Dee Finney's blog

start date July 20, 2011

today's date August 22, 2013


page 548




Walk Through the Valley of the Shadow of Smirk

Published: October 18, 2007

A. J. Jacobs is an Esquire editor who specializes in dubious achievements, and not just the kind that make that magazine’s year-end list. In order to write “The Know-It-All” Mr. Jacobs performed the parlor trick of reading his way through the entire Encyclopaedia Britannica. Eventually he is liable to sample every product at Wal-Mart or travel cross-country on a gas-station tour. But for now the Bible is his gimmicky plaything.


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Michael Cogliantry

A. J. Jacobs


One Man’s Humble Quest to Follow the Bible as Literally as Possible

By A. J. Jacobs

388 pages. Simon & Schuster. $25. $29.95.


Excerpt (

“The Year of Living Biblically” is Mr. Jacobs’s reality-show version of living by rules set forth in the Bible. “If I wanted to understand my forefathers, this year would let me live like they did, but with less leprosy,” he writes, sounding like Woody Allen on a bad day. So he made a list of scriptural strictures, the more peculiar the better, and set out to fulfill them as a 21st century New Yorker. This mission is exotic to him, he acknowledges, pointing out, “I’ve rarely said the word Lord, unless it’s followed by of the Rings.”


With that mea culpa for any seriously religious readers, Mr. Jacobs goes about creating a methodology. He acknowledges having obsessive-compulsive disorder and loves the idea of following rules. Seventy-two pages later he has typed out every instruction he can find in the Old and New Testaments and set up a month-by-month plan to try them out. In addition to this tidy setup the book has a Hollywood-friendly ending: If Mr. Jacobs could not ratchet his religious faith beyond the point of being “a reverent agnostic,” he can at least arrange with his wife, Julie, to have twins in Month 12 as this experiment ends.


“The Year of Living Biblically” looks deceptively approachable. It is divided into short sections, each revolving around a particular rule. The dictum is set forth and then Mr. Jacobs finds some convoluted, often cute way of following it in his urban universe. “I wouldn’t stone you with big stones,” he promises an adulterer, brandishing some pebbles. “Just these little guys.” He has to give up doodling when confronted with “You shall not make for yourself a graven image.”


But these anecdotal passages are separate from one another. And they don’t add up to much more than a checklist of tricks. Far from creating an overall sense of living by biblical law, this book moves skittishly from topic to topic and generally forgets an idea after Mr. Jacobs has briefly toyed with it. Although he’s a very facile writer and even a successfully glib one, he has managed to bring a kind of attention deficit disorder to the theological constructs that are trivialized here.


There’s a certain amount of suspense in wondering what, say, “the Lord is my shepherd” will turn into. It becomes part of a trip to Israel, where a tough working-over from El Al airline security is linked with “I will ask you a question; hide nothing from me,” from the Book of Jeremiah. In the Negev desert Mr. Jacobs tracks down a shepherd and asks if he can mind the sheep; that way he discovers that they make “baa” sounds and are actually sheepish. “A loud ‘Hey!’ or a tossed stone, and the sheep fall right into place,” he writes. “Everyone can be a Jack Welch in the pasture.”


Beneath the gamesmanship and the showing off (Mr. Jacobs sports a full beard and long white robe in the midst of Manhattan) there is some genuine curiosity at work here. But “The Year of Living Biblically” cannot reasonably be described as “intellectual adventure,” even if Mr. Jacobs uses that term. The only adventures on which he embarks are research trips, like the one to Amish country that yields a joke with the punch line “she drove him buggy.”

Other trips, notably to the Creation Museum in Petersburg, Ky., and to Jerry Falwell’s church in Lynchburg, Va., carry Mr. Jacobs beyond his own secular Jewish outlook and engage him in difficult theological questions, however briefly. “In fact, you have to be quite sharp to be a leading creationist,” he writes, after grilling one such scientist about Noah’s Ark.


Because Mr. Jacobs is a primarily a memoirist despite his penchant for categories, much of “The Year of Living Biblically” is actually about his family life. Although he renders his wife and young son entertainingly, they wind up sounding like sitcom characters, if only because this book is spun out of such a contrived situation.


He trawls for laughs as he puts tape over a Celestial Seasonings tea package so that he will not lust for the geisha pictured. He’s less funny when obscuring part of his own wedding photo so that he won’t be tempted by his wife’s hot-looking friend. And when he turns “Whoever strikes his father or his mother shall be put to death,” from Exodus into a story about being swatted by his son with a toy bowling pin, he reduces a high-minded premise to household schtick without skipping a beat.


“The Year of Living Biblically” is very much a product of its times. It could not have been written without the cute flourishes that are newly possible in the Age of Google. It’s a matter of minutes to search for sellers of harps (“Home is where your harp is!” is one slogan) or edible insects on the Internet. And it is simplicity itself to procure these things, use them to meet the Bible’s requirements and then move on to the next little hurdle. In Mr. Jacob’s germ-free, Purell-washed hands, efficiency’s gain is theology’s loss.




The inspiration for this section originates with Christians and Christian groups using the Bible to justify horrible actions, most notable in recent years has been gay bashing.  Rev. Fred Phelps protests any people who support gays, as well as homosexual funerals with colorful signs reading "God Hates Fags" or "Burn in Hell FAG!!!".  Dr. Laura, a disgustingly boring radio personality, as well as failed TV personality... not to mention a bad source of advice, also uses the Bible to justify her dislike of homosexuals.  The Ku Klux Klan uses the Bible to justify their actions, as well as abortion clinic bombers, mail bombers, and dictators/tyrants throughout history.  But what does the Bible really say about things like this?  How does the Bible expect us to act?  Let us find out.

Homosexuals MUST DIE!!!


The killing of homosexuals is condoned and encouraged in the wonderful laws of Leviticus.  Leviticus 20:13 clearly states "If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them."  Well there you have it, Homosexuality is wrong, and they must pay the ultimate price... IN THE NAME OF GOD!!!


Who else shouldn't people do?

Don't let cattle graze with other kinds of Cattle (Leviticus 19:19)

Don't have a variety of crops on the same field. (Leviticus 19:19)

Don't wear clothes made of more than one fabric (Leviticus 19:19)

Don't cut your hair nor shave. (Leviticus 19:27)

Any person who curseth his mother or father, must be killed. (Leviticus 20:9)  Have you ever done that?

If a man cheats on his wife, or vise versa, both the man and the woman must die. (Leviticus 20:10).  I wonder if Dr. Laura would like that one to be enforced?

If a man sleeps with his father's wife... both him and his father's wife is to be put to death. (Leviticus 20:11)

If a man sleeps with his wife and her mother they are all to be burnt to death.  (Leviticus 20:14)

If a man or woman has sex with an animal, both human and animal must be killed. (Leviticus 20:15-16).  I guess you should kill the animal since they were willing participants.  Are they crazy?

If a man has sex with a woman on her period, they are both to be "cut off from their people" (Leviticus 20:18)

Psychics, wizards, and so on are to be stoned to death.  (Leviticus 20:27)

If a priest's daughter is a whore, she is to be burnt at the stake.  (Leviticus 21:9)

People who have flat noses, or is blind or lame, cannot go to an altar of God (Leviticus 21:17-18)

Anyone who curses or blasphemes God, should be stoned to death by the community.  (Leviticus 24:14-16)

Don't let cattle graze with other kinds of Cattle (Leviticus 19:19)

One must wonder why there are so many people wanting to site Leviticus for gay bashing, but they never mention these rules.  How strange.  It is common that a Christian will blow off these old rules with "Jesus came to change the laws, so these are outmoded, and we don't need them", but throughout Leviticus God states that these laws are to be followed forever.  Hmmm.

The Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments are very famous examples of Biblical rules, but it can be amazing how few people know what's included in them.  Let's recap.

1.  You are to have no other gods before God

2.  You are not to make any graven images.

3.  Don't use the Lord's name in vain

4.  Keep the Sabbath holy

5.  Honor your mother and father

6.  Do not kill

7.  Do not commit adultery.

8.  Don't steal

9.  Don't bear false witness.

10.  Don't covet the neighbor's house.

Here are some things you may not know were included within the commandments.

People seem to think the second commandment says you aren't supposed to make a graven image of God, and that's it.  But you are not to make any graven images of anything in heaven, in the earth, or in the water.  This would include no graven images of fish, moles, worms, birds, shrimp, ants, and all sorts of things.  One must wonder why God was so worried about these things that he felt the need to put these ahead of murder and stealing.

In the third commandment, people think that means we shouldn't work, but just go to church on the Sabbath.  But NOBODY is to do any work, including your employees, your cattle, nor anyone who is visiting you.

While you are not coveting your neighbor's house, also refrain from coveting other things he owns, like his wife, ass, and ox.


The Often Overlooked Rules in Deuteronomy


The book Deuteronomy also lays some laws down, but nobody ever mentions them, but why not take a look at those laws also?

Anyone who dreams or prophesizes anything that is against God, or anyone who tries to turn you from God, is to be put to death. (Deuteronomy 13:5)

If anyone, even your own family suggests worshipping another God, kill them. (Deuteronomy 13:6-10)

If you find out a city worships a different god, destroy the city and kill all of it's inhabitants... even the animals. (Deuteronomy 13:12-15)

Kill anyone with a different religion. (Deuteronomy 17:2-7)

This shows you that it really is scary that people want to make the Bible part of the law.  Not to mention it sheds light on why Christians are so overly oppressive to those who don't share their belief.  Sick, sick, sick.  It can also be said that any person who uses the Bible to justify beating a homosexual, is a hypocrite if he doesn't adhere to all of these laws.



Bible Verses About Laws

Bible Verses About Laws from the King James Version (KJV) by Relevance

- Sort By Book Order

Luke 16:17 - And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail.

Romans 13:1 - Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God.

1 John 5:3 - For this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments: and his commandments are not grievous.

1 John 3:4 - Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law.

Romans 2:15 - Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and [their] thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)

Proverbs 28:4 - They that forsake the law praise the wicked: but such as keep the law contend with them.

Ezra 7:10 - For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the law of the LORD, and to do [it], and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments.

Hebrews 10:1-18 - For the law having a shadow of good things to come, [and] not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.   (Read More...)

Acts 7:53 - Who have received the law by the disposition of angels, and have not kept [it].

Isaiah 33:22 - For the LORD [is] our judge, the LORD [is] our lawgiver, the LORD [is] our king; he will save us.

Psalms 19:7-9 - The law of the LORD [is] perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD [is] sure, making wise the simple.   (Read More...)

Nehemiah 1:7 - We have dealt very corruptly against thee, and have not kept the commandments, nor the statutes, nor the judgments, which thou commandedst thy servant Moses.

James 2:10 - For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one [point], he is guilty of all.

Hebrews 9:8-24 - The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing:   (Read More...)

Hebrews 8:4-13 - For if he were on earth, he should not be a priest, seeing that there are priests that offer gifts according to the law:   (Read More...)

Hebrews 2:2 - For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward;

1 Timothy 1:8-10 - But we know that the law [is] good, if a man use it lawfully;   (Read More...)

1 Timothy 1:5 - Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and [of] a good conscience, and [of] faith unfeigned:

Colossians 2:14-23 - Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross;   (Read More...)

Ephesians 2:15 - Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, [even] the law of commandments [contained] in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, [so] making peace;

Galatians 4:31 - So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.

Galatians 4:30 - Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman.

James 1:25 - But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth [therein], he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed.

Hebrews 12:27 - And this [word], Yet once more, signifieth the removing of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, that those things which cannot be shaken may remain.

Hebrews 12:19 - And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which [voice] they that heard intreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more:

Hebrews 11:40 - God having provided some better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect.

Hebrews 9:18-21 - Whereupon neither the first [testament] was dedicated without blood.   (Read More...)

Galatians 3:19 - Wherefore then [serveth] the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; [and it was] ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.

Galatians 2:3-9 - But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised:   (Read More...)

2 Corinthians 3:7-14 - But if the ministration of death, written [and] engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which [glory] was to be done away:   (Read More...)

Romans 13:10 - Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love [is] the fulfilling of the law.

Romans 10:4 - For Christ [is] the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth.

Romans 8:3 - For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:

Romans 7:14 - For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin.

Romans 7:12 - Wherefore the law [is] holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.

Romans 7:7 - What shall we say then? [Is] the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.

Romans 7:1-6 - Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know the law,) how that the law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth?   (Read More...)

Romans 3:22 - Even the righteousness of God [which is] by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:

Romans 3:21 - But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets;

Romans 3:2 - Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.

Romans 3:1 - What advantage then hath the Jew? or what profit [is there] of circumcision?

Romans 2:14 - For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves:

Acts 28:23 - And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him into [his] lodging; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, and [out of] the prophets, from morning till evening.

Acts 26:23 - That Christ should suffer, [and] that he should be the first that should rise from the dead, and should shew light unto the people, and to the Gentiles.

Acts 26:22 - Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue unto this day, witnessing both to small and great, saying none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should come:

Acts 21:20-25 - And when they heard [it], they glorified the Lord, and said unto him, Thou seest, brother, how many thousands of Jews there are which believe; and they are all zealous of the law:   (Read More...)

Acts 15:21 - For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.

Acts 15:1-29 - And certain men which came down from Judaea taught the brethren, [and said], Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved.   (Read More...)

Acts 13:39 - And by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses.

Acts 13:14-52 - But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and sat down.   (Read More...)

Acts 10:28 - And he said unto them, Ye know how that it is an unlawful thing for a man that is a Jew to keep company, or come unto one of another nation; but God hath shewed me that I should not call any man common or unclean.

Acts 7:38 - This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and [with] our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us:

Acts 6:14 - For we have heard him say, that this Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place, and shall change the customs which Moses delivered us.

John 12:34 - The people answered him, We have heard out of the law that Christ abideth for ever: and how sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man?

John 8:35 - And the servant abideth not in the house for ever: [but] the Son abideth ever.

John 5:46 - For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me.

John 4:20-24 - Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship.   (Read More...)

John 1:45 - Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.

John 1:17 - For the law was given by Moses, [but] grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.

Luke 24:44 - And he said unto them, These [are] the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and [in] the prophets, and [in] the psalms, concerning me.

Luke 20:22-25 - Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?   (Read More...)

Luke 16:16 - The law and the prophets [were] until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it.

Luke 10:27 - And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself.

Luke 4:32 - And they were astonished at his doctrine: for his word was with power.

Luke 4:16 - And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up for to read.

Mark 12:29-33 - And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments [is], Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:   (Read More...)

Matthew 22:40 - On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.

Matthew 22:21 - They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.

Matthew 5:17-45 - Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.   (Read More...)

Malachi 4:4 - Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, [with] the statutes and judgments.

Habakkuk 3:3 - God came from Teman, and the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise.

Daniel 9:27 - And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make [it] desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.

Jeremiah 3:16 - And it shall come to pass, when ye be multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, saith the LORD, they shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of the LORD: neither shall it come to mind: neither shall they remember it; neither shall they visit [it]; neither shall [that] be done any more.

Proverbs 28:5 - Evil men understand not judgment: but they that seek the LORD understand all [things].

Psalms 119:1-8 - ALEPH. Blessed [are] the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of the LORD.   (Read More...)

Psalms 103:7 - He made known his ways unto Moses, his acts unto the children of Israel.

Psalms 78:5 - For he established a testimony in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel, which he commanded our fathers, that they should make them known to their children:

Psalms 68:17 - The chariots of God [are] twenty thousand, [even] thousands of angels: the Lord [is] among them, [as in] Sinai, in the holy [place].

Nehemiah 9:14 - And madest known unto them thy holy sabbath, and commandedst them precepts, statutes, and laws, by the hand of Moses thy servant:

Nehemiah 8:1-18 - And all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the street that [was] before the water gate; and they spake unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel.   (Read More...)

Nehemiah 8:1 - And all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the street that [was] before the water gate; and they spake unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel.

Ezra 7:6 - This Ezra went up from Babylon; and he [was] a ready scribe in the law of Moses, which the LORD God of Israel had given: and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God upon him.

2 Chronicles 35:3 - And said unto the Levites that taught all Israel, which were holy unto the LORD, Put the holy ark in the house which Solomon the son of David king of Israel did build; [it shall] not [be] a burden upon [your] shoulders: serve now the LORD your God, and his people Israel,

2 Chronicles 34:14 - And when they brought out the money that was brought into the house of the LORD, Hilkiah the priest found a book of the law of the LORD [given] by Moses.

2 Chronicles 23:11 - Then they brought out the king's son, and put upon him the crown, and [gave him] the testimony, and made him king. And Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and said, God save the king.

2 Chronicles 17:7-10 - Also in the third year of his reign he sent to his princes, [even] to Benhail, and to Obadiah, and to Zechariah, and to Nethaneel, and to Michaiah, to teach in the cities of Judah.   (Read More...)

2 Kings 22:8 - And Hilkiah the high priest said unto Shaphan the scribe, I have found the book of the law in the house of the LORD. And Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, and he read it.

2 Kings 11:12 - And he brought forth the king's son, and put the crown upon him, and [gave him] the testimony; and they made him king, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said, God save the king.

1 Kings 8:9 - [There was] nothing in the ark save the two tables of stone, which Moses put there at Horeb, when the LORD made [a covenant] with the children of Israel, when they came out of the land of Egypt.

Joshua 8:33-35 - And all Israel, and their elders, and officers, and their judges, stood on this side the ark and on that side before the priests the Levites, which bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD, as well the stranger, as he that was born among them; half of them over against mount Gerizim, and half of them over against mount Ebal; as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded before, that they should bless the people of Israel.   (Read More...)

Joshua 8:30-35 - Then Joshua built an altar unto the LORD God of Israel in mount Ebal,   (Read More...)

Leviticus 26:46 - These [are] the statutes and judgments and laws, which the LORD made between him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses.

Leviticus 10:11 - And that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the LORD hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.

Exodus 34:28 - And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.

Exodus 34:27 - And the LORD said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel.

Exodus 34:1-4 - And the LORD said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon [these] tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest.   (Read More...)

Exodus 32:16 - And the tables [were] the work of God, and the writing [was] the writing of God, graven upon the tables.

Exodus 32:15 - And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, and the two tables of the testimony [were] in his hand: the tables [were] written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other [were] they written.

Exodus 31:18 - And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of communing with him upon mount Sinai, two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God.

Exodus 25:16 - And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee.

What Does the Bible Say About the Old Testament Law?

Frequently Asked Questions


The Law of Moses regulated almost every aspect of life in Old Testament times. But with the coming of Christ, God established a new covenant of faith and love with mankind. Christians are not required to follow the Old Testament rules about crimes and punishments, warfare, slavery, diet, circumcision, sacrifices, feast days, Sabbath observance, tithing, ritual cleanness, etc. However, the moral and ethical teachings of Jesus and His apostles call for even greater self-discipline than those of the Old Testament.

The Law of Moses

In Biblical times, the Law of Moses (also called Old Testament Law, Mosaic Law, or just The Law) regulated almost every aspect of Jewish life. The Ten Commandments and many other laws defined matters of morals, religious practice and government. It regulated the army, criminal justice, commerce, property rights, slavery, sexual relations, marriage and social interactions. It required circumcision for males, animal sacrifices, and strict Sabbath observance. It provided for the welfare of widows, orphans, the poor, foreigners and domestic animals. Ceremonial rules divided animals into "clean" and "unclean" categories. Clean animals could be eaten; unclean animals could not.

The Law of Moses was given to the Israelites when they were still a band of ex-slaves struggling to survive. Many of the laws were specific for the worship system  and agricultural life of ancient Israel (Exodus 12:14-16, Leviticus 1:10-13, 11:1-23, 15:19-20, 19:19, 19:27-28, 27:30-32, Deuteronomy 25:5-6). Like life in those times, many were harsh and cruel compared to the teachings of Jesus (Exodus 35:2, Deuteronomy 20:10-14, 21:18-21, 22:23-24). But there are also many moral teachings that form the basis of Christian morality (Exodus 20:1-17, 23:6-9, Leviticus 19:9-10, 19:18, Deuteronomy 6:5).


The Teachings of Jesus


By the time of Jesus, the great moral principles God had given to Moses in the Ten Commandments had been turned into hundreds of ceremonial rules. People thought they were living holy lives if they just obeyed all those rules. But Jesus disagreed. He said people found enough "loopholes" to obey all the rules and still live wicked and greedy lives (Matthew 23:23-28).

Jesus made one statement about the Law that often causes confusion:


“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished. (NIV, Matthew 5:17–18)

Christians have struggled to understand exactly what Jesus meant. At first reading, this seems to say that all the Old Testament rules and rituals must still be observed. But Jesus and His disciples did not observe many of those rules and rituals, so it could not mean that.

It is frequently pointed out that the term "the Law" could have many different meanings at the time of Jesus:1,2

Jesus did not abolish the moral and ethical laws that had been in effect from the time of Moses. He affirmed and expanded upon those principles, but He said obedience must be from the heart (attitudes and intentions) rather than just technical observance of the letter of the law (Matthew 5:21-22, 27-28, 31-32, 33-34, 38-42, 43-44, etc.).

However, Jesus and His disciples did not observe the strict scribal rules against doing any work on the Sabbath (Matthew 12:1-14, Mark 2:23-28, 3:1-6, Luke 6:1-11, 13:10-17, 14:1-6, John 5:1-18). Neither did they perform the ritual hand washings before eating (Matthew 15:1-2). In contrast to the dietary rules of the Law, Jesus said no food can defile a person; it is bad attitudes and actions that can make a person unholy (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-23). Jesus frequently criticized the scribal laws (Matthew 23:23, Mark 7:11-13) and some aspects of the civil law (John 8:3-5, 10-11).

Therefore, Jesus may have been specifically teaching that the moral and ethical laws in the Scripture would endure until the end of time. That would be consistent with His actions and other teachings. Through His teachings and actions, Jesus revealed the true meaning and intent of the Law.

It is also pointed out that Jesus, Himself, is the fulfillment of the Law (Matthew 26:28, Mark 10:45, Luke 16:16, John 1:16, Acts 10:28, 13:39, Romans 10:4)  The sacrifice of Jesus on the cross ended forever the need for animal sacrifices and other aspects of the ceremonial law.


The Council of Jerusalem


The first Christians came from among the Jews, and they continued to observe the Law of Moses as well as their new Christian faith. But as more and more Gentiles (non-Jews) converted to Christianity, there were disputes about whether or not these Gentile Christians must observe the Law. Issues of circumcision and diet were especially troublesome and threatened to split Christianity apart.

In about the year 49 A.D., Peter, Paul, Barnabas, James and other Christian leaders met in Jerusalem to settle the issue (Acts 15:1-29). It was agreed, with the guidance of the Holy Spirit, that nothing was required of the Gentile converts except faith in Christ; they were not bound by the Law of Moses. However, the council directed the Gentile Christians to abstain from certain things that were particularly offensive to their Jewish brethren - food sacrificed to idols, blood, meat of strangled animals and sexual immorality (Acts 15:29).


The New Covenant


With the coming of Christ, God has established a new covenant with mankind (Jeremiah 31:31-34, Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, Hebrews 8:8-13, 9:11-15). Jesus and His apostles gave us a radically new understanding of the true intent of the Old Testament Law; they brought a new era of the rule of love for all people and spiritual truth instead of rule by law (Luke 10:25-28, John 13:34-35, Ephesians 2:14-18).

However, God has not revoked His original covenant with Israel and the Jewish people (Luke 1:72, Acts 3:25, Romans 9:4-5, 11:26-29, Galatians 3:17). The New Covenant does not condemn the Jews, nor does it in any way justify persecution of Jews.




The teachings of Jesus, the Council of Jerusalem, and other New Testament teachings (John 1:16-17, Acts 13:39, Romans 2:25-29, 8:1-4, 1 Corinthians 9:19-21, Galatians 2:15-16, Ephesians 2:15) make it clear that Christians are not required to follow the Old Testament rules about crimes and punishments, warfare, slavery, diet, circumcision, animal sacrifices, feast days, Sabbath observance, ritual cleanness, etc.

Christians still look to the Old Testament scripture for moral and spiritual guidance (2 Timothy 3:16-17). But when there seems to be a conflict between Old Testament laws and New Testament principles, we must follow the New Testament because it represents the most recent and most perfect revelation from God (Hebrews 8:13, 2 Corinthians 3:1-18, Galatians 2:15-20).

However, freedom from the Old Testament Law is not a license for Christians to relax their moral standards. The moral and ethical teachings of Jesus and His apostles call for even greater self-discipline than those of the Old Testament (Matthew 5:21-22, 27-28, 31-32, 33-34, 38-42, 43-48, 7:1-5, 15:18-19, 25:37-40, Mark 7:21-23, 12:28-31, Luke 12:15, 1 Corinthians 13:1-13, Galatians 5:19-21, James 1:27, 2:15-16, 1 John 3:17-19).





Genesis 26:5
Because that Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.
Genesis 26:4-6 (in Context) Genesis 26 (Whole Chapter)

Genesis 47:26
And Joseph made it a law over the land of Egypt unto this day, that Pharaoh should have the fifth part, except the land of the priests only, which became not Pharaoh's.
Genesis 47:25-27 (in Context) Genesis 47 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations

  1. Exodus 12:49
    One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.
    Exodus 12:48-50 (in Context) Exodus 12 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations
  2. Exodus 13:9
    And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the Lord's law may be in thy mouth: for with a strong hand hath the Lord brought thee out of Egypt.
    Exodus 13:8-10 (in Context) Exodus 13 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations
  3. Exodus 16:4
    Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.
    Exodus 16:3-5 (in Context) Exodus 16 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations
  4. Exodus 16:28
    And the Lord said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws?
    Exodus 16:27-29 (in Context) Exodus 16 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations
Exodus 18:16
When they have a matter, they come unto me; and I judge between one and another, and I do make them know the statutes of God, and his laws.
Exodus 18:15-17 (in Context) Exodus 18 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations

The 613 commandments (Hebrew: תרי"ג מצוות‎: taryag mitzvot, "613 Mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot listed in the Torah, first codified by Rabbi Simlai in Talmud Makkot 23b.


These principles of Biblical law are sometimes called connections or commandments (mitzvot) and referred to collectively as the "Law of Moses" (Torat Mosheh, תורת משה), "Mosaic Law," "Sinaitic Law," or simply "the Law". The word mitzvot is plural; singular is mitzvah.


Although there have been many attempts to codify and enumerate the commandments contained in the Torah, the traditional view is based on Maimonides' enumeration. The 613 commandments are "positive commandments", to perform an act (mitzvot aseh), and "negative commandments", to abstain from certain acts (mitzvot lo taaseh). The negative commandments number 365, which coincides with the number of days in the solar year, and the positive commandments number 248, a number ascribed to the number of bones and main organs in the human body (Babylonian Talmud, Makkot 23b-24a).[1] Though the number 613 is mentioned in the Talmud, its real significance increased in later medieval rabbinic literature, including many works listing or arranged by the mitzvot. Three types of negative commandments fall under the yehareg ve'al ya'avor, meaning "One should let oneself be killed rather than violate it". These are murder, idolatry, and forbidden sexual relations.[2]


The 613 mitzvot have been divided into three general categories. A category of mitzvoth are called Mishpatim. These include commandments that are deemed to be self-evident, such as not to murder or not to steal. Another category of mitzvot are called Edot ("testimonies"). They stand as testimonies in religious branches of Judaism. For example, the Shabbath is said to testify to the story that Hashem created the world in six days and rested on the seventh day and declared it holy. A third category of mitzvot are called Chukim. These commandments have no known rationale, and are perceived as pure manifestations of the Divine will.


Many of the mitzvot cannot be observed now, following the destruction of the Second Temple, although they still retain religious significance. According to one standard reckoning,[3] there are 77 positive and 194 negative commandments that can be observed today, of which there are 26 commands that apply only within the Land of Israel.[4] Furthermore, there are some time-related commandments from which women are exempt (examples include shofar, sukkah, lulav, tzitzit and tefillin).[5] Some depend on the special status of a person in Judaism (such as kohanim), while others apply only to men and others only to women.


Significance of 613


[De Rouwdagen] De treurdagen (The mourning days) by Jan Voerman (nl), ca 1884

According to the Talmud (tractate Makkoth 23b), Deut.  33:04 is to be interpreted to mean that Moses transmitted the "Torah" from God to the Israelites: "Moses commanded us the Torah as an inheritance for the community of Jacob".


The Talmud notes that the Hebrew numerical value (gematria) of the word "Torah" is 611, and combining Moses's 611 commandments with the first two of the Ten Commandments which were the only ones heard directly from God, adds up to 613.[6] The Talmud attributes the number 613 to Rabbi Simlai, but other classical sages who hold this view include Rabbi Simeon ben Azzai (Sifre, Deuteronomy 76) and Rabbi Eleazar ben Yose the Galilean (Midrash Aggadah to Genesis 15:1). It is quoted in Midrash Shemot Rabbah 33:7, Bamidbar Rabbah 13:15–16; 18:21 and Talmud Yevamot 47b.


Many Jewish philosophical and mystical works (e.g. by Baal ha-Turim, the Maharal of Prague and leaders of Hasidic Judaism) find allusions and inspirational calculations relating to the number of commandments.


The tzitzit ("knotted fringes") of the tallit ("[prayer] shawl") are connected to the 613 commandments by interpretation: principal Torah commentator Rashi bases the number of knots on a gematria: the word tzitzit (Hebrew: ציצת (Biblical), ציצית, in its Mishnaic spelling) has the value 600. Each tassel has eight threads (when doubled over) and five sets of knots, totalling 13. The sum of all numbers is 613. This reflects the concept that donning a garment with tzitzit reminds its wearer of all Torah commandments.[7]


In gematria, the Hebrew: תרי"ג מצוותMitzvos or Mitzvot is transliterated as Taryag mitzvot. TaRYaG is the gematria for the number "613".

Dissent and difficulties


Rabbinic support for the number of commandments being 613 is not without dissent and, even as the number gained acceptance, difficulties arose in elucidating the list. Some rabbis declared that this count was not an authentic tradition, or that it was not logically possible to come up with a systematic count. No early work of Jewish law or Biblical commentary depended on the 613 system, and no early systems of Jewish principles of faith made acceptance of this Aggadah (non-legal Talmudic statement) normative. The classical Biblical commentator and grammarian Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra denied that this was an authentic rabbinic tradition. Ibn Ezra writes "Some sages enumerate 613 mitzvot in many diverse ways [...] but in truth there is no end to the number of mitzvot [...] and if we were to count only the root principles [...] the number of mitzvot would not reach 613" (Yesod Mora, Chapter 2).

Nahmanides held that this particular counting was a matter of rabbinic controversy, and that rabbinic opinion on this is not unanimous. Nonetheless, he concedes that "this total has proliferated throughout the aggadic literature... we ought to say that it was a tradition from Moses at Mount Sinai," (Nahmanides, Commentary to Maimonides' Sefer Hamitzvot'', Root Principle 1).


Rabbi Simeon ben Zemah Duran likewise rejected the dogma of the 613 as being the sum of the Law, saying that "perhaps the agreement that the number of mitzvot is 613... is just Rabbi Simlai's opinion, following his own explication of the mitzvot. And we need not rely on his explication when we come to determine [and affect] the Law, but rather on the Talmudic discussions" (Zohar Harakia, Lviv, 1858, p. 99).


Even when rabbis attempted to compile a list of the 613 commandments, they were faced with a number of difficulties:


Ultimately, though, the concept of 613 commandments has become accepted as normative amongst practising Jews and, today it is still common practice to refer to the total system of commandments within the Torah as the "613 commandments", even among those who do not literally accept this count as accurate.

However, the 613 Mitzvot do not constitute a formal code of present-day halakha. (See Halakha: Codes of Jewish law.) The most widely recognized code is the Shulkhan Arukh, written by Rabbi Yosef Karo (Safed, Israel, 1550). For Sephardic Jewry, this is generally the accepted code. Ashkenazim, however, customarily follow the glosses appended to the Shulchan Arukh by Rabbi Moses Isserles. The Kitzur Shulkhan Arukh of Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried (Hungary 1804 -1886) is an also popular among Ashkenazic Jews. Although it is often criticized, it does overview of the rules of Ashkenazi Jewish life according to the minhagim followed by Hungarian Jewry. This is why it is not accepted by all Ashkenazic rabbinic authorities. However, Maimonides did write his Mishneh Torah while keeping in mind all of the 613 mitzvot.


Works enumerating the commandments


There is no single definitive list that explicates the 613 commandments. Lists differ, for example, in how they interpret passages in the Torah that may be read as dealing with several cases under a single law or several separate laws. Other "commandments" in the Torah are restricted as one-time acts, and would not be considered as "mitzvot" binding on other persons. In rabbinic literature, Rishonim and later scholars composed to articulate and justify their enumeration of the commandments:


Maimonides' list


The following are the 613 commandments and the source of their derivation from the Hebrew Bible as enumerated by Maimonides:

  1. To know there is a God Ex.  20:2
  2. Not to even think that there are other gods besides Him — Standard->Ex.  20:3 Yemenite->Ex.  20:2
  3. To know that He is One Deut.  6:4
  4. To love HimDeut.  6:5
  5. To fear Him Deut.  10:20
  6. To sanctify His Name Lev.  22:32
  7. Not to profane His Name Lev.  22:32
  8. Not to destroy objects associated with His Name Deut.  12:4
  9. To listen to the prophet speaking in His Name — Deut.  18:15
  10. Not to try the LORD unduly — Deut.  6:16
  11. To emulate His ways Deut.  28:9
  12. To cleave to those who know Him Deut.  10:20
  13. To love other Jews Lev.  19:18
  14. To love converts Deut.  10:19
  15. Not to hate fellow Jews — Lev.  19:17
  16. To reprove a sinner — Lev.  19:17
  17. Not to embarrass others Lev.  19:17
  18. Not to oppress the weak — Ex.  22:21
  19. Not to speak derogatorily of others Lev.  19:16
  20. Not to take revenge Lev.  19:18
  21. Not to bear a grudge — Lev.  19:18
  22. To learn Torah Deut.  6:7
  23. To honor those who teach and know Torah Lev.  19:32
  24. Not to inquire into idolatry Lev.  19:4
  25. Not to follow the whims of your heart or what your eyes see — Num.  15:39
  26. Not to blaspheme Ex.  22:27
  27. Not to worship idols in the manner they are worshiped — Standard->Ex. 20:6 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:5
  28. Not to worship idols in the four ways we worship God — Standard->Ex. 20:6 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:5
  29. Not to make an idol for yourself — Standard->Ex. 20:5 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:4
  30. Not to make an idol for others Lev.  19:4
  31. Not to make human forms even for decorative purposes — Standard->Ex. 20:21 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:20
  32. Not to turn a city to idolatry Deut.  13:14
  33. To burn a city that has turned to idol worship Deut.  13:17
  34. Not to rebuild it as a city Deut.  13:17
  35. Not to derive benefit from it Deut.  13:18
  36. Not to missionize an individual to idol worship Deut.  13:12
  37. Not to love the idolater Deut.  13:9
  38. Not to cease hating the idolater Deut.  13:9
  39. Not to save the idolater Deut.  13:9
  40. Not to say anything in the idolater's defense Deut.  13:9
  41. Not to refrain from incriminating the idolater Deut.  13:9
  42. Not to prophesize in the name of idolatry Deut.  13:14
  43. Not to listen to a false prophet Deut.  13:4
  44. Not to prophesize falsely in the name of God — Deut.  18:20
  45. Not to be afraid of the false prophet Deut.  18:22
  46. Not to swear in the name of an idol Ex.  23:13
  47. Not to perform ov (medium) — Lev.  19:31
  48. Not to perform yidoni ("magical seer") — Lev.  19:31
  49. Not to pass your children through the fire to Molech Lev.  18:21
  50. Not to erect a pillar in a public place of worship — Deut.  16:22
  51. Not to bow down before a smooth stone — Lev.  26:1
  52. Not to plant a tree in the Temple courtyard — Deut.  16:21
  53. To destroy idols and their accessories Deut.  12:2
  54. Not to derive benefit from idols and their accessories Deut.  7:26
  55. Not to derive benefit from ornaments of idols Deut.  7:25
  56. Not to make a covenant with idolaters —Deut.  7:2
  57. Not to show favor to them — Deut.  7:2
  58. Not to let them dwell in the Land of Israel Ex.  23:33
  59. Not to imitate them in customs and clothing — Lev.  20:23
  60. Not to be superstitious Lev.  19:26
  61. Not to go into a trance to foresee events, etc. — Deut.  18:10
  62. Not to engage in divination or soothsaying Lev.  19:26
  63. Not to mutter incantations Deut.  18:11
  64. Not to attempt to contact the dead — Deut.  18:11
  65. Not to consult the ov Deut.  18:11
  66. Not to consult the yidoni Deut.  18:11
  67. Not to perform acts of magic Deut.  18:10
  68. Men must not shave the hair off the sides of their head Lev.  19:27
  69. Men must not shave their beards with a razor Lev.  19:27
  70. Men must not wear women's clothing Deut.  22:5
  71. Women must not wear men's clothing Deut.  22:5
  72. Not to tattoo the skin Lev.  19:28
  73. Not to tear the skin in mourning Deut.  14:1
  74. Not to make a bald spot in mourning Deut.  14:1
  75. To repent and confess wrongdoings Num.  5:7
  76. To say the Shema twice daily — Deut.  6:7
  77. To pray every day Ex.  23:25
  78. The Kohanim must bless the Jewish nation daily Num.  6:23
  79. To wear tefillin (phylacteries) on the head Deut.  6:8
  80. To bind tefillin on the arm Deut.  6:8
  81. To put a mezuzah on the door post Deut.  6:9
  82. Each male must write a Torah scroll Deut.  31:19
  83. The king must have a separate Torah scroll for himself — Deut.  17:18
  84. To have tzitzit on four-cornered garments Num.  15:38
  85. To bless the Almighty after eating Deut.  8:10
  86. To circumcise all males on the eighth day after their birth Gen.  17:10
  87. To rest on the seventh day Ex.  23:12
  88. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day — Standard->Ex. 20:11 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:10
  89. The court must not inflict punishment on Shabbat Ex.  35:3
  90. Not to walk outside the city boundary on Shabbat Ex.  16:29
  91. To sanctify Shabbat with Kiddush and Havdalah — Standard->Ex. 20:9 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:8
  92. To rest from prohibited labor on Yom Kippur Lev.  23:32
  93. Not to do prohibited labor on Yom Kippur Lev.  23:32
  94. To afflict oneself on Yom Kippur Lev.  16:29
  95. Not to eat or drink on Yom Kippur Lev.  23:29
  96. To rest on the first day of Passover Lev.  23:7
  97. Not to do prohibited labor on the first day of Passover Lev.  23:8
  98. To rest on the seventh day of Passover Lev.  23:8
  99. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day of Passover Lev.  23:8
  100. To rest on Shavuot Lev.  23:21
  101. Not to do prohibited labor on Shavuot Lev.  23:21
  102. To rest on Rosh Hashanah Lev.  23:24
  103. Not to do prohibited labor on Rosh Hashanah Lev.  23:25
  104. To rest on Sukkot Lev.  23:35
  105. Not to do prohibited labor on Sukkot Lev.  23:35
  106. To rest on Shemini Atzeret Lev.  23:36
  107. Not to do prohibited labor on Shemini AtzeretLev.  23:36
  108. Not to eat chametz on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nissan Deut.  16:3
  109. To destroy all chametz on 14th day of Nissan Ex.  12:15
  110. Not to eat chametz all seven days of PassoverEx.  13:3
  111. Not to eat mixtures containing chametz all seven days of Passover Ex.  12:20
  112. Not to see chametz in your domain seven days Ex.  13:7
  113. Not to find chametz in your domain seven days Ex.  12:19
  114. To eat matzah on the first night of Passover Ex.  12:18
  115. To relate the Exodus from Egypt on that night Ex.  13:8
  116. To hear the Shofar on the first day of Tishrei (Rosh Hashanah) Num.  9:1
  117. To dwell in a Sukkah for the seven days of Sukkot Lev.  23:42
  118. To take up a Lulav and Etrog all seven days Lev.  23:40
  119. Each man must give a half shekel annually — Ex.  30:13
  120. Courts must calculate to determine when a new month begins Ex.  12:2
  121. To afflict oneself and cry out before God in times of calamity Num.  10:9
  122. To marry a wife by means of ketubah and kiddushin Deut.  22:13
  123. Not to have sexual relations with women not thus married Deut.  23:18
  124. Not to withhold food, clothing, and sexual relations from your wife Ex.  21:10
  125. To have children with one's wife — Gen.  1:28
  126. To issue a divorce by means of a Get document Deut.  24:1
  127. A man must not remarry his ex-wife after she has married someone else — Deut.  24:4
  128. To perform yibbum (marry the widow of one's childless brother) — Deut.  25:5
  129. To perform halizah (free the widow of one's childless brother from yibbum) — Deut.  25:9
  130. The widow must not remarry until the ties with her brother-in-law are removed (by halizah) — Deut.  25:5
  131. The court must fine one who sexually seduces a maiden — Ex.  22:15-16
  132. The rapist must marry his victim if she is unwed — Deut.  22:29
  133. He is never allowed to divorce her — Deut.  22:29
  134. The slanderer must remain married to his wife — Deut.  22:19
  135. He must not divorce her — Deut.  22:19
  136. To fulfill the laws of the Sotah Num.  5:30
  137. Not to put oil on her meal offering (as usual) — Num.  5:15
  138. Not to put frankincense on her meal offering (as usual) — Num.  5:15
  139. Not to have sexual relations with your mother Lev.  18:7
  140. Not to have sexual relations with your father's wife Lev.  18:8
  141. Not to have sexual relations with your sister Lev.  18:9
  142. Not to have sexual relations with your father's wife's daughter Lev.  18:11
  143. Not to have sexual relations with your son's daughter Lev.  18:10
  144. Not to have sexual relations with your daughter Lev.  18:10
  145. Not to have sexual relations with your daughter's daughter Lev.  18:10
  146. Not to have sexual relations with a woman and her daughter Lev.  18:17
  147. Not to have sexual relations with a woman and her son's daughter Lev.  18:17
  148. Not to have sexual relations with a woman and her daughter's daughter Lev.  18:17
  149. Not to have sexual relations with your father's sister Lev.  18:12
  150. Not to have sexual relations with your mother's sister Lev.  18:13
  151. Not to have sexual relations with your father's brother's wife Lev.  18:14
  152. Not to have sexual relations with your son's wife Lev.  18:15
  153. Not to have sexual relations with your brother's wife Lev.  18:16
  154. Not to have sexual relations with your wife's sister Lev.  18:18
  155. A man must not have sexual relations with an animal Lev.  18:23
  156. A woman must not have sexual relations with an animal Lev.  18:23
  157. A man must not have sexual relations with a man Lev.  18:22
  158. Not to have sexual relations with your father Lev.  18:7
  159. Not to have sexual relations with your father's brother Lev.  18:14
  160. Not to have sexual relations with someone else's wife Lev.  18:20
  161. Not to have sexual relations with a menstrually impure woman Lev.  18:19
  162. Not to marry non-Jews Deut.  7:3
  163. Not to let Moabite and Ammonite males marry into the Jewish people Deut.  23:4
  164. Not to prevent a third-generation Egyptian convert from marrying into the Jewish people — Deut.  23:8-9
  165. Not to refrain from marrying[clarification needed] a third generation Edomite convert — Deut.  23:8-9
  166. Not to let a mamzer (a child born due to an illegal relationship) marry into the Jewish people — Deut.  23:3
  167. Not to let a eunuch marry into the Jewish people — Deut.  23:2
  168. Not to offer to God any castrated male animals — Lev.  22:24
  169. The High Priest must not marry a widow — Lev.  21:14
  170. The High Priest must not have sexual relations with a widow even outside of marriage — Lev.  21:15
  171. The High Priest must marry a virgin maiden — Lev.  21:13
  172. A Kohen (priest) must not marry a divorcee — Lev.  21:7
  173. A Kohen must not marry a zonah (a woman who has had a forbidden sexual relationship) — Lev.  21:7
  174. A Kohen must not marry a chalalah ("a desecrated person") (party to or product of 169-172) — Lev.  21:7
  175. Not to make pleasurable (sexual) contact with any forbidden woman Lev.  18:6
  176. To examine the signs of animals to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher Lev.  11:2
  177. To examine the signs of fowl to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher — Deut.  14:11
  178. To examine the signs of fish to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher — Lev.  11:9
  179. To examine the signs of locusts to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher — Lev.  11:21
  180. Not to eat non-kosher animals Lev.  11:4
  181. Not to eat non-kosher fowl Lev.  11:13
  182. Not to eat non-kosher fish Lev.  11:11
  183. Not to eat non-kosher flying insects Deut.  14:19
  184. Not to eat non-kosher creatures that crawl on land Lev.  11:41
  185. Not to eat non-kosher maggots Lev.  11:44
  186. Not to eat worms found in fruit on the ground Lev.  11:42
  187. Not to eat creatures that live in water other than (kosher) fish Lev.  11:43
  188. Not to eat the meat of an animal that died without ritual slaughter Deut.  14:21
  189. Not to benefit from an ox condemned to be stoned — Ex.  21:2
  190. Not to eat meat of an animal that was mortally wounded — Ex.  22:30
  191. Not to eat a limb torn off a living creature — Deut.  12:23
  192. Not to eat blood —Lev.  3:17
  193. Not to eat certain fats of clean animals — Lev.  3:17
  194. Not to eat the sinew of the thigh Gen.  32:33
  195. Not to eat mixtures of milk and meat cooked together — Ex.  23:19
  196. Not to cook meat and milk together Ex.  34:26
  197. Not to eat bread from new grain before the Omer Lev.  23:14
  198. Not to eat parched grains from new grain before the Omer Lev.  23:14
  199. Not to eat ripened grains from new grain before the Omer — Lev.  23:14
  200. Not to eat fruit of a tree during its first three years Lev.  19:23
  201. Not to eat diverse seeds planted in a vineyard Deut.  22:9
  202. Not to eat untithed fruits — Lev.  22:15
  203. Not to drink wine poured in service to idols Deut.  32:38
  204. To ritually slaughter an animal before eating it Deut.  12:21
  205. Not to slaughter an animal and its offspring on the same day — Lev.  22:28
  206. To cover the blood (of a slaughtered beast or fowl) with earth — Lev.  17:13
  207. To send away the mother bird before taking its children — Deut.  22:6
  208. To release the mother bird if she was taken from the nest — Deut.  22:7
  209. Not to swear falsely in God's Name — Lev.  19:12
  210. Not to take God's Name in vain — Standard->Ex. 20:7 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:6
  211. Not to deny possession of something entrusted to you — Lev.  19:11
  212. Not to swear in denial of a monetary claim — Lev.  19:11
  213. To swear in God's Name to confirm the truth when deemed necessary by court — Deut.  10:20
  214. To fulfill what was uttered and to do what was avowed — Deut.  23:24
  215. Not to break oaths or vows Num.  30:3
  216. For oaths and vows annulled, there are the laws of annulling vows explicit in the Torah — Num.  30:3
  217. The Nazarite must let his hair grow Num.  6:5
  218. He must not cut his hair Num.  6:5
  219. He must not drink wine, wine mixtures, or wine vinegar Num.  6:3
  220. He must not eat fresh grapes Num.  6:3
  221. He must not eat raisins Num.  6:3
  222. He must not eat grape seeds Num.  6:4
  223. He must not eat grape skins Num.  6:4
  224. He must not be under the same roof as a corpse Num.  6:6
  225. He must not come into contact with the dead Num.  6:7
  226. He must shave his head after bringing sacrifices upon completion of his Nazarite period Num.  6:9
  227. To estimate the value of people as determined by the Torah —Lev.  27:2
  228. To estimate the value of consecrated animals — Lev.  27:12-13
  229. To estimate the value of consecrated houses — Lev.  27:14
  230. To estimate the value of consecrated fields — Lev.  27:16
  231. Carry out the laws of interdicting possessions (cherem) — Lev.  27:28
  232. Not to sell the cherem Lev.  27:28
  233. Not to redeem the cherem Lev.  27:28
  234. Not to plant diverse seeds together Lev.  19:19
  235. Not to plant grains or greens in a vineyard — Deut.  22:9
  236. Not to crossbreed animals — Lev.  19:19
  237. Not to work different animals together — Deut.  22:10
  238. Not to wear shaatnez, a cloth woven of wool and linen — Deut.  22:11
  239. To leave a corner of the field uncut for the poor Lev.  19:10
  240. Not to reap that corner — Lev.  19:9
  241. To leave gleanings Lev.  19:9
  242. Not to gather the gleanings Lev.  19:9
  243. To leave the unformed clusters of grapes — Lev.  19:10
  244. Not to pick the unformed clusters of grapes — Lev.  19:10
  245. To leave the gleanings of a vineyard — Lev.  19:10
  246. Not to gather the gleanings of a vineyard — Lev.  19:10
  247. To leave the forgotten sheaves in the field — Deut.  24:19
  248. Not to retrieve them — Deut.  24:19
  249. To separate the "tithe for the poor" — Deut.  14:28
  250. To give charity Deut.  15:8
  251. Not to withhold charity from the poor — Deut.  15:7
  252. To set aside Terumah (heave offering) Gedolah (gift for the Kohen) — Deut.  18:4
  253. The Levite must set aside a tenth of his tithe — Num.  18:26
  254. Not to preface one tithe to the next, but separate them in their proper order — Ex.  22:28
  255. A non-Kohen must not eat Terumah Lev.  22:10
  256. A hired worker or a Jewish bondsman of a Kohen must not eat Terumah Lev.  22:10
  257. An uncircumcised Kohen must not eat Terumah Ex.  12:48
  258. An impure Kohen must not eat Terumah Lev.  22:4
  259. A chalalah (party to #s 169-172 above) must not eat Terumah Lev.  22:12
  260. To set aside Ma'aser (tithe) each planting year and give it to a Levite — Num.  18:24
  261. To set aside the second tithe (Ma'aser Sheni) — Deut.  14:22
  262. Not to spend its redemption money on anything but food, drink, or ointment — Deut.  26:14
  263. Not to eat Ma'aser Sheni while impure — Deut.  26:14
  264. A mourner on the first day after death must not eat Ma'aser Sheni Deut.  26:14
  265. Not to eat Ma'aser Sheni grains outside Jerusalem — Deut.  12:17
  266. Not to eat Ma'aser Sheni wine products outside Jerusalem — Deut.  12:17
  267. Not to eat Ma'aser Sheni oil outside Jerusalem — Deut.  12:17
  268. The fourth year crops must be totally for holy purposes like Ma'aser Sheni Lev.  19:24
  269. To read the confession of tithes every fourth and seventh year — Deut.  26:13
  270. To set aside the first fruits and bring them to the Temple — Ex.  23:19
  271. The Kohanim must not eat the first fruits outside Jerusalem Deut.  12:17
  272. To read the Torah portion pertaining to their presentation — Deut.  26:5
  273. To set aside a portion of dough for a Kohen Num.  15:20
  274. To give the foreleg, two cheeks, and abomasum of slaughtered animals to a Kohen Deut.  18:3
  275. To give the first shearing of sheep to a Kohen Deut.  18:4
  276. To redeem firstborn sons and give the money to a Kohen Num.  18:15
  277. To redeem the firstborn donkey by giving a lamb to a Kohen Ex.  13:13
  278. To break the neck of the donkey if the owner does not intend to redeem it — Ex.  13:13
  279. To rest the land during the seventh year by not doing any work which enhances growth — Ex.  34:21
  280. Not to work the land during the seventh year — Lev.  25:4
  281. Not to work with trees to produce fruit during that year — Lev.  25:4
  282. Not to reap crops that grow wild that year in the normal manner — Lev.  25:5
  283. Not to gather grapes which grow wild that year in the normal way — Lev.  25:5
  284. To leave free all produce which grew in that year — Ex.  23:11
  285. To release all loans during the seventh year — Deut.  15:2
  286. Not to pressure or claim from the borrower — Deut.  15:2
  287. Not to refrain from lending immediately before the release of the loans for fear of monetary loss —Deut.  15:9
  288. The Sanhedrin must count seven groups of seven years — Lev.  25:8
  289. The Sanhedrin must sanctify the fiftieth year — Lev.  25:10
  290. To blow the Shofar on the tenth of Tishrei to free the slaves Lev.  25:9
  291. Not to work the soil during the fiftieth year (Jubilee) — Lev.  25:11
  292. Not to reap in the normal manner that which grows wild in the fiftieth year — Lev.  25:11
  293. Not to pick grapes which grew wild in the normal manner in the fiftieth year — Lev.  25:11
  294. Carry out the laws of sold family properties — Lev.  25:24
  295. Not to sell the land in Israel indefinitely — Lev.  25:23
  296. Carry out the laws of houses in walled cities — Lev.  25:29
  297. The Tribe of Levi must not be given a portion of the land in Israel, rather they are given cities to dwell in — Deut.  18:1
  298. The Levites must not take a share in the spoils of war — Deut.  18:1
  299. To give the Levites cities to inhabit and their surrounding fields — Num.  35:2
  300. Not to sell the fields but they shall remain the Levites' before and after the Jubilee year — Lev.  25:34
  301. To build a Temple Ex.  25:8
  302. Not to build the altar with stones hewn by metal — Standard->Ex. 20:24 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:23
  303. Not to climb steps to the altar — Standard->Ex. 20:27 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:26
  304. To show reverence to the Temple — Lev.  19:30
  305. To guard the Temple area — Num.  18:2
  306. Not to leave the Temple unguarded — Num.  18:5
  307. To prepare the anointing oil — Ex.  30:31
  308. Not to reproduce the anointing oil — Ex.  30:32
  309. Not to anoint with anointing oil — Ex.  30:32
  310. Not to reproduce the incense formula — Ex.  30:37
  311. Not to burn anything on the Golden Altar besides incense Ex.  30:9
  312. The Levites must transport the ark on their shoulders — Num.  7:9
  313. Not to remove the staves from the ark — Ex.  25:15
  314. The Levites must work in the Temple — Num.  18:23
  315. No Levite must do another's work of either a Kohen or a Levite — Num.  18:3
  316. To dedicate the Kohen for service — Lev.  21:8
  317. The work of the Kohanim's shifts must be equal during holidays — Deut.  18:6-8
  318. The Kohanim must wear their priestly garments during service — Ex.  28:2
  319. Not to tear the priestly garments — Ex.  28:32
  320. The Kohen Gadol 's (High Priest) breastplate must not be loosened from the Efod Ex.  28:28
  321. A Kohen must not enter the Temple intoxicated — Lev.  10:9
  322. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with his head uncovered — Lev.  10:6
  323. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with torn clothes — Lev.  10:6
  324. A Kohen must not enter the Temple indiscriminately — Lev.  16:2
  325. A Kohen must not leave the Temple during service — Lev.  10:7
  326. To send the impure from the Temple — Num.  5:2
  327. Impure people must not enter the Temple — Num.  5:3
  328. Impure people must not enter the Temple Mount area — Deut.  23:11
  329. Impure Kohanim must not do service in the temple — Lev.  22:2
  330. An impure Kohen, following immersion, must wait until after sundown before returning to service — Lev.  22:7
  331. A Kohen must wash his hands and feet before service — Ex.  30:19
  332. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not enter the sanctuary or approach the altar — Lev.  21:23
  333. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not serve — Lev.  21:17
  334. A Kohen with a temporary blemish must not serve — Lev.  21:17
  335. One who is not a Kohen must not serve — Num.  18:4
  336. To offer only unblemished animals — Lev.  22:21
  337. Not to dedicate a blemished animal for the altar — Lev.  22:20
  338. Not to slaughter it — Lev.  22:22
  339. Not to sprinkle its blood — Lev.  22:24
  340. Not to burn its fat — Lev.  22:22
  341. Not to offer a temporarily blemished animal — Deut.  17:1
  342. Not to sacrifice blemished animals even if offered by non-Jews — Lev.  22:25
  343. Not to inflict wounds upon dedicated animals — Lev.  22:21
  344. To redeem dedicated animals which have become disqualified — Deut.  12:15
  345. To offer only animals which are at least eight days old — Lev.  22:27
  346. Not to offer animals bought with the wages of a harlot or the animal exchanged for a dog. Some interpret "exchange for a dog" as referring to wage of a male prostitute.[8][9] Deut.  23:19
  347. Not to burn honey or yeast on the altar — Lev.  2:11
  348. To salt all sacrifices — Lev.  2:13
  349. Not to omit the salt from sacrifices — Lev.  2:13
  350. Carry out the procedure of the burnt offering as prescribed in the Torah — Lev.  1:3
  351. Not to eat its meat — Deut.  12:17
  352. Carry out the procedure of the sin offering — Lev.  6:18
  353. Not to eat the meat of the inner sin offering — Lev.  6:23
  354. Not to decapitate a fowl brought as a sin offering — Lev.  5:8
  355. Carry out the procedure of the guilt offering — Lev.  7:1
  356. The Kohanim must eat the sacrificial meat in the Temple — Ex.  29:33
  357. The Kohanim must not eat the meat outside the Temple courtyard — Deut.  12:17
  358. A non-Kohen must not eat sacrificial meat — Ex.  29:33
  359. To follow the procedure of the peace offering — Lev.  7:11
  360. Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood — Deut.  12:17
  361. To bring meal offerings as prescribed in the Torah — Lev.  2:1
  362. Not to put oil on the meal offerings of wrongdoers — Lev.  5:11
  363. Not to put frankincense on the meal offerings of wrongdoers — Lev.  3:11
  364. Not to eat the meal offering of the High Priest — Lev.  6:16
  365. Not to bake a meal offering as leavened bread — Lev.  6:10
  366. The Kohanim must eat the remains of the meal offerings — Lev.  6:9
  367. To bring all avowed and freewill offerings to the Temple on the first subsequent festival — Deut.  12:5-6
  368. Not to withhold payment incurred by any vow — Deut.  23:22
  369. To offer all sacrifices in the Temple — Deut.  12:11
  370. To bring all sacrifices from outside Israel to the Temple — Deut.  12:26
  371. Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the courtyard — Lev.  17:4
  372. Not to offer any sacrifices outside the courtyard — Deut.  12:13
  373. To offer two lambs every day — Num.  28:3
  374. To light a fire on the altar every day — Lev.  6:6
  375. Not to extinguish this fire — Lev.  6:6
  376. To remove the ashes from the altar every day — Lev.  6:3
  377. To burn incense every day — Ex.  30:7
  378. To light the Menorah every day — Ex.  27:21
  379. The Kohen Gadol must bring a meal offering every day — Lev.  6:13
  380. To bring two additional lambs as burnt offerings on Shabbat Num.  28:9
  381. To make the show bread — Ex.  25:30
  382. To bring additional offerings on Rosh Chodesh (" The New Month") — Num.  28:11
  383. To bring additional offerings on Passover Num.  28:19
  384. To offer the wave offering from the meal of the new wheat — Lev.  23:10
  385. Each man must count the Omer - seven weeks from the day the new wheat offering was brought — Lev.  23:15
  386. To bring additional offerings on Shavuot Num.  28:26
  387. To bring two leaves to accompany the above sacrifice — Lev.  23:17
  388. To bring additional offerings on Rosh Hashana Num.  29:2
  389. To bring additional offerings on Yom Kippur Num.  29:8
  390. To bring additional offerings on Sukkot Num.  29:13
  391. To bring additional offerings on Shmini Atzeret Num.  29:35
  392. Not to eat sacrifices which have become unfit or blemished — Deut.  14:3
  393. Not to eat from sacrifices offered with improper intentions — Lev.  7:18
  394. Not to leave sacrifices past the time allowed for eating them — Lev.  22:30
  395. Not to eat from that which was left over — Lev.  19:8
  396. Not to eat from sacrifices which became impure — Lev.  7:19
  397. An impure person must not eat from sacrifices — Lev.  7:20
  398. To burn the leftover sacrifices — Lev.  7:17
  399. To burn all impure sacrifices — Lev.  7:19
  400. To follow the procedure of Yom Kippur in the sequence prescribed in Parshah Acharei Mot ("After the death of Aaron's sons...") — Lev.  16:3
  401. One who profaned property must repay what he profaned plus a fifth and bring a sacrifice — Lev.  5:16
  402. Not to work consecrated animals — Deut.  15:19
  403. Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals — Deut.  15:19
  404. To slaughter the paschal sacrifice at the specified time — Ex.  12:6
  405. Not to slaughter it while in possession of leaven — Ex.  23:18
  406. Not to leave the fat overnight — Ex.  23:18
  407. To slaughter the second Paschal Lamb Num.  9:11
  408. To eat the Paschal Lamb with matzah and Marror on the night of the fourteenth of Nissan Ex.  12:8
  409. To eat the second Paschal Lamb on the night of the 15th of Iyar Num.  9:11
  410. Not to eat the paschal meat raw or boiled — Ex.  12:9
  411. Not to take the paschal meat from the confines of the group — Ex.  12:46
  412. An apostate must not eat from it — Ex.  12:43
  413. A permanent or temporary hired worker must not eat from it — Ex.  12:45
  414. An uncircumcised male must not eat from it — Ex.  12:48
  415. Not to break any bones from the paschal offering — Ex.  12:46 Ps.  34:20
  416. Not to break any bones from the second paschal offering — Num.  9:12
  417. Not to leave any meat from the paschal offering over until morning — Ex.  12:10
  418. Not to leave the second paschal meat over until morning — Num.  9:12
  419. Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th — Deut.  16:4
  420. To be seen at the Temple on Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot Deut.  16:16
  421. To celebrate on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) — Ex.  23:14
  422. To rejoice on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) — Deut.  16:14
  423. Not to appear at the Temple without offerings — Deut.  16:16
  424. Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites — Deut.  12:19
  425. To assemble all the people on the Sukkot following the seventh year — Deut.  31:12
  426. To set aside the firstborn animals — Ex.  13:12
  427. The Kohanim must not eat unblemished firstborn animals outside Jerusalem — Deut.  12:17
  428. Not to redeem the firstborn — Num.  18:17
  429. Separate the tithe from animals — Lev.  27:32
  430. Not to redeem the tithe — Lev.  27:33
  431. Every person must bring a sin offering (in the temple) for his transgression — Lev.  4:27
  432. Bring an asham talui (temple offering) when uncertain of guilt — Lev.  5:17-18
  433. Bring an asham vadai (temple offering) when guilt is ascertained — Lev.  5:25
  434. Bring an oleh v'yored (temple offering)(if the person is wealthy, an animal; if poor, a bird or meal offering) — Lev.  5:7-11
  435. The Sanhedrin must bring an offering (in the Temple) when it rules in error — Lev.  4:13
  436. A woman who had a running (vaginal) issue must bring an offering (in the Temple) after she goes to the Mikveh Lev.  15:28-29
  437. A woman who gave birth must bring an offering (in the Temple) after she goes to the Mikveh Lev.  12:6
  438. A man who had a running (unnatural urinary) issue must bring an offering (in the Temple) after he goes to the Mikveh — Lev.  15:13-14
  439. A metzora (one having a skin disease) must bring an offering (in the Temple) after going to the Mikveh Lev.  14:10
  440. Not to substitute another beast for one set apart for sacrifice — Lev.  27:10
  441. The new animal, in addition to the substituted one, retains consecration — Lev.  27:10
  442. Not to change consecrated animals from one type of offering to another — Lev.  27:26
  443. Carry out the laws of impurity of the dead — Num.  19:14
  444. Carry out the procedure of the Red Heifer (Para Aduma) — Num.  19:2
  445. Carry out the laws of the sprinkling water — Num.  19:21
  446. Rule the laws of human tzara'at as prescribed in the Torah — Lev.  13:12
  447. The metzora must not remove his signs of impurity — Deut.  24:8
  448. The metzora must not shave signs of impurity in his hair — Lev.  13:33
  449. The metzora must publicize his condition by tearing his garments, allowing his hair to grow and covering his lips — Lev.  13:45
  450. Carry out the prescribed rules for purifying the metzora Lev.  14:2
  451. The metzora must shave off all his hair prior to purification — Lev.  14:9
  452. Carry out the laws of tzara'at of clothing — Lev.  13:47
  453. Carry out the laws of tzara'at of houses — Lev.  13:34
  454. Observe the laws of menstrual impurity Lev.  15:19
  455. Observe the laws of impurity caused by childbirth Lev.  12:2
  456. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a woman's running issue Lev.  15:25
  457. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a man's running issue (irregular ejaculation of infected semen) — Lev.  15:3
  458. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a dead beast — Lev.  11:39
  459. Observe the laws of impurity caused by the eight shratzim (insects) — Lev.  11:29
  460. Observe the laws of impurity of a seminal emission (regular ejaculation, with normal semen) — Lev.  15:16
  461. Observe the laws of impurity concerning liquid and solid foods — Lev.  11:34
  462. Every impure person must immerse himself in a Mikvah to become pure — Lev.  15:16
  463. The court must judge the damages incurred by a goring ox — Ex.  21:28
  464. The court must judge the damages incurred by an animal eating — Ex.  22:4
  465. The court must judge the damages incurred by a pit — Ex.  21:33
  466. The court must judge the damages incurred by fire — Ex.  22:5
  467. Not to steal money stealthily — Lev.  19:11
  468. The court must implement punitive measures against the thief — Ex.  21:37
  469. Each individual must ensure that his scales and weights are accurate — Lev.  19:36
  470. Not to commit injustice with scales and weights Lev.  19:35
  471. Not to possess inaccurate scales and weights even if they are not for use — Deut.  25:13
  472. Not to move a boundary marker to steal someone's property — Deut.  19:14
  473. Not to kidnap — Standard->Ex. 20:14 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:13
  474. Not to rob openly — Lev.  19:13
  475. Not to withhold wages or fail to repay a debt — Lev.  19:13
  476. Not to covet and scheme to acquire another's possession — Standard->Ex. 20:15 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:14
  477. Not to desire another's possession — Standard->Deut.  5:19 Yemenite->Deut.  5:18
  478. Return the robbed object or its value — Lev.  5:23
  479. Not to ignore a lost object — Deut.  22:3
  480. Return the lost object — Deut.  22:1
  481. The court must implement laws against the one who assaults another or damages another's property — Ex.  21:18
  482. Not to murder — Standard->Ex. 20:13 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:12
  483. Not to accept monetary restitution to atone for the murderer — Num.  35:31
  484. The court must send the accidental murderer to a city of refuge Num.  35:25
  485. Not to accept monetary restitution instead of being sent to a city of refuge — Num.  35:32
  486. Not to kill the murderer before he stands trial — Num.  35:12
  487. Save someone being pursued even by taking the life of the pursuer — Deut.  25:12
  488. Not to pity the pursuer — Num.  35:12
  489. Not to stand idly by if someone's life is in danger — Lev.  19:16
  490. Designate cities of refuge and prepare routes of access — Deut.  19:3
  491. Break the neck of a calf by the river valley following an unsolved murder — Deut.  21:4
  492. Not to work nor plant that river valley — Deut.  21:4
  493. Not to allow pitfalls and obstacles to remain on your property — Deut.  22:8
  494. Make a guard rail around flat roofs — Deut.  22:8
  495. Not to put a stumbling block before a blind man (nor give harmful advice) — Lev.  19:14
  496. Help another remove the load from a beast which can no longer carry it — Ex.  23:5
  497. Help others load their beast — Deut.  22:4
  498. Not to leave others distraught with their burdens (but to help either load or unload) — Deut.  22:4
  499. Conduct sales according to Torah law — Lev.  25:14
  500. Not to overcharge or underpay for an article — Lev.  25:14
  501. Not to insult or harm anybody with words — Lev.  25:17
  502. Not to cheat a convert monetarily — Ex.  22:20
  503. Not to insult or harm a convert with words — Ex.  22:20
  504. Purchase a Hebrew slave in accordance with the prescribed laws — Ex.  21:2
  505. Not to sell him as a slave is sold — Lev.  25:42
  506. Not to work him oppressively — Lev.  25:43
  507. Not to allow a non-Jew to work him oppressively — Lev.  25:53
  508. Not to have him do menial slave labor — Lev.  25:39
  509. Give him gifts when he goes free — Deut.  15:14
  510. Not to send him away empty-handed — Deut.  15:13
  511. Redeem Jewish maidservants — Ex.  21:8
  512. Betroth the Jewish maidservant — Ex.  21:8
  513. The master must not sell his maidservant — Ex.  21:8
  514. Canaanite slaves must work forever unless injured in one of their limbs — Lev.  25:46
  515. Not to extradite a slave who fled to (Biblical) Israel — Deut.  23:16
  516. Not to wrong a slave who has come to Israel for refuge — Deut.  23:16
  517. The courts must carry out the laws of a hired worker and hired guard — Ex.  22:9
  518. Pay wages on the day they were earned — Deut.  24:15
  519. Not to delay payment of wages past the agreed time — Lev.  19:13
  520. The hired worker may eat from the unharvested crops where he works — Deut.  23:25
  521. The worker must not eat while on hired time — Deut.  23:26
  522. The worker must not take more than he can eat — Deut.  23:25
  523. Not to muzzle an ox while plowing — Deut.  25:4
  524. The courts must carry out the laws of a borrower — Ex.  22:13
  525. The courts must carry out the laws of an unpaid guard — Ex.  22:6
  526. Lend to the poor and destitute — Ex.  22:24
  527. Not to press them for payment if you know they don't have it — Ex.  22:24
  528. Press the idolater for payment — Deut.  15:3
  529. The creditor must not forcibly take collateral — Deut.  24:10
  530. Return the collateral to the debtor when needed — Deut.  24:13
  531. Not to delay its return when needed — Deut.  24:12
  532. Not to demand collateral from a widow — Deut.  24:17
  533. Not to demand as collateral utensils needed for preparing food — Deut.  24:6
  534. Not to lend with interest — Lev.  25:37
  535. Not to borrow with interest — Deut.  23:20
  536. Not to intermediate in an interest loan, guarantee, witness, or write the promissory note — Ex.  22:24
  537. Lend to and borrow from idolaters with interest — Deut.  23:21
  538. The courts must carry out the laws of the plaintiff, admitter, or denier — Ex.  22:8
  539. Carry out the laws of the order of inheritance — Num.  27:8
  540. Appoint judges — Deut.  16:18
  541. Not to appoint judges who are not familiar with judicial procedure — Deut.  1:17
  542. Decide by majority in case of disagreement — Ex.  23:2
  543. The court must not execute through a majority of one; at least a majority of two is required — Ex.  23:2
  544. A judge who presented an acquittal plea must not present an argument for conviction in capital cases — Deut.  23:2
  545. The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning — Deut.  22:24
  546. The courts must carry out the death penalty of burning — Lev.  20:14
  547. The courts must carry out the death penalty of the sword — Ex.  21:20
  548. The courts must carry out the death penalty of strangulation — Lev.  20:10
  549. The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry — Deut.  21:22
  550. Bury the executed on the day they are killed — Deut.  21:23
  551. Not to delay burial overnight — Deut.  21:23
  552. The court must not let the sorcerer live — Ex.  22:17
  553. The court must give lashes to the wrongdoer — Deut.  25:2
  554. The court must not exceed the prescribed number of lashes — Deut.  25:3
  555. The court must not kill anybody on circumstantial evidence — Ex.  23:7
  556. The court must not punish anybody who was forced to do a crime — Deut.  22:26
  557. A judge must not pity the murderer or assaulter at the trial — Deut.  19:13
  558. A judge must not have mercy on the poor man at the trial — Lev.  19:15
  559. A judge must not respect the great man at the trial — Lev.  19:15
  560. A judge must not decide unjustly the case of the habitual transgressor — Ex.  23:6
  561. A judge must not pervert justice — Lev.  19:15
  562. A judge must not pervert a case involving a convert or orphan — Deut.  24:17
  563. Judge righteously — Lev.  19:15
  564. The judge must not fear a violent man in judgment — Deut.  1:17
  565. Judges must not accept bribes — Ex.  23:8
  566. Judges must not accept testimony unless both parties are present — Ex.  23:1
  567. Not to curse judges — Ex.  22:27
  568. Not to curse the head of state or leader of the Sanhedrin — Ex.  22:27
  569. Not to curse any upstanding Jew — Lev.  19:14
  570. Anybody who knows evidence must testify in court — Lev.  5:1
  571. Carefully interrogate the witness — Deut.  13:15
  572. A witness must not serve as a judge in capital crimes — Deut.  19:17
  573. Not to accept testimony from a lone witness — Deut.  19:15
  574. Transgressors must not testify — Ex.  23:1
  575. Relatives of the litigants must not testify — Deut.  24:16
  576. Not to testify falsely — Standard->Ex. 20:14 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:13
  577. Punish the false witnesses as they tried to punish the defendant — Deut.  19:19
  578. Act according to the ruling of the Sanhedrin Deut.  17:11
  579. Not to deviate from the word of the Sanhedrin — Deut.  17:11
  580. Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations — Deut.  13:1
  581. Not to diminish from the Torah any commandments, in whole or in part — Deut.  13:1
  582. Not to curse your father and mother — Ex.  21:17
  583. Not to strike your father and mother — Ex.  21:15
  584. Respect your father or mother — Standard->Ex. 20:13 TLT Yemenite->Ex.  20:12
  585. Fear your mother or father Lev.  19:3
  586. Not to be a rebellious son — Deut.  21:18
  587. Mourn for relatives Lev.  10:19
  588. The High Priest must not defile himself for any relative — Lev.  21:11
  589. The High Priest must not enter under the same roof as a corpse — Lev.  21:11
  590. A Kohen must not defile himself (by going to funerals or cemeteries) for anyone except relatives — Lev.  21:1
  591. Appoint a king from Israel — Deut.  17:15
  592. Not to appoint a foreigner — Deut.  17:15
  593. The king must not have too many wives — Deut.  17:17
  594. The king must not have too many horses — Deut.  17:16
  595. The king must not have too much silver and gold — Deut.  17:17
  596. Destroy the seven Canaanite nations — Deut.  20:17
  597. Not to let any of them remain alive — Deut.  20:16
  598. Wipe out the descendants of Amalek Deut.  25:19
  599. Remember what Amalek did to the Jewish people — Deut.  25:17
  600. Not to forget Amalek's atrocities and ambush on our journey from Egypt in the desert — Deut.  25:19
  601. Not to dwell permanently in Egypt — Deut.  17:16
  602. Offer peace terms to the inhabitants of a city while holding siege, and treat them according to the Torah if they accept the terms — Deut.  20:10
  603. Not to offer peace to Ammon and Moab while besieging them — Deut.  23:7
  604. Not to destroy food trees even during the siege — Deut.  20:19
  605. Prepare latrines outside the camps — Deut.  23:13
  606. Prepare a shovel for each soldier to dig with — Deut.  23:14
  607. Appoint a priest to speak with the soldiers during the war — Deut.  20:2
  608. He who has taken a wife, built a new home, or planted a vineyard is given a year to rejoice with his possessions — Deut.  24:5
  609. Not to demand from the above any involvement, communal or military — Deut.  24:5
  610. Not to panic and retreat during battle — Deut.  20:3
  611. Keep the laws of the captive woman — Deut.  21:11
  612. Not to sell her into slavery — Deut.  21:14
  613. Not to retain her for servitude after having sexual relations with her — Deut.  21:14


Codes of Jewish law[edit source | editbeta]

The Torah and the Talmud are not formal codes of law: they are sources of law. There are many formal codes of Jewish law that have developed over the past two thousand years. These codes have influenced, and in turn, have been influenced by, the responsa; History of Responsa thus provides an informative complement to the survey below.

The major codes are:





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