it's doing, but not
enough of the right information? see: the sun's
magnetic field flips over ...
7.1 Magnetism ..."spin and angular momentum
cancel...total momentum / magnetism is zero...
when the application of a magnetic field
slightly unbalances ...
Crop Circle appeared on May 28th, 2011 A sure
sign of the coming tuning This alignment is
occurring in June, 2011 On M31st, there were two
additions to this crop cirle
... the penetration of the solar-wind
magnetic field, the structure of the
magnetosphere, and dust in the upper atmosphere
and in orbit around Mars. ... www ...
"These magnetic fields are the
dominant free energy of the universe," says
astrophysicist Stirling A. Colgate of Los Alamos
needed to propagate and vector a wave
directionally by shifting its magnetic
poles. If the magnetic field theory
experiments carried out by engineers and ...
... 2.4 million miles every day with 2.5 Jupiter
mass sizes and powerful magnetic polarity
that has been affecting Earth magnetic field,
A large-scale Denver study showed magnetic
fields to be below 1.82 mG for 90 percent
of the homes, while 75 percent had fields
below 1 mG.
electronics and to
humans outside the
(such as on the Moon
or en route to
arrive first, ...
According to Vogt,
field is the
therefore, in order
to exist, ...
This causes chaos
because the human
being needs the
of the earth to
and memory. When the
drop to zero, ...
has been quiet this
weekend, but in one
corner of northern
Canada the story was
And the law of
nature is that
cannot be rotated on
it's own polar axis.
Sic! Simple or
complex. It does not
rotate. And if we
accept this simple
"it is the earth's
mass and not the
that determines the
rates"... "I looked
at what I had found
Meanwhile, the Sun's
changes from being
aligned parallel to
its axis of rotation
at the minimum of
sunspot activity, to
a proton and its
that our magnetic
field would hold
off, but he doesn't
agree with that. We
can't see them
The spin vector of
the neutron will
precess in the plane
at right angles to
field just as a
response to the pull
of gravity ...
A German historian/scuba diver has recorded the
exact location and value of deviations in
magnetic fields off The Bahamas
coast. Are they connected to Atlantis? Dr ...
Because there is a magnetic field, it
turns out we can see evidence for aurorae in the
Sun-facing polar regions.
GEOMAGNETIC STORM: A solar wind stream hit
Earth's magnetic field on June 24th,
sparking a brief but potent ...
... atmosphere where the sun's magnetic field
opens up and allows the solar wind to escape. A
stream of solar wind flowing ...
Morgan, M.G. Electric and Magnetic
Fields from 60 Hertz Electric Power: What Do
We Know About Possible Health Risks?, brochure,
45 pp., ...
The Magnetic Field - A Crop Circle Under
Scrutiny For Meaning. The pictogram was shaped
like a bar magnet, ...
... by Vogt in Reality Revealed, as high voltage
/ frequency potential to infinity which the
earth produces as the magnetic field
collapses to zero.
(MGF) Magnetic Field Measurement -
Yamamoto T. (ISAS)(deceased) (PET) Electron
Temperature Probe - Oyama K. (ISAS) (UVS)
Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer ...
... the sunspots and reversals of its
field. The reversal point is thought to be
approaching in 2012. According to Geoff, the
sunspots are ...
We further suspect that the highly anomalous
Uranian magnetic field-geometry Voyager
observed with respect to the planetary spin axis
(>60 degrees) ...
The result is that when the vibration stops, a
significant number of the atoms have aligned
themselves within this magnetic field.
Christopher Dunn asks: ...
Solar physicists have long known that sunspot
magnetic fields reverse polarity from
cycle to cycle. N-S becomes S-N and vice versa
The display was sparked by a solar wind stream
which hit Earth's magnetic field on July
21st. The ensuing geomagnetic storm registered 6
on the 0 ...
A magnetic field around their bodies.
They think that they are only flesh, blood,
bones, and organs. Think think they have a soul,
but that they ...
Some birds orient themselves using the sun or
Earth's magnetic field, while others use
landmarks on the ground or even familiar smells.
Magnetic fields reconnecting above
the sunspot produced a B4-class solar flare and
hurled a narrow coronal mass ejection into
space: SOHO movie. Earth was ...
We know that birds and animals migrate along the
lines of these magnetic fields.
The gas which is blown away from the coma is
ionised by solar radiation and is affected
strongly by the magnetic fields
associated with the solar wind .
CME IMPACT: A coronal mass ejection (CME) hit
Earth's magnetic field on August 5th
around 1800 UT, ... OF THE OIL FIELDS IN
ALASKA, AND IS TRUSTED BYY THE
He came to this erroneous conclusion because he
thought that Maxwell had explained what
magnetism was and what caused a magnetic
field...Maxwell did nothing of the sort. ...
Geoff is currently working on a theory
correlating information about sunspot cycles,
and reversals of its magnetic field.
... Research has shown that ELF electrical and
magnetic fields at a high-level
short-term exposure have a negative impact on
health (ICNIRP, 2003).
The meter was set to read magnetic
fields and was passed around the object,
which was ...
Earth's magnetic field is still
reverberating from the CME impact of August 3rd,
which sparked auroras as far south as Wisconsin
and Iowa in the United States. Analysts ...
There will be a great splitting of the
Earth...from within the Earth. The magnetic
field will shift and is already shifting
Mean dominant frequency associated with the
earth's magnetic field: EQ: 10: enhanced
release of serotonin and mood elevator,
universally beneficial ...
This may connect with the magnetic field
type formations that appeared around the same
time as this formation. There are more possible
connections that I see, ...
I consider that the magnetic field has a
group and phase velocity, much like the
electromagnetic field that a changing
magnetic field can create.
The end of each 'breath cycle' is a very
traumatic event, to say the least; the stopping
motion and shifting of magnetic fields
appears to be a pole shift, ...
Another example is the exploitation of the
dipole oscillations of space by using two
magnetic fields of Beardens MEG to
oscillate back and forth.
No strong flares were recorded for the rest of
the weekend. Nevertheless, the active region's
magnetic field is complex and harbors
energy for more eruptions. NOAA ...
"This magnetic field can provide the
extra pressure required to resist destruction ."
* The Local Interstellar Cloud Illustration ...
"Earth's magnetic field is about 100
times larger than Mercury's magnetic field,
and we're much farther from the sun, ...
The sun's magnetic field is tipping
south, opening a crack in Earth's magnetosphere.
Solar wind pouring in could fuel a renewed
display. Sept ...
"The drop in magnetic fields could
be a normal aspect of the solar cycle and not a
sign that sunspots are permanently vanishing."
Penn himself ...
Magnetic fields around the spot
have been growing more complex, making stronger
eruptions increasingly likely. NOAA forecasters
estimate a 5% chance of an ...
Four years ago I began measuring the Earth's
magnetic field in and around crop circles.
More action could be in the offing. Sunspot 1087
has a "beta-gamma" magnetic field that
harbors energy for M-class solar flares. Readers
... a bubble of charged particles trapped within
Jupiter's magnetic field. The bubble is
so big that if it were visible to the eye, ...
MINOR STORM WARNING: On August 2nd, the sun
hurled a cloud of plasma (CME) toward Earth when
magnetic fields above sunspot 1261
At the times the Moon's surface was molten in
near approaches with other celestial bodies, it
was enveloped in powerful magnetic
..."in plasmas, when an external magnetic
field is applied, both longitudinal and
transverse waves intermingle and may even
interfere with each other, no ...
"Their strong magnetic fields
could compress the heliosphere even more than it
is compressed now," according to NASA.
August 2003 for the first time we will have this
special combination: high Schumann frequency,
low magnetic field and the earth cycle
that repeats every 40 (20) ...
Another property of a superconductor is the way
in which they respond to magnetic
fields, they are said to be diamagnetic, ...
The "firmament" of a sunspot is not matter but
rather a strong magnetic field that
appears dark because it blocks the upflow of
heat from the ...
Electronic systems may couple with these
dangerous electric and magnetic fields
resulting in damaging current and voltage
surges. Further ...
Shift in the Earth's Magnetic Field Cause
Of Extreme Weather? EARTHCHANGES FAQ INDEX.
BORDERLANDS OF SCIENCE. ELECTROMAGNETISM ...
www.greatdreams.com/motion.htm - ...
So far the sunspot has been relatively quiet,
producing no flares of note, but this could
change if the magnetic field becomes
unstable. Readers ...
... having a near-perfect sphere spinning in a
near-zero atmosphere and a near-zero magnetic
field would essentially eliminate other
drift sources. ...
Strong magnetic fields, 15
trillion times stronger than the Earth's
magnetic field, are thought to be involved,
too. The combination drives an energetic wind of
A subject's bioelectric field can be
remotely detected, ... This magnetic flux
puts out a constant 30-50 Hz 5 milliwatt
... not when they cross the Sun's (magnetic)
equator (the ecliptic has to do with the Earth's
orbit, not the Sun magnetic field) ...
This magnetic field is almost impossible
to protect or guard ourselves from -- as it
passes through most metal, walls, rocks, and
a unit of weight equal to one microgram. 5. a
unit of magnetic field strength equal to
10 to the fifth power gauss. (quent: needing ...
Continuing, "Magnetic fields and
electric currents are so intimately associated
that it is impossible to think of one without
the other"... (Note ...
... - Lines of force like strings in a
magnetic field. The motion of the plasma is
at right angles to the direction of wave
propagation. Brain ...
... (in the presence of a magnetic field
- "magnetosound"), and cross waves propagating
along a magnetic field. A device for
generating plasma is called ...
CRACKLING SUNSPOT: The magnetic fields of sunspot 1069
are in a state of considerable agitation today. Click on the image,
below, to launch ...
If the charge is moved a magnetic field develops and the
moving charge constitutes a current. If an observer were to move
along with the charge, ...
"Magnetic fields can be shielded because the metallic
atoms (of certain metals) act like little bar magnets that orient
themselves such that the magnetic field ...
The swirling magnetic fields evident in the image
harbor energy for C-class eruptions. The active region has already
hurled one coronal mass ejection (CME, ...
Another property of a superconductor is the way in which they
respond to magnetic fields, they are said to be
The emitted electrons form of a magnetic field in the area
surrounding the plate. Finally, a force is experienced on the
earth's surface -- we call ...
After all, cosmic magnetic fields are embedded in
plasmas, which are much thinner in intergalactic than in
interstellar space. According to x-ray ...
"Synchrotron radiation occurs when electrons spiral into a
magnetic field. Neuroglia (connective tissue of the central
nervous system) ...
the magnetic field - a crop
circle under scrutiny for meaning... an introduction into plate
tectonics - continents adrift.
... causing fires in North America and Europe, sent readings of
Earth's magnetic field soaring, and produced northern lights
... causing fires in North America and Europe,
sent readings of Earth's magnetic field
soaring, and produced northern lights so ...
Our auric fields are electro-magnetic
energy fields surrounding the physical
body. We are constantly giving off (electrical
aspect) and absorbing ...
Knowing this, we can make certain presumptions:
A 2nd Dimension magnetic field, of
frequency, was used. This carrier, with a vector
of 51'51"14.3s, ...
The potential for health effects from exposure
to electric and magnetic fields
Since then, the view has changed. Magnetic
fields underpinning this magnificent
structure are in a state of fairly rapid motion,
Plunging into Jupiter could shed new light on
the planet's magnetic fields ...
While Goliathan’s might be a bit technical for
those outside of his field of study, ...
For the same reason, a magnetic field
deflects, to a slighter degree, the motion
direction of very fast particles. But if the
above assertion is correct, ...
More generally, HAARP has the ability of
modifying the World's electro-magnetic field.
It is part ...
9.41, Pyramid frequency (outside). 9.6, Mean
dominant frequency associated with the earth's
magnetic field, EQ. 10 ...
It has to be done when there are 0 magnetic
flux between the sun and earth. ... ... NASA was
astonished to find out that the magnetic
field of the sun no longer ...
Sunspots occur when strong magnetic fields
emerge through the solar surface and allow the area to
cool slightly, thus making it appear as a dark spot in
contrast to the even hotter ...
Earths Magnetic Field In Unsettled State NASA
Space Science News SOLAR WIND: ...
His early paper, "On the Electrodynamics of Moving
Bodies, showed that, in a space-time representation,
electric and magnetic fields are exactly
Its magnetic field
had probably began to effect Earth even earlier.
Remember "El Nino" and the 500 year floods of 1993?
Weather patterns have changed ...
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's
magnetic field are given for three activity levels:
active , minor storm ...
It will become clear in following chapters that a
planetary magnetic field is far more than a
simple question of north and south; ...
THE MAGNETIC FIELD - A CROP CIRCLE UNDER SCRUTINY
FOR MEANING... field is about 500,000
microgauss.) If you had a compass sensitive to this
... beneath the circled thicket of hot plasma and
magnetic fields? It could be the most ...
It is the internal solar heat of these planets that
destroy the magnetic fields and evaporate
the volatiles of these planets (at Mars position). ...
EFFECTS OF LOW FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELDS
ON DNA SYNTHESIS. syn*the*sis (noun), plural -the*ses -
[Greek, from syntithenai to ...
Earths Magnetic Field In Unsettled State . NASA
Space Science News . SOLAR WIND: ...
... (I know this because in the water activator, there
is still the new frequency of 9.05 Hz) and that the
magnetic field of earth is, decreasing ...
Our magnetic field has served us in the past by
creating an illusion of separation and protection from
energies outside ourselves. It will ...
... and so as the orbits of the two planets get closer
their gravitational and magnetic fields
exert forces on one another. Hercolubus never ...
If the magnetic field of the sun were to govern
the earth’s motion, then after an encounter with a comet
the earth could resume its rotation, ...
This Bethlehem grid point is based not only on Munck's
system, but also on a separate grid system (involving
Earth's magnetic field) developed by Bruce
Sunspot 1024 is relatively large, but it does not have
the kind of complex magnetic field that poses a
threat for major eruptions. Crop ...
These three double windings, each wound about upon the
others, in the above order represent the gravity,
magnetic and electric fields 90 degrees to
each other, ...
... magnetic field, atmosphere, and interior.
These measurements of the intense radiation environment
near Jupiter were crucial in designing the Voyager and
... magnetic field and weather patterns --
including its lightning and stormy ammonia clouds. "It's
going to be the star ...
EMF WORKING GROUP REPORT-Assessment of Health Effects
from Exposure to Power-Line Frequency Electric and
Fields-the views and expert opinions of the ...
The focused intention of this particular experiment was to
geomantically align magnetic fields and ley lines,
activate them within a ...
The sun's magnetic field
reversed in the year 2002. 2028-OCT: Asteroid "1997 XF11" will
approach close to earth. At first ...
Our time measurement depends on periodically returning cycles in
the earth magnetic field and according to this (and said
with your numbers) I'm today ...
... which is held in place by Earth's magnetic field.
It is believed that most of the particles that form the
belts come from solar wind, and ...
Although it's been a calm day, the magnetic field
of sunspot 1041 still harbors energy for strong
eruptions. NOAA ...
During a pole flip, the magnetic field around the
Earth, which shields us from dangerous solar radiation,
weakens and may even cease to exist, which would ...
>> "the magnetic field associated with the
orbital electron can be viewed as a torus centered on
the orbital path of the electron." SSmith: ...
consciousness. Could the shifting of the magnetic
fields perhaps be mirroring the revolution of human
consciousness that we are currently experiencing?