The Order of St. Joachim was born during the Enlightenment, and reflects many of the influences of that time. Almost 70 years after it was founded, in his 1821 book A.M. Perrot describes the Order's  aims as including the promotion of "tolerance of religion" and the "worship of a Supreme Being". These are very much Enlightenment catchphrases and ideals, being embraced in the mid-1700s by a wide range of intellectuals, nobles (particularly Protestant German nobles, like the Saxe-Coburgs) and even revolutionaries. It was also if not a battle cry, at least a challenge to the conservative Catholic German states, which sought to expand their political influence within the Holy Roman Empire and were eventually held back in 1785 by an alliance known as the Germanic League, headed by Prussia's Frederick the Great, and which included the Saxe-Gothas.

There were in fact many groups that arose - some very briefly - during the Enlightenment, and there was much movement of members among them. These include reasonably well-known groups such as the Freemasons, the Illuminati and the Rose Croix, as well as the more obscure, such as the Gold Rosicrucians, the Order of Perfect Initiates of Asia, or the extravagantly-namedOrder of African Architects. While some of these groups were intellectually influential in the wider promotion of the broad Enlightenment ideals of religious tolerance, equality, and the brotherhood of man, their actual direct political influence has always been debatable. Nonetheless, there are still groups and conspiracy theorists today who claim the modern world is ruled by Masons, Illuminati and the like.

Offered only as a curious footnote to the history of The Order of Saint Joachim, its early period also brought it into contact with several of these Enlightenment societies. Given the politics and limited social circles of the times, it is not surprising that there would be tangential connections.

The Bavarian Illuminati was founded in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, who was born a Jew, raised a Jesuit and ended his life as an anti-clerical reformer. The Bavarian Illuminati had as "its professed object … by the mutual assistance of its members, to attain the highest possible degree of morality and virtue, and to lay the foundation for the reformation of the world by the association of good men to oppose the progress of moral evil." At first the Bavarian Illuminati was very popular, enlisting some two thousand members. In the United States, Thomas Jefferson wrote a tribute to Weishaupt's ideals and reformist zeal.

Increasing Jesuit animosity and anti-clerical sentiment from the Illuminati brought the unwanted attention of the Catholic Elector of Bavaria, who was already in confrontation with the Protestant Germanic states to the north. As a result the Elector of Bavaria issued edicts for the suppression of the Bavarian Illuminati on June 22, 1784, which were repeated in March and August, 1785 (the same year as Catholic Bavaria and Austria's German ambitions were thwarted by Frederick the Great and the Germanic League). Under the cloud of a variety of accusations, Weishaupt was banished from Bavaria. He fled his native Ingolstadt on horseback eventually ending up in Gotha, where he was offered refuge by Duke Ernst II of Saxe - Gotha - Altenberg, cousin to the Saxe - Coburg - Saalfelds. Duke Ernst II of Saxe - Gotha - Altenberg is listed as a member of the Bavarian Illuminati, along with other prominent Germans such as Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, author Johann Goethe and nationalist writer Johann Herder.

Weishaupt died in Gotha in 1811, although almost two centuries later he is still reviled by conspiracy theorists and religious fundamentalists who inexplicably still see the invisible hand of the long defunct Illuminati at work behind the scenes of modern world events. The Illuminati has been variously been accused of everything from causing world wars to conspiring with space aliens in order to bring about a One World Government under their mysterious rule.

With the effective end of the Bavarian Illuminati in about 1790, many mystic and hermeneutic societies formed and reformed to fill the gap, often with very grand names and claims to supreme religious or other mystic knowledge. Some were offshoots of Freemasonry. Others borrowed heavily from Islamic, Cabalistic or ancient Egyptian "knowledge". Alchemy and contacting the spirit world also featured in some of them. Most were short-lived or were eventually absorbed back into more mainstream societies, like the Masons.

Albert Pike, a controversial but influential American Mason and American Civil War general, carelessly and wrongly lumped The Order of Saint Joachim in with many of these Illuminati-related Enlightenment societies. In his 1883 work, A Historical Inquiry In Regard To The Grand Constitutions Of 1786, he indicated that the disbanded Illuminaticontinued on through the various branches of the Rosicrucian Order, including the later versions of the Gold Rosicrucians, namely, the Order of Perfect Initiates of Asia, or the Asiatic Brethren, and the various Orders of Light. Pike also goes so far as to specifically mention "The Order of Saint Joachim (St. Jonathan)" as one of the many successors to the Illuminati, however he overlooks that the founding of The Order of Saint Joachim predates the Bavarian Illuminati by more than twenty years, and so could not have grown out of it.

Historical records do show that a few Illuminati were members of The Order of Saint Joachim, as the Illuminati did initially attract many prominent German individuals. These people were both free-thinking Catholics as well as German Protestant nobles at continual odds with the expansionist political ambitions of the Catholic powers in Bavaria and the Austrian Empire.

A member of the Illuminati who was also a founding member of The Order of Saint Joachim was Leopold Reichsgraf von Kollowrat-Krakowsky (1727-1809). He was the Bohemian-Austrian High Chancellor and President of the Court Chamber. In 1783 be became Master of a Masonic Lodge in Prague and Deputy Master of the “Zur wahren Eintract” Lodge in Vienna. In 1786 he joined the “Zur Wahrheit” Lodge in Vienna and between 1782 and 1788 he was a member of the Parisian Lodge “Les Amis Réuni”. In 1788 he became a member of the Gold- und Rosenkreuzer. In 1782 he was recruited into the Bavarian Illuminati by Baron von Knigge at the Wilhelmsbader Convention of Masons and in 1784 became the national leader of the Illuminati for Austria. An active man, he was also the Commander of the Priory of Bohemia for the Sovereign Order of Malta. In 1789 Kollowrat founded the first Masonic Lodge in Malta itself - St. John's Lodge of Secrecy and Harmony - until it was ordered closed by the Inquisition in 1792. Reichsgraf von Kollowrat-Krakowsky was himself a Catholic, and was only able to pursue his esoteric interests by virtue of being under the direct protection of Leopold II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, and later Holy Roman Emperor.

The Order of Saint Joachim also appears to have some other connection to the Gülden und Rosenkreuzer (Gold Rosicrucians), founded in 1777, which had Illuminati and Masonic roots. The Gold Rosicrucians was Hermetic in character, drawing heavily on Eastern and Islamic mysticism. The Gold Rosicrucians was headed by Johann Karl Baron von Ecker und Eckhoffen, who in 1787 was Chancellor of The Order of Saint Joachim. Baron von Ecker und Eckhoffen is named as a member of several other mystic societies, including the Christian Masonry of Bohemia in 1756, and the Asiatic Brethren.

Our famous Vice Chancellor, Sir Levett Hanson (1754-1814), was also active in various Masonic bodies in Europe, ultimately being driven from Modena by the Austrian authorities where he was serving as Chamberlain to the Duke with the rank of Brigadier General. Under suspicion as a Jacobite revolutionary and Masonic "spy" (both of which charges appear to have been completely unfounded), he was forced to leave Modena in 1794, briefly imprisoned in Innsbruck and then exiled. After leaving Austria he became acquainted with The Order of Saint Joachim, and served it until his death.

Catalogue files of the National Library in Paris contains a title: "Compendium of the Laws and Constitutions of the Order of Jonathan founded in honour the Holy Providence, 1762" (Abrégé des Lois et Constitutions de l'Ordre de Jonathan institué en l'honneur de la Providence Divine, 1762). This appears to be a copy of the early Charter and rules of the Order of Saint Joachim from the period between 1755 and 1767 when its name was still The Knights of the Order of Jonathan, Defenders of the Honour of Divine Providence. Tragically, that book is now lost. 

Unfortunately, the above document is sometimes confused with another document published in 1773 in Amsterdam, Holland, being the Rules, Statutes, Constitutions and Ceremonies of the Order of Jonathan and David and Jesus Christ. While there are similarities in the name, The Order of Jonathan and David is a Dutch quasi-Masonic body founded in the late 16th century, which was established using modes of recognition by signs and symbols chosen from the story of David and Jonathan in the Bible. A modern version of this French Masonic ritual apparently still exists today, now known as The Order of the Secret Monitor. It is completely unrelated to The Order of Saint Joachim, although some sources treat them erroneously as the same body.

The two unrelated bodies do however apparently share a common a scriptural base, following closely the writings of the Bible's Book of Samuel, Chapter 20, which tells the story of the enduring friendship between David and Jonathan. It is also almost certainly the source of motto of The Order of Saint Joachim: Love Hath United Friends (Juxit Amicos Amor), a noble sentiment which still appears on the face of the Order's Knight's breast cross.


Rosicrucianism is a philosophical secret society said to have been founded in late medieval Germany by Christian Rosenkreuz. It holds a doctrine or theology "built on esoteric truths of the ancient past", which, "concealed from the average man, provide insight into nature, the physical universe and the spiritual realm." Rosicrucianism is symbolized by the Rosy Cross or Rose Cross.

Between 1607 and 1616, two anonymous manifestos were published, first in Germany and later throughout Europe.These were the Fama Fraternitatis RC (The Fame of the Brotherhood of RC) and the Confessio Fraternitatis (The Confession of the Brotherhood of RC). The influence of these documents, presenting a "most laudable Order" of mystic-philosopher-doctors and promoting a "Universal Reformation of Mankind", gave rise to an enthusiasm called by its historian Dame Frances Yates the "Rosicrucian Enlightenment".

Rosicrucian manifestos opposed Roman Catholicism and its preference for dogma over empiricism, similar to texts authored by the Protestant Reformer Martin Luther. They traced their philosophy and science to the Moors, asserting that it had been kept secret for 120 years until the intellectual climate might receive it.

Early seventeenth-century occult philosophers such as Michael Maier, Robert Fludd and Thomas Vaughan interested themselves in the Rosicrucian world view. According to historian David Stevenson it was also influential to Freemasonry as it was emerging in Scotland. In later centuries, many esoteric societies have claimed to derive their doctrines, in whole or in part, from the original Rosicrucians. Several modern societies have been formed for the study of Rosicrucianism and allied subjects.




The Fama Fraternitatis presented the legend of a German doctor and mystic philosopher referred to as "Frater C.R.C." (later identified in a third manifesto as Christian Rosenkreuz, or "Rose-cross"). The year 1378 is presented as being the birth year of "our Christian Father", and it is stated that he lived 106 years. After studying in the Middle East under various masters, possibly adhering to Sufism, he was unable to spread the knowledge he had acquired to any prominent European figures. Instead, he gathered a small circle of friends/disciples and founded the Rosicrucian Order (this can be deduced to have occurred around 1407).

During Rosenkreuz's lifetime, the Order was said to consist of no more than eight members, each a doctor and a sworn bachelor. Each member undertook an oath to heal the sick without payment, to maintain a secret fellowship, and to find a replacement for himself before he died. Three such generations had supposedly passed between c.1500 and c.1600, a time when scientific, philosophical and religious freedom had grown so that the public might benefit from the Rosicrucians' knowledge, so that they were now seeking good men.


The manifestos were and are not taken literally by many but rather regarded either as hoaxes or as allegorical statements. The manifestos directly state: "We speak unto you by parables, but would willingly bring you to the right, simple, easy, and ingenuous exposition, understanding, declaration, and knowledge of all secrets."

It is evident that the first Rosicrucian manifesto was influenced by the work of the respected hermetic philosopher Heinrich Khunrath, ofHamburg, author of the Amphitheatrum Sapientiae Aeternae (1609), who was in turn influenced by John Dee, author of the Monas Hieroglyphica (1564). The invitation to the royal wedding in the Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz opens with Dee's philosophical key, the Monas Hieroglyphica symbol. The writer also claimed the brotherhood possessed a book that resembled the works of Paracelsus.

Some say the writers were moral and religious reformers. They used the techniques of chemistry (alchemy) and of the sciences generally as media through which to publicize their opinions and beliefs.

In his autobiography, Johann Valentin Andreae (1586–1654) claimed the anonymously published Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz as one of his works, and he subsequently described it as a ludibrium. In his later works, he makes alchemy an object of ridicule and places it along with music, art, theater and astrology in the category of less serious sciences. According to some sources, his role in the origin of the Rosicrucian legend is controversial. However, it was generally accepted according to others.

The Rosicrucian Enlightenment

The publication of the Fama Fraternitatis Rosae Crucis (1614)

In the early 17th century, the manifestos caused excitement throughout Europe by declaring the existence of a secret brotherhood of alchemists and sages who were preparing to transform the arts, sciences, religion, and political and intellectual landscape of Europe. Wars of politics and religion ravaged the continent. The works were re-issued several times, followed by numerous pamphlets, favorable or otherwise. Between 1614 and 1620, about 400 manuscripts and books were published which discussed the Rosicrucian documents.

The peak of the "Rosicrucianism furor" was reached when two mysterious posters appeared on the walls of Paris in 1622 within a few days of each other. The first said, "We, the Deputies of the Higher College of the Rose-Croix, do make our stay, visibly and invisibly, in this city (...)" and the second one ended with the words "The thoughts attached to the real desire of the seeker will lead us to him and him to us." 

The legend inspired a variety of works, among them the works of Michael Maier (1568–1622) of Germany; Robert Fludd(1574–1637) and Elias Ashmole (1617–1692) of England; Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, Gotthardus Arthusius, Julius Sperber,Henricus Madathanus, Gabriel Naudé, Thomas Vaughan and others. In Elias Ashmole's Theatrum Chimicum britannicum (1650) he defends the Rosicrucians. Some later works impacting Rosicrucianism were the Opus magocabalisticum et theosophicum by George von Welling (1719)--of alchemical and paracelsian inspiration—and the Aureum Vellus oder Goldenes Vliess by Hermann Fictuld in 1749.

Michael Maier was appointed Pfalzgraf (Count Palatine) by Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and King of Bohemia. He also was one of the most prominent defenders of the Rosicrucians, clearly transmitting details about the "Brothers of the Rose Cross" in his writings. Maier made the firm statement that the Brothers of R.C. exist to advance inspired arts and sciences, including alchemy. Researchers of Maier's writings point out that he never claimed to have produced gold, nor did Heinrich Khunrath or any of the other Rosicrucianists. Their writings point toward a symbolic and spiritual alchemy, rather than an operative one. In a combination of direct and veiled styles, these writings conveyed the nine stages of the involutive-evolutive transmutation of the threefold body of the human being, the threefold soul and the threefold spirit, among others esoteric knowledge related to the "Path of Initiation."

In his 1618 pamphlet, Pia et Utilissima Admonitio de Fratribus Rosae Crucis, Henrichus Neuhusius wrote that the Rosicrucians departed for the east due to European instability caused by the start of the Thirty Years' War. In 1710, Sigmund Richter, founder of the secret society of the Golden and Rosy Cross, also suggested the Rosicrucians had migrated eastward. In the first half of the 20th century, René Guénon, a researcher of the occult, presented this same idea in some of his works. An eminent author of the 19th century, Arthur Edward Waite, presented arguments contradicting this idea. It was in this fertile field of discourse that many Rosicrucian societies arose. They were based on the occult, inspired by the mystery of this "College of Invisibles."

Frater C.R.C. – Christian Rose Cross (symbolical representation)

The literary works of the 16th and 17th centuries were full of enigmatic passages containing references to the Rose Cross, as in the following (somewhat modernized):

For what we do presage is not in grosse,
For we are brethren of the Rosie Crosse;
We have the Mason Word and second sight,
Things for to come we can foretell aright.

 Henry Adamson, The Muses' Threnodie (Perth, 1638).

The idea of such an order, exemplified by the network of astronomers, professors, mathematicians, and natural philosophers in 16th-century Europe promoted by such men as Johannes Kepler, Georg Joachim Rheticus, John Dee and Tycho Brahe, gave rise to the Invisible College.
This was the precursor to the Royal Society founded in
 It was constituted by a group of scientists who began to hold regular meetings to share and develop knowledge acquired by experimental investigation. Among these were Robert Boyle, who wrote: "the cornerstones of the Invisible (or as they term themselves the Philosophical) College, do now and then honour me with their company...";John Wilkins and John Wallis, who described those meetings in the following terms: "About the year 1645, while I lived in London (at a time when, by our civil wars, academical studies were much interrupted in both our Universities), ... I had the opportunity of being acquainted with divers worthy persons, inquisitive natural philosophy, and other parts of human learning; and particularly of what hath been called the New Philosophy or Experimental Philosophy. We did by agreements, divers of us, meet weekly in London on a certain day and hour, under a certain penalty, and a weekly contribution for the charge of experiments, with certain rules agreed amongst us, to treat and discourse of such affairs..."

Rose-Cross Degrees in Freemasonry

18° Knight of the Rose Croix jewel (from the Masonic
Scottish Rite

According to Jean Pierre Bayard,two Rosicrucian-inspired Masonic rites emerged towards the end of 18th century, the Rectified Scottish Rite, widespread in Central Europe where there was a strong presence of the "Golden and Rosy Cross", and the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, first practised in France, in which the 18th degree is called Knight of the Rose Croix.

The change from "operative" to "speculative" Masonry occurred between the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 18th century. Two of the earliest speculative Masons for whom a record of initiation exists were Sir Robert Moray and Elias Ashmole. Robert Vanloo states that earlier 17th century Rosicrucianism had a considerable influence on Anglo-Saxon Masonry. Hans Schick sees in the works of Comenius (1592–1670) the ideal of the newly born English Masonry before the foundation of the Grand Lodge in 1717. Comenius was in England during 1641.

The Gold und Rosenkreuzer (Golden and Rosy Cross) was founded by the alchemist Samuel Richter who in 1710 published Die warhhaffte und vollkommene Bereitung des Philosophischen Steins der Brüderschaft aus dem Orden des Gülden-und Rosen-Creutzes (The True and Complete Preparation of the Philosopher's Stone by the Brotherhood from the Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross) in Breslau under the pseudonym Sincerus Renatus in Prague in the early 18th century as a hierarchical secret society composed of internal circles, recognition signs and alchemy treatises. Under the leadership of Hermann Fictuld the group reformed itself extensively in 1767 and again in 1777 because of political pressure. Its members claimed that the leaders of the Rosicrucian Order had invented Freemasonry and only they knew the secret meaning of Masonic symbols. The Rosicrucian Order had been founded by Egyptian “Ormusse” or “Licht-Weise” who had emigrated to Scotland with the name “Builders from the East”. In 1785 and 1788 the Golden and Rosy Cross group published the Geheime Figuren or “The Secret Symbols of the 16th and 17th century Rosicrucians”.

Led by Johann Christoph von Wöllner and General Johann Rudolf von Bischoffwerder, the Masonic lodge (later: Grand Lodge) Zu den drei Weltkugeln (The Three Globes) was infiltrated and came under the influence of the Golden and Rosy Cross. Many Freemasons became Rosicrucianists and Rosicrucianism was established in many lodges. In 1782 at the Convent of Wilhelmsbad the Alte schottische Loge Friedrich zum goldenen Löwen (Old Scottish Lodge Friedrich at the Golden Lion) in Berlin strongly requestedFerdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and all other Freemasons to submit to the Golden and Rosy Cross, without success.

After 1782, this highly secretive society added Egyptian, Greek and Druidic mysteries to its alchemy system. A comparative study of what is known about the Gold and Rosenkreuzer appears to reveal, on the one hand, that it has influenced the creation of some modern Initiatic groups and, on the other hand, that the Nazis (see The Occult Roots of Nazism) may have been inspired by this German group.

According to the writings of the Masonic historian E.J. Marconis de Negre, who together with his father Gabriel M. Marconis is held to be the founder of the "Rite of Memphis-Misraim" of Freemasonry, based on earlier conjectures (1784) by a Rosicrucian scholar Baron de Westerode and also promulgated by the 18th century secret society called the "Golden and Rosy Cross", the Rosicrucian Order was created in the year 46 when an Alexandrian Gnostic sage named Ormus and his six followers were converted by one of Jesus' disciples, Mark. Their symbol was said to be a red cross surmounted by a rose, thus the designation of Rosy Cross. From this conversion, Rosicrucianism was supposedly born, by purifying Egyptian mysteries with the new higher teachings of early Christianity.

According to Maurice Magre (1877–1941) in his book Magicians, Seers, and Mystics, Rosenkreutz was the last descendant of the Germelshausen, a German family from the 13th century. Their castle stood in the Thuringian Forest on the border of Hesse, and they embraced Albigensian doctrines. The whole family was put to death by Landgrave Conrad of Thuringia, except for the youngest son, then five years old. He was carried away secretly by a monk, an Albigensian adept from Languedoc, and placed in a monastery under the influence of the Albigenses, where he was educated and met the four Brothers later to be associated with him in the founding of the Rosicrucian Brotherhood. Magre's account supposedly derives from oral tradition.

Around 1530, more than eighty years before the publication of the first manifesto, the association of cross and rose already existed in Portugal in the Convent of the Order of Christ, home of the Knights Templar, later renamed Order of Christ. Three bocetes were, and still are, on the abóboda (vault) of the initiation room. The rose can clearly be seen at the center of the cross. At the same time, a minor writing by Paracelsus called Prognosticatio Eximii Doctoris Paracelsi (1530), containing 32 prophecies with allegoricalpictures surrounded by enigmatic texts, makes reference to an image of a double cross over an open rose; this is one of the examples used to prove the "Fraternity of the Rose Cross" existed far earlier than 1614.

Modern groups

Centro de Estudios Rosacruz (Zaragoza).

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, various groups styled themselves Rosicrucian. The diverse groups who link themselves to a "Rosicrucian Tradition" can be divided into three categories: Esoteric Christian Rosicrucian groups, which profess Christ; MasonicRosicrucian groups such as Societas Rosicruciana; and initiatory groups such as the Golden Dawn and the Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis (AMORC).

Esoteric Christian Rosicrucian schools provide esoteric knowledge related to the inner teachings of Christianity.

According to Masonic writers, the Order of the Rose Cross is expounded in a major Christian literary work that molded the subsequent spiritual views of the western civilisation, The Divine Comedy (ca. 1308–1321) by Dante Alighieri.

Other Christian-Rosicrucian oriented bodies include:

Freemasonic Rosicrucian bodies providing preparation either through direct study and/or through the practice of symbolic-initiatic journey.

Initiatory groups which follow a degree system of study and initiation include:

Chronological list of groups formed for the study of Rosicrucianism and related subjects

Many of these groups generally speak of a lineal descent from earlier branches of the ancient Rosicrucian Order in England, France, Egypt, or other countries. However, some groups speak of a spiritual affiliation with a true and invisible Rosicrucian Order. Note there are other Rosicrucian groups not listed here. Some do not use the name "Rosicrucian" to name themselves. Some groups listed may have been dissolved and are no longer operating.

See also[



  1. ^ Jump up to:a b "The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 5, No. 2/3 (Jul. - Oct., 1919), pp. 265-270 by Joseph A. Murray; Review of New England and the Bavarian Illuminati by Vernon Stauffer; Vol. LXXXII of Studies in History, Economics and Public Law by The Faculty of Political Science; Columbia University Press (1918)" (PDF). Catholic University of America Press. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  2. Jump up^ Lindgren, Carl Edwin, The way of the Rose Cross; A Historical Perception, 1614–1620. Journal of Religion and Psychical Research, Volume 18, Number 3:141–48. 1995.
  3. Jump up^ Philalethes, Eugenius (1997). Fame and Confession of the Fraternity of the Rosy Cross. City: Kessinger Publishing. p. 9ff. ISBN 1-56459-257-X.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Yates, Frances A. (1972), The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, London
  5. Jump up^
  6. Jump up^ Gorceix, Bernard (1970), La Bible des Rose-Croix, Paris: a work of reference, containing translations of the three Rosicrucian Manifestos, recommended in Accès de l'Ésoterisme Occidental (1986, 1996) by Antoine Faivre (École Pratique des Hautes Études, Sorbonne)
  7. Jump up^ Cf. Yates, Frances A. (1972), The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, London & Edighoffer, Roland (I-1982, II-1987), Rose-Croix et Société Idéale selon Johann Valentin Andreae, Paris
  8. Jump up^ Cf. Dickson, Donald R. (1996), "Johann Valentin Andreae's Utopian Brotherhoods",Renaissance Quarterly 22 Dec. 1996
  9. Jump up^ Cited by Sédir in Les Rose-Croix, Paris (1972), pp. 65–66
  10. Jump up^ Sédir (1972), Les Rose-Croix, Paris, p. 59 to 68
  11. Jump up^ Guénon, René, Simboles de la Science Sacrée, Paris 1962, p.95ff
  12. Jump up^ Waite, Arthur E. (1887), The Real History of the Rosicrucians – founded on their own Manifestos, and on facts and documents collected from the writings of Initiated Brethren, London, p.408
  13. Jump up^ "The origins of the Royal Society lie in an 'invisible college' of natural philosophers who began meeting in the mid-1640s to discuss the new philosophy of promoting knowledge of the natural world through observation and experiment, which we now call science." accessed 2 May 2014
  14. Jump up^ Cited by R Lomas (2002) in The Invisible College, London
  15. Jump up^ Cited by H. Lyons (1944) in The Royal Society 1660–1940, Cambridge
  16. Jump up^ Jean-Pierre Bayard, Les Rose-Croix, M. A. Éditions, Paris, 1986
  17. Jump up^ Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 59
  18. Jump up^ Bayard, Jean-Pierre, Les Rose-Croix, M.A.Édition, Paris 1986
  19. Jump up^ de Negre, E.J. Marconis (1849), Brief History of Masonry
  20. Jump up^ Nesta Webster's, Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, London, 1924, p. 87 and note 37
  21. Jump up^ Further research in Legend and Mythology: Ormus by Sol, The Book of THoTH, 2004
  22. Jump up^ Macedo, António de (2000), Instruções Iniciáticas – Ensaios Espirituais, 2nd edition, Hughin Editores, Lisbon, ISBN 972-8534-00-0, p.55
  23. Jump up^ Gandra, J. Manuel (1998), Portugal Misterioso (Os Templários), Lisbon, pp. 348–349
  24. Jump up^ Stanislas de Guaita (1886), Au seuil du Mystère
  25. Jump up^ Skogstrom, Jan (2001), Some Comparisons Between Exoteric & Esoteric Christianity, a table comparing exoteric and esoteric Christian beliefs
  26. Jump up^ The Rosicrucian Interpretation of Christianity by The Rosicrucian Fellowship
  27. Jump up^ The Rosicrucian Mysteries by Max Heindel. Accessed 29 March 2006
  28. Jump up^ Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, "XXX: Knight Kadosh", p. 822, 1872
  29. Jump up^ René Guénon, El Esoterismo de Dante, pp. 5–6, 14, 15–16, 18–23, 1925
  30. Jump up^ Manly Palmer Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages: The Fraternity of The Rose Cross, p. 139, 1928
  31. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j Frater Melchior. "Manifestations of the Neo-Rosicrucian Current"
  32. Jump up^ 8 August 1909, in Seattle, Washington, at 3:00 p.m; cf.
  33. Jump up^ Not 1909: a Charter forming this organization is dated from 1 April 1915 in New York, after a previous document titled "American Pronunziamento Number One" or "First American Manifesto" by H. Spencer Lewis issued in February, 1915; cf.
  34. Jump up^ cf.
  35. Jump up^ cf.


Old editions



Fictional literature

Conspiracy literature

External links

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